Kolleritsch S

References (4)

Title : Carboxylesterase 2a deletion provokes hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice involving impaired diacylglycerol and lysophosphatidylcholine catabolism - Chalhoub_2023_Mol.Metab__101725
Author(s) : Chalhoub G , Jamnik A , Pajed L , Kolleritsch S , Hois V , Bagaric A , Prem D , Tilp A , Kolb D , Wolinski H , Taschler U , Zullig T , Rechberger GN , Fuchs C , Trauner M , Schoiswohl G , Haemmerle G
Ref : Mol Metab , :101725 , 2023
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation and insulin resistance are key features of NAFLD. However, NAFLD development and progression are rather triggered by the aberrant generation of lipid metabolites and signaling molecules including diacylglycerol (DAG) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC). Recent studies showed decreased expression of carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) in the liver of NASH patients and hepatic DAG accumulation was linked to low CES2 activity in obese individuals. The mouse genome encodes several Ces2 genes with Ces2a showing highest expression in the liver. Herein we investigated the role of mouse Ces2a and human CES2 in lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Lipid metabolism and insulin signaling were investigated in mice lacking Ces2a and in a human liver cell line upon pharmacological CES2 inhibition. Lipid hydrolytic activities were determined in vivo and from recombinant proteins. RESULTS: Ces2a deficient mice (Ces2a-ko) are obese and feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) provokes severe hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance together with elevated inflammatory and fibrotic gene expression. Lipidomic analysis revealed a marked rise in DAG and lysoPC levels in the liver of Ces2a-ko mice fed HFD. Hepatic lipid accumulation in Ces2a deficiency is linked to lower DAG and lysoPC hydrolytic activities in liver microsomal preparations. Moreover, Ces2a deficiency significantly increases hepatic expression and activity of MGAT1, a PPAR gamma target gene, suggesting aberrant lipid signaling upon Ces2a deficiency. Mechanistically, we found that recombinant Ces2a and CES2 show significant hydrolytic activity towards lysoPC (and DAG) and pharmacological inhibition of CES2 in human HepG2 cells largely phenocopies the lipid metabolic changes present in Ces2a-ko mice including reduced lysoPC and DAG hydrolysis, DAG accumulation and impaired insulin signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Ces2a and CES2 are critical players in hepatic lipid signaling likely via the hydrolysis of DAG and lysoPC at the ER.
ESTHER : Chalhoub_2023_Mol.Metab__101725
PubMedSearch : Chalhoub_2023_Mol.Metab__101725
PubMedID: 37059417
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-Ces2a

Title : Carboxylesterase 2 proteins are efficient diglyceride and monoglyceride lipases possibly implicated in metabolic disease - Chalhoub_2021_J.Lipid.Res__100075
Author(s) : Chalhoub G , Kolleritsch S , Maresch LK , Taschler U , Pajed L , Tilp A , Natmessnig H , Rosina P , Kien B , Radner FPW , Schicho R , Oberer M , Schoiswohl G , Haemmerle G
Ref : J Lipid Res , :100075 , 2021
Abstract : Carboxylesterase 2 (CES2/Ces2) proteins exert established roles in (pro)drug metabolism. Recently, human and murine CES2/Ces2c have been discovered as triglyceride (TG) hydrolases implicated in the development of obesity and fatty liver disease. The murine Ces2 family consists of seven homologous genes as opposed to a single CES2 gene in humans. However, the mechanistic role of Ces2 protein family members is not completely understood. In this study, we examined activities of all Ces2 members towards TGs, diglycerides (DGs) and monoglycerides (MGs) as substrate. Besides CES2/Ces2c, we measured significant TG hydrolytic activities for Ces2a, Ces2b, and Ces2e. Notably, these Ces2 members and CES2 efficiently hydrolyzed DGs and MGs and their activities even surpassed those measured for TG hydrolysis. The localization of CES2/Ces2c proteins at the ER may implicate a role of these lipases in lipid signaling pathways. We found divergent expression of Ces2 genes in the liver and intestine of mice on high fat diet, which could relate to changes in lipid signaling. Finally, we demonstrate reduced CES2 expression in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a similar decline in Ces2 expression in the colon of a murine colitis model. Together, these results demonstrate that CES2/Ces2 members are highly efficient DG and MG hydrolases that may play an important role in liver and gut lipid signaling.
ESTHER : Chalhoub_2021_J.Lipid.Res__100075
PubMedSearch : Chalhoub_2021_J.Lipid.Res__100075
PubMedID: 33872605
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES2 , mouse-Ces2a , mouse-Ces2b , mouse-Ces2c

Title : Hepatocyte-specific deletion of lysosomal acid lipase leads to cholesteryl ester but not triglyceride or retinyl ester accumulation - Pajed_2019_J.Biol.Chem_294_9118
Author(s) : Pajed L , Wagner C , Taschler U , Schreiber R , Kolleritsch S , Fawzy N , Pototschnig I , Schoiswohl G , Pusch LM , Wieser BI , Vesely P , Hoefler G , Eichmann TO , Zimmermann R , Lass A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 294 :9118 , 2019
Abstract : Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) hydrolyzes cholesteryl ester (CE) and retinyl ester (RE) and triglyceride (TG). Mice globally lacking LAL accumulate CE most prominently in the liver. The severity of the CE accumulation phenotype progresses with age and is accompanied by hepatomegaly and hepatic cholesterol crystal deposition. In contrast, hepatic TG accumulation is much less pronounced in these mice, and hepatic RE levels are even decreased. To dissect the functional role of LAL for neutral lipid ester mobilization in the liver, we generated mice specifically lacking LAL in hepatocytes (hep-LAL-ko). On a standard chow diet, hep-LAL-ko mice exhibited increased hepatic CE accumulation but unaltered TG and RE levels. Feeding the hep-LAL-ko mice a vitamin A excess/high-fat diet (VitA/HFD) further increased hepatic cholesterol levels, but hepatic TG and RE levels in these mice were lower than in control mice. Performing in vitro activity assays with lysosome-enriched fractions from livers of mice globally lacking LAL, we detected residual acid hydrolytic activities against TG and RE. Interestingly, this non-LAL acid TG hydrolytic activity was elevated in lysosome-enriched fractions from livers of hep-LAL-ko mice upon VitA/HFD feeding. In conclusion, the neutral lipid ester phenotype in livers from hep-LAL-ko mice indicates that LAL is limiting for CE turnover, but not for TG and RE turnovers. Furthermore, in vitro hydrolase activity assays revealed the existence of non-LAL acid hydrolytic activities for TG and RE. The corresponding acid lipase(s) catalyzing these reactions remains to be identified.
ESTHER : Pajed_2019_J.Biol.Chem_294_9118
PubMedSearch : Pajed_2019_J.Biol.Chem_294_9118
PubMedID: 31023823

Title : Intestine-Specific Overexpression of Carboxylesterase 2c Protects Mice From Diet-Induced Liver Steatosis and Obesity - Maresch_2019_Hepatol.Commun_3_227
Author(s) : Maresch LK , Benedikt P , Feiler U , Eder S , Zierler KA , Taschler U , Kolleritsch S , Eichmann TO , Schoiswohl G , Leopold C , Wieser BI , Lackner C , Rulicke T , van Klinken J , Kratky D , Moustafa T , Hoefler G , Haemmerle G
Ref : Hepatol Commun , 3 :227 , 2019
Abstract : Murine hepatic carboxylesterase 2c (Ces2c) and the presumed human ortholog carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) have been implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice and obese humans. These studies demonstrated that Ces2c hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. Interestingly, Ces2c/CES2 is most abundantly expressed in the intestine, indicating a role of Ces2c/CES2 in intestinal TG metabolism. Here we show that Ces2c is an important enzyme in intestinal lipid metabolism in mice. Intestine-specific Ces2c overexpression (Ces2c(int)) provoked increased fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the small intestine accompanied by enhanced chylomicron clearance from the circulation. As a consequence, high-fat diet-fed Ces2c(int) mice were resistant to excessive diet-induced weight gain and adipose tissue expansion. Notably, intestinal Ces2c overexpression increased hepatic insulin sensitivity and protected mice from NAFLD development. Although lipid absorption was not affected in Ces2c(int) mice, fecal energy content was significantly increased. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Ces2c is a potent neutral lipase, which efficiently hydrolyzes TGs and diglycerides (DGs) in the small intestine, thereby generating fatty acids (FAs) for FAO and monoglycerides (MGs) and DGs for potential re-esterification. Consequently, the increased availability of MGs and DGs for re-esterification and primordial apolipoprotein B48 particle lipidation may increase chylomicron size, ultimately mediating more efficient chylomicron clearance from the circulation. Conclusion: This study suggests a critical role for Ces2c in intestinal lipid metabolism and highlights the importance of intestinal lipolysis to protect mice from the development of hepatic insulin resistance, NAFLD, and excessive diet-induced weight gain during metabolic stress.
ESTHER : Maresch_2019_Hepatol.Commun_3_227
PubMedSearch : Maresch_2019_Hepatol.Commun_3_227
PubMedID: 30766961
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-Ces2c