Xu Z

References (104)

Title : Durable protective efficiency provide by mRNA vaccines require robust immune memory to antigens and weak immune memory to lipid nanoparticles - Tang_2024_Mater.Today.Bio_25_100988
Author(s) : Tang X , Zhang J , Sui D , Xu Z , Yang Q , Wang T , Li X , Liu X , Deng Y , Song Y
Ref : Mater Today Bio , 25 :100988 , 2024
Abstract : The Pegylated lipids in lipid nanoparticle (LNPs) vaccines have been found to cause acute hypersensitivity reactions in recipients, and generate anti-LNPs immunity after repeated administration, thereby reducing vaccine effectiveness. To overcome these challenges, we developed a new type of LNPs vaccine (SAPC-LNPs) which was co-modified with sialic acid (SA) - lipid derivative and cleavable PEG - lipid derivative. This kind of mRNA vaccine can target dendritic cells (DCs) and rapidly escape from early endosomes (EE) and lysosomes with a total endosomal escape rate up to 98 %. Additionally, the PEG component in SAPC-LNPs was designed to detach from the LNPs under the catalysis of carboxylesterase in vivo, which reduced the probability of PEG being attached to LNPs entering antigen-presenting cells. Compared with commercially formulated vaccines (1.5PD-LNPs), mice treated with SAPC-LNPs generated a more robust immune memory to tumor antigens and a weaker immune memory response to LNPs, and showed lower side effects and long-lasting protective efficiency. We also discovered that the anti-tumor immune memory formed by SAPC-LNPs mRNA vaccine was directly involved in the immune cycle to rattack tumor. This immune memory continued to strengthen with multiple cycles, supporting that the immune memory should be incorporated into the theory of tumor immune cycle.
ESTHER : Tang_2024_Mater.Today.Bio_25_100988
PubMedSearch : Tang_2024_Mater.Today.Bio_25_100988
PubMedID: 38379935

Title : Biochemical and molecular-level effects of co-exposure to chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) - Wang_2024_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_277_116374
Author(s) : Wang D , Chen L , Yang G , Xu Z , Lv L , Tang T , Wang Y
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 277 :116374 , 2024
Abstract : Farmland soil organisms frequently encounter pesticide mixtures presented in their living environment. However, the underlying toxic mechanisms employed by soil animals to cope with such combined pollution have yet to be explored. This investigation aimed to reveal the changes in cellular and mRNA levels under chlorpyrifos (CPF) and lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) co-exposures in earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Results exhibited that the combination of CPF and LCT triggered an acute synergistic influence on the animals. Most exposures resulted in significant alterations in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), caspase 3, and carboxylesterase (CarE) compared to the basal level. Moreover, when exposed to chemical mixtures, the transcription levels of four genes [heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), gst, sod, and calreticulin (crt)] also displayed more pronounced changes compared with their individual exposures. These changes in determined parameters indicated the occurrence of oxidative stress, cell death, detoxification dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum damage after co-exposure to CPF and LCT in E. fetida. The comprehensive examination of mixture toxicities of CPF and LCT at different endpoints would help to understand the overall toxicity they cause to soil invertebrates. The augmented deleterious effect of these pesticides in a mixture suggested that mixture toxicity assessment was necessary for the safety evaluation and application of pesticide mixtures.
ESTHER : Wang_2024_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_277_116374
PubMedSearch : Wang_2024_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_277_116374
PubMedID: 38677072

Title : Multiple strategies to improve extracellular secretion and activity of feruloyl esterase - Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_269_132082
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wang J , Liu Y , Xu Z
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , 269 :132082 , 2024
Abstract : Feruloyl esterase has a wide range of applications, but there are still problems with low enzyme yield and activity, and complex purification steps. Our previous research found Lactobacillus amylovorus feruloyl esterase could be secreted extracellular in Escherichia coli. In this study, multiple strategies were implemented to maximize the extracellular production of feruloyl esterase with improved activity in E. coli. Firstly, codon-optimized feruloyl esterase was obtained based on the preference of E. coli, resulting in 41.97 % increase in extracellular secretion. Furthermore, by cascading T7 promoters, replacing the 5' UTR, randomly mutating the N-terminal sequence, and co-expressing secretory cofactors, the extracellular secretion was increased by 36.46 %, 31.25 %, 20.66 % and 25.75 %, respectively. Moreover, the feruloyl esterase were mutated to improve the substrate affinity and activity. The catalytic efficiency of Fae-Q134T and Fae-Q198A increased by 4.62-fold and 5.42-fold. Combining above strategies, extracellular feruloyl esterase activity was increased from 2013.70 U/L to 10,349.04 U/L. These results indicated that the activity and yield of feruloyl esterase secreted by E. coli were significantly increased, which laid a foundation for its industrial application.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_269_132082
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_269_132082
PubMedID: 38705319
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacam-a0a1c9u7k7

Title : Efficient secretion of an enzyme cocktail in Escherichia coli for hemicellulose degradation - Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__129205
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wang J , Chen Y , Zheng Z , Xu Z
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , :129205 , 2024
Abstract : The use of host to secrete several hemicellulase is a cost-effective way for hemicellulose degradation. In this study, the xylose utilization gene xylAB of Escherichia coli BL21 was knocked out, and the xylanase (N20Xyl), beta-xylosidase (Xys), and feruloyl esterase (FaeLam) were co-expressed in this strain. By measuring the content of reducing sugars generated by enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran in the fermentation supernatant, the order of the three enzymes was screened to obtain the optimal recombinant strain of E. coli BL21/deltaxylAB/pDIII-2. Subsequently, fermentation conditions including culture medium, inducer concentration, induction timing, metal ions, and glycine concentration were optimized. Then, different concentrations of wheat bran and xylan were added to the fermentation medium for degradation. The results showed that the extracellular reducing sugars content reached the highest value of 33.70 +/- 0.46 g/L when 50 g/L xylan was added. Besides, the scavenging rates of hydroxyl radical by the fermentation supernatant was 81.0 +/- 1.41 %, and the total antioxidant capacity reached 2.289 +/- 0.55. Furthermore, it showed the growth promotion effect on different lactic acid bacteria. These results provided a basis for constructing E. coli strain to efficiently degrade hemicellulose, and the strain obtained has great potential application to transform hemicellulose into fermentable carbon source.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__129205
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__129205
PubMedID: 38185299

Title : Interface chemistry affected the digestion fate of ketogenic diet based on medium- and long-chain triglycerides - Li_2024_Food.Res.Int_180_114059
Author(s) : Li X , Cheng Y , Xu Z , Lin X , Xu B , Wang Z , Li P , Nian B
Ref : Food Res Int , 180 :114059 , 2024
Abstract : Ketogenic diet, characterized by high fat and low carbohydrate content, is gradually becoming a new perspective in the human diet; however, the mechanism of digestion of ketogenic diet remains unknown. In this study, we explored the oil-water interface to elucidate the digestion of a ketogenic diet based on typical representative medium- and long-chain triglycerides. The free fatty acids (FFAs) release indicated that glycerol trioctanoate with a shorter carbon chain (FFA = 920.55 +/- 10.17 micromol) was significantly more digestible than glycerol tripalmitate (851.36 +/- 9.48 micromol) and glycerol tristearate (805.81 +/- 10.03 micromol). Particle size analysis revealed that the length of the carbon chain increased the size of triglycerides, resulting in a decreased contact area with lipase. The interfacial phenomenon indicated that the longer the carbon chain of triglycerides, the greater the reduction in binding capacity with salt ions in the digestive solution. Fluorescence spectroscopy analysis showed that the length of the carbon chain induced the displacement of the lipase peak, suggesting that the carbon chain length could alter the structure of lipase. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that the longer the carbon chain of triglycerides, the easier it was to loosen the structure of lipase. Bond energy analysis showed that the carbon chain length of triglycerides was positively correlated with the bond energy strength of the ester bonding. In conclusion, this study emphasizes that the ketogenic diet should primarily consist of shorter carbon chain triglycerides because carbon chain length can alter the digestion of triglycerides. This provides a new perspective on the quest for more effective ketogenic diet, in line with the current view of healthy diet.
ESTHER : Li_2024_Food.Res.Int_180_114059
PubMedSearch : Li_2024_Food.Res.Int_180_114059
PubMedID: 38395552

Title : A Dual Fluorescence Assay Enables High-Throughput Screening for Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Hydrolases - Liu_2023_ChemSusChem_16_e202202019
Author(s) : Liu K , Xu Z , Zhao Z , Chen Y , Chai Y , Ma L , Li S
Ref : ChemSusChem , 16 :e202202019 , 2023
Abstract : The drastically increasing consumption of petroleum-derived plastics hasserious environmental impacts and raises public concerns. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is amongst the most extensively produced synthetic polymers. Enzymatic hydrolysis of PET recently emerged as an enticing path for plastic degradation and recycling. In-lab directed evolution has revealed the great potential of PET hydrolases (PETases). However, the time-consuming and laborious PETase assays hinder the identification of effective variants in large mutant libraries. Herein, we devise and validate a dual fluorescence-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for a representative IsPETase. The two-round HTS of a pilot library consisting of 2850 IsPETase variants yields six mutant IsPETases with 1.3-4.9 folds improved activities. Compared to the currently used structure- or computational redesign-based PETase engineering, this HTS approach provides a new strategy for discovery of new beneficial mutation patterns of PETases.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_ChemSusChem_16_e202202019
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_ChemSusChem_16_e202202019
PubMedID: 36511949

Title : Rs15285, a functional polymorphism located in lipoprotein lipase, predicts the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer - Shen_2023_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol__
Author(s) : Shen K , Zhou X , Hu L , Xiao J , Cheng Q , Wang Y , Liu K , Fan H , Xu Z , Yang L
Ref : Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology , : , 2023
Abstract : Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a crucial gene in lipid metabolism, has a significant role in the progression of malignant tumors. The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of rs15285 found in the LPL gene's 3'UTR region on the risk, biological behavior, and gastric cancer (GC) prognosis as well as to examine its potential function. Genotyping of rs15285 in 888 GC cases and 874 controls was conducted by SNaPshot technology. We used bioinformatics analysis and in vitro experiments to study the role of rs15285. First, this study revealed for the first time that polymorphism rs15285 increases the risk of GC (OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.16-1.89, P = 0.002). Although no relationship was found between rs12585 and the pathological features of GC, the prognosis of individuals with the rs12585 TT genotype was poorer than that of patients with the CC or CC+CT genotype (HR = 2.39 for TT vs. CC, P = 0.025; HR = 2.38 for TT vs. CC+CT, P = 0.025). In addition, bioinformatics analysis showed rs12585 may affect the binding of miRNAs to LPL, resulting in an increase of LPL expression to promote cancer progression. Ultimately, in vitro tests revealed that the rs15285 T allele increased LPL expression on the mRNA as well as the protein levels, promoting GC cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The LPL rs12528 TT genotype increased the risk of GC and predicted a poor prognosis. Mechanistically, the rs15285 T allele could improve the expression of LPL, and thus promotes the malignant phenotype of GC. Therefore, our study may provide new biological predictors and a theoretical basis for the prognosis and customized therapy of stomach cancer patients. KEY POINTS: Rs15285 polymorphism is a risk factor for GC. Rs12585 TT genotype predicts a bad outcome in GC individuals. Rs15285 T allele enhances GC cells malignant biological behavior.
ESTHER : Shen_2023_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol__
PubMedSearch : Shen_2023_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol__
PubMedID: 37036527
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LPL

Title : Ecotoxicological effects of soil lithium on earthworm Eisenia fetida: Lethality, bioaccumulation, biomarker responses, and histopathological changes - Xu_2023_Environ.Pollut__121748
Author(s) : Xu Z , Zhang Z , Wang X
Ref : Environ Pollut , :121748 , 2023
Abstract : Lithium is an emerging environmental contaminant in the current low-carbon economy, but little is known about its influences on soil invertebrates. In this work, earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to soils treated with different levels of lithium for 7 d, and multiple ecotoxicological parameters were evaluated. The results showed that mortality was dose-dependent and lithium's median lethal content (LC(50)) to earthworm was respectively 865.08, 361.01, 139.36, and 94.95 mg/kg after 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, and 7 d exposure. The bioaccumulation factor based on measured exogenous lithium content (BF(exog)) respectively reached 0.79, 1.01, 1.57, and 1.27 with the increasing lithium levels, suggesting that lithium accumulation was averagely 1.16-fold to the exogenous content, and 74.42%-81.19%, 14.54%-18.23%, and 2.26%-8.02% of the lithium in exposed earthworms were respectively retained in the cytosol, debris, and granule. Then, lithium stress stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as the content of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and metallothionein, indicating the generation of oxidative damage, while the content of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde decreased. Finally, lithium introduced histopathological changes, including the degenerated seminal vesicle and muscle hyperplasia, as well as high or extreme nuclear DNA damage. This study confirmed the obvious bioaccumulation and toxic effects caused by soil lithium via ecotoxicological data, providing new theoretical insights into understanding the ecological risks of lithium to soil invertebrates.
ESTHER : Xu_2023_Environ.Pollut__121748
PubMedSearch : Xu_2023_Environ.Pollut__121748
PubMedID: 37127236

Title : Green-Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Liposoluble 6'\/6-O-Lauryl Phenolic Glycosides with Enhanced Intestinal Permeability - Xu_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
Author(s) : Xu Z , Liu S , Lai H , You L , Zhao Z
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Arbutin, salidroside, polydatin, and phlorizin are typically natural bioactive phenolic glycosides. To improve the liposolubility and bioavailability, highly liposoluble derivatives including 6'-O-lauryl arbutin, 6'-O-lauryl salidroside, 6''-O-lauryl polydatin, and 6''-O-lauryl phlorizin were efficiently synthesized by enzymatic acylation in a green solvent 2-MeTHF. Their reaction conversions reached 84.4, 99.5, 99.8, and 89.1%, respectively, when catalyzed by Lipozyme 435 at 20 mg/mL at 50 degreesC. As expected, the derivatives had high log P (1.66-2.37) and retained good antioxidant activity, making them potential alternatives to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) in lipid systems. Then, the intestinal permeability characteristics and metabolism of phenolic glycosides and their derivatives were investigated based on Caco-2 monolayers. The permeability of polydatin and phlorizin was mainly through active transport, but that of arbutin and salidroside involved both passive diffusion and active uptake. The acylated derivatives suffered from severe CES-mediated hydrolysis but exhibited a larger transported amount than phenolic glycosides.
ESTHER : Xu_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Xu_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedID: 37167604

Title : Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activity of Essential Oils from Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) Ohashi - Song_2023_Molecules_28_
Author(s) : Song W , Xu Z , Gao P , Liu X
Ref : Molecules , 28 : , 2023
Abstract : The present study aimed to determine the chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs) from Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) Ohashi and evaluate their antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity under the comprehensive influence of chemical components. The essential oils were extracted from T. triquetrum (L.) Ohashi by hydrodistillation. A total of 58 organic compounds were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. The major components of T. triquetrum (L.) Ohashi EOs were identified as palmitic acid (22.46%), 1-Octen-3-ol (14.07%), Caryophyllene (7.20%), (Z)-18-Octadec-9-enolide (6.04%), and 3-Hexen-1-ol (4.55%). The antioxidant activity of the essential oils was determined by using ABTS assay, DPPH assay, and FRAP assay, with IC(50) values of 2.12 +/- 0.05 mg/mL, 4.73 +/- 0.91 mg/mL against the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP value 117.42 +/- 8.10 mM/g. The result showed that it had moderate antioxidant activities in the experiment, which why it is likely that it will be used as an antioxidant. At the same time, the EOs also showed moderate anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. This study expands the chemical and biological knowledge of the EOs of T. triquetrum.
ESTHER : Song_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedSearch : Song_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedID: 36985706

Title : Variants within the LPL gene confer susceptility to diabetic kidney disease and rapid decline in kidney function in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes - Wu_2023_Diabetes.Obes.Metab__
Author(s) : Wu Y , Cheng S , Gu H , Yang K , Xu Z , Meng X , Wang Y , Jiang Y , Li H , Zhou Y
Ref : Diabetes Obes Metab , : , 2023
Abstract : AIM: To examine the association between lipoprotein lipase (LPL) polymorphisms and susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and early renal function decline in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: The association of eight LPL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with DKD was analysed in 2793 patients with T2D from the third China National Stroke Registry. DKD was defined as either an urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 30 mg/g or higher at baseline and 3 months, or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at baseline and 3 months. Rapid decline in kidney function (RDKF) was defined as a reduction in the eGFR of 3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or greater per year. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of LPL SNP and DKD with an additive model. RESULTS: The SNPs rs285 C>T (OR = 1.40, P = .0154), rs328 C>G (OR = 2.24, P = .0104) and rs3208305 A>T (OR = 1.85, P = .0015) were identified to be significantly associated with DKD defined by eGFR. Among 1241 participants with follow-up data, 441 (35.5%) showed RDKF over a mean follow-up period of 1 year, and the rs285 C allele was associated with higher odds of RDKF (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.66; P = .025) after adjustment for multiple variables. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LPL-related SNPs are new candidate factors for conferring susceptibility to DKD and may promote rapid loss of renal function in Chinese patients with T2D.
ESTHER : Wu_2023_Diabetes.Obes.Metab__
PubMedSearch : Wu_2023_Diabetes.Obes.Metab__
PubMedID: 37427758

Title : Discovery of seven-membered ring berberine analogues as highly potent and specific hCES2A inhibitors - Yang_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact_378_110501
Author(s) : Yang Y , Xiong Y , Zhu G , Sun M , Zou K , Zhao Y , Zhang Y , Xu Z , Li Y , Zhu W , Jia Q , Li B , Ge G
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 378 :110501 , 2023
Abstract : Human carboxylesterase 2A (hCES2A) is a key serine hydrolase responsible for the metabolic clearance of large number of compounds bearing the ester- or amide-bond(s). Inhibition of hCES2A can relieve the chemotherapy-induced toxicity and alter the pharmacokinetic bahaviors of some orally administrate esters-containing agents. However, most of the hCES2A inhibitors show poor cell-membrane permeability and poor specificity. Herein, guided by the structure activity relationships (SAR) of fifteen natural alkaloids against hCES2A, fifteen new seven-membered ring berberine analogues were designed and synthesized, and their anti-hCES2A activities were evaluated. Among all tested compounds, compound 28 showed potent anti-hCES2A effect (IC(50) = 1.66 microM) and excellent selectivity over hCES1A (IC(50) > 100 microM). The SAR analysis revealed that the seven-membered ring of these berberine analogues was a crucial moiety for hCES2A inhibition, while the secondary amine group of the ring-C is important for improving their specificity over other serine hydrolases. Inhibition kinetic analyses and molecular dynamic simulation demonstrated that 28 strongly inhibited hCES2A in a mixed-inhibition manner, with an estimated K(i) value of 1.035 microM. Moreover, 28 could inhibit intracellular hCES2A in living HepG2 cells and exhibited suitable metabolic stability. Collectively, the SAR of seven-membered ring berberine analogues as hCES2A inhibitors were studied, while compound 28 acted as a promising candidate for developing highly selective hCES2A inhibitors.
ESTHER : Yang_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact_378_110501
PubMedSearch : Yang_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact_378_110501
PubMedID: 37080375

Title : Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of salicylanilides as novel allosteric inhibitors of human pancreatic lipase - Zhao_2023_Bioorg.Med.Chem_91_117413
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Zhang M , Hou X , Han J , Qin X , Yang Y , Song Y , Liu Z , Zhang Y , Xu Z , Jia Q , Li Y , Chen K , Li B , Zhu W , Ge G
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 91 :117413 , 2023
Abstract : Obesity is a growing global health problem and is associated with increased prevalence of many metabolic disorders, including diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Pancreatic lipase (PL) has been validated as a key target for developing anti-obesity agents, owing to its crucial role in lipid digestion and absorption. In the past few decades, porcine PL (pPL) is always used as the enzyme source for screening PL inhibitors, which generate numerous pPL inhibitors but the potent inhibitors against human PL (hPL) are rarely reported. Herein, a series of salicylanilide derivatives were designed and synthesized, while their anti-hPL effects were assayed by a fluorescence-based biochemical approach. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of salicylanilide derivatives as hPL inhibitors in detail, structural modifications on three rings (A, B and C) of the salicylanilide skeleton were performed. Among all tested compounds, 2t and 2u were found possessing the most potent anti-PL activity, showing IC(50) values of 1.86 microM and 1.63 microM, respectively. Inhibition kinetic analyses suggested that both 2t and 2u could effectively inhibit hPL in a non-competitive manner, with the k(i) value of 1.67 microM and 1.70 microM, respectively. Fluorescence quenching assays suggested that two inhibitors could quench the fluorescence of hPL via a static quenching procedure. Molecular docking simulations suggested that 2t and 2u could tightly bind on an allosteric site of hPL. Collectively, the structure-activity relationships of salicylanilide derivatives as hPL inhibitors were carefully investigated, while two newly identified reversible hPL inhibitors (2t and 2u) could be used as promising lead compounds to develop novel anti-obesity drugs.
ESTHER : Zhao_2023_Bioorg.Med.Chem_91_117413
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2023_Bioorg.Med.Chem_91_117413
PubMedID: 37490786

Title : A caprylate esterase-activated fluorescent probe for sensitive and selective detection of Salmonella enteritidis - Zhang_2023_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_415_2163
Author(s) : Zhang H , Wang X , Xu Z , Ma J , Li ZL , Cheng WM , Jiang H
Ref : Anal Bioanal Chem , 415 :2163 , 2023
Abstract : Salmonella enteritidis is one of the most common foodborne pathogens. Many methods have been developed to detect Salmonella, but most of them are expensive, time-consuming, and complex in experimental procedures. Developing a rapid, specific, cost-effective, and sensitive detection method is still demanded. In this work, a practical detection method is presented using salicylaldazine caprylate as the fluorescent probe, which could be hydrolyzed by caprylate esterase liberated from Salmonella lysed by phage, to form strong fluorescent salicylaldazine. The Salmonella could be detected accurately with a low limit of detection of 6 CFU/mL and a broad concentration range of 10-10(6) CFU/mL. Moreover, this method was successfully used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in milk within 2 h through pre-enrichment by ampicillin-conjugated magnetic beads. The novel combination of fluorescent turn-on probe salicylaldazine caprylate and phage ensures this method has excellent sensitivity and selectivity.
ESTHER : Zhang_2023_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_415_2163
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2023_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_415_2163
PubMedID: 36869898

Title : Enantioselective Metabolism of Fenpropathrin Enantiomers by carboxyl\/choline esterase 6 (CCE06) in Tetranychus cinnabarinus - Yang_2023_Pest.Manag.Sci__
Author(s) : Yang F , Ran L , He Y , Xu Z , He L , Zhang P
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , : , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Tetranychus cinnabarinus is a polyphagous pest mite commonly found in agriculture. As an excellent acaricide, fenpropathrin (FEN) is frequently used to control T. cinnabarinus in agriculture. However, commercial FEN is a racemate with two enantiomers, R-FEN and S-FEN. Considering that investigations on the metabolism of FEN by T. cinnabarinus are based on racemate FEN, it is important to investigate the enantioselective metabolism of FEN in T. cinnabarinus. RESULTS: S-FEN was more toxic to T. cinnabarinus than R-FEN by more than 68.8-fold. Moreover, the synergist bioassay revealed that carboxylesterase and cytochrome P450 were the primary enzymes engaged in the detoxification of FEN in T. cinnabarinus, with carboxylesterase playing a leading role. Seven genes were substantially different after the induction of S-FEN and R-FEN, respectively. TcCCE06 was screened and selected as a key gene that related to FEN metabolism in T. cinnabarinus. The metabolic results showed that the recombinant TcCCE06 effectively metabolized 32.1% of the R-FEN and 13.8% of the S-FEN within 4 hours of incubation. Moreover, R-FEN was demonstrated a higher affinity for the TcCCE06 protein than S-FEN based on molecular docking. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that TcCCE06 mediates the enantioselective metabolism of FEN in T. cinnabarinus. Our findings will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the differential toxicity of the FEN enantiomers against T. cinnabarinus. Furthermore, it also provides a new perspective for the development of enantiomer-enriched acaricides with higher activity and lower pesticide dosage and pollution risks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Yang_2023_Pest.Manag.Sci__
PubMedSearch : Yang_2023_Pest.Manag.Sci__
PubMedID: 37948435
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetur-t1jsk0

Title : Structural analysis of a hormone-bound Striga strigolactone receptor - Arellano-Saab_2023_Nat.Plants_9_883
Author(s) : Arellano-Saab A , Skarina T , Xu Z , McErlean CSP , Savchenko A , Lumba S , Stogios PJ , McCourt P
Ref : Nat Plants , 9 :883 , 2023
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) regulate many aspects of plant development, but ambiguities remain about how this hormone is perceived because SL-complexed receptor structures do not exist. We find that when SL binds the Striga receptor, ShHTL5, a series of conformational changes relative to the unbound state occur, but these events are not sufficient for signalling. Ligand-complexed receptors, however, form internal tunnels that posit an explanation for how SL exits its receptor after hydrolysis.
ESTHER : Arellano-Saab_2023_Nat.Plants_9_883
PubMedSearch : Arellano-Saab_2023_Nat.Plants_9_883
PubMedID: 37264151
Gene_locus related to this paper: strhe-ShHTL5

Title : Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antioxidant Activities, and Inhibitory Effects of the Acetylcholinesterase of Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. Essential Oil - Zhao_2023_Biomolecules_13_
Author(s) : Zhao J , Xu Z , Gao P , Liu X
Ref : Biomolecules , 13 : , 2023
Abstract : The present study aimed to investigate the essential oil composition of Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl., grown in China, and to determine its antioxidant and inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compounds were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. We used 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing assay power (FRAP) to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of the essential oil was also examined. Sixty-seven compounds were identified, representing 98.50 % of the total essential oil, which was shown to be rich in methyl (9E,11E)-octadeca-9,11-dienoate (31.69%), n-hexadecanoic acid (15.08%), isopropyl palmitate (12.44%), propyl tetradecanoate (7.20%), tetradecanoic acid (4.01%), 17-octadecynoic acid (3.71%), and pentacosane (2.24%). Its antioxidant ability was analyzed via ABTS (IC(50) = 721.95 +/- 9.93 microg/mL), DPPH scavenging capacity (IC(50) > 10,000 microg/mL), and the FRAP method (Trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration 39.64 +/- 3.38 microM/g). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition effects were evaluated and had an IC(50) value of 51.96 +/- 14.26 microg/mL. The results show that this essential oil has interesting biological potential, encouraging further investigations, especially regarding the mechanisms of action of its antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. This is the first time that the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effects of essential oil from L. nervosa have been studied.
ESTHER : Zhao_2023_Biomolecules_13_
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2023_Biomolecules_13_
PubMedID: 37509125

Title : Characterization of the synergistic inhibitory effect of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and catechin on pancreatic lipase - Wang_2022_Food.Chem_404_134672
Author(s) : Wang Y , Chen L , Liu H , Xie J , Yin W , Xu Z , Ma H , Wu W , Zheng M , Liu M , Liu J
Ref : Food Chem , 404 :134672 , 2022
Abstract : This study aimed to identify novel pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitors using affinity ultrafiltration combined with spectroscopy and molecular docking. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G; IC(50): 0.268 mg/mL) and catechin (IC(50): 0.280 mg/mL) were shown to be potent PL inhibitors extracted from black rice and adzuki bean coat extracts. Isobologram analysis revealed that the combined use of C3G and catechin at a ratio of 2:3 had a remarkable synergistic effect (IC(50) of the mixture: 0.201 mg/mL). The inhibitory mechanism of C3G-catechin mixture was of mixed type. The C3G-catechin mixture had a great impact on PL secondary structures. Molecular docking analysis further demonstrated that these polyphenols formed hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues in the binding pocket of PL. Collectively, C3G and catechin were shown to inhibit PL in a synergistic manner and can be potentially used for the development of food supplements for obesity prevention.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Food.Chem_404_134672
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Food.Chem_404_134672
PubMedID: 36323025

Title : Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel coumarin derivatives as multifunctional ligands for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Liu_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_242_114689
Author(s) : Liu W , Wu L , Tian L , Chen H , Wu Z , Wang N , Liu X , Qiu J , Feng X , Xu Z , Jiang X , Zhao Q
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 242 :114689 , 2022
Abstract : Multi-targeted directed ligands (MTDLs) are emerging as promising Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic possibilities. Coumarin is a multifunctional backbone with extensive bioactivity that has been utilized to develop innovative anti-neurodegenerative properties and is a desirable starting point for the construction of MTDLs. Herein, we explored and synthesized a series of novel coumarin derivatives and assessed their inhibitory effects on cholinesterase (AChE, BuChE), GSK-3beta, and BACE1. Among these compounds, compound 30 displayed the multifunctional profile of targeting the AChE (IC(50) = 1.313 +/- 0.099 microM) with a good selectivity over BuChE (SI = 24.623), GSK-3beta (19.30% inhibition at 20 microM), BACE1 (IC(50) = 1.227 +/- 0.112 microM), along with moderate HepG2 cytotoxicity, SH-SY5Y cytotoxicity, low HL-7702 cytotoxicity, as well as good blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Kinetic and docking studies indicated that compound 30 was a competitive AChE inhibitor. Furthermore, acute toxicity experiments revealed that it was non-toxic at a dosage of 1000 mg/kg. The ADME prediction results indicate that 30 has acceptable physicochemical properties. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that compound 30 would be a potential multifunctional candidate for AD therapy.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_242_114689
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_242_114689
PubMedID: 36007469

Title : Nanobodies as binding-chaperones stabilize the recombinant Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase and protect the enzyme activity in pesticide detection - Cai_2022_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_155_109992
Author(s) : Cai J , Romao E , Wu G , Li J , Li L , Wang Z , Li Y , Yang J , Shen Y , Xu Z , Muyldermans S , Wang H
Ref : Enzyme Microb Technol , 155 :109992 , 2022
Abstract : In our previous study, the recombinant type II acetylcholinesterase from Bombyx mori (rBmAChE) presented outstanding sensitivity to pesticides, which exhibited great potential in pesticides detection. However, the poor stability of rBmAChE and also the unclear mechanism of its sensitivity hindered the applications in on-site testing of pesticides residues. In this study, we constructed an immune nanobody library, in which we obtained 48 rBmAChE-specific nanobodies. Among them, Nb4 and Nb9 were verified as the most prominent enhancers of the enzyme activity and stabilizers under thermal stress, which indicated their usage as protective reagents for rBmAChE. The simultaneously addition of the two Nbs enhanced the thermal-stability of rBmAChE against exposure to 50-70 degreesC, and also remained 100% residual activity after 30 days storage at - 20 degreesC or 4 degreesC, whereas 80% and 62% at - 80 degreesC and 25 degreesC. The homologous modeling and docking of Nb4 and Nb9 to rBmAChE indicated the stabilization of Nb4 to the peripheral anion site (PAS) of rBmAChE while Nb9 protected the C-terminal structure. Substrate docking demonstrated the importance of electrostatic attraction during catalytic process, that might be enhanced by Nbs. As a result, Nb4 and Nb9 were proved to have great potential on rBmAChE applications due to their regulation on enzyme activity and protection against thermal-inactivation and long-term storage of rBmAChE.
ESTHER : Cai_2022_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_155_109992
PubMedSearch : Cai_2022_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_155_109992
PubMedID: 35114480

Title : Analysis of the binding selectivity and inhibiting mechanism of chlorogenic acid isomers and their interaction with grass carp endogenous lipase using multi-spectroscopic, inhibition kinetics and modeling methods - Xu_2022_Food.Chem_382_132106
Author(s) : Xu Z , Cao Q , Manyande A , Xiong S , Du H
Ref : Food Chem , 382 :132106 , 2022
Abstract : Polyphenols are inhibitors for lipase, but the binding selectivity and mechanism of polyphenol isomers and how they interact with lipase are not clear. Here, chlorogenic acid (CGA) isomers, neochlorogenic acid (NCGA) and cryptochlorogenic acid (CCGA) were used to explore the binding selectivity and mechanism of lipase. An inhibition assay indicated that both CGA isomers had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on lipase; however, the inhibitory effect of NCGA was better (IC(50): 0.647 mg/mL) than that of CCGA (IC(50): 0.677 mg/mL). NCGA and CCGA formed complexes with lipase at a molar ratio of 1:1, and the electrostatic interaction force plays a major role in the lipase-CCGA system. Molecular dynamics studies demonstrated that NCGA had a greater impact on the structure of lipase. The multi-spectroscopic and modeling results explained the effects of micro-structural changes on the binding site, the interaction force and the inhibition rate of the isomers when they combined with lipase.
ESTHER : Xu_2022_Food.Chem_382_132106
PubMedSearch : Xu_2022_Food.Chem_382_132106
PubMedID: 35240531

Title : Discovery of novel beta-carboline-1,2,3-triazole hybrids as AChE\/GSK-3beta dual inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease treatment - Liu_2022_Bioorg.Chem_129_106168
Author(s) : Liu W , Tian L , Wu L , Chen H , Wang N , Liu X , Zhao C , Wu Z , Jiang X , Wu Q , Xu Z , Zhao Q
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 129 :106168 , 2022
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and mental behavior. The combination inhibition of two essential AD targets, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), might be a breakthrough in the discovery of therapeutic success. Herein, 17 beta-carboline-1,2,3-triazole hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their AChE and GSK-3beta inhibitory potential. The results indicated that compound 21 has the most potent inhibition against eeAChE (IC(50) = 0.20 +/- 0.02 microM), hAChE (IC(50) = 0.34 +/- 0.01 microM) and GSK-3beta (IC(50) = 1.14 +/- 0.05 microM) among these compounds. In addition, it inhibited hAChE in a mixed type manner and could occupy the binding pocket forming diverse interactions with the target of AChE and GSK-3beta. Moreover, compound 21 showed low cytotoxicity against SH-SY5Y and HepG2 cell lines and good BBB permeability. Compound 21 also attenuated the tau hyperphosphorylation in the Tau (P301L) 293T cell model. The ADME projection exhibited that compound 21 has acceptable physicochemical characteristics. This study provides new leads for the assessment of AChE and GSK-3beta dual inhibition as a promising strategy for AD treatment.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Bioorg.Chem_129_106168
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Bioorg.Chem_129_106168
PubMedID: 36191431

Title : Thermosensitive in situ hydrogels of rivastigmine-loaded lipid-based nanosystems for nose-to-brain delivery: characterisation, biocompatibility, and drug deposition studies - Cunha_2022_Int.J.Pharm__121720
Author(s) : Cunha S , Swedrowska M , Bellahnid Y , Xu Z , Sousa Lobo JM , Forbes B , Silva AC
Ref : Int J Pharm , :121720 , 2022
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the most used drugs to manage Alzheimer's disease, although they show low bioavailability in the brain. In this sense, nasal administration has been considered as a promising route for the direct delivery these drugs to the brain (nose-to-brain delivery). In this work, in situ thermosensitive nasal gels with nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsion loaded with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (rivastigmine- RVG) were tested. In situ gels containing optimised rivastigmine -loaded NLC and rivastigmine -loaded nanoemulsion were first characterised (size, polydispersity index - PDI, zeta potential - ZP, encapsulation efficiency - EE, loading capacity - LC, pH, osmolarity, organoleptic and morphological analysis and accelerated stability). Afterwards, rheology and texture tests and in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate mucoadhesion, drug release, biocompatibility (with nasal and pulmonary cells, respectively RPMI-2650 and Calu-3) and drug deposition in a nasal cast model. The in situ gels of rivastigmine-loaded NLC and rivastigmine-loaded nanoemulsion had a respective particle/droplet size, PDI, ZP, EE, LC, pH and osmolarity of: 114.00+/-1.91 nm and 135.80+/-0.50 nm; 0.45+/-0.00 and 0.43+/-0.02; -3.58+/-1.62 mV and -4.06+/-1.03 mV; 95.13+/-0.34% and 89.86+/-0.19%; 9.30+/-0.03% and 8.70+/-0.01%; 7.00+/-0.01 and 7.01+/-0.00; 275+/-0.02 and 280+/-0.00 mOsm/kg. Organoleptic analysis showed homogeneous appearance, while morphological studies demonstrated that rivastigmine -loaded NLC and rivastigmine -loaded nanoemulsion had a spherical shape. Accelerated stability studies predicted good long-term stability. Rheological and texture analysis revealed that both in situ gels showed desirable characteristics for nasal administration. In addition, suitable nasal mucoadhesion and prolonged drug release were observed. Biocompatibility studies showed low and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in RPMI 2650 and Calu-3 cells. Nasal deposition studies revealed that 4.0% of the drug was deposited in the olfactory region for both rivastigmine -loaded NLC and rivastigmine -loaded nanoemulsion alone, while in situ gels with these lipid-based nanosystems showed 8.0% of drug deposition. The results of this study highlight the potential of using thermosensitive in situ hydrogels containing lipid-based nanosystems to improve the nose-to-brain delivery of rivastigmine , providing a promising alternative therapeutic option to advance the management of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Cunha_2022_Int.J.Pharm__121720
PubMedSearch : Cunha_2022_Int.J.Pharm__121720
PubMedID: 35413397

Title : miRNA-Mediated Low Expression of EPHX3 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Tumor Immune Infiltration in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas - Ding_2022_J.Oncol_2022_7633720
Author(s) : Ding S , Hong Q , Duan T , Xu Z , He Q , Qiu D , Li L , Yan J , Zhang Q , Mu Z
Ref : J Oncol , 2022 :7633720 , 2022
Abstract : The aim of this study was to explore the regulatory role of epoxide hydrolase 3 (EPHX3) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to analyze its bioinformatic function, as well as, to screen and predict the miRNAs that can regulate EPHX3 expression in HNSCC. We examined the expression profile and prognostic potential of EPHX3 in TCGA and GTEX databases and performed functional enrichment analysis of EPHX3 using string database. Subsequently, we analyzed the regulatory role of miRNAs on EPHX3, including expression analysis, correlation analysis, and survival analysis. In addition, we also used TIMER to investigate the relationship among EPHX3 expression level, immune checkpoints, and immune infiltration in HNSCC. The results of data analysis after TGCA showed that EPHX3 is a key regulator of tumorigenesis in 13 cancers and can be used as a marker of poor prognosis in HNSCC patients. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-4713-3p is a key miRNA of EPHX3 in HNSCC. Together, our findings indicate that EPHX3 exerts its anticancer effects by suppressing tumor immune checkpoint expression and immune cell infiltration. Overall, our data uncovered miRNA-mediated EPHX3 downregulation as a contributor to poor HNSCC prognosis and reduced tumor immune infiltration.
ESTHER : Ding_2022_J.Oncol_2022_7633720
PubMedSearch : Ding_2022_J.Oncol_2022_7633720
PubMedID: 35401746

Title : Targeting LIPA independent of its lipase activity is a therapeutic strategy in solid tumors via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress - Liu_2022_Nat.Cancer__
Author(s) : Liu X , Viswanadhapalli S , Kumar S , Lee TK , Moore A , Ma S , Chen L , Hsieh M , Li M , Sareddy GR , Parra K , Blatt EB , Reese TC , Zhao Y , Chang A , Yan H , Xu Z , Pratap UP , Liu Z , Roggero CM , Tan Z , Weintraub ST , Peng Y , Tekmal RR , Arteaga CL , Lippincott-Schwartz J , Vadlamudi RK , Ahn JM , Raj GV
Ref : Nat Cancer , : , 2022
Abstract : Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poor clinical outcome, due to a lack of actionable therapeutic targets. Herein we define lysosomal acid lipase A (LIPA) as a viable molecular target in TNBC and identify a stereospecific small molecule (ERX-41) that binds LIPA. ERX-41 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulting in cell death, and this effect is on target as evidenced by specific LIPA mutations providing resistance. Importantly, we demonstrate that ERX-41 activity is independent of LIPA lipase function but dependent on its ER localization. Mechanistically, ERX-41 binding of LIPA decreases expression of multiple ER-resident proteins involved in protein folding. This targeted vulnerability has a large therapeutic window, with no adverse effects either on normal mammary epithelial cells or in mice. Our study implicates a targeted strategy for solid tumors, including breast, brain, pancreatic and ovarian, whereby small, orally bioavailable molecules targeting LIPA block protein folding, induce ER stress and result in tumor cell death.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Nat.Cancer__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Nat.Cancer__
PubMedID: 35654861
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LIPA

Title : The metabolism and excretion of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor [(14)C] cetagliptin in healthy volunteers - Lu_2022_Xenobiotica_52_38
Author(s) : Lu J , Bian Y , Zhang H , Tang D , Tian X , Zhou X , Xu Z , Xiong Y , Gu Z , Yu Z , Wang T , Ding J , Yu Q
Ref : Xenobiotica , 52 :38 , 2022
Abstract : The metabolism and excretion of cetagliptin were investigated in healthy male subjects after a single oral dose of 100mg/50microCi [(14)C] cetagliptin.The mean concentration-time profile of cetagliptin was similar to that of total radioactivity in plasma after oral administration of [(14)C] cetagliptin in healthy male subjects. Cetagliptin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Unchanged cetagliptin was the most abundant radioactive component in all matrices investigated. Approximately 53.13% of plasma AUC of total radioactivity was accounted for by cetagliptin. Each metabolite plasma AUC was not higher than 2.93% of plasma AUC of total radioactivity. By 336h after administration, 91.68% of the administered radioactivity was excreted, and the cumulative excretion in the urine and faeces was 72.88% and 18.81%, respectively. The primary route of excretion of radioactivity was via the kidneys.Four metabolites were detected at trace levels, and it involved hydroxylated (M436-1 and M436-3), N- sulphate (M500), and N-carbamoyl glucuronic acid conjugates (M640B) of cetagliptin. These metabolites were detected also in plasma, urine, and faeces at low levels, except that metabolite M640B was not detected in faeces. All metabolites were observed with <10% of parent compound systemic exposure after oral administration.
ESTHER : Lu_2022_Xenobiotica_52_38
PubMedSearch : Lu_2022_Xenobiotica_52_38
PubMedID: 34743655

Title : Comparative efficacy and acceptability of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine based on dosage in patients with vascular cognitive impairment: a network meta-analysis - Shi_2022_Curr.Alzheimer.Res__
Author(s) : Shi X , Ren G , Cui Y , Xu Z
Ref : Curr Alzheimer Res , : , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Considering the lack of direct comparison between cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), determining how to choose the best treatment plan remains inconclusive. Hence, we conducted the network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and acceptability of these drugs. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and Web of Science were searched for double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of VCI, which involved donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantine, from database inception to January 1, 2020. Then, a network meta-analysis based on the frequency method was conducted. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included. Compared with the placebo, in terms of efficacy donepezil 5 mg (standardized mean difference = -1.11, 95% confidence interval = -1.88 to -0.34), donepezil 10 mg (-1.44, -2.31 to -0.56), galantamine 24 mg (-1.99, -3.03 to -0.95), and memantine 20 mg (-1.89, -2.93 to -0.86) were more effective on the cognition of ADAS-cog; and donepezil 5 mg (0.46, 0.12 to 0.81), donepezil 10 mg (0.76, 0.34 to 1.17), and rivastigmine 12mg (0.60, 0.10 to 1.10) exhibited superior benefits on the cognition of MMSE. Donepezil 10 mg (-0.25, -0.44 to -0.06; -1.47, -2.79 to -0.15) exhibited improvements on CDR-SB and EXIT25, respectively. In terms of acceptability, the memantine behaved as the best. CONCLUSIONS: Donepezil 5 mg, donepezil 10 mg, galantamine 24 mg, memantine 20 mg, and rivastigmine 12 mg have beneficial effects on cognition, and donepezil 10mg provides beneficial effects on executive function and global status. Based on the network meta-analysis, donepezil 10 mg might be the best choice, considering the benefits on cognition function, executive function and global status, but dose-related adverse reactions need to be noted. In the meantime, memantine is a better comprehensive choice, in terms of efficacy and safety acceptability.
ESTHER : Shi_2022_Curr.Alzheimer.Res__
PubMedSearch : Shi_2022_Curr.Alzheimer.Res__
PubMedID: 35048806

Title : Design, synthesis and evaluation of fused hybrids with acetylcholinesterase inhibiting and Nrf2 activating functions for Alzheimer's disease - Wang_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_244_114806
Author(s) : Wang Y , Xiong B , Lin H , Li Q , Yang H , Qiao Y , Xu Z , Lyu W , Qu W , Liu W , Chen Y , Feng F , Sun H
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 244 :114806 , 2022
Abstract : Designing of multiple-target directed ligands (MTDLs) has emerged as an attractive strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fusing the benzylpiperidine motif from AChE inhibitor donepezil and the 1,2,4-oxadiazole core from the Nrf2 activator 25 that was previously reported, we designed and synthesized a series of multifunctional anti-AD hybrids. The optimal hybrid 15a exhibited excellent AChE inhibitory (eeAChE IC(50) = 0.07 +/- 0.01 microM; hAChE IC(50) = 0.38 +/- 0.04 microM) and significant Nrf2 inductivity. It upregulated the protein and transcription level of Nrf2 and its downstream proteins HO-1, NQO1, and GCLM and promoted Nrf2 translocation from cytoplasm into nuclei. Additionally, 15a exhibited important neuroprotective function in protecting the cells from being damaged by H(2)O(2) and Abeta(1-42) aggregation and exerted antioxidant stress and anti-inflammatory activities in reducing the production of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, 15a effectively shortened the latency time and escape distance to the target, increased the arrival times, and simplified the tracks in Morris water maze test induced by scopolamine and Abeta(1-42). At the same time, it significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory factors in the mice model brains. These effects of 15a in improving cognition and alleviating inflammation were even better than the combination of AChE inhibitor and Nrf2 activator, suggesting a remarkable benefit for AD treatment. 15a could serve as a novel hit compound with Nrf2 inductive activity and AChE inhibitory activity for further research.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_244_114806
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_244_114806
PubMedID: 36223681

Title : Molecular understanding of acetylcholinesterase adsorption on functionalized carbon nanotubes for enzymatic biosensors - Yang_2022_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys__
Author(s) : Yang S , Zhao D , Xu Z , Yu H , Zhou J
Ref : Phys Chem Chem Phys , : , 2022
Abstract : The immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on different nanomaterials has been widely used in the field of amperometric organophosphorus pesticide (OP) biosensors. However, the molecular adsorption mechanism of acetylcholinesterase on a nanomaterial's surface is still unclear. In this work, multiscale simulations were utilized to study the adsorption behavior of acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo californica (TcAChE) on amino-functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) (NH(2)-CNT), carboxyl-functionalized CNT (COOH-CNT) and pristine CNT surfaces. The simulation results show that the active center and enzyme substrate tunnel of TcAChE are both close to and oriented toward the surface when adsorbed on the positively charged NH(2)-CNT, which is beneficial to the direct electron transfer (DET) and accessibility of the substrate molecule. Meanwhile, the NH(2)-CNT can also reduce the tunnel cost of the enzyme substrate of TcAChE, thereby further accelerating the transfer rate of the substrate from the surface or solution to the active center. However, for the cases of TcAChE adsorbed on COOH-CNT and pristine CNT, the active center and substrate tunnel are far away from the surface and face toward the solution, which is disadvantageous for the DET and transportation of enzyme substrate. These results indicate that NH(2)-CNT is more suitable for the immobilization of TcAChE. This work provides a better molecular understanding of the adsorption mechanism of TcAChE on functionalized CNT, and also provides theoretical guidance for the ordered immobilization of TcAChE and the design, development and improvement of TcAChE-OPs biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanomaterials.
ESTHER : Yang_2022_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys__
PubMedSearch : Yang_2022_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys__
PubMedID: 35060980

Title : Bioactivity of hamamelitannin, flavokawain A, and triacetyl resveratrol as natural compounds: Molecular docking study, anti-colon cancer and anti-Alzheimer potentials - Zhang_2022_Biotechnol.Appl.Biochem__
Author(s) : Zhang M , Xue J , Chen X , Elsaid FG , Salem ET , Ghanem RA , El-Kott AF , Xu Z
Ref : Biotechnol Appl Biochem , : , 2022
Abstract : In this study, we worked on anti-colon cancer effects and anti-Alzheimer's disease with molecular docking studies. Hamamelitannin, Flavokawain A, Triacetyl resveratrol compounds showed good inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes. For obtaining the inhibition effects of flavokawain A, hamamelitannin, and triacetyl resveratrol on AChE and BuChE enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically conforming to Ellman. IC(50) values of these enzymes were ranging between 0.95+/-0.12 to 93.27+/-8.14 nM for AChE and 5.71+/-0.77 to 52.10+/-8.41 nM for BuChE. The inhibitory activities of some chemical compounds such as flavokawain A, hamamelitannin, and triacetyl resveratrol were assessed by performing the molecular docking study in the presence of AChE and BChE. Also, about the features of the ligand-enzyme complex that had value of -7.722 kcal/mol for flavokawain A against AChE and -5.530 kcal/mol against BuChE. The molecular docking calculations indicated the probable interactions and their characteristics at an atomic level. Due to the outcomes gained from docking, the affinity of the chemical compounds to the enzymes was considerable. In vitro cell viabilities of Flavokawain A, Hamamelitannin, Triacetyl resveratrol with various concentrations on SW620, DLD-1, HT29, HCT8, and HCT116 were investigated by MTT assay with Dox (Doxorubicin) as the control compound. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Biotechnol.Appl.Biochem__
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Biotechnol.Appl.Biochem__
PubMedID: 35933706

Title : Discovery of novel tacrine derivatives as potent antiproliferative agents with CDKs inhibitory property - Liu_2022_Bioorg.Chem_126_105875
Author(s) : Liu W , Wu L , Li D , Huang Y , Liu M , Tian C , Liu X , Jiang X , Hu X , Gao X , Xu Z , Lu H , Zhao Q
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 126 :105875 , 2022
Abstract : Tacrine was the first approved drug by the FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but was withdrawn from the market due to its dose-dependent hepatotoxicity. Herein, we describe our efforts toward the discovery of a novel series of tacrine derivatives for cancer therapeutics. Intensive structural modifications of tacrine led to the identification of N-(4-{9-[(3S)-3-aminopyrrolidin-1-yl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroacridin-2-yl}pyridin-2-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide hydrochloride ((S)-45, ZLWT-37) as a potent antiproliferative agent (GI(50) = 0.029 microM for HCT116). In addition, ZLWT-37 exhibited lower inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) compared to tacrine. The in vitro studies demonstrated that ZLWT-37 could significantly induce apoptosis and arrest the cell cycle in the G2/M phase in HCT116 cells. The in vivo studies revealed that compound ZLWT-37 showed excellent antitumor efficacy in HCT116 xenograft tumor model and favorable pharmacokinetics profiles (F% = 28.70%) as well as low toxicity in the acute toxicity test with a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of 380.3 mg/kg. Encouragingly, ZLWT-37 had no obvious hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hematologic toxicity. Kinase assay suggested that ZLWT-37 possessed potent cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 0.002 microM) and good selectivity over CDK2 (IC(50) = 0.054 microM). Collectively, these findings indicate that compound ZLWT-37 is a promising anti-cancer agent that deserves further preclinical evaluation.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Bioorg.Chem_126_105875
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Bioorg.Chem_126_105875
PubMedID: 35623141

Title : Ratiometric imaging of butyrylcholinesterase activity in mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver using an AIE-based fluorescent probe - Xiang_2022_J.Mater.Chem.B__
Author(s) : Xiang C , Xiang J , Yang X , Li C , Zhou L , Jiang D , Peng Y , Xu Z , Deng G , Zhu B , Zhang P , Cai L , Gong P
Ref : J Mater Chem B , : , 2022
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an essential human biomarker which is related to liver and neurodegenerative diseases. It is of great significance to develop a fluorescent probe that can image BChE in vitro and in vivo. Unfortunately, most fluorescent probes that are based on a single change in fluorescence intensity are susceptible to environmental interference. Therefore, we reported an easily available ratiometric fluorescent probe, TB-BChE, with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics for ratiometric imaging of BChE. TB-BChE demonstrated excellent sensitivity (LOD = 39.24 ng mL(-1)) and specificity for BChE. Moreover, we have successfully studied the ratiometric imaging of TB-BChE to BChE in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. These results indicated that TB-BChE is expected to become a powerful analysis tool for butyrylcholinesterase research in basic medicine and clinical applications.
ESTHER : Xiang_2022_J.Mater.Chem.B__
PubMedSearch : Xiang_2022_J.Mater.Chem.B__
PubMedID: 35583194

Title : Development and structure-activity relationship of tacrine derivatives as highly potent CDK2\/9 inhibitors for the treatment of cancer - Wu_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_242_114701
Author(s) : Wu L , Liu W , Huang Y , Zhu C , Ma Q , Wu Q , Tian L , Feng X , Liu M , Wang N , Xu X , Liu X , Xu C , Qiu J , Xu Z , Zhao Q
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 242 :114701 , 2022
Abstract : CDK2/9 are members of the CDKs family, which play key roles in the occurrence and development of many cancers by regulating cell cycle and transcriptional prolongation, respectively. To further optimize and discuss the structure-activity relationships (SARs), a series of tacrine-based compounds were designed and synthesized from the compound ZLWT-37, which was studied by our group previously but no detailed SARs study was conducted on CDK2/9. Among this series, compounds ZLMT-12 (35) exhibited the most potent antiproliferative activity (GI(50) = 0.006 microM for HCT116) and superior CDK2/9 inhibitory properties (CDK2: IC(50) = 0.011 microM, CDK9: IC(50) = 0.002 microM). Meanwhile, ZLMT-12 showed a weak inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE, IC(50) = 19.023 microM) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, IC(50) = 2.768 microM). In addition, ZLMT-12 can suppress colony formation and migration in HCT116 cells, as well as induce the apoptosis and arrest the cell cycle in the S phase and G2/M phase. In vivo investigations revealed that ZLMT-12 inhibits tumor growth in the HCT116 xenograft tumor model at a low dose of 10 mg/kg without causing hepatotoxicity. The acute toxicity test showed low toxicity with a median lethal dosage (LD(50)) of 104.417 mg/kg. These findings showed that ZLMT-12 might be used as a drug candidate by targeting CDK2/9.
ESTHER : Wu_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_242_114701
PubMedSearch : Wu_2022_Eur.J.Med.Chem_242_114701
PubMedID: 36054949

Title : Toxicity, Horizontal Transfer, Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Cycloxaprid against Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - Zhang_2022_Pest.Manag.Sci__
Author(s) : Zhang L , Wang L , Chen J , Zhang J , He Y , Lu Y , Cai J , Chen X , Wen X , Xu Z , Wang C
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , : , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a significant urban, agricultural, and medical pest with a wide distribution in the world. Surface or mound treatment using contact insecticide is one of the main methods to control S. invicta. In the present study, cycloxaprid, a newly-discovered neonicotinoid insecticide, was evaluated for S. invicta control and compared with two referent insecticides, imidacloprid and bifenthrin. RESULTS: Surfaces or sand treated with cycloxaprid, imidacloprid, or bifenthrin caused high mortality of S. invicta workers, and the action of cycloxaprid or imidacloprid was slower than bifenthrin. Like imidacloprid and bifenthrin, cycloxaprid can be horizontally transferred from corpses or live donor ants to recipient ants. In addition, cycloxaprid- or imidacloprid-treated surfaces significantly induced the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and detoxification enzymes; nevertheless, they had no significant effect on the foraging behaviors of S. invicta workers. Also, sand treated with cycloxaprid or imidacloprid did not negatively affect the digging activities of ants. Interestingly, S. invicta workers excavated significantly more sand containing 0.01 mg/kg cycloxaprid than untreated sand in the no-choice digging bioassays. In addition, extensive nesting activities (sand excavation and stacking) were observed in the flowerpots containing untreated sand or sand treated with cycloxaprid or imidacloprid. On the contrary, bifenthrin significantly reduced the foraging, digging, and nesting activities of S. invicta workers. CONCLUSION: Cycloxaprid is a slow-acting and non-repellent insecticide against S. invicta workers, and its contact and horizontal toxicities are slightly higher than imidacloprid. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Pest.Manag.Sci__
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Pest.Manag.Sci__
PubMedID: 35192738

Title : Molecular, structural and biochemical characterization of a novel recombinant chlorophyllase from cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata PCC 6304 - Gu_2021_Microb.Cell.Fact_20_14
Author(s) : Gu S , Dai X , Xu Z , Niu Q , Jiang J , Liu Y
Ref : Microb Cell Fact , 20 :14 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Chlorophyllase catalyzes the hydrolysis of chlorophyll and produces chlorophyllide and phytol. Cyanobacterial chlorophyllases are likely to be more highly heterologously expressed than plant chlorophyllases. A novel recombinant chlorophyllase from the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata PCC 6304 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). RESULTS: The putative N-terminal 28-amino-acid signal peptide sequence of O. acuminata chlorophyllase (OaCLH) is essential for its activity, but may confer poor solubility on OaCLH. The C-terminal fusion of a 6 x His tag caused a partial loss of activity in recombinant OaCLH, but an N-terminal 6 x His tag did not destroy its activity. The optimal pH and temperature for recombinant OaCLH activity are 7.0 and 40 degreesC, respectively. Recombinant OaCLH has hydrolysis activities against chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, bacteriochlorophyll a, and pheophytin a, but prefers chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a as substrates. The results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the catalytic triad of OaCLH consists of Ser159, Asp226, and His258. CONCLUSIONS: The high-level expression and broad substrate specificity of recombinant OaCLH make it suitable for genetically engineering and a promising biocatalyst for industrial production, with applications in vegetable oil refining and laundry detergents.
ESTHER : Gu_2021_Microb.Cell.Fact_20_14
PubMedSearch : Gu_2021_Microb.Cell.Fact_20_14
PubMedID: 33430874

Title : Bioinformatics analysis of PAE family in Populus trichocarpa and responsiveness to carbon and nitrogen treatment - Xu_2021_3.Biotech_11_370
Author(s) : Xu C , Zhang S , Suo J , Chang R , Xu X , Xu Z , Yang C , Qu C , Liu G
Ref : 3 Biotech , 11 :370 , 2021
Abstract : Plant Pectin acetylesterase (PAE) belongs to family CE13 of carbohydrate esterases in the CAZy database. The ability of PAE to regulate the degree of acetylation of pectin, an important polysaccharide in the cell wall, affects the structure of plant cell wall. In this study, ten PtPAE genes were identified and characterized in Populus trichocarpa genome using bioinformatics methods, and the physiochemical properties such as molecular weight, isoelectric points, and hydrophilicity, as well as the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein were predicted. According to phylogenetic analysis, ten PtPAEs can be divided into three evolutionary clades, each of which had similar gene structure and motifs. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that the PtPAEs had different expression patterns. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that transcription level of PtPAEs was regulated by different CO(2) and nitrogen concentrations. These results provide important information for the study of the phylogenetic relationship and function of PtPAEs in Populus trichocarpa. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02918-1.
ESTHER : Xu_2021_3.Biotech_11_370
PubMedSearch : Xu_2021_3.Biotech_11_370
PubMedID: 34295610

Title : Acute benzo[a]pyrene exposure induced oxidative stress, neurotoxicity and epigenetic change in blood clam Tegillarca granosa - Guo_2021_Sci.Rep_11_18744
Author(s) : Guo B , Feng D , Xu Z , Qi P , Yan X
Ref : Sci Rep , 11 :18744 , 2021
Abstract : The blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) is being developed into a model bivalve mollusc for assessing and monitoring marine pollution on the offshore seabed. However, the information on the response of blood clam to PAHs, an organic pollutant usually deposited in submarine sediment, remains limited. Herein, we employed multiple biomarkers, including histological changes, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity and global DNA methylation, to investigate the effects of 10 and 100 microg/L Bap exposure on the blood clams under laboratory conditions, as well as the potential mechanisms. Acute Bap exposure can induce significant morphological abnormalities in gills as shown through hematoxylin-eosin (H.E) staining, providing an intuitive understanding on the effects of Bap on the structural organization of the blood clams. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress was significantly elevated as manifested by the increase of antioxidants activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content. The neurotoxicity was also strengthened by Bap toxicity manifested as inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities. In addition, the global DNA methylation level was investigated, and a significant DNA hypomethylation was observed in Bap exposed the blood clam. The correlation analysis showed that the global DNA methylation was negatively correlated with antioxidants (SOD, CAT and POD) activities, but positively correlated choline enzymes (AChE and ChAT) activities. These results collectively suggested that acute Bap exposure can cause damage in gills structures in the blood clam possibly by generating oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, and the global DNA methylation was inhibited to increase the transcriptional expression level of antioxidants genes and consequently elevate antioxidants activities against Bap toxicity. These results are hoped to shed some new light on the study of ecotoxicology effect of PAHs on marine bivalves.
ESTHER : Guo_2021_Sci.Rep_11_18744
PubMedSearch : Guo_2021_Sci.Rep_11_18744
PubMedID: 34548601

Title : Preparation of a Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase enzyme reagent through chaperone protein disulfide isomerase co-expression strategy in Pichia pastoris for detection of pesticides - Li_2021_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_144_109741
Author(s) : Li J , Cai J , Ma M , Li L , Lu L , Wang Y , Wang C , Yang J , Xu Z , Yao M , Shen X , Wang H
Ref : Enzyme Microb Technol , 144 :109741 , 2021
Abstract : The cholinesterase-based spectrophotometric methods for detection of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) have been proposed as a good choice for their high efficiency, simplicity and low cost. The enzyme, as a core reagent, is of great importance for the developed method. In this study, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) co-expression strategy in Pichia pastoris was employed to enhance the yield of recombinant Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase 2 (rBmAChE2). Subsequently, the prepared enzyme reagent was used to detect the pesticides in real samples. The results showed that the co-expression of rBmAChE2 with PDI increased the enzyme activity of the supernatant and the yield of purified rBmAChE2 up to 60 U/mL and 6 mg/L respectively, both almost 5-fold higher than those of original recombinant strain. In addition, 5 g/L gelatin reagent could help to preserve nearly 90% of the rBmAChE2 activity for 90 days in 4 degreesC and the limits of detections (LODs) of the rBmAChE2-based assay for 20 kinds of OPs or CPs ranged from 0.010 to 2.725 mg/kg, which were lower than most of indexes present in current Chinese National Standard (GB/T 5009.199-2003) or the maximum residue limits (GB 2763-2019). Furthermore, the detection results of 23 vegetable samples were verified by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method, which indicated that the rBmAChE2-based assay in this work is suitable for pesticide residues rapid detection.
ESTHER : Li_2021_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_144_109741
PubMedSearch : Li_2021_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_144_109741
PubMedID: 33541576
Gene_locus related to this paper: boomi-ACHE2

Title : Discovery of novel beta-carboline derivatives as selective AChE inhibitors with GSK-3beta inhibitory property for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Liu_2021_Eur.J.Med.Chem_229_114095
Author(s) : Liu W , Liu X , Gao Y , Wu L , Huang Y , Chen H , Li D , Zhou L , Wang N , Xu Z , Jiang X , Zhao Q
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 229 :114095 , 2021
Abstract : The natural product harmine, a representative beta-carboline alkaloid from the seeds of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae), possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities. In this study, a novel series of harmine derivatives containing N-benzylpiperidine moiety were identified for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results showed that all the derivatives possessed significant anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and good selectivity over butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In particular, compound ZLWH-23 exhibited potent anti-AChE activity (IC(50) = 0.27 microM) and selective BChE inhibition (IC(50) = 20.82 microM), as well as acceptable glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3beta) inhibition (IC(50) = 6.78 microM). Molecular docking studies and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that ZLWH-23 could form stable interaction with AChE and GSK-3beta. Gratifyingly, ZLWH-23 exhibited good selectivity for GSK-3beta over multi-kinases and very low cytotoxicity towards SH-SY5Y, HEK-293T, HL-7702, and HepG2 cell lines. Importantly, ZLWH-23 displayed efficient reduction against tau hyperphosphorylation on Ser-396 site in Tau (P301L) 293T cell model. Collectively, harmine-based derivatives could be considered as possible drug leads for the development of AD therapies.
ESTHER : Liu_2021_Eur.J.Med.Chem_229_114095
PubMedSearch : Liu_2021_Eur.J.Med.Chem_229_114095
PubMedID: 34995924

Title : The N-terminus of Lactobacillus amylovorus feruloyl esterase plays an important role in its secretion by Lactobacillus plantarum and Escherichia coli - Xu_2021_Microb.Cell.Fact_20_152
Author(s) : Xu Z , Zhang R , Wang T , Kong J
Ref : Microb Cell Fact , 20 :152 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Feruloyl esterase is a multifunctional esterase with potential industrial applications. In the present study, we found the Lactobacillus amylovorus feruloyl esterase (FaeLam) could be secreted by L. plantarum and Escherichia coli. However, no signal peptide was detected in this protein as predicted by SignalP-5.0. Therefore, experiments were carried out to propose an explanation for the extracellular release of FaeLam. RESULTS: Here, we identified that the FaeLam could be secreted to the culture medium of L. plantarum CGMCC6888 and E. coli DH5alpha, respectively. To exclude the possibility that FaeLam secretion was caused by its hydrolytic activity on the cell membrane, the inactive FaeLam(S106A) was constructed and it could still be secreted out of L. plantarum and E. coli cells. Furthermore, the truncated version of the FaeLam without the N-terminal residues was constructed and demonstrated the importance of the 20 amino acids of N-terminus (N20) on FaeLam secretion. In addition, fusion of heterologous proteins with N20 or FaeLam could carry the target protein out of the cells. These results indicated the N-terminus of FaeLam played the key role in the export process. CONCLUSIONS: We proved the N-terminus of L. amylovorus FaeLam plays an important role in its secretion by L. plantarum and E. coli. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported protein which can be secreted out of the cells of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, the results of this study may provide a new method for protein secretion in L. plantarum and E. coli through fusion the target protein to N20 of FaeLam.
ESTHER : Xu_2021_Microb.Cell.Fact_20_152
PubMedSearch : Xu_2021_Microb.Cell.Fact_20_152
PubMedID: 34344368
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacam-a0a1c9u7k7

Title : In vitro study of the drug-drug interaction potential of cetagliptin and clinical study of pharmacokinetic interaction of cetagliptin and metformin in healthy volunteers - Lu_2021_Xenobiotica_51_1122
Author(s) : Lu J , Tian X , Tang D , Zhou X , Xu Z , Ding J , Wang T , Yu Q
Ref : Xenobiotica , 51 :1122 , 2021
Abstract : Cetagliptin is an oral, potent, and newly developed selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). We evaluated the in vitro drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of cetagliptin, as well as the pharmacokinetics of cetagliptin and metformin and the interaction between cetagliptin and metformin.Cetagliptin did not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4, only has a moderate inhibitory effect on CYP2D6, and did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4. Plasma protein binding of cetagliptin didn't have species differences or concentration dependence. Cetagliptin was a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp).The 34 healthy subjects enrolled were randomly divided into two sequences (A and B) with 17 subjects in each sequence. Coadministration with metformin had no effect on cetagliptin AUC(0-120) (GMR, 99.25%; 90% CI, 95.96%-102.65%). There was a slightly increase in cetagliptin C(max) (GMR, 117.33%; 90% CI, 102.54%-134.25%). Coadministration with cetagliptin did not affect the metformin's AUC(0-24) (GMR, 108.54%; 90% CI, 101.41%-116.17%) or C(max) (GMR, 97.67%; 90% CI, 90.96%-104.89%).Based on in vitro study results, cetagliptin is unlikely to cause CYP-mediated, clinically relevant DDI. Although the possibility of transporter-mediated, clinically relevant DDI cannot be ruled out, there is little or no risk of side effects. Coadministration of cetagliptin and metformin had no clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of each drug. There was no drug-drug interaction between cetagliptin and metformin. Both monotherapies and combination therapy were well tolerated. No serious AEs and hypoglycaemia was reported.
ESTHER : Lu_2021_Xenobiotica_51_1122
PubMedSearch : Lu_2021_Xenobiotica_51_1122
PubMedID: 34329567

Title : Enzyme-Responsive Aqueous Two-Phase Systems in a Cationic-Anionic Surfactant Mixture - Xiao_2021_Langmuir__
Author(s) : Xiao X , Qiao Y , Xu Z , Wu T , Wu Y , Ling Z , Yan Y , Huang J
Ref : Langmuir , : , 2021
Abstract : Enzyme-instructed self-assembly is an increasingly attractive topic owing to its broad applications in biomaterials and biomedicine. In this work, we report an approach to construct enzyme-responsive aqueous surfactant two-phase (ASTP) systems serving as enzyme substrates by using a cationic surfactant (myristoylcholine chloride) and a series of anionic surfactants. Driven by the hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic attraction, self-assemblies of cationic-anionic surfactant mixtures result in biphasic systems containing condensed lamellar structures and coexisting dilute solutions, which turn into homogeneous aqueous phases in the presence of hydrolase (cholinesterase). The enzyme-sensitive ASTP systems reported in this work highlight potential applications in the active control of biomolecular enrichment/release and visual detection of cholinesterase.
ESTHER : Xiao_2021_Langmuir__
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2021_Langmuir__
PubMedID: 34714092

Title : Three mutations repurpose a plant karrikin receptor to a strigolactone receptor - Arellano-Saab_2021_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_118_
Author(s) : Arellano-Saab A , Bunsick M , Al Galib H , Zhao W , Schuetz S , Bradley JM , Xu Z , Adityani C , Subha A , McKay H , de Saint Germain A , Boyer FD , McErlean CSP , Toh S , McCourt P , Stogios PJ , Lumba S
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 118 : , 2021
Abstract : Uncovering the basis of small-molecule hormone receptors' evolution is paramount to a complete understanding of how protein structure drives function. In plants, hormone receptors for strigolactones are well suited to evolutionary inquiries because closely related homologs have different ligand preferences. More importantly, because of facile plant transgenic systems, receptors can be swapped and quickly assessed functionally in vivo. Here, we show that only three mutations are required to turn the nonstrigolactone receptor, KAI2, into a receptor that recognizes the plant hormone strigolactone. This modified receptor still retains its native function to perceive KAI2 ligands. Our directed evolution studies indicate that only a few keystone mutations are required to increase receptor promiscuity of KAI2, which may have implications for strigolactone receptor evolution in parasitic plants.
ESTHER : Arellano-Saab_2021_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_118_
PubMedSearch : Arellano-Saab_2021_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_118_
PubMedID: 34301902
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AtD14 , arath-KAI2.D14L

Title : SMAX1-dependent seed germination bypasses GA signalling in Arabidopsis and Striga - Bunsick_2020_Nat.Plants_6_646
Author(s) : Bunsick M , Toh S , Wong C , Xu Z , Ly G , McErlean CSP , Pescetto G , Nemrish KE , Sung P , Li JD , Scholes JD , Lumba S
Ref : Nat Plants , 6 :646 , 2020
Abstract : Parasitic plant infestations dramatically reduce the yield of many major food crops of sub-Saharan Africa and pose a serious threat to food security on that continent(1). The first committed step of a successful infestation is the germination of parasite seeds primarily in response to a group of related small-molecule hormones called strigolactones (SLs), which are emitted by host roots(2). Despite the important role of SLs, it is not clear how host-derived SLs germinate parasitic plants. In contrast, gibberellins (GA) acts as the dominant hormone for stimulation of germination in non-parasitic plant species by inhibiting a set of DELLA repressors(3). Here, we show that expression of SL receptors from the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica in the presence of SLs circumvents the GA requirement for germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seed. Striga receptors co-opt and enhance signalling through the HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT/KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (AtHTL/KAI2) pathway, which normally plays a rudimentary role in Arabidopsis seed germination(4,5). AtHTL/KAI2 negatively controls the SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) protein(5), and loss of SMAX1 function allows germination in the presence of DELLA repressors. Our data suggest that ligand-dependent inactivation of SMAX1 in Striga and Arabidopsis can bypass GA-dependent germination in these species.
ESTHER : Bunsick_2020_Nat.Plants_6_646
PubMedSearch : Bunsick_2020_Nat.Plants_6_646
PubMedID: 32451447

Title : Comparison of Enzyme Secretion and Ferulic Acid Production by Escherichia coli Expressing Different Lactobacillus Feruloyl Esterases - Xu_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_568716
Author(s) : Xu Z , Kong J , Zhang S , Wang T , Liu X
Ref : Front Microbiol , 11 :568716 , 2020
Abstract : Construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying feruloyl esterase genes for secretory expression offers an attractive way to facilitate enzyme purification and one-step production of ferulic acid from agricultural waste. A total of 10 feruloyl esterases derived from nine Lactobacillus species were expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) to investigate their secretion and ferulic acid production. Extracellular activity determination showed all these Lactobacillus feruloyl esterases could be secreted out of E. coli cells. However, protein analysis indicated that they could be classified as three types. The first type presented a low secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus johnsonii. The second type showed a high secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus helveticus. The third type also behaved a high secretion level but easy degradation, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus reuteri. Moreover, these recombinant E. coli strains could directly release ferulic acid from agricultural waste. The highest yield was 140 g on the basis of 0.1 g de-starched wheat bran by using E. coli expressed L. amylovorus feruloyl esterase. These results provided a solid basis for the production of feruloyl esterase and ferulic acid.
ESTHER : Xu_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_568716
PubMedSearch : Xu_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_568716
PubMedID: 33329424
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacam-a0a1c9u7k7

Title : Overexpressed CES2 has prognostic value in CRC and knockdown CES2 reverses L-OHP-resistance in CRC cells by inhibition of the PI3K signaling pathway - Zhang_2020_Exp.Cell.Res__111856
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Sun L , Sun Y , Chen Y , Wang X , Xu M , Chi P , Xu Z , Lu X
Ref : Experimental Cell Research , :111856 , 2020
Abstract : CES-2 (carboxylesterase-2) belongs to the carboxylesterase gene family, which plays crucial roles in lipid mobilization and chemosensitivity to irinotecan. However, its role in chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin (L-OHP) remains unclear. Herein, L-OHP-resistant cells (HCT-116L and RKOL) were established by increasing the concentration of L-OHP. The results showed that CES2 expression was upregulated in L-OHP-resistant tissues and cells lines (P<0.01). Low expression of CES2 correlated with a better survival, and the results were further confirmed in the R2 platform: a biologist friendly web-based genomics analysis and visualization application. Downregulation of CES2 suppressed cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and reversed L-OHP resistance by medicating the PI3K signaling pathway in L-OHP-resistant cells. However, both PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and activator (IGF-1) could not medicate CES2 expression. These findings indicated that CES2 may be utilized as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for L-OHP resistance in CRC treatment.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Exp.Cell.Res__111856
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Exp.Cell.Res__111856
PubMedID: 31981591
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES2

Title : Sanger's Reagent Sensitized Photocleavage of Amide Bond for Constructing Photocages and Regulation of Biological Functions - Wei_2020_J.Am.Chem.Soc__
Author(s) : Wei T , Lu S , Sun J , Xu Z , Yang X , Wang F , Ma Y , Shi Y , Chen X
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , : , 2020
Abstract : Photolabile groups offer promising tools to study biological processes with highly spatial and temporal control. In the investigation, we designed and prepared several new glycine amide derivatives of Sanger's reagent and demonstrated that they serve as a new class of photocages for Zn2+ and an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. We showed that the mechanism for photocleavage of these substances involves initial light-driven cyclization between the 2,4-dinitrophenyl and glycine methylene groups to form acyl benzimidazole N-oxides, which undergo secondary photoinduced decarboxylation in association with rupture of an amide bond. The cleavage reactions proceed with modest to high quantum yields. We demonstrated that these derivatives can be used in targeted intracellular delivery of Zn2+, fluorescent imaging by light-triggered Zn2+ release, and regulation of biological processes including the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA), negative regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and pulse rate of cardiomyocytes. The successful proof-of-concept examples described above open a new avenue for using Sanger's reagent-based glycine amides as photocages for the exploration of complex cellular functions and signaling pathways.
ESTHER : Wei_2020_J.Am.Chem.Soc__
PubMedSearch : Wei_2020_J.Am.Chem.Soc__
PubMedID: 32023409

Title : Structures and esterolytic reactivity of novel binuclear copper(ii) complexes with reduced l-serine Schiff bases as mimic carboxylesterases - Zhang_2020_Dalton.Trans_49_10261
Author(s) : Zhang Q , Shu J , Zhang Y , Xu Z , Yue J , Liu X , Xu B , Chen Z , Jiang W
Ref : Dalton Trans , 49 :10261 , 2020
Abstract : Three novel binuclear copper(ii) complexes with reduced l-serine Schiff bases were synthesized and their structures were analyzed with single-crystal X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. The crystal data revealed that all of these binuclear complexes are chiral. Both 5-halogenated (bromo- and chloro-) binuclear complexes exhibit right-handed helix structural character. Interestingly, the 5-methyl-containing analogue has a two-dimensional pore structure. In this paper, the esterolysis reactivity of the as-prepared complexes shows that in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) these three complexes provide 26, 18, 40-fold rate acceleration as compared to the spontaneous hydrolysis of PNPA at pH 7.0, respectively. Under selected conditions, in excess buffered aqueous solution a rate enhancement by three orders of magnitude was observed for the catalytic hydrolysis of another carboxylic ester, p-nitrophenyl picolinate (PNPP). These complexes efficiently promoted PNPP hydrolysis in a micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), giving rise to a rate enhancement in excess of four orders of magnitude, which is approximately 2.0-3.2 times higher than that in the buffer.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Dalton.Trans_49_10261
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Dalton.Trans_49_10261
PubMedID: 32672259

Title : Antioxidant Profile of 1-Monocaffeoyl Glycerol in Lipophobic\/Lipophilic Media - Weng_2019_J.Food.Sci_84_2091
Author(s) : Weng L , Li L , Ji L , Zhao D , Xu Z , Su J , Li B , Zhang X
Ref : J Food Sci , 84 :2091 , 2019
Abstract : Oxidative stress has been generally considered as one trigger of organism imbalance, resulting in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein oxidation, which could be relieved by antioxidant supplement or endogenous antioxidant system. In present study, 1-monocaffeoyl glycerol (1-MCG), an amphipathic caffeic acid natural derivative, was enzymatically synthesized by Lipozyme 435, and its antioxidant profile in both lipophilic and lipophobic media was evaluated. The 1-MCG was identified by HPLC-UV, HPLC-ESI-MS, and (1) H/(13) C-NMR. Subsequently, antioxidant assays in lipophilic (DPPH assay) and lipophobic (ABTS, ORAC, erythrocyte hemolysis, ROS, MDA, and GPx assays) systems were explored. The better and lasting DPPH. and ABTS(+.) inhibitions of 1-MCG than caffeic acid (CA) were related to its better solubilities in ethanol/water media and electron transfer ability. ORAC results suggested the radical scavenging activities of 1-MCG (5 to 40 microM) were higher than Trolox. Furthermore, the effectiveness of 1-MCG against AAPH-induced erythrocytes oxidation indicated that 1-MCG can effectively inhibit hemolysis. ESEM was also applied to verify the hemolysis inhibition and morphology preservation abilities of 1-MCG. Besides, results showed 1-MCG was able to prevent ROS from invasion, reduce production of MDA, up-regulated GPx activity, terminate lipid peroxidation, and maintain the integrity of the structure and function of erythrocytes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: As an amphiphilic caffeic acid derivative, 1-monocaffeoyl glycerol was synthesized, purified, and identified. 1-Monocaffeoyl glycerol could significantly eliminate radicals including DPPH., ABTS(+.) , and AAPH in ethanol, water, and PBS system, respectively. 1-Monocaffeoyl glycerol could protect erythrocyte from AAPH induced hemolysis.
ESTHER : Weng_2019_J.Food.Sci_84_2091
PubMedSearch : Weng_2019_J.Food.Sci_84_2091
PubMedID: 31313325

Title : Improvement of the alkali stability of Penicillium cyclopium lipase by error-prone PCR, - Huang_2018_Electron.J.Biotechnol_39_91
Author(s) : Huang L , Zheng D , Zhao Y , Ma J , Li Y , Xu Z , Shan M , Shao S , Guo Q , Zhang J , Fuping Lu F , Yihan Liu Y
Ref : Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 39 :91 , 2019
Abstract : Background Lipases are extensively exploited in lots of industrial fields; cold-adapted lipases with alkali-resistance are especially desired in detergent industry. Penicillium cyclopium lipase I (PCL) might be suitable for applications of detergent industry due to its high catalytic efficiency at low temperature and relatively good alkali stability. In this study, to better meet the requirements, the alkali stability of PCL was further improved via directed evolution with error-prone PCR. Results The mutant PCL (N157F) with an improved alkali stability was selected based on a high-throughput activity assay. After incubating at pH11.0 for 120min, N157F retained 70% of its initial activity, which was 23% higher than that of wild type PCL. Combined with the three-dimensional structure analysis, N157F exhibited an improved alkali stability under the high pH condition due to the interactions of hydrophilicity and -strand propensity. Conclusions This work provided the theoretical foundation and preliminary data for improving alkali stability of PCL to meet the industrial requirements, which is also beneficial to improving alkali-tolerance ability of other industrial enzymes via molecular modification. How to cite: Huang L, Zheng D, Zhao Y, et al. Improvement of the alkali stability of Penicillium cyclopium lipase by error-prone PCR.
ESTHER : Huang_2018_Electron.J.Biotechnol_39_91
PubMedSearch : Huang_2018_Electron.J.Biotechnol_39_91
Gene_locus related to this paper: penex-Q9HFW6

Title : Plasma cholinesterase is associated with Chinese adolescent overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome prediction - Han_2019_Diabetes.Metab.Syndr.Obes_12_685
Author(s) : Han Y , Ma Y , Liu Y , Zhao Z , Zhen S , Yang X , Xu Z , Wen D
Ref : Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes , 12 :685 , 2019
Abstract : Purpose: To determine the plasma concentrations of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), also known as pseudocholinesterase, in different weight categories of adolescents, and to explore the possible association between plasma BChE and overweight (OW), obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese adolescents. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,236 Chinese adolescents (194 obese [OB], 188 OW, 732 normal weight [NW], and 122 underweight [UW]). The biochemical variables and anthropometric variables of the study participants were evaluated. Plasma BChE level was measured by DGKC method. Results: OB was associated with a higher prevalence of upper strata plasma BChE levels when compared with the BChE levels in UW, NW, and OW group. A logistic regression analysis showed that plasma BChE was positively associated with the OB group when compared with the NW group. Boys in the OW group, but not the OB group, had a significantly higher prevalence of upper stratum of BChE levels. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and ApoB levels were positively associated with the upper stratum of BChE levels when compared with lower stratum. MetS and most of its components were more prevalent among subjects with upper stratum rather than lower stratum BChE levels. Receiver operating characteristic curves for plasma BChE in subjects with MetS indicated that the AUC was 0.80 (95%CI:0.70-0.90,P<0.001) and 0.89 (95%CI:0.82-0.95,P<0.001) in girls and boys, respectively. After adjusting for age, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for MetS in the upper stratum of BChE levels was 8.73 (95%CI: 3.49-21.84) in the boys cohorts and also in the girls cohorts (OR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.35-21.70). Conclusion: This study confirmed an association between BChE levels and weight status in Chinese adolescents, and demonstrated that the upper strata of plasma BChE levels were associated with being OW, and even more highly associated with obesity. Plasma BChE levels were positively associated with MetS and its components and could be useful for identifying adolescents with MetS.
ESTHER : Han_2019_Diabetes.Metab.Syndr.Obes_12_685
PubMedSearch : Han_2019_Diabetes.Metab.Syndr.Obes_12_685
PubMedID: 31190929

Title : NLGN3 promotes neuroblastoma cell proliferation and growth through activating PI3K\/AKT pathway - Li_2019_Eur.J.Pharmacol__172423
Author(s) : Li Z , Gao W , Fei Y , Gao P , Xie Q , Xie J , Xu Z
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , :172423 , 2019
Abstract : Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, previous studies show synaptic protein neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) promotes glioma proliferation and growth, However, no investigation about the role of NLGN3 in neuroblastoma was reported. Here, we found NGLGN3 was significantly upregulated in neuroblastoma cells and tissues, its overexpression significantly promoted neuroblastoma cell proliferation and growth determined by MTT analysis, colony formation assay, cell cycle progression analysis, BrdU incorporation assay and animal model, while its knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and growth. Then we found NLGN3 could increase the phosphorylation level of AKT and the transcription activity of FOXO family, suggesting NLGN3 activated PI3K/AKT pathway, inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway in NLGN3 overexpressing cells inhibited cell proliferation, confirming NLGN3 promoted neuroblastoma proliferation through activating PI3K/AKT pathway. In summary, we found NLGN3 promoted neuroblastoma cell proliferation and growth through activating PI3K/AKT pathway and providing a new target for neuroblastoma therapy.
ESTHER : Li_2019_Eur.J.Pharmacol__172423
PubMedSearch : Li_2019_Eur.J.Pharmacol__172423
PubMedID: 31150649

Title : Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of potential therapeutic target genes in the liver of metformintreated SpragueDawley rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Chen_2018_Int.J.Mol.Med_41_3327
Author(s) : Chen Y , Wu Y , Yang Y , Xu Z , Tong J , Li Z , Zhou X , Li C
Ref : Int J Mol Med , 41 :3327 , 2018
Abstract : The main actions of metformin are as follows: To reduce hyperglycemia via the suppression of gluconeogenesis, improve glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, and stimulate activation of adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase during the treatment of diabetes mellitus. It is well known that metformin acts via complex mechanisms, including multitarget and multipathway mechanisms; however, the multitargeted antidiabetic genes of metformin remain obscure. The present study aimed to perform transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of potential therapeutic target genes in the liver of metformintreated SpragueDawley rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The type 2 diabetes rat model was established using streptozotocin. Fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, serum insulin and biological parameters were subsequently measured. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and proteins were identified in the rat livers by expression profile analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A 1.5fold alteration in gene expression, as determined using chipbased expression profile analysis, and a 1.2fold alteration in protein expression, as determined using iTRAQ, were considered physiologically significant benchmarks, which were used to identify DEGS in metformintreated rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The DEGs were verified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. Numerous hepatic genes involved in various metabolic pathways were affected by metformin; in particular, genes associated with lipid metabolism were markedly affected. Expression profile analysis and iTRAQ analysis suggested that carboxylesterase 1C subunit (Ces1C) and cholesterol 7alphahydroxylyase (Cyp7a1) may serve as important DEGs, which were validated by qPCR and western blot analysis. Ces1C and Cyp7a1 are the main enzymes in cholesterol metabolism, yet the result of western blotting was not consistent with qPCR. The present study demonstrated that metformin may affect the expression of numerous hepatic genes involved in metabolic pathways, particularly the lipid and cholesterol metabolic pathways. Ces1C and Cyp7a1 may be considered novel therapeutic target genes in the liver, which are involved in the antidiabetic effects of metformin.
ESTHER : Chen_2018_Int.J.Mol.Med_41_3327
PubMedSearch : Chen_2018_Int.J.Mol.Med_41_3327
PubMedID: 29512687

Title : Synthesis and activity towards Alzheimer's disease in vitro: Tacrine, phenolic acid and ligustrazine hybrids - Li_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_148_238
Author(s) : Li G , Hong G , Li X , Zhang Y , Xu Z , Mao L , Feng X , Liu T
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 148 :238 , 2018
Abstract : A series of novel tacrine-phenolic acid dihybrids and tacrine-phenolic acid-ligustrazine trihybrids were synthesized, characterized and screened as novel potential anti-Alzheimer drug candidates. These compounds showed potent inhibition activity towards cholinesterases (ChEs), among of them, 9i was the most potent one towards acetylcholinesterase (eeAChE, IC50=3.9nM; hAChE, IC50=65.2nM). 9i could also effectively block beta-amyloid (Abeta) self-aggregation with an inhibition ratio of 47% at 20muM. In addition, its strong anti-oxidation activity could protect PC12cells from CoCl2-damage in the experimental condition while no neurotoxicity. Furthermore, its hepatotoxicity was lower than tacrine in vitro and in vivo. Kinetic and molecular modeling studies revealed that 9i worked in a mixed-type way, could interact simultaneously with catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. Therefore, 9i was a promising multifunctional candidate for the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Li_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_148_238
PubMedSearch : Li_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_148_238
PubMedID: 29466774

Title : Guided Evolution of Recombinant Bombyx mori Acetylcholinesterase II by Homology Modeling to Change Pesticide Sensitivity -
Author(s) : Cai J , Wang B , Li J , Chen Z , Rao M , Muyldermans S , Hua X , Xie X , Wang H , Yang J , Xu Z , Shen Y , Sun Y
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 19 : , 2018
PubMedID: 30373269

Title : Genomics and Development of Lentinus tigrinus: A White-Rot Wood-Decaying Mushroom with Dimorphic Fruiting Bodies - Wu_2018_Genome.Biol.Evol_10_3250
Author(s) : Wu B , Xu Z , Knudson A , Carlson A , Chen N , Kovaka S , LaButti K , Lipzen A , Pennachio C , Riley R , Schakwitz W , Umezawa K , Ohm RA , Grigoriev IV , Nagy LG , Gibbons J , Hibbett D
Ref : Genome Biol Evol , 10 :3250 , 2018
Abstract : Lentinus tigrinus is a species of wood-decaying fungi (Polyporales) that has an agaricoid form (a gilled mushroom) and a secotioid form (puffball-like, with enclosed spore-bearing structures). Previous studies suggested that the secotioid form is conferred by a recessive allele of a single locus. We sequenced the genomes of one agaricoid (Aga) strain and one secotioid (Sec) strain (39.53-39.88 Mb, with 15,581-15,380 genes, respectively). We mated the Sec and Aga monokaryons, genotyped the progeny, and performed bulked segregant analysis (BSA). We also fruited three Sec/Sec and three Aga/Aga dikaryons, and sampled transcriptomes at four developmental stages. Using BSA, we identified 105 top candidate genes with nonsynonymous SNPs that cosegregate with fruiting body phenotype. Transcriptome analyses of Sec/Sec versus Aga/Aga dikaryons identified 907 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) along four developmental stages. On the basis of BSA and DEGs, the top 25 candidate genes related to fruiting body development span 1.5 Mb (4% of the genome), possibly on a single chromosome, although the precise locus that controls the secotioid phenotype is unresolved. The top candidates include genes encoding a cytochrome P450 and an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, which may play a role in development, based on studies in other fungi.
ESTHER : Wu_2018_Genome.Biol.Evol_10_3250
PubMedSearch : Wu_2018_Genome.Biol.Evol_10_3250
PubMedID: 30398645
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9aphy-a0a5c2t2q2

Title : Sequence analysis and structure prediction of ABHD16A and the roles of the ABHD family members in human disease - Xu_2018_Open.Biol_8_
Author(s) : Xu J , Gu W , Ji K , Xu Z , Zhu H , Zheng W
Ref : Open Biol , 8 : , 2018
Abstract : Abhydrolase domain containing 16A (ABHD16A) is a member of the alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing (ABHD) protein family and is expressed in a variety of animal cells. Studies have shown that ABHD16A has acylglycerol lipase and phosphatidylserine lipase activities. Its gene location in the main histocompatibility complex (MHC) III gene cluster suggests that this protein may participate in the immunomodulation of the body. The results of studies investigating nearly 20 species of ABHDs reveal that the ABHD proteins are key factors in metabolic regulation and disease occurrence and development. In this paper, we summarize the related progress regarding the function of ABHD16A and other ABHD proteins. A prediction of the active sites and structural domains of ABHD16A and an analysis of the amino acid sites are included. Moreover, we analysed the amino acid sequences of the ABHD16A molecules in different species and provide an overview of the related functions and diseases associated with these proteins. The functions and diseases related to ABHD are systematically summarized and highlighted. Future research directions for studies investigating the functions and mechanisms of these proteins are also suggested. Further studies investigating the function of ABHD proteins may further confirm their positions as important determinants of lipid metabolism and related diseases.
ESTHER : Xu_2018_Open.Biol_8_
PubMedSearch : Xu_2018_Open.Biol_8_
PubMedID: 29794032
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD16A , human-ABHD16B

Title : High expression of NDRG3 associates with unfavorable overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer - Luo_2018_Cancer.Biomark_21_461
Author(s) : Luo X , Hou N , Chen X , Xu Z , Xu J , Wang L , Yang S , Liu S , Xu L , Chen Y , Xiong L , Wang J , Fan W
Ref : Cancer Biomark , 21 :461 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3 (NDRG3) is one of the important members of the NDRG family which crucially take part in cell proliferation, differentiation and other biological processes. METHODS: In this present study, western-blotting analysis was performed to evaluate NDRG3 expression in NSCLC cell lines. One-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with 16 fresh-frozen NSCLC samples and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in 100 NSCLC cases were conducted to explore the relationship between NDRG3 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC. RESULTS: NDRG3 expression levels were statistically higher in NSCLC cell lines and tissue samples, compared with that of in non-cancerous cell line and tissue samples (p< 0.05). The IHC data demonstrated that the NDRG3 expression was significantly correlated with pathological grade (p= 0.038), N (p= 0.020) and TNM stage (p= 0.002). Survival analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that NDRG3 expression (p= 0.002) and T (p= 0.047) were independently associated with the unfavorable overall survival of patients with NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: The data implied that NDRG3 expression may be identified as a new predictor in NSCLC prognosis.
ESTHER : Luo_2018_Cancer.Biomark_21_461
PubMedSearch : Luo_2018_Cancer.Biomark_21_461
PubMedID: 29171988

Title : Microplastics have a more profound impact than elevated temperatures on the predatory performance, digestion and energy metabolism of an Amazonian cichlid - Wen_2017_Aquat.Toxicol_195_67
Author(s) : Wen B , Zhang N , Jin SR , Chen ZZ , Gao JZ , Liu Y , Liu HP , Xu Z
Ref : Aquat Toxicol , 195 :67 , 2017
Abstract : Knowledge on the impacts of microplastics (MPs) pollution on freshwater environments and biota remains limited. Meanwhile, freshwater ecosystems have been threatened by elevated temperatures caused by climate change. To date, no information exists on how MPs-especially under elevated temperature conditions-affect predatory performance, digestive processes and metabolic pathways in freshwater organisms. Here, we examined MPs, elevated temperature and their combined effects on juveniles (0+ group) of an Amazonian cichlid, the discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus). For 30days, fish were exposed to ambient or elevated temperatures (i.e., 28 or 31 degrees C) in the absence or presence of MPs (i.e., 0 or 200mug/L). The following metrics were quantified: MPs accumulation; predatory performance; and biomarkers involved in neurotransmission, digestion and energy production. The results showed that survival rate and body length were not affected by MPs, elevated temperatures or their combination. Elevated temperatures resulted in an increase in MP concentrations in fish bodies. Exposure to MPs decreased the post-exposure predatory performance (PEPP) at ambient temperatures but not at elevated temperatures. Elevated temperatures, however, had no effect on the PEPP but antagonistically interacted with MPs, leading to similar predatory performances under present and future conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was only affected by MPs and decreased in the presence of MPs, indicating adverse effects in nervous and neuromuscular function and, thus, potentially in predatory performance. Trypsin activity was only influenced by MPs and decreased during exposure to MPs. Elevated temperatures or MPs alone increased the amylase activity but interacted antagonistically. Lipase activity was not influenced by either of the two stressors. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was affected by MPs or elevated temperatures alone and decreased with both stressors. Such results indicate deficits in the digestive capabilities of early-stage S. aequifasciatus under elevated temperature conditions and especially during exposure to MPs. Electron transport system (ETS) activity was not influenced by either of the two stressors. Both elevated temperatures and MPs alone increased LDH activity; however, the interaction between the two stressors cancelled activity but was still higher than activity in present conditions. Citrate synthase (CS) activity decreased with elevated temperature but increased during exposure to MPs. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity was only influenced by MPs and increased in the presence of MPs. Thus, S. aequifasciatus juveniles exposed to elevated temperatures and MPs not only relied on anaerobic glycolysis for energy production but also depended on aerobic metabolism in the presence of MPs. Overall, these findings suggested that MPs showed a greater impact than elevated temperatures on the predatory performance, digestion and energy production of S. aequifasciatus. Nevertheless, juvenile survival and growth were minimally impacted, and thus, S. aequifasciatus could cope with near-future temperature increases and MP exposure.
ESTHER : Wen_2017_Aquat.Toxicol_195_67
PubMedSearch : Wen_2017_Aquat.Toxicol_195_67
PubMedID: 29288934

Title : Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two juvenile hormone esterase-like carboxylesterase cDNAs in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis - Xu_2017_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_205_46
Author(s) : Xu Y , Zhao M , Deng Y , Yang Y , Li X , Lu Q , Ge J , Pan J , Xu Z
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology B Biochem Mol Biol , 205 :46 , 2017
Abstract : Precise regulation of methyl farnesoate (MF) titer is of prime importance throughout the crustacean life-cycle. Although the synthetic pathway of MF is well-documented, little is known about its degradation and recycling in crustaceans. Juvenile hormone esterase-like (JHE-like) carboxylesterase (CXE) is a key enzyme in MF degradation, thus playing a significant role in regulating the MF titer. We identified and characterized two cDNAs, Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2, encoding JHE-like CXEs in Chinese mitten crab. Full-length cDNAs of Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2 encode proteins composed of 584 and 597 amino acids, respectively, both of which contain a typical carboxylesterase domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Es-CXEs are highly similar to those of other crustaceans. To further validate their functions, we evaluated the mRNA expression patterns of the Es-CXEs in various tissues and in different physiological conditions. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the two Es-CXEs were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and ovaries, which are the major tissues for MF metabolism. Es-CXE2 expression levels in the hepatopancreas and ovaries were about 100 and 25-fold higher, than the respective Es-CXE1 expressions. During ovarian rapid development stage, the global expressions of Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and down-regulated in the ovaries. After eyestalk ablation (ESA), the mRNA expressions of the two Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas, further indicating their potential in degrading MF. Taken together, our results suggest that Es-CXEs, the key component of the juvenile hormone degradation pathway, may play vital roles in the development and reproduction of the Chinese mitten crab.
ESTHER : Xu_2017_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_205_46
PubMedSearch : Xu_2017_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_205_46
PubMedID: 28077333
Gene_locus related to this paper: erisi-a0a1l5jht6

Title : Discovery of the leinamycin family of natural products by mining actinobacterial genomes - Pan_2017_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_114_E11131
Author(s) : Pan G , Xu Z , Guo Z , Hindra , Ma M , Yang D , Zhou H , Gansemans Y , Zhu X , Huang Y , Zhao LX , Jiang Y , Cheng J , Van Nieuwerburgh F , Suh JW , Duan Y , Shen B
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 114 :E11131 , 2017
Abstract : Nature's ability to generate diverse natural products from simple building blocks has inspired combinatorial biosynthesis. The knowledge-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis has allowed the production of designer analogs by rational metabolic pathway engineering. While successful, structural alterations are limited, with designer analogs often produced in compromised titers. The discovery-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis complements the knowledge-based approach by exploring the vast combinatorial biosynthesis repertoire found in Nature. Here we showcase the discovery-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis by targeting the domain of unknown function and cysteine lyase domain (DUF-SH) didomain, specific for sulfur incorporation from the leinamycin (LNM) biosynthetic machinery, to discover the LNM family of natural products. By mining bacterial genomes from public databases and the actinomycetes strain collection at The Scripps Research Institute, we discovered 49 potential producers that could be grouped into 18 distinct clades based on phylogenetic analysis of the DUF-SH didomains. Further analysis of the representative genomes from each of the clades identified 28 lnm-type gene clusters. Structural diversities encoded by the LNM-type biosynthetic machineries were predicted based on bioinformatics and confirmed by in vitro characterization of selected adenylation proteins and isolation and structural elucidation of the guangnanmycins and weishanmycins. These findings demonstrate the power of the discovery-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis for natural product discovery and structural diversity and highlight Nature's rich biosynthetic repertoire. Comparative analysis of the LNM-type biosynthetic machineries provides outstanding opportunities to dissect Nature's biosynthetic strategies and apply these findings to combinatorial biosynthesis for natural product discovery and structural diversity.
ESTHER : Pan_2017_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_114_E11131
PubMedSearch : Pan_2017_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_114_E11131
PubMedID: 29229819
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9actn-a0a2m9jcs9 , 9actn-a0a2m9ijf7 , 9actn-a0a2m9iy91 , 9actn-a0a2m9k146 , 9actn-a0a2m9m5n6 , 9actn-a0a2m9ifq0 , 9actn-a0a1c4rpf7

Title : Characterization of Feruloyl Esterases Produced by the Four Lactobacillus Species: L. amylovorus, L. acidophilus, L. farciminis and L. fermentum, Isolated from Ensiled Corn Stover - Xu_2017_Front.Microbiol_8_941
Author(s) : Xu Z , He H , Zhang S , Guo T , Kong J
Ref : Front Microbiol , 8 :941 , 2017
Abstract : Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play important roles in silage fermentation, which depends on the production of sufficient organic acids to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms. However, LAB are not able to degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. Bacteria and fibrolytic enzymes are usually used as inoculants to improve the silage quality and digestibility. In the present study, we isolated four Lactobacillus strains (L. amylovorus CGMCC 11056, L. acidophilus CCTCC AB2010208, L. farciminis CCTCC AB2016237 and L. fermentum CCTCC AB2010204) with feruloyl esterase (FAE) activities from ensiled corn stover (CS) by a plate screening assay. The genes encoding FAEs were cloned and hetero-expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimal temperature and pH of these purified enzymes ranged from 45 to 50 degrees C and from 7.0 to 8.0, respectively. They could hydrolyze hydroxycinnamoyl esters in a substrate-specific manner when methyl ferulate, methyl caffeate, methyl rho-coumarate and methyl sinapinate were used as substrates. Moreover, these four FAEs were able to hydrolyze CS to release hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, these strains could degrade hydroxycinnamic esters, and L. amylovorus CGMCC 11056 was the most efficient strain among these four isolates. These results provided a new target for the development of inoculants to improve silage quality and digestibility.
ESTHER : Xu_2017_Front.Microbiol_8_941
PubMedSearch : Xu_2017_Front.Microbiol_8_941
PubMedID: 28626449

Title : Endothelial Nox4-based NADPH oxidase regulates atherosclerosis via soluble epoxide hydrolase - Hu_2017_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1863_1382
Author(s) : Hu P , Wu X , Khandelwal AR , Yu W , Xu Z , Chen L , Yang J , Weisbrod RM , Lee KSS , Seta F , Hammock BD , Cohen RA , Zeng C , Tong X
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1863 :1382 , 2017
Abstract : Nox4-based NADPH oxidase is a major reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme in the vasculature, but its role in atherosclerosis remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the mechanisms of endothelial Nox4 in regulating atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND
RESULTS: Atherosclerosis-prone conditions (disturbed blood flow, type I diabetes, and Western diet) downregulated endothelial Nox4 mRNA in arteries. To address whether the downregulated endothelial Nox4 was directly involved in the development of atherosclerosis, we generated mice carrying a human Nox4 P437H dominant negative mutation (Nox4DN), driven by the endothelial specific promoter Tie-2, on atherosclerosis-prone genetic background (ApoE deficient mice) to mimic the effect of decreased endothelial Nox4. Nox4DN significantly increased type I diabetes-induced aortic stiffness and atherosclerotic lesions. Gene analysis indicated that soluble epoxide hydrolase 2 (sEH) was significantly upregulated in Nox4DN endothelial cells (EC). Inhibition of sEH activity in Nox4DN EC suppressed inflammation and macrophage adhesion to EC. On the contrary, overexpression of endothelial wild type Nox4 suppressed sEH, ameliorated Western diet-induced atherosclerosis and decreased aortic stiffness.
CONCLUSIONS: Atherosclerosis-prone conditions downregulated endothelial Nox4 to accelerate the progress of atherosclerosis, at least in part, by upregulating sEH to enhance inflammation.
ESTHER : Hu_2017_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1863_1382
PubMedSearch : Hu_2017_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1863_1382
PubMedID: 28185955

Title : Control of secondary cell wall patterning involves xylan deacetylation by a GDSL esterase - Zhang_2017_Nat.Plants_3_17017
Author(s) : Zhang B , Zhang L , Li F , Zhang D , Liu X , Wang H , Xu Z , Chu C , Zhou Y
Ref : Nat Plants , 3 :17017 , 2017
Abstract : O-acetylation, a ubiquitous modification of cell wall polymers, has striking impacts on plant growth and biomass utilization and needs to be tightly controlled. However, the mechanisms that underpin the control of cell wall acetylation remain elusive. Here, we show a rice brittle leaf sheath1 (bs1) mutant, which contains a lesion in a Golgi-localized GDSL esterase that deacetylates the prominent hemicellulose xylan. Cell wall composition, detailed xylan structure characterization and enzyme kinetics and activity assays on acetylated sugars and xylooligosaccharides demonstrate that BS1 is an esterase that cleaves acetyl moieties from the xylan backbone at O-2 and O-3 positions of xylopyranosyl residues. BS1 thus plays an important role in the maintenance of proper acetylation level on the xylan backbone, which is crucial for secondary wall formation and patterning. Our findings outline a mechanism for how plants modulate wall acetylation and endow a plethora of uncharacterized GDSL esterases with surmisable activities.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Nat.Plants_3_17017
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Nat.Plants_3_17017
PubMedID: 28260782

Title : Sequentially Programmable and Cellularly Selective Assembly of Fluorescent Polymerized Vesicles for Monitoring Cell Apoptosis - Peng_2017_Adv.Sci.(Weinh)_4_1700310
Author(s) : Peng S , Pan YC , Wang Y , Xu Z , Chen C , Ding D , Guo DS
Ref : Adv Sci (Weinh) , 4 :1700310 , 2017
Abstract : The introduction of controlled self-assembly into living organisms opens up desired biomedical applications in wide areas including bioimaging/assays, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Besides the enzyme-activated examples reported before, controlled self-assembly under integrated stimuli, especially in the form of sequential input, is unprecedented and ultimately challenging. This study reports a programmable self-assembling strategy in living cells under sequentially integrated control of both endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Fluorescent polymerized vesicles are constructed by using cholinesterase conversion followed by photopolymerization and thermochromism. Furthermore, as a proof-of-principle application, the cell apoptosis involved in the overexpression of cholinesterase in virtue of the generated fluorescence is monitored, showing potential in screening apoptosis-inducing drugs. The approach exhibits multiple advantages for bioimaging in living cells, including specificity to cholinesterase, red emission, wash free, high signal-to-noise ratio.
ESTHER : Peng_2017_Adv.Sci.(Weinh)_4_1700310
PubMedSearch : Peng_2017_Adv.Sci.(Weinh)_4_1700310
PubMedID: 29201625

Title : Anti-LRP4 autoantibodies in Chinese patients with myasthenia gravis - Li_2017_Muscle.Nerve_56_938
Author(s) : Li Y , Zhang Y , Cai G , He D , Dai Q , Xu Z , Chu L
Ref : Muscle & Nerve , 56 :938 , 2017
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: We assessed antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4-Ab) in a Chinese population with myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: Serum samples from 116 patients and 80 controls were collected. Acetylcholine receptor antibodies(AChR-Ab) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibodies (MuSK-Ab) were tested using an enzyme-linked immune absorption assay, and LRP4-Ab was identified using a cell-based assay. MG patients with neither AChR-Ab nor MuSK-Ab were defined as double-seronegative MG (dSN-MG). RESULTS: Two of 116 (1.7%) of all patients and 2 of 50 (1%) dSN-MG patients were positive for LRP4-Ab. These 2 patients had ocular MG. Following treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and prednisone, both achieved full remission. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LRP4-Ab is a pathogenic antibody in MG. LRP4-MG seems to be characterized by mild disease severity and favorable therapeutic effect in contrast with other types of MG. Muscle Nerve 56: 938-942, 2017.
ESTHER : Li_2017_Muscle.Nerve_56_938
PubMedSearch : Li_2017_Muscle.Nerve_56_938
PubMedID: 28120340

Title : Identification of Differentially Expressed microRNAs between the Fenpropathrin Resistant and Susceptible Strains in Tetranychus cinnabarinus - Zhang_2016_PLoS.One_11_e0152924
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Xu Z , Wu Q , Peng M , Liu Y , Liu X , Shi L , Shen G , Pan Y , He L
Ref : PLoS ONE , 11 :e0152924 , 2016
Abstract : The carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus) is one of the most serious pests on crops and its control mainly depends on chemical acaricides. The excessive and improper acaricides use has resulted in mite resistance to many acaricides, including fenpropathrin. Previous studies have indicated fenpropathrin resistance is a complex development process involving many genes, but information on resistance mechanism of post-transcription regulation is rare. Using Illumina sequencing, several categories of sRNAs were identified from susceptible (TS) and fenpropathrin-resistant strains (TR) of T. cinnabarinus, including 75 known microRNAs (miRNAs) and 64 novel miRNAs, whose target genes containing 78592 miRNA-target pairs were predicted by 6 algorithms. Also, 12 significantly differently expressed miRNAs were identified between the TS and TR libraries and RT-qPCR validation also performed a well consistency with sequencing. The targets of significantly differentially expressed miRNAs included 7 glutathione S-transferase, 7 cytochrome P450 and 16 carboxyl/choline esterase genes, their function in fenpropathrin resistance were further analyzed. The present study provides the firstly large-scale characterization of miRNAs in T. cinnabarinus and the comparison between TS and TR strains gives a clue on how miRNA involves in fenpropathrin resistance.
ESTHER : Zhang_2016_PLoS.One_11_e0152924
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2016_PLoS.One_11_e0152924
PubMedID: 27050424

Title : Characteristics of carboxylesterase genes and their expression-level between acaricide-susceptible and resistant Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) - Wei_2016_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_131_87
Author(s) : Wei P , Shi L , Shen G , Xu Z , Liu J , Pan Y , He L
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 131 :87 , 2016
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play important roles in metabolism and detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects and mites. On the basis of the Tetranychuscinnabarinus transcriptome dataset, 23 CarE genes (6 genes are full sequence and 17 genes are partial sequence) were identified. Synergist bioassay showed that CarEs were involved in acaricide detoxification and resistance in fenpropathrin- (FeR) and cyflumetofen-resistant (CyR) strains. In order to further reveal the relationship between CarE gene's expression and acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus, we profiled their expression in susceptible (SS) and resistant strains (FeR, and CyR). There were 8 and 4 over-expressed carboxylesterase genes in FeR and CyR, respectively, from which the over-expressions were detected at mRNA level, but not DNA level. Pesticide induction experiment elucidated that 4 of 8 and 2 of 4 up-regulated genes were inducible with significance in FeR and CyR strains, respectively, but they could not be induced in SS strain, which indicated that these genes became more enhanced and effective to withstand the pesticides' stress in resistant T. cinnabarinus. Most expression-changed and all inducible genes possess the Abhydrolase_3 motif, which is a catalytic domain for hydrolyzing. As a whole, these findings in current study provide clues for further elucidating the function and regulation mechanism of these carboxylesterase genes in T. cinnabarinus' resistance formation.
ESTHER : Wei_2016_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_131_87
PubMedSearch : Wei_2016_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_131_87
PubMedID: 27265830
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetur-t1jth5 , tetur-t1kth5 , tetur-t1kwe1 , tetur-t1kx09 , tetur-t1kxr8 , tetur-t1l430 , tetur-t1kgp1 , tetur-t1l0m8 , tetur-t1knw0 , tetur-t1kgp7 , tetur-t1l013 , tetur-t1jz51 , tetur-t1kg31 , tetur-t1knv9 , tetur-t1jrz3 , tetur-t1k786 , tetur-t1jth6 , tetur-t1jtg9 , tetur-t1kpg7 , tetur-t1jvb8 , tetur-t1kvj7

Title : Enhanced alpha-Zearalenol Hydrolyzing Activity of a Mycoestrogen-Detoxifying Lactonase by Structure-Based Engineering - Xu_2016_ACS.Catal_6_7657
Author(s) : Xu Z , Liu W , Chen CC , Li Q , Huang JW , Ko TP , Liu G , Peng W , Cheng YS , Chen Y , Jin J , Li H , Zheng Y , Guo RT
Ref : ACS Catal , 6 :7657 , 2016
Abstract : The enzyme ZHD101 from Clonostachys rosea hydrolyzes and deactivates the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) and its zearalenol (ZOL) derivatives. ZHD101 prefers ZEN to ZOL as its substrate, but ZOL, especially the -form, shows higher estrogenic toxicity than ZEN. To enhance alpha-ZOL selectivity, we solved the complex structures of ZHD101 with both ZOLs and modified several lactone-surrounding residues. Among the mutants, V153H maintained activity for ZEN but showed a 3.7-fold increase in specific activity against alpha-ZOL, with an 2.7-fold reduction in substrate affinity but a 5.2-fold higher turnover rate. We then determined two V153H/ZOL complex structures. Here, the alpha-ZOL lactone ring is hydrogen-bonded to the H153 side chain, yielding a larger space for H242 to reconstitute the catalytic triad. In conclusion, structure-based engineering was successfully employed to improve the ZHD101 activity toward the more toxic alpha-ZOL, with great potential in further industrial applications.
ESTHER : Xu_2016_ACS.Catal_6_7657
PubMedSearch : Xu_2016_ACS.Catal_6_7657
Gene_locus related to this paper: biooc-ZHD101

Title : Functional Analysis of Esterase TCE2 Gene from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) involved in Acaricide Resistance - Shi_2016_Sci.Rep_6_18646
Author(s) : Shi L , Wei P , Wang X , Shen G , Zhang J , Xiao W , Xu Z , Xu Q , He L
Ref : Sci Rep , 6 :18646 , 2016
Abstract : The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest of crops and vegetables worldwide, and it has the ability to develop resistance against acaricides rapidly. Our previous study identified an esterase gene (designated TCE2) over-expressed in resistant mites. To investigate this gene's function in resistance, the expression levels of TCE2 in susceptible, abamectin-, fenpropathrin-, and cyflumetofen-resistant strains were knocked down (65.02%, 63.14%, 57.82%, and 63.99%, respectively) via RNA interference. The bioassay data showed that the resistant levels to three acaricides were significantly decreased after the down-regulation of TCE2, indicating a correlation between the expression of TCE2 and the acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus. TCE2 gene was then re-engineered for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant TCE2 exhibited alpha-naphthyl acetate activity (483.3 +/- 71.8 nmol/mg pro. min(-1)), and the activity of this enzyme could be inhibited by abamectin, fenpropathrin, and cyflumetofen, respectively. HPLC and GC results showed that 10 mug of the recombinant TCE2 could effectively decompose 21.23% fenpropathrin and 49.70% cyflumetofen within 2 hours. This is the first report of a successful heterologous expression of an esterase gene from mites. This study provides direct evidence that TCE2 is a functional gene involved in acaricide resistance in T. cinnabarinus.
ESTHER : Shi_2016_Sci.Rep_6_18646
PubMedSearch : Shi_2016_Sci.Rep_6_18646
PubMedID: 26725309
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9acar-q5s1p7 , tetur-t1kx09

Title : Neuroprotective activity of (1S,2E,4R,6R,-7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (4R) in vitro and in vivo in rodent models of brain ischemia - Martins_2015_Neurosci_291_250
Author(s) : Martins AH , Hu J , Xu Z , Mu C , Alvarez P , Ford BD , El Sayed KA , Eterovic VA , Ferchmin PA , Hao J
Ref : Neuroscience , 291 :250 , 2015
Abstract : (1S,2E,4R,6R,-7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (4R) is a precursor to key flavor ingredients in leaves of Nicotiana species. The present study shows 4R decreased brain damage in rodent ischemic stroke models. The 4R-pretreated mice had lower infarct volumes (26.2+/-9.7 mm3) than those in control groups (untreated: 63.4+/-4.2 mm3, DMSO: 60.2+/-14.2 mm3). The 4R-posttreated rats also had less infarct volumes (120+/-65 mm3) than those in the rats of the DMSO group (291+/-95 mm3). The results from in vitro experiments indicate that 4R decreased neuro2a cell (neuroblastoma cells) apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and improved the population spikes' (PSs) recovery in rat acute hippocampal slices under OGD; a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, abolished the effect of 4R on PSs recovery. Furthermore, 4R also inhibited monocyte adhesion to murine brain-derived endothelial (bEND5) cells and upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) induced by OGD/reoxygenation (OGD/R), and restored the p-Akt level to pre-OGD/R values in bEND5 cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that 4R has a protective effect in rodent ischemic stroke models. Inhibition of ICAM-1 expression and restoration of Akt phosphorylation are the possible mechanisms involved in cellular protection by 4R.
ESTHER : Martins_2015_Neurosci_291_250
PubMedSearch : Martins_2015_Neurosci_291_250
PubMedID: 25677097

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudoxanthomonas suwonensis Strain J1, a Cellulose-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Leaf- and Wood-Enriched Soil - Hou_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00614
Author(s) : Hou L , Jiang J , Xu Z , Zhou Y , Leung FC
Ref : Genome Announc , 3 : , 2015
Abstract : We report here the complete genome sequence of the cellulose-degrading bacterium Pseudoxanthomonas suwonensis strain J1, isolated from soil enriched with rotten leaves and wood from the Zhong Mountain Scenic Area in Nanjing, China. This complete genome may contribute to further investigation of plant biomass degradation.
ESTHER : Hou_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00614
PubMedSearch : Hou_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00614
PubMedID: 26067962
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9gamm-a0a0e3z1c7 , 9gamm-a0a0e3z304

Title : A pipeline for completing bacterial genomes using in silico and wet lab approaches - Puranik_2015_BMC.Genomics_16_S7
Author(s) : Puranik R , Quan G , Werner J , Zhou R , Xu Z
Ref : BMC Genomics , 16 Suppl 3 :S7 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Despite the large volume of genome sequencing data produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the highly sophisticated software dedicated to handling these types of data, gaps are commonly found in draft genome assemblies. The existence of gaps compromises our ability to take full advantage of the genome data. This study aims to identify a practical approach for biologists to complete their own genome assemblies using commonly available tools and resources.
RESULTS: A pipeline was developed to assemble complete genomes primarily from the next generation sequencing (NGS) data. The input of the pipeline is paired-end Illumina sequence reads, and the output is a high quality complete genome sequence. The pipeline alternates the employment of computational and biological methods in seven steps. It combines the strengths of de novo assembly, reference-based assembly, customized programming, public databases utilization, and wet lab experimentation. The application of the pipeline is demonstrated by the completion of a bacterial genome, Thermotoga sp. strain RQ7, a hydrogen-producing strain.
CONCLUSIONS: The developed pipeline provides an example of effective integration of computational and biological principles. It highlights the complementary roles that in silico and wet lab methodologies play in bioinformatical studies. The constituting principles and methods are applicable to similar studies on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes.
ESTHER : Puranik_2015_BMC.Genomics_16_S7
PubMedSearch : Puranik_2015_BMC.Genomics_16_S7
PubMedID: 25708162
Gene_locus related to this paper: thema-ESTA

Title : Hundreds of circular novel plasmids and DNA elements identified in a rat cecum metamobilome - Jorgensen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e87924
Author(s) : Jorgensen TS , Xu Z , Hansen MA , Sorensen SJ , Hansen LH
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e87924 , 2014
Abstract : Metagenomic approaches are widespread in microbiological research, but so far, the knowledge on extrachromosomal DNA diversity and composition has largely remained dependant on cultivating host organisms. Even with the emergence of metagenomics, complete circular sequences are rarely identified, and have required manual curation. We propose a robust in silico procedure for identifying complete small plasmids in metagenomic datasets from whole genome shotgun sequencing. From one very pure and exhaustively sequenced metamobilome from rat cecum, we identified a total of 616 circular sequences, 160 of which were carrying a gene with plasmid replication domain. Further homology analyses indicated that the majority of these plasmid sequences are novel. We confirmed the circularity of the complete plasmid candidates using an inverse-type PCR approach on a subset of sequences with 95% success, confirming the existence and length of discrete sequences. The implication of these findings is a broadened understanding of the traits of circular elements in nature and the possibility of massive data mining in existing metagenomic datasets to discover novel pools of complete plasmids thus vastly expanding the current plasmid database.
ESTHER : Jorgensen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e87924
PubMedSearch : Jorgensen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e87924
PubMedID: 24503942
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-d1pg85

Title : Identification and characterization of a new erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a novel erythronolide-producing halophilic actinomycete isolated from salt field - Chen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e108129
Author(s) : Chen D , Feng J , Huang L , Zhang Q , Wu J , Zhu X , Duan Y , Xu Z
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e108129 , 2014
Abstract : Erythromycins (Ers) are clinically potent macrolide antibiotics in treating pathogenic bacterial infections. Microorganisms capable of producing Ers, represented by Saccharopolyspora erythraea, are mainly soil-dwelling actinomycetes. So far, Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a halophilic actinomycete isolated from Baicheng salt field, is the only known Er-producing extremophile. In this study, we have reported the draft genome sequence of Ac. erythraea YIM90600, genome mining of which has revealed a new Er biosynthetic gene cluster encoding several novel Er metabolites. This Er gene cluster shares high identity and similarity with the one of Sa. erythraea NRRL2338, except for two absent genes, eryBI and eryG. By correlating genotype and chemotype, the biosynthetic pathways of 3'-demethyl-erythromycin C, erythronolide H (EH) and erythronolide I have been proposed. The formation of EH is supposed to be sequentially biosynthesized via C-6/C-18 epoxidation and C-14 hydroxylation from 6-deoxyerythronolide B. Although an in vitro enzymatic activity assay has provided limited evidence for the involvement of the cytochrome P450 oxidase EryFAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600) in the catalysis of a two-step oxidation, resulting in an epoxy moiety, the attempt to construct an EH-producing Sa. erythraea mutant via gene complementation was not successful. Characterization of EryKAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600) in vitro has confirmed its unique role as a C-12 hydroxylase, rather than a C-14 hydroxylase of the erythronolide. Genomic characterization of the halophile Ac. erythraea YIM90600 will assist us to explore the great potential of extremophiles, and promote the understanding of EH formation, which will shed new insights into the biosynthesis of Er metabolites.
ESTHER : Chen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e108129
PubMedSearch : Chen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e108129
PubMedID: 25250723
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9acto-a0a099d7w4 , 9actn-a0a099d934

Title : A lifespan observation of a novel mouse model: in vivo evidence supports abeta oligomer hypothesis - Zhang_2014_PLoS.One_9_e85885
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Lu L , Jia J , Jia L , Geula C , Pei J , Xu Z , Qin W , Liu R , Li D , Pan N
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e85885 , 2014
Abstract : Transgenic mouse models are powerful tools in exploring the mechanisms of AD. Most current transgenic models of AD mimic the memory impairment and the main pathologic features, among which the formation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques is considered a dominant pathologic event. Recently, Abeta oligomers have been identified as more neurotoxic than Abeta plaques. However, no ideal transgenic mouse model directly support Abeta oligomers as a neurotoxic species due to the puzzling effects of amyloid plaques in the more widely-used models. Here, we constructed a single-mutant transgenic (Tg) model harboring the PS1V97L mutation and used Non-Tg littermates as a control group. Employing the Morris water maze, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, and electron microscopy, we investigated behavioral changes and pathology progression in our single-mutant transgenic model. We discovered the pathological alteration of intraneuronal accumulation of Abeta oligomers without Abeta plaques in the PS1V97L-Tg mouse model, which might be the result of PS1 gene mutation. Following Abeta oligomers, we detected synaptic alteration, tau hyperphosphorylation and glial activation. This model supports an initial role for Abeta oligomers in the onset of AD and suggests that Abeta plaques may not be the only prerequisite. This model provides a useful tool for studying the role of Abeta oligomers in AD pathogenesis.
ESTHER : Zhang_2014_PLoS.One_9_e85885
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2014_PLoS.One_9_e85885
PubMedID: 24465766

Title : Resistance selection and biochemical mechanism of resistance against cyflumetofen in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) - Wang_2014_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_111_24
Author(s) : Wang Y , Zhao S , Shi L , Xu Z , He L
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 111 :24 , 2014
Abstract : The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important crop and vegetable plants pest mite. As a novel acaricide, cyflumetofen is effective against Tetranychus and Panonychus mites, but its risk and biochemical mechanism of resistance in mites is not clear. In this study, the resistance against cyflumetofen was selected and its biochemical mechanisms were studied in T. cinnabarinus. After selection the susceptibility and resistance against cyflumetofen in T. cinnabarinus, the final resistance ratio reached 21.33 at LC50 (CyR-43/CyS). All the collected field populations showed low resistance against cyflumetofen, although it had never been used in China. The activity of detoxifying enzymes CarE, MFO and GSTs were significantly increased in the final selected resistance strain (CyR-43), especially that for GSTs increased more than 7-folds after selection. The resistance against cyflumetofen developed slowly when selected from the susceptible strain in laboratory, but the resistant genes already existed in field populations, and the GSTs was the most important detoxifying enzyme conferring resistance against cyflumetofen in T. cinnabarinus. These results would provide the valuable information for designing appropriate strategies for the practical application of cyflumetofen in the field and delaying resistance development.
ESTHER : Wang_2014_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_111_24
PubMedSearch : Wang_2014_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_111_24
PubMedID: 24861930

Title : Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of 1, 3-diacylglycerols by direct esterification of glycerol with saturated fatty acids - Zhong_2013_Lipids.Health.Dis_12_65
Author(s) : Zhong N , Gui Z , Xu L , Huang J , Hu K , Gao Y , Zhang X , Xu Z , Su J , Li B
Ref : Lipids Health Dis , 12 :65 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Pure 1, 3-diacylglycerols (1, 3-DAG) have been considered to be significant surfactants in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries, as well as the effect on obesity prevention. METHODS: In this study, a vacuum-driven air bubbling operation mode was developed and evaluated for the enzymatic synthesis of 1, 3-DAG of saturated fatty acids, by direct esterification of glycerol with fatty acids in a solvent-free system. The employed vacuum-driven air bubbling operation mode was comparable to vacuum-driven N2 bubbling protocol, in terms of lauric acid conversion and 1, 3-dilaurin content. RESULTS: Some operation parameters were optimized, and 95.3% of lauric acid conversion and 80.3% of 1, 3-dilaurin content was obtained after 3-h reaction at 50 degC, with 5 wt% of Lipozyme RM IM (based on reactants) amount. Of the lipases studied, both Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435 exhibited good performance in terms of lauric acid conversion. Lipozyme TL IM, however, showed low activity. Lipozyme RM IM showed good operational stability in this operation protocol, 80.2% of the original catalytic activity remained after 10 consecutive batch applications. Some other 1, 3-DAG were prepared and high content was obtained after purification: 98.5% for 1, 3-dicaprylin, 99.2% for 1, 3-dicaprin, 99.1% for 1, 3-dilaurin, 99.5 for 1, 3-dipalmitin and 99.4% for 1, 3-disterin. CONCLUSION: The established vacuum-driven air bubbling operation protocol had been demonstrated to be a simple-operating, cost-effective, application practical and efficient methodology for 1, 3-DAG preparation.
ESTHER : Zhong_2013_Lipids.Health.Dis_12_65
PubMedSearch : Zhong_2013_Lipids.Health.Dis_12_65
PubMedID: 23656739

Title : Visible-light-activated photoelectrochemical biosensor for the study of acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by endogenous neurotoxins - Huang_2013_Biosens.Bioelectron_45C_292
Author(s) : Huang Q , Chen H , Xu L , Lu D , Tang L , Jin L , Xu Z , Zhang W
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 45C :292 , 2013
Abstract : In this report, a novel visible-light-activated photoelectrochemical biosensor was fabricated to study the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity induced by two endogenous neurotoxins, 1(R)-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline [(R)-Sal] and 1(R),2(N)-dimethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydroisoquinoline [(R)-NMSal], which have drawn much attention in the study of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. The photoelectrode was prepared by three steps, as follows. At first, nitrogen and fluorine co-doped TiO2 nanotubes (TNs) were obtained by anodic oxidation of a Ti sheet. Secondly, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were deposited onto the TNs through a microwave-assisted heating polyol (MAHP) process. At last, AChE was immobilized on the obtained photoelectrode and the biosensor was marked as AChE/Ag/NFTNs. Due to the nitrogen and fluorine co-doping, the photoelectrochemical biosensors can produce high photocurrent under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the presence of AgNPs greatly increased the photocurrent response of the biosensor. AChE/Ag/NFTNs hybrid system was used to study AChE inhibition induced by (R)-Sal and (R)-NMSal. The result proved that both (R)-Sal and (R)-NMSal exhibited mixed and reversible inhibition against AChE. This strategy is of great significance for the development of novel photoelectrochemical biosensors in the future.
ESTHER : Huang_2013_Biosens.Bioelectron_45C_292
PubMedSearch : Huang_2013_Biosens.Bioelectron_45C_292
PubMedID: 23500378

Title : The oyster genome reveals stress adaptation and complexity of shell formation - Zhang_2012_Nature_490_49
Author(s) : Zhang G , Fang X , Guo X , Li L , Luo R , Xu F , Yang P , Zhang L , Wang X , Qi H , Xiong Z , Que H , Xie Y , Holland PW , Paps J , Zhu Y , Wu F , Chen Y , Wang J , Peng C , Meng J , Yang L , Liu J , Wen B , Zhang N , Huang Z , Zhu Q , Feng Y , Mount A , Hedgecock D , Xu Z , Liu Y , Domazet-Loso T , Du Y , Sun X , Zhang S , Liu B , Cheng P , Jiang X , Li J , Fan D , Wang W , Fu W , Wang T , Wang B , Zhang J , Peng Z , Li Y , Li N , Chen M , He Y , Tan F , Song X , Zheng Q , Huang R , Yang H , Du X , Chen L , Yang M , Gaffney PM , Wang S , Luo L , She Z , Ming Y , Huang W , Huang B , Zhang Y , Qu T , Ni P , Miao G , Wang Q , Steinberg CE , Wang H , Qian L , Liu X , Yin Y
Ref : Nature , 490 :49 , 2012
Abstract : The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.
ESTHER : Zhang_2012_Nature_490_49
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2012_Nature_490_49
PubMedID: 22992520
Gene_locus related to this paper: cragi-k1qzk7 , cragi-k1rad0 , cragi-k1p6v9 , cragi-k1pa46 , cragi-k1pga2 , cragi-k1pp63 , cragi-k1pwa8 , cragi-k1q0b1.1 , cragi-k1q0b1.2 , cragi-k1q1h2 , cragi-k1q2z6 , cragi-k1qaj8 , cragi-k1qaw5 , cragi-k1qhl5 , cragi-k1qly1 , cragi-k1qqb1.1 , cragi-k1qqb1.2 , cragi-k1qs61 , cragi-k1qs99 , cragi-k1qwl6 , cragi-k1r068 , cragi-k1r0n3.1 , cragi-k1r0n3.2 , cragi-k1r0r4 , cragi-k1r1i9 , cragi-k1r8q9 , cragi-k1rgi1 , cragi-k1rig4 , cragi-k1s0a7.1 , cragi-k1s0a7.2 , cragi-k1s0a7.3 , cragi-k1q6q0 , cragi-k1rru1 , cragi-k1qfi4 , cragi-k1qvm5 , cragi-k1qq58 , cragi-k1qdc0 , cragi-k1r754 , cragi-k1pje5 , cragi-k1qca6 , cragi-k1qdt5 , cragi-k1qkz7 , cragi-k1rgd2 , cragi-k1puh6 , cragi-k1raz4 , cragi-k1qqj4 , cragi-k1rbs1

Title : Three-dimensional ordered macroporous (3DOM) composite for electrochemical study on acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by endogenous neurotoxin - Teng_2012_J.Phys.Chem.B_116_11180
Author(s) : Teng Y , Fu Y , Xu L , Lin B , Wang Z , Xu Z , Jin L , Zhang W
Ref : J Phys Chem B , 116 :11180 , 2012
Abstract : In this paper, an electrochemical acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay based on three-dimensional ordered macroporous (3DOM) composite was conducted. The 3DOM composite was first fabricated on the glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of ionic liquid (IL) on a sacrificial silica nanospheres template. After the silica nanospheres were etched, an IL-doped polyaniline (IL-PANI) film with 3DOM morphology was formed. Then, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were decorated on the IL-PANI film by electrodeposition. The immobilized AChE on the 3DOM composite displayed favorable affinity to substrate acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCh), and the 3DOM composite showed excellent electrocatalytic effect on thiocholine, the hydrolysis product of ATCh. The presence of IL and AuNPs could improve the sensitivity by accelerating the electron transfer. The designed AChE biosensor was successfully applied to evaluate the AChE inhibition induced by endogenous neurotoxin 1(R),2N-dimethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline [(R)-NMSal]. The results demonstrate that (R)-NMSal exerts a considerable effect on AChE activity, and the inhibition is reversible. The developed method offers a new approach for AChE inhibition assay, which is of great benefit in understanding the mechanism behind neurotoxin-induced neurodegenerative disorders.
ESTHER : Teng_2012_J.Phys.Chem.B_116_11180
PubMedSearch : Teng_2012_J.Phys.Chem.B_116_11180
PubMedID: 22946763

Title : Genome sequences of wild and domestic bactrian camels - Jirimutu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1202
Author(s) : Jirimutu , Wang Z , Ding G , Chen G , Sun Y , Sun Z , Zhang H , Wang L , Hasi S , Zhang Y , Li J , Shi Y , Xu Z , He C , Yu S , Li S , Zhang W , Batmunkh M , Ts B , Narenbatu , Unierhu , Bat-Ireedui S , Gao H , Baysgalan B , Li Q , Jia Z , Turigenbayila , Subudenggerile , Narenmanduhu , Wang J , Pan L , Chen Y , Ganerdene Y , Dabxilt , Erdemt , Altansha , Altansukh , Liu T , Cao M , Aruuntsever , Bayart , Hosblig , He F , Zha-ti A , Zheng G , Qiu F , Zhao L , Zhao W , Liu B , Li C , Tang X , Guo C , Liu W , Ming L , Temuulen , Cui A , Li Y , Gao J , Wurentaodi , Niu S , Sun T , Zhai Z , Zhang M , Chen C , Baldan T , Bayaer T , Meng H
Ref : Nat Commun , 3 :1202 , 2012
Abstract : Bactrian camels serve as an important means of transportation in the cold desert regions of China and Mongolia. Here we present a 2.01 Gb draft genome sequence from both a wild and a domestic bactrian camel. We estimate the camel genome to be 2.38 Gb, containing 20,821 protein-coding genes. Our phylogenomics analysis reveals that camels shared common ancestors with other even-toed ungulates about 55-60 million years ago. Rapidly evolving genes in the camel lineage are significantly enriched in metabolic pathways, and these changes may underlie the insulin resistance typically observed in these animals. We estimate the genome-wide heterozygosity rates in both wild and domestic camels to be 1.0 x 10(-3). However, genomic regions with significantly lower heterozygosity are found in the domestic camel, and olfactory receptors are enriched in these regions. Our comparative genomics analyses may also shed light on the genetic basis of the camel's remarkable salt tolerance and unusual immune system.
ESTHER : Jirimutu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1202
PubMedSearch : Jirimutu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1202
PubMedID: 23149746
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9ceta-s9yik4 , 9ceta-s9yb99 , 9ceta-s9x0n3 , 9ceta-s9xqa3 , 9ceta-s9xi02 , camfr-s9wiw9 , camfr-s9x3r3 , camfr-s9xce1 , camfr-s9xcr2 , camfr-s9yuz0 , camfr-s9xlc8 , camfr-s9w5f6 , camfr-s9xmm4

Title : A putative homologue of CDC20\/CDH1 in the malaria parasite is essential for male gamete development - Guttery_2012_PLoS.Pathog_8_e1002554
Author(s) : Guttery DS , Ferguson DJ , Poulin B , Xu Z , Straschil U , Klop O , Solyakov L , Sandrini SM , Brady D , Nieduszynski CA , Janse CJ , Holder AA , Tobin AB , Tewari R
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 8 :e1002554 , 2012
Abstract : Cell-cycle progression is governed by a series of essential regulatory proteins. Two major regulators are cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20) and its homologue, CDC20 homologue 1 (CDH1), which activate the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in mitosis, and facilitate degradation of mitotic APC/C substrates. The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is a haploid organism which, during its life-cycle undergoes two stages of mitosis; one associated with asexual multiplication and the other with male gametogenesis. Cell-cycle regulation and DNA replication in Plasmodium was recently shown to be dependent on the activity of a number of protein kinases. However, the function of cell division cycle proteins that are also involved in this process, such as CDC20 and CDH1 is totally unknown. Here we examine the role of a putative CDC20/CDH1 in the rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei (Pb) using reverse genetics. Phylogenetic analysis identified a single putative Plasmodium CDC20/CDH1 homologue (termed CDC20 for simplicity) suggesting that Plasmodium APC/C has only one regulator. In our genetic approach to delete the endogenous cdc20 gene of P. berghei, we demonstrate that PbCDC20 plays a vital role in male gametogenesis, but is not essential for mitosis in the asexual blood stage. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis in parasite lines with deletions of two kinase genes involved in male sexual development (map2 and cdpk4), showed a significant increase in cdc20 transcription in activated gametocytes. DNA replication and ultra structural analyses of cdc20 and map2 mutants showed similar blockage of nuclear division at the nuclear spindle/kinetochore stage. CDC20 was phosphorylated in asexual and sexual stages, but the level of modification was higher in activated gametocytes and ookinetes. Changes in global protein phosphorylation patterns in the Deltacdc20 mutant parasites were largely different from those observed in the Deltamap2 mutant. This suggests that CDC20 and MAP2 are both likely to play independent but vital roles in male gametogenesis.
ESTHER : Guttery_2012_PLoS.Pathog_8_e1002554
PubMedSearch : Guttery_2012_PLoS.Pathog_8_e1002554
PubMedID: 22383885

Title : Genome sequence of a porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain - Tan_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5038
Author(s) : Tan C , Xu Z , Zheng H , Liu W , Tang X , Shou J , Wu B , Wang S , Zhao GP , Chen H
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :5038 , 2011
Abstract : Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is an important pathogen which can infect humans and animals and cause many diseases outside the intestine. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of a porcine ExPEC strain, PCN033, isolated from a pig with meningitis.
ESTHER : Tan_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5038
PubMedSearch : Tan_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5038
PubMedID: 21742868
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-IROD , ecoli-IROE , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-ypt1 , ecoli-yqia

Title : Enzymatically catalyzed synthesis of low-calorie structured lipid in a solvent-free system: optimization by response surface methodology - Han_2011_J.Agric.Food.Chem_59_12635
Author(s) : Han L , Xu Z , Huang J , Meng Z , Liu Y , Wang X
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 59 :12635 , 2011
Abstract : A kind of low-calorie structured lipid (LCSL) was obtained by interesterification of tributyrin (TB) and methyl stearate (St-ME), catalyzed by a commercially immobilized 1,3-specific lipase, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei . The condition optimization of the process was conducted by using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions for highest conversion of St-ME and lowest content LLL-TAG (SSS and SSP; S, stearic acid; P, palmitic acid) were determined to be a reaction time 6.52 h, a substrate molar ratio (St-ME:TB) of 1.77:1, and an enzyme amount of 10.34% at a reaction temperature of 65 degreeC; under these conditions, the actually measured conversion of St-ME and content of LLL-TAG were 78.47 and 4.89% respectively, in good agreement with predicted values. The target product under optimal conditions after short-range molecular distillation showed solid fat content (SFC) values similar to those of cocoa butter substitutes (CBS), cocoa butter equivalent (CBE), and cocoa butters (CB), indicating its application for inclusion with other fats as cocoa butter substitutes.
ESTHER : Han_2011_J.Agric.Food.Chem_59_12635
PubMedSearch : Han_2011_J.Agric.Food.Chem_59_12635
PubMedID: 22082136

Title : Poster: A cembranoid protects the brain against transient middle cerebral artery occlusion -
Author(s) : Martins AH , Santiago EA , Olivera YV , Alves JM , Ford BD , Xu Z , Ferchmin PA , Eterovic VA
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 82 :1044 , 2011

Title : Genomic characterization of Haemophilus parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5 prevalent in China - Xu_2011_PLoS.One_6_e19631
Author(s) : Xu Z , Yue M , Zhou R , Jin Q , Fan Y , Bei W , Chen H
Ref : PLoS ONE , 6 :e19631 , 2011
Abstract : Haemophilus parasuis can be either a commensal bacterium of the porcine respiratory tract or an opportunistic pathogen causing Glasser's disease, a severe systemic disease that has led to significant economical losses in the pig industry worldwide. We determined the complete genomic sequence of H. parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5, which was isolated from a hog pen in North China. The single circular chromosome was 2,269,156 base pairs in length and contained 2,031 protein-coding genes. Together with the full spectrum of genes detected by the analysis of metabolic pathways, we confirmed that H. parasuis generates ATP via both fermentation and respiration, and possesses an intact TCA cycle for anabolism. In addition to possessing the complete pathway essential for the biosynthesis of heme, this pathogen was also found to be well-equipped with different iron acquisition systems, such as the TonB system and ABC-type transport complexes, to overcome iron limitation during infection and persistence. We identified a number of genes encoding potential virulence factors, such as type IV fimbriae and surface polysaccharides. Analysis of the genome confirmed that H. parasuis is naturally competent, as genes related to DNA uptake are present. A nine-mer DNA uptake signal sequence (ACAAGCGGT), identical to that found in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mannheimia haemolytica, followed by similar downstream motifs, was identified in the SH0165 genome. Genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other Pasteurellaceae species further indicated that H. parasuis was closely related to another swine pathogenic bacteria A. pleuropneumoniae. The comprehensive genetic analysis presented here provides a foundation for future research on the metabolism, natural competence and virulence of H. parasuis.
ESTHER : Xu_2011_PLoS.One_6_e19631
PubMedSearch : Xu_2011_PLoS.One_6_e19631
PubMedID: 21611187
Gene_locus related to this paper: haeps-b8f714

Title : CGI-58\/ABHD5 is a coenzyme A-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase - Montero-Moran_2010_J.Lipid.Res_51_709
Author(s) : Montero-Moran G , Caviglia JM , McMahon D , Rothenberg A , Subramanian V , Xu Z , Lara-Gonzalez S , Storch J , Carman GM , Brasaemle DL
Ref : J Lipid Res , 51 :709 , 2010
Abstract : Mutations in human CGI-58/ABHD5 cause Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS), characterized by excessive storage of triacylglycerol in tissues. CGI-58 is an alpha/beta-hydrolase fold enzyme expressed in all vertebrates. The carboxyl terminus includes a highly conserved consensus sequence (HXXXXD) for acyltransferase activity. Mouse CGI-58 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with two amino terminal 6-histidine tags. Recombinant CGI-58 displayed acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferase activity to lysophosphatidic acid, but not to other lysophospholipid or neutral glycerolipid acceptors. Production of phosphatidic acid increased with time and increasing concentrations of recombinant CGI-58 and was optimal between pH 7.0 and 8.5. The enzyme showed saturation kinetics with respect to 1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid and oleoyl-CoA and preference for arachidonoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA. The enzyme showed slight preference for 1-oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid over 1-palmitoyl, 1-stearoyl, or 1-arachidonoyl lysophosphatidic acid. Recombinant CGI-58 showed intrinsic fluorescence for tryptophan that was quenched by the addition of 1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, oleoyl-CoA, arachidonoyl-CoA, and palmitoyl-CoA, but not by lysophosphatidyl choline. Expression of CGI-58 in fibroblasts from humans with CDS increased the incorporation of radiolabeled fatty acids released from the lipolysis of stored triacylglycerols into phospholipids. CGI-58 is a CoA-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that channels fatty acids released from the hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerols into phospholipids.
ESTHER : Montero-Moran_2010_J.Lipid.Res_51_709
PubMedSearch : Montero-Moran_2010_J.Lipid.Res_51_709
PubMedID: 19801371

Title : Sequence analysis of pKF3-70 in Klebsiella pneumoniae: probable origin from R100-like plasmid of Escherichia coli - Yi_2010_PLoS.One_5_e8601
Author(s) : Yi H , Xi Y , Liu J , Wang J , Wu J , Xu T , Chen W , Chen B , Lin M , Wang H , Zhou M , Li J , Xu Z , Jin S , Bao Q
Ref : PLoS ONE , 5 :e8601 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a clinically significant species of bacterium which causes a variety of diseases. Clinical treatment of this bacterial infection is greatly hindered by the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. The resistance is largely due to the acquisition of plasmids carrying drug-resistant as well as pathogenic genes, and its conjugal transfer facilitates the spread of resistant phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 70,057 bp plasmid pKF3-70, commonly found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, is composed of five main functional modules, including regions involved in replication, partition, conjugation, transfer leading, and variable regions. This plasmid is more similar to several Escherichia coli plasmids than any previously reported K. pneumoniae plasmids and pKF3-70 like plasmids share a common and conserved backbone sequence. The replication system of the pKF3-70 is 100% identical to that of RepFII plasmid R100 from E. coli. A beta-lactamase gene ctx-m-14 with its surrounding insertion elements (ISEcp1, truncated IS903 and a 20 bp inverted repeat sequence) may compose an active transposon which is directly bordered by two putative target repeats "ATTAC." CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The K. pneumoniae plasmid pKF3-70 carries an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase gene, ctx-m-14. The conjugative characteristic makes it a widespread plasmid among genetically relevant genera which poses significant threat to public health.
ESTHER : Yi_2010_PLoS.One_5_e8601
PubMedSearch : Yi_2010_PLoS.One_5_e8601
PubMedID: 20066042

Title : Comparative genomic characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae - Xu_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_5625
Author(s) : Xu Z , Chen X , Li L , Li T , Wang S , Chen H , Zhou R
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 192 :5625 , 2010
Abstract : The Gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a lethal respiratory infectious disease causing great economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. In order to better interpret the genetic background of serotypic diversity, nine genomes of A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains of serovars 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 were sequenced by using rapid high-throughput approach. Based on 12 genomes of corresponding serovar reference strains including three publicly available complete genomes (serovars 3, 5b, and 7) of this bacterium, we performed a comprehensive analysis of comparative genomics and first reported a global genomic characterization for this pathogen. Clustering of 26,012 predicted protein-coding genes showed that the pan genome of A. pleuropneumoniae consists of 3,303 gene clusters, which contain 1,709 core genome genes, 822 distributed genes, and 772 strain-specific genes. The genome components involved in the biogenesis of capsular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide O antigen relative to serovar diversity were compared, and their genetic diversity was depicted. Our findings shed more light on genomic features associated with serovar diversity of A. pleuropneumoniae and provide broader insight into both pathogenesis research and clinical/epidemiological application against the severe disease caused by this swine pathogen.
ESTHER : Xu_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_5625
PubMedSearch : Xu_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_5625
PubMedID: 20802045
Gene_locus related to this paper: actp2-a3mzf9 , actp2-a3n347 , actp7-b3h2v1 , actp7-b3h2x2

Title : Expression of lipoprotein lipase associated with lung adenocarcinoma tissues - Lu_2008_Mol.Biol.Rep_35_59
Author(s) : Lu J , Li J , Ji C , Yu W , Xu Z , Huang S
Ref : Mol Biol Rep , 35 :59 , 2008
Abstract : Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a key role in the lipid metabolism and transporting. It can catalyze the hydrolysis of chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride. Moreover, the abnormality of LPL associates with many pathophysiological conditions. Herein cDNA microarray and Northern blots analysis were used to study the expression of lipoprotein lipase in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. There were 113 genes of all tested blots in cDNA microarray expressed lowly. LPL gene is expressed lowly at the average ratio 0.26 (Cy5/Cy3) in lung adenocarcinoma tissues over controls. Northern blots confirmed those changes detected from the cDNA microarray and suggested that low expression of LPL may play an important role in the lung adenocarcinoma development.
ESTHER : Lu_2008_Mol.Biol.Rep_35_59
PubMedSearch : Lu_2008_Mol.Biol.Rep_35_59
PubMedID: 17347923

Title : Molecular basis of prodrug activation by human valacyclovirase, an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase - Lai_2008_J.Biol.Chem_283_9318
Author(s) : Lai L , Xu Z , Zhou J , Lee KD , Amidon GL
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 283 :9318 , 2008
Abstract : Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of alpha-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.
ESTHER : Lai_2008_J.Biol.Chem_283_9318
PubMedSearch : Lai_2008_J.Biol.Chem_283_9318
PubMedID: 18256025
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BPHL

Title : Genome biology of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae JL03, an isolate of serotype 3 prevalent in China - Xu_2008_PLoS.One_3_e1450
Author(s) : Xu Z , Zhou Y , Li L , Zhou R , Xiao S , Wan Y , Zhang S , Wang K , Li W , Jin H , Kang M , Dalai B , Li T , Liu L , Cheng Y , Zhang L , Xu T , Zheng H , Pu S , Wang B , Gu W , Zhang XL , Zhu GF , Wang S , Zhao GP , Chen H
Ref : PLoS ONE , 3 :e1450 , 2008
Abstract : Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a cause of considerable world wide economic losses in the swine industry. We sequenced the complete genome of A. pleuropneumoniae, JL03, an isolate of serotype 3 prevalent in China. Its genome is a single chromosome of 2,242,062 base pairs containing 2,097 predicted protein-coding sequences, six ribosomal rRNA operons, and 63 tRNA genes. Preliminary analysis of the genomic sequence and the functions of the encoded proteins not only confirmed the present physiological and pathological knowledge but also offered new insights into the metabolic and virulence characteristics of this important pathogen. We identified a full spectrum of genes related to its characteristic chemoheterotrophic catabolism of fermentation and respiration with an incomplete TCA system for anabolism. In addition to confirming the lack of ApxI toxin, identification of a nonsense mutation in apxIVA and a 5'-proximal truncation of the flp operon deleting both its promoter and the flp1flp2tadV genes have provided convincing scenarios for the low virulence property of JL03. Comparative genomic analysis using the available sequences of other serotypes, probable strain (serotype)-specific genomic islands related to capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosyntheses were identified in JL03, which provides a foundation for future research into the mechanisms of serotypic diversity of A. pleuropneumoniae.
ESTHER : Xu_2008_PLoS.One_3_e1450
PubMedSearch : Xu_2008_PLoS.One_3_e1450
PubMedID: 18197260
Gene_locus related to this paper: actp2-a3n347 , actp7-b3h2v1 , actp7-b3h2x2 , actpj-b0bpm3 , actpj-b0bqd8 , actpj-b0brq2

Title : Porcine adipose triglyceride lipase complementary deoxyribonucleic acid clone, expression pattern, and regulation by resveratrol - Shan_2008_J.Anim.Sci_86_1781
Author(s) : Shan T , Wang Y , Wu T , Guo J , Liu J , Feng J , Xu Z
Ref : J Anim Sci , 86 :1781 , 2008
Abstract : Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was recently identified and described as a major novel triglyceride lipase in animals. In this study, we aimed to study the tissue-specific and developmental expression pattern of porcine ATGL (pATGL) and the effect of resveratrol (RES) on expression of pATGL in vitro. The full-length cDNA sequence of pATGL was 1,958 bp (accession no. EF583921), with a 1,458-bp open reading frame encoding a 486-AA protein (the predicted molecular mass of 53.2 kDa, accession no. ABS58651). Comparison of the deduced AA sequence with the bovine, mouse, rat, dog, and human adipose triglyceride lipase showed 87, 84, 83, 81, and 80% similarity, respectively. Furthermore, the pATGL was highly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, to a lesser degree in kidney, heart, and muscle, and least but detectable in brain. In s.c. adipose tissue, pATGL mRNA was low at birth (1 kg of BW) and then increased, reaching a maximal value at 20 kg of BW (approximately 8 wk old; P < 0.01). In peritoneal and omental adipose tissue, the greatest expression of pATGL was observed at 40 kg of BW (approximately 12 wk old). In vitro, exposure of cultured adipocytes to 40 and 80 muM RES for 24 h increased the mRNA levels of pATGL by 95.3% (P < 0.05) and 146.8% (P < 0.01), respectively. Accordingly, lipid accumulation was decreased by 25.7% (P < 0.05) and 60.8% (P < 0.01), respectively. When treated with RES for 48 h, the mRNA levels of pATGL were increased by 104.1% (P < 0.05) and 163.1% (P < 0.01), respectively. As expected, lipid accumulation was decreased by 9.7% (P > 0.05) and 29.0% (P < 0.05), respectively. These results add to our understanding of the role of pATGL in adipose tissue development and as a potential target for regulating fat deposition and meat quality.
ESTHER : Shan_2008_J.Anim.Sci_86_1781
PubMedSearch : Shan_2008_J.Anim.Sci_86_1781
PubMedID: 18407985

Title : Monitoring enzyme reaction and screening of inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase by quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption\/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry - Xu_2008_J.Am.Soc.Mass.Spectrom_19_1849
Author(s) : Xu Z , Yao S , Wei Y , Zhou J , Zhang L , Wang C , Guo Y
Ref : J Am Soc Mass Spectrom , 19 :1849 , 2008
Abstract : A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS)-based assay was developed for kinetic measurements and inhibitor screening of acetylcholinesterase. Here, FTMS coupled to MALDI was applied to quantitative analysis of choline using the ratio of choline/acetylcholine without the use of additional internal standard, which simplified the experiment. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was determined to be 73.9 micromol L(-1) by this approach. For Huperzine A, the linear mixed inhibition of AChE reflected the presence of competitive and noncompetitive components. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of galantamine obtained for AChE was 2.39 micromol L(-1). Inhibitory potentials of Rhizoma Coptidis extracts were identified with the present method. In light of the results the referred extracts as a whole showed inhibitory action against AChE. The use of high-resolution FTMS largely eliminated the interference with the determination of ACh and Ch, produced by the low-mass compounds of chemical libraries for inhibitor screening. The excellent correlation with the reported kinetic parameters confirms that the MS-based assay is both accurate and precise for determining kinetic constants and for identifying enzyme inhibitors. The obvious advantages were demonstrated for quantitative analysis and also high-throughput characterization. This study offers a perspective into the utility of MALDI-FTMS as an alternate quantitative tool for inhibitor screening of AChE.
ESTHER : Xu_2008_J.Am.Soc.Mass.Spectrom_19_1849
PubMedSearch : Xu_2008_J.Am.Soc.Mass.Spectrom_19_1849
PubMedID: 18789720

Title : Fine mapping of the Pc locus of Sorghum bicolor, a gene controlling the reaction to a fungal pathogen and its host-selective toxin - Nagy_2007_Theor.Appl.Genet_114_961
Author(s) : Nagy ED , Lee TC , Ramakrishna W , Xu Z , Klein PE , SanMiguel P , Cheng CP , Li J , Devos KM , Schertz K , Dunkle L , Bennetzen JL
Ref : Theor Appl Genet , 114 :961 , 2007
Abstract : Milo disease in sorghum is caused by isolates of the soil-borne fungus Periconia circinata that produce PC-toxin. Susceptibility to milo disease is conditioned by a single, semi-dominant gene, termed Pc. The susceptible allele (Pc) converts to a resistant form (pc) spontaneously at a gametic frequency of 10(-3) to 10(-4). A high-density genetic map was constructed around the Pc locus using DNA markers, allowing the Pc gene to be delimited to a 0.9 cM region on the short arm of sorghum chromosome 9. Physically, the Pc-region was covered by a single BAC clone. Sequence analysis of this BAC revealed twelve gene candidates. Several of the predicted genes in the region are homologous to disease resistance loci, including one NBS-LRR resistance gene analogue that is present in multiple tandem copies. Analysis of pc isolines derived from Pc/Pc sorghum suggests that one or more members of this NBS-LRR gene family are the Pc genes that condition susceptibility.
ESTHER : Nagy_2007_Theor.Appl.Genet_114_961
PubMedSearch : Nagy_2007_Theor.Appl.Genet_114_961
PubMedID: 17356869
Gene_locus related to this paper: sorbi-b3vtb2

Title : Phytophthora genome sequences uncover evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis - Tyler_2006_Science_313_1261
Author(s) : Tyler BM , Tripathy S , Zhang X , Dehal P , Jiang RH , Aerts A , Arredondo FD , Baxter L , Bensasson D , Beynon JL , Chapman J , Damasceno CM , Dorrance AE , Dou D , Dickerman AW , Dubchak IL , Garbelotto M , Gijzen M , Gordon SG , Govers F , Grunwald NJ , Huang W , Ivors KL , Jones RW , Kamoun S , Krampis K , Lamour KH , Lee MK , McDonald WH , Medina M , Meijer HJ , Nordberg EK , Maclean DJ , Ospina-Giraldo MD , Morris PF , Phuntumart V , Putnam NH , Rash S , Rose JK , Sakihama Y , Salamov AA , Savidor A , Scheuring CF , Smith BM , Sobral BW , Terry A , Torto-Alalibo TA , Win J , Xu Z , Zhang H , Grigoriev IV , Rokhsar DS , Boore JL
Ref : Science , 313 :1261 , 2006
Abstract : Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oomycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oomycete avirulence genes.
ESTHER : Tyler_2006_Science_313_1261
PubMedSearch : Tyler_2006_Science_313_1261
PubMedID: 16946064
Gene_locus related to this paper: phyrm-h3ga89 , phyrm-h3gbl6.1 , phyrm-h3gbl6.2 , phyrm-h3gbl7 , phyrm-h3gdd4 , phyrm-h3gl36 , phyrm-h3gq42 , phyrm-h3gx86 , phyrm-h3gyi2 , phyrm-h3gyi3 , phyrm-h3gyi4 , phyrm-h3h292 , phyrm-h3h293 , phyrm-h3h967 , phyrm-h3hcf9 , physp-g4ynp3 , physp-g4yut6 , physp-g4yut8 , physp-g4yw23 , physp-g4zis3 , physp-g4zqe3 , physp-g4zqe4 , physp-g4zqf0 , physp-g4zqn9 , physp-g4zwy9 , physp-g5a582 , physp-g5a583 , physp-g5aav9 , phyrm-h3g9e7 , physp-g4zwu9 , phyrm-h3ggp1 , physp-g4ztq5 , physp-g4zwu8 , physp-g4zwv7 , physp-g4zwv6 , physp-g4zwv0 , physp-g4zwv8 , phyrm-h3gp95 , phyrm-h3g6r5 , physp-g4zwv9 , physp-g5a510 , phyrm-h3glu3 , physp-g5aci1 , phyrm-h3h2d0 , physp-g4ztb2 , physp-g4yg47 , phyrm-h3h2c9 , physp-g4ztb3 , phyrm-h3gvj3 , phyrm-h3gy62 , physp-g4yg46 , physp-g4zdt9 , phyrm-h3gdh5 , physp-g4zm41 , physp-g5abj7 , phyrm-h3gz76 , physp-g5a425 , phyrm-h3h080 , physp-g4ytv0 , phyrm-h3gcw7

Title : Insulin promotes shedding of syndecan ectodomains from 3T3-L1 adipocytes: a proposed mechanism for stabilization of extracellular lipoprotein lipase - Reizes_2006_Biochemistry_45_5703
Author(s) : Reizes O , Goldberger O , Smith AC , Xu Z , Bernfield M , Bickel PE
Ref : Biochemistry , 45 :5703 , 2006
Abstract : Syndecans are a family of four transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans that act as coreceptors for a variety of cell-surface ligands and receptors. Receptor activation in several cell types leads to shedding of syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 ectodomains into the extracellular space by metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage of the syndecan core protein. We have found that 3T3-L1 adipocytes express syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 and that their ectodomains are shed in response to insulin in a dose-, time-, and metalloproteinase-dependent manner. Insulin responsive shedding is not seen in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. This shedding involves both Ras-MAP kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. In response to insulin, adipocytes are known to secrete active lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that binds to heparan sulfate on the luminal surface of capillary endothelia. Lipoprotein lipase is transported as a stable enzyme from its site of synthesis to its site of action, but the transport mechanism is unknown. Our studies indicate that shed adipocyte syndecans associate with lipoprotein lipase. The shed syndecan ectodomain can stabilize active lipoprotein lipase. These data suggest that syndecan ectodomains, shed by adipocytes in response to insulin, are physiological extracellular chaperones for lipoprotein lipase as it translocates from its site of synthesis to its site of action.
ESTHER : Reizes_2006_Biochemistry_45_5703
PubMedSearch : Reizes_2006_Biochemistry_45_5703
PubMedID: 16669614

Title : The Genomes of Oryza sativa: a history of duplications - Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
Author(s) : Yu J , Wang J , Lin W , Li S , Li H , Zhou J , Ni P , Dong W , Hu S , Zeng C , Zhang J , Zhang Y , Li R , Xu Z , Li X , Zheng H , Cong L , Lin L , Yin J , Geng J , Li G , Shi J , Liu J , Lv H , Li J , Deng Y , Ran L , Shi X , Wang X , Wu Q , Li C , Ren X , Li D , Liu D , Zhang X , Ji Z , Zhao W , Sun Y , Zhang Z , Bao J , Han Y , Dong L , Ji J , Chen P , Wu S , Xiao Y , Bu D , Tan J , Yang L , Ye C , Xu J , Zhou Y , Yu Y , Zhang B , Zhuang S , Wei H , Liu B , Lei M , Yu H , Li Y , Xu H , Wei S , He X , Fang L , Huang X , Su Z , Tong W , Tong Z , Ye J , Wang L , Lei T , Chen C , Chen H , Huang H , Zhang F , Li N , Zhao C , Huang Y , Li L , Xi Y , Qi Q , Li W , Hu W , Tian X , Jiao Y , Liang X , Jin J , Gao L , Zheng W , Hao B , Liu S , Wang W , Yuan L , Cao M , McDermott J , Samudrala R , Wong GK , Yang H
Ref : PLoS Biol , 3 :e38 , 2005
Abstract : We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000-40,000. Only 2%-3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
ESTHER : Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
PubMedSearch : Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
PubMedID: 15685292
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysa-Q7XTC5 , orysa-Q852M6 , orysa-Q8GSE8 , orysa-Q9S7P1 , orysa-Q9FYP7 , orysa-Q5ZBH3 , orysa-Q5ZA26 , orysa-Q5JLP6 , orysa-Q8H5P9 , orysa-Q8H5P5 , orysa-Q7F1Y5 , orysa-Q949C9 , orysa-cbp1 , orysa-cbp3 , orysa-cbpx , orysa-Q33B71 , orysa-Q8GSJ3 , orysa-LPL1 , orysa-Q6YSZ8 , orysa-Q8S5X5 , orysa-Q8LIG3 , orysa-Q6K7F5 , orysa-Q7F1B1 , orysa-Q8H4S9 , orysa-Q69UB1 , orysa-Q9FW17 , orysa-Q337C3 , orysa-Q7F959 , orysa-Q84QZ6 , orysa-Q84QY7 , orysa-Q851E3 , orysa-Q6YTH5 , orysa-Q0JK71 , orysa-Q8S1D9 , orysa-Q5N8V4 , orysa-Q0JCY4 , orysa-Q8GTK2 , orysa-B9EWJ8 , orysa-Q8H3K6 , orysa-Q6ZDG8 , orysa-Q6ZDG6 , orysa-Q6ZDG5 , orysa-Q6ZDG4 , orysa-Q5NAI4 , orysa-Q658B2 , orysa-Q5JMQ8 , orysa-Q5QMD9 , orysa-Q5N7L1 , orysa-Q8RYV9 , orysa-Q8H3R3 , orysa-Q5SNH3 , orysa-Q8W0F0 , orysa-pir7a , orysa-pir7b , orysa-q2qlm4 , orysa-q2qm78 , orysa-q2qm82 , orysa-q2qn31 , orysa-q2qnj4 , orysa-q2qnt9 , orysa-q2qur1 , orysa-q2qx94 , orysa-q2qyi1 , orysa-q2qyj1 , orysa-q2r051 , orysa-q2r077 , orysa-q2ram0 , orysa-q2rat1 , orysa-q2rbb3 , orysa-Q4VWY7 , orysa-q5na00 , orysa-q5nbu1 , orysa-Q5QLC0 , orysa-q5smv5 , orysa-Q5VP27 , orysa-q5vrt2 , orysa-q5w6c5 , orysa-q5z5a3 , orysa-q5z9i2 , orysa-q5z417 , orysa-q5z901 , orysa-Q5ZAM8 , orysa-Q5ZBI5 , orysa-Q5ZCR3 , orysa-q6atz0 , orysa-q6ave2 , orysa-q6f358 , orysa-q6h6s1 , orysa-q6h7i6 , orysa-q6i5q3 , orysa-q6i5u7 , orysa-q6j657 , orysa-q6k3d9 , orysa-q6k4q2 , orysa-q6k880 , orysa-q6l5b6 , orysa-Q6L5F5 , orysa-q6l556 , orysj-q6yse8 , orysa-q6yy42 , orysa-q6yzk1 , orysa-q6z8b1 , orysa-q6z995 , orysa-q6zc62 , orysa-q6zia4 , orysa-q6zjq6 , orysa-q7x7y5 , orysa-Q7XC50 , orysa-q7xej4 , orysa-q7xem8 , orysa-q7xkj9 , orysa-q7xr62 , orysa-q7xr63 , orysa-q7xr64 , orysa-q7xsg1 , orysa-q7xsq2 , orysa-q7xts6 , orysa-q7xv53 , orysa-Q7XVB5 , orysa-Q8L562 , orysa-Q8LQS5 , orysa-Q8RZ40 , orysa-Q8RZ79 , orysa-Q8S0U8 , orysa-Q8S0V0 , orysa-Q8S125 , orysa-Q8SAY7 , orysa-Q8SAY9 , orysa-Q8W3C6 , orysa-Q8W3F2 , orysa-Q8W3F4 , orysa-Q8W3F6 , orysa-Q9LHX5 , orysa-q33aq0 , orysa-q53lh1 , orysa-q53m20 , orysa-q53nd8 , orysa-q60e79 , orysa-q60ew8 , orysa-q67iz2 , orysa-q67iz3 , orysa-q67iz7 , orysa-q67iz8 , orysa-q67j02 , orysa-q67j05 , orysa-q67j07 , orysa-q67j09 , orysa-q67j10 , orysa-q67tr6 , orysa-q67tv0 , orysa-q67uz1 , orysa-q67v34 , orysa-q67wz5 , orysa-q69j38 , orysa-q69k08 , orysa-q69md7 , orysa-q69me0 , orysa-q69pf3 , orysa-q69ti3 , orysa-q69xr2 , orysa-q69y12 , orysa-q69y21 , orysa-q75hy2 , orysa-q75i01 , orysa-Q94JD7 , orysa-Q0J0A4 , orysa-q651a8 , orysa-q651z3 , orysa-q652g4 , orysa-q688m0 , orysa-q688m8 , orysa-q688m9 , orysa-Q6H8G1 , orysi-a2wn01 , orysi-a2xc83 , orysi-a2yh83 , orysi-a2z179 , orysi-a2zef2 , orysi-b8a7e6 , orysi-b8a7e7 , orysi-b8bfe5 , orysi-b8bhp9 , orysj-a3b9l8 , orysj-b9eub8 , orysj-b9eya5 , orysj-b9fi05 , orysj-b9fkb0 , orysj-b9fn42 , orysj-b9gbb7 , orysj-cgep , orysj-PLA7 , orysj-q0d4u5 , orysj-q0djj0 , orysj-q0jaf0 , orysj-q5jl22 , orysj-q5jlw7 , orysj-q5z419 , orysj-q6h7q9 , orysj-q6yvk6 , orysj-q6z6i1 , orysj-q7f8x1 , orysj-q7xcx3 , orysj-q9fwm6 , orysj-q10j20 , orysj-q10ss2 , orysj-q69uw6 , orysj-q94d71 , orysj-q338c0 , orysi-b8bly4 , orysj-b9gbs4 , orysi-a2zb88 , orysj-b9gbs1 , orysi-b8b698 , orysj-pla4 , orysj-pla1

Title : Single-wall carbon nanotube-based voltammetric sensor and biosensor - Xu_2004_Biosens.Bioelectron_20_579
Author(s) : Xu Z , Chen X , Qu X , Jia J , Dong S
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 20 :579 , 2004
Abstract : The pH-sensitive property of the single-wall carbon nanotube modified electrode based on the electroactive group on the single-wall carbon nanotube was explored by differential pulse voltammetry technique. In pH range 1-13 investigated in Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer, the anodic peak shifted negatively along with the increase of pH exhibiting a reversible Nernstian response. Experiments were carried out to investigate the response of the single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) modified electrode to analytes associated with pH change. The response behavior of the modified electrode to ammonia was studied as an example. The potential response could reach equilibrium within 5 min. The modified electrode had good operational stability. Voltammetric urease and acetylcholinesterase biosensors were constructed by immobilizing the enzymes with sol-gel hybrid material. The maximum potential shift could reach 0.130 and 0.220 V for urea and acetylthiocholine, respectively. The methods for preparing sensor and biosensor were simple and reproducible and the range of analytes could be extended to substrates of other hydrolyases and esterases. This broadened the biosensor application of carbon nanotube in electrochemical area.
ESTHER : Xu_2004_Biosens.Bioelectron_20_579
PubMedSearch : Xu_2004_Biosens.Bioelectron_20_579
PubMedID: 15494242

Title : A complete sequence of the T. tengcongensis genome - Bao_2002_Genome.Res_12_689
Author(s) : Bao Q , Tian Y , Li W , Xu Z , Xuan Z , Hu S , Dong W , Yang J , Chen Y , Xue Y , Xu Y , Lai X , Huang L , Dong X , Ma Y , Ling L , Tan H , Chen R , Wang J , Yu J , Yang H
Ref : Genome Res , 12 :689 , 2002
Abstract : Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, anaerobic eubacterium that was isolated from a freshwater hot spring in Tengchong, China. Using a whole-genome-shotgun method, we sequenced its 2,689,445-bp genome from an isolate, MB4(T) (Genbank accession no. AE008691). The genome encodes 2588 predicted coding sequences (CDS). Among them, 1764 (68.2%) are classified according to homology to other documented proteins, and the rest, 824 CDS (31.8%), are functionally unknown. One of the interesting features of the T. tengcongensis genome is that 86.7% of its genes are encoded on the leading strand of DNA replication. Based on protein sequence similarity, the T. tengcongensis genome is most similar to that of Bacillus halodurans, a mesophilic eubacterium, among all fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes up to date. Computational analysis on genes involved in basic metabolic pathways supports the experimental discovery that T. tengcongensis metabolizes sugars as principal energy and carbon source and utilizes thiosulfate and element sulfur, but not sulfate, as electron acceptors. T. tengcongensis, as a gram-negative rod by empirical definitions (such as staining), shares many genes that are characteristics of gram-positive bacteria whereas it is missing molecular components unique to gram-negative bacteria. A strong correlation between the G + C content of tDNA and rDNA genes and the optimal growth temperature is found among the sequenced thermophiles. It is concluded that thermophiles are a biologically and phylogenetically divergent group of prokaryotes that have converged to sustain extreme environmental conditions over evolutionary timescale.
ESTHER : Bao_2002_Genome.Res_12_689
PubMedSearch : Bao_2002_Genome.Res_12_689
PubMedID: 11997336
Gene_locus related to this paper: thete-DAP2 , thete-LIPA , thete-LIPA3 , thete-MHPC , thete-MHPC2 , thete-MHPC3 , thete-MHPC4 , thete-PLDB , thete-TTE1809 , thetn-DAP2.2

Title : Functional relationship between subfornical organ cholinergic stimulation and cellular activation in the hypothalamus and AV3V region - Xu_2001_Brain.Res_922_191
Author(s) : Xu Z , Pekarek E , Ge J , Yao J
Ref : Brain Research , 922 :191 , 2001
Abstract : The subfornical organ (SFO) has been suggested to be important for water intake and secretion of vasopressin (AVP). However, the role of the SFO cholinergic mechanism in the control of body fluid regulation is not clear. This study determined the effects of local cholinergic stimulation in the SFO produced by administration of physostigmine on drinking and cellular excitation in the anterior third ventricle (AV3V) region and in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN). The results showed that injection of physostigmine into the SFO induced water intake and c-fos expression in the AV3V area as well as in the AVP containing neurons in the hypothalamus. Pretreatment of the SFO with mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist, had no effect on physostigmine induced behavioral and c-fos responses. The muscarinic receptor blocker atropine, however, abolished both drinking and cellular activation after injection of physostigmine into the SFO. Immunostaining experiments demonstrated positive acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the SFO. Intensive ChAT immunoreactivity was located in the cholinergic fibers in the SFO. Together, the results indicate that SFO cholinergic mechanisms are important in co-operation with the AV3V and hypothalamic neurons in the control of thirst and AVP-mediated body fluid homeostasis.
ESTHER : Xu_2001_Brain.Res_922_191
PubMedSearch : Xu_2001_Brain.Res_922_191
PubMedID: 11743949

Title : [Construction and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding secreted form of Ag85B protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis] - Fan_2001_Zhonghua.Jie.He.He.Hu.Xi.Za.Zhi_24_548
Author(s) : Fan X , Xu Z , Li Y
Ref : Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi , 24 :548 , 2001
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To construct the recombinant eukaryotic plasmid DNA expression vector encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B (Ag85B) and to investigate its immunogenicity.
METHODS: The gene encoding secreted form of Ag85B was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra strain, and was inserted into sites cut with Hind III plus EcoR I of eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3 after restriction endonuclease digestion. The gene fragment encoding secreted form of Ag85B was inserted into the vector of E. coli JM109 strain and was confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion. After 4 weeks since BALB/c mice were vaccinated by recombinant eukaryotic expressing vector, dot blotting and ELISA were used to detect the serum antibody against Ag85B and its titer.
RESULTS: Recombinant eukaryotic expressing vector, namely pTB30s, constructed successfully based on the gene encoding secreted form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B; pTB30s induced high titer specific antibody against Ag85B in immunized mice. CONCLUSION: pTB30s as DNA vaccine should be further studied to confirm its stimulating role in cell-mediated immune responses in TB prevention.
ESTHER : Fan_2001_Zhonghua.Jie.He.He.Hu.Xi.Za.Zhi_24_548
PubMedSearch : Fan_2001_Zhonghua.Jie.He.He.Hu.Xi.Za.Zhi_24_548
PubMedID: 11758171

Title : Effect of intracerebral injection of monoclonal acetylcholinesterase antibodies on cholinergic nerve terminals in the rat central nervous system - Bean_1991_Neurosci.Lett_133_145
Author(s) : Bean AJ , Xu Z , Chai SY , Brimijoin S , Hokfelt T
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 133 :145 , 1991
Abstract : In the rat, unilateral intrastriatal injection of monoclonal antibodies to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) produced ipsilateral disappearance of AChE-positive nerve terminals within striatum and adjacent cortex. No alterations in striatal staining patterns were observed for tyrosine hydroxylase, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, substance P, or neurotensin. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated the presence of degenerating AChE-positive boutons ipsilaterally, while tyrosine hydroxylase positive terminals seemed unaffected. Apomorphine administration to rats which had received unilateral antibody injection resulted in ipsilateral rotational behavior. These data suggest that selective effects on cholinergic terminals with functional deficits can be produced within the central nervous system by intracerebral injection of AChE antibodies.
ESTHER : Bean_1991_Neurosci.Lett_133_145
PubMedSearch : Bean_1991_Neurosci.Lett_133_145
PubMedID: 1686480