Shahar A

References (7)

Title : Bridges to Stability: Engineering Disulfide Bonds Towards Enhanced Lipase Biodiesel Synthesis - Gihaz_2020_ChemCatChem_12_181
Author(s) : Gihaz S , Bash Y , Rush I , Shahar A , Pazy Y , Fishman A
Ref : ChemCatChem , 12 :181 , 2020
Abstract : Computational design of disulfide bonds was performed for lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 (LipT6) for enhanced methanol stability and improved biodiesel production. Thirteen double mutants comprising new cysteine pairs were screened and evaluated for their stability in 70% methanol. Superior stability was found with variant E251C/ G332C (M13) having a 5.5-fold higher hydrolysis activity and enhanced unfolding temperature (Tm) of +7.9 C in methanol compared with wild-type. Moreover, M13 converted nearly 80% waste chicken oil to biodiesel, representing a 2.4-fold improvement relative to the WT. Structural studies using X-ray crystallography confirmed the existence of the engineered disulfide bonds shedding light on the link between the bond location and backbone architecture with its stabilization impact. Rational integration of disulfide bonds is suggested to be a feasible method to promote elevated stability in organic solvents for various industrial applications such as biodiesel synthesis
ESTHER : Gihaz_2020_ChemCatChem_12_181
PubMedSearch : Gihaz_2020_ChemCatChem_12_181
Gene_locus related to this paper: geose-q93a71

Title : Structural insights into methanol-stable variants of lipase T6 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus - Dror_2015_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_99_9449
Author(s) : Dror A , Kanteev M , Kagan I , Gihaz S , Shahar A , Fishman A
Ref : Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology , 99 :9449 , 2015
Abstract : Enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohol, catalyzed by lipases, offers an environmentally friendly and efficient alternative to the chemically catalyzed process while using low-grade feedstocks. Methanol is utilized frequently as the alcohol in the reaction due to its reactivity and low cost. However, one of the major drawbacks of the enzymatic system is the presence of high methanol concentrations which leads to methanol-induced unfolding and inactivation of the biocatalyst. Therefore, a methanol-stable lipase is of great interest for the biodiesel industry. In this study, protein engineering was applied to substitute charged surface residues with hydrophobic ones to enhance the stability in methanol of a lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. We identified a methanol-stable variant, R374W, and combined it with a variant found previously, H86Y/A269T. The triple mutant, H86Y/A269T/R374W, had a half-life value at 70 % methanol of 324 min which reflects an 87-fold enhanced stability compared to the wild type together with elevated thermostability in buffer and in 50 % methanol. This variant also exhibited an improved biodiesel yield from waste chicken oil compared to commercial Lipolase 100L(R) and Novozyme(R) CALB. Crystal structures of the wild type and the methanol-stable variants provided insights regarding structure-stability correlations. The most prominent features were the extensive formation of new hydrogen bonds between surface residues directly or mediated by structural water molecules and the stabilization of Zn and Ca binding sites. Mutation sites were also characterized by lower B-factor values calculated from the X-ray structures indicating improved rigidity.
ESTHER : Dror_2015_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_99_9449
PubMedSearch : Dror_2015_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_99_9449
PubMedID: 26026940
Gene_locus related to this paper: geose-q93a71

Title : Differentiation of myoblasts and CNS cells grown either separately or as co-cultures on microcarriers - Shahar_1992_Cytotech_9_107
Author(s) : Shahar A , Reuveny S , Zhang M , Espinosa de los Monteros A , de Vellis J , Shainberg A
Ref : Cytotechnology , 9 :107 , 1992
Abstract : Dispersed neuronal and muscular elements from fetal or neonatal origin, can organize and mature in culture when grown on positively charged cylindrical microcarriers (MCS), to a stage which simulate in vivo maturation. Cells arrange themselves on the MCS to form aggregates which remain floating in the nutrient medium. In such a tridimensional organization, the neuronal tissue is capable of regenerating a network of nerve fibers which establish synapse interconnections and undergo myelination. Oligodendrocytes organize on MCS in a tridimensional pattern and produce extensive myelin-like membranes. Myoblasts in MC-cultures fuse into polynucleated myotubes which become striated and contract spontaneously. Creatine kinase and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) are formed during myogenesis in similar quantities in MC-cultures and in monolayers. When both neuronal and muscle tissues are prepared from the same fetus (autologous nerve-muscle co-cultures) and are cultured on MCS, they interconnect to form neuro-muscular junctions. Cells from both tissues, exhibit better differentiation, for longer periods in MC-cultures than they do in monolayers. The floating functional entities are easy to sample and can be harvested for ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and biochemical analysis. In addition, MC-cultures can be used as a good tool for the study of acute and chronic exposures to toxicological agents, as well as for implantation into demyelinated, injured or dystrophic tissues. In this case the MCS in the implanted entities will serve as identifiable markers.
ESTHER : Shahar_1992_Cytotech_9_107
PubMedSearch : Shahar_1992_Cytotech_9_107
PubMedID: 1369162

Title : Autologous neuronal and muscle co-cultures: a model for neurotoxicology -
Author(s) : Shahar A , Bidder M , David Y , Amir A , Shainberg A
Ref : Prog Clin Biol Res , 253 :45 , 1987
PubMedID: 3432296

Title : Differentiation of myoblasts with nerve cells on microcarriers in culture - Shahar_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_263
Author(s) : Shahar A , Mizrahi A , Reuveny S , Zinman T , Shainberg A
Ref : Developmental Biology Stand , 60 :263 , 1985
Abstract : Differentiation of embryonic rat and chick myoblasts was investigated using a tridimensional support made of positively charged, uncoated DEAE-cellulose microcarriers (MC). Following rapid cell attachment, the MC interconnected to form large cell-MC conglomerates which remained floating in the nutrient medium. Cells within the conglomerates fused to form myotubes which synthesized muscle-specific proteins such as: creatine kinase, acetylcholinesterase, acetylcholine receptors, and contracted in response to electrical stimulation. Myotubes, at different stages of differentiation, showed characteristic morphology (as observed by transmission and scanning electron-microscopies). Upon addition of dissociated spinal cord cells to these muscle-MC cultures, intensive sprouting of nerve fibres took place. After a few days an extensive network of nerve fibres was formed on the top of muscle myotubes and nerve-muscle contacts were established.
ESTHER : Shahar_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_263
PubMedSearch : Shahar_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_263
PubMedID: 3899788

Title : Myogenesis on microcarrier cultures - Shainberg_1983_Cell.Biol.Int.Rep_7_727
Author(s) : Shainberg A , Isac A , Reuveny S , Mizrahi A , Shahar A
Ref : Cell Biology International Report , 7 :727 , 1983
Abstract : The capacity of embryonic chick myoblasts to grow in vitro on DEAE-cellulose microcarriers (MC) has been investigated biochemically and morphologically. The cells attached to the MC, replicated and fused to form elongated myotubes. These myotubes synthesized muscle-specific proteins, such as creatine kinase (CK) and acetylcholine receptors (AChR), and they contracted spontaneously. Some of the advantages of this technique are: a) Tridimensional development of myotubes on MC with orientation of fibers parallel to each other; b) Muscle cells can be cultured on MC for long periods (months); c) Easy harvesting of samples at any time during cultivation; d) DEAE-cellulose MC are commercially available, inexpensive and easy to handle.
ESTHER : Shainberg_1983_Cell.Biol.Int.Rep_7_727
PubMedSearch : Shainberg_1983_Cell.Biol.Int.Rep_7_727
PubMedID: 6627408

Title : Fluorescent organophosphates: novel probes for studying aging-induced conformational changes in inhibited acetylcholinesterase and for localization of cholinesterase in nervous tissue - Amitai_1980_Monogr.Neural.Sci_7_70
Author(s) : Amitai G , Ashani Y , Shahar A , Gafni A , Silman I
Ref : Monographs in Neural Sciences , 7 :70 , 1980
Abstract : Aging of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by certain organophosphates such as diisopropylfluorophosphate apparently involves dealkylation of the bound organophosphoryl moiety; this renders the inactive enzyme resistant to reactivation by quaternary oximes such as 2-pyridinealdoxime methiodide (2-PAM) which are used in therapy of organophosphate intoxication. The fluorescent pyrenyl organophosphates synthesized in this study were designed to detect putative conformational changes which might explain this resistance. The following inhibitors: 1-pyrenebutyl phosphorodichloride (PBPDC), 1-pyrenebutyl ethylphosphorochloridate (PBEPC), and 1-pyrenebutyl ethylphosphorofluoridate (PBEPF), react specifically with purified electric eel AChE (ki = 10(6)-10(7) M-1 min-1). AChE inhibited by PBEPC and PBEPF was readily reactivated by 2-PAM, while enzyme inhibited PBPDC could not be reactivated. Conjugates were prepared of both PBEPC and PBPDC with AChE, each containing one molecule of florophore per catalytic subunit. Thus two stoichiometric conjugates, PBEP-AChE (non-aged) and POBP-AChE (aged), were obtained. The two complexes exhibited identical absorption spectra, but differed in their steady-state fluorescence spectra. Although the wave-lenths of the excitation and emission spectra were similar, the pyrene fluorescence of the non-aged conjugate was ca. 50% quenched relative to the aged conjugate. Nanosecond fluorescence decay studies revealed two principal lifetime components of pyrene fluorescence. Both were longer for the aged (PBP-AChE) than for the non-aged (PBEP-AChE) conjugate and revealed a ca. 50% lower quantum yield for the non-aged as compared to the aged conjugate. A possible interpretation for these results is that in the aged conjugate the organophosphoryl moiety is less acessible to the external medium. Measurement of quenching of pyrene fluorescence in the aged and non-aged conjugates by the peripheral anionic site ligand propidium also indicated marked conformational differences between the two conjugates, and circular polarization of luminescence measurements revealed that propidium itself induced a substantial conformational change in both conjugates. Fluorescence lifetime measurements revealed that whereas propidium had little effect on the decay parameters for the non-aged conjugate it caused a decrease in lifetime and in relative quantum yield for the aged conjugate. PBEPF virtually eliminated cholinesterase activity in dissociated cord and brain cultures. Fluorescence microscopy reveals fine green fluorescent grains distinctly located throughout many neurons and glia. Labelling is much more pronounced in larger and older neurons. No specific fluorescence could be detected in cultures preincubated with nonfluorescent organophosphates.
ESTHER : Amitai_1980_Monogr.Neural.Sci_7_70
PubMedSearch : Amitai_1980_Monogr.Neural.Sci_7_70
PubMedID: 7015117