Adam G

References (5)

Title : Bacterial Lactonases ZenA with Noncanonical Structural Features Hydrolyse the Mycotoxin Zearalenone - Fruhauf_2024_ACS.Catal_14_3392
Author(s) : Fruhauf S , Puhringer D , Thamhesl M , Fajtl P , Kunz-Vekiru E , Hobartner-Gussl A , Schatzmayr G , Adam G , Damborsky J , Djinovic-Carugo K , Prokop Z , Moll WD
Ref : ACS Catal , 14 :3392 , 2024
Abstract : Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycoestrogenic polyketide produced by Fusarium graminearum and other phytopathogenic members of the genus Fusarium. Contamination of cereals with ZEN is frequent, and hydrolytic detoxification with fungal lactonases has been explored. Here, we report the isolation of a bacterial strain, Rhodococcus erythropolis PFA D81, with ZEN hydrolyzing activity, cloning of the gene encoding a/ hydrolase ZenA encoded on the linear megaplasmid pSFRL1, and biochemical characterization of nine homologues. Furthermore, we report site-directed mutagenesis as well as structural analysis of the dimeric ZenARe of R. erythropolis and the more thermostable, tetrameric ZenAScfl of Streptomyces coelicoflavus with and without bound ligands. The X-ray crystal structures not only revealed canonical features of alpha/beta hydrolases with a cap domain including a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad but also unusual features including an uncommon oxyanion hole motif and a peripheral, short antiparallel -sheet involved in tetramer interactions. Presteady-state kinetic analyses for ZenARe and ZenAScfl identified balanced rate-limiting steps of the reaction cycle, which can change depending on temperature. Some new bacterial ZEN lactonases have lower KM and higher kcat than the known fungal ZEN lactonases and may lend themselves to enzyme technology development for the degradation of ZEN in feed or food.
ESTHER : Fruhauf_2024_ACS.Catal_14_3392
PubMedSearch : Fruhauf_2024_ACS.Catal_14_3392
PubMedID: 38449531
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9actn-ZenA , 9noca-a0aa46n777

Title : The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate - Schmeitzl_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_7_3112
Author(s) : Schmeitzl C , Warth B , Fruhmann P , Michlmayr H , Malachova A , Berthiller F , Schuhmacher R , Krska R , Adam G
Ref : Toxins (Basel) , 7 :3112 , 2015
Abstract : Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON) and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON), and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-beta-D-glucoside (D15G) and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S) as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G) is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (D3G). This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.
ESTHER : Schmeitzl_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_7_3112
PubMedSearch : Schmeitzl_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_7_3112
PubMedID: 26274975

Title : Identification and Characterization of Carboxylesterases from Brachypodium distachyon Deacetylating Trichothecene Mycotoxins - Schmeitzl_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_8_
Author(s) : Schmeitzl C , Varga E , Warth B , Kugler KG , Malachova A , Michlmayr H , Wiesenberger G , Mayer KF , Mewes HW , Krska R , Schuhmacher R , Berthiller F , Adam G
Ref : Toxins (Basel) , 8 : , 2015
Abstract : Increasing frequencies of 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing strains of Fusarium graminearum (3-ADON chemotype) have been reported in North America and Asia. 3-ADON is nearly nontoxic at the level of the ribosomal target and has to be deacetylated to cause inhibition of protein biosynthesis. Plant cells can efficiently remove the acetyl groups of 3-ADON, but the underlying genes are yet unknown. We therefore performed a study of the family of candidate carboxylesterases (CXE) genes of the monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. We report the identification and characterization of the first plant enzymes responsible for deacetylation of trichothecene toxins. The product of the BdCXE29 gene efficiently deacetylates T-2 toxin to HT-2 toxin, NX-2 to NX-3, both 3-ADON and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) into deoxynivalenol and, to a lesser degree, also fusarenon X into nivalenol. The BdCXE52 esterase showed lower activity than BdCXE29 when expressed in yeast and accepts 3-ADON, NX-2, 15-ADON and, to a limited extent, fusarenon X as substrates. Expression of these Brachypodium genes in yeast increases the toxicity of 3-ADON, suggesting that highly similar genes existing in crop plants may act as susceptibility factors in Fusarium head blight disease.
ESTHER : Schmeitzl_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_8_
PubMedSearch : Schmeitzl_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_8_
PubMedID: 26712789

Title : Cleavage of zearalenone by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans to a novel nonestrogenic metabolite - Vekiru_2010_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_76_2353
Author(s) : Vekiru E , Hametner C , Mitterbauer R , Rechthaler J , Adam G , Schatzmayr G , Krska R , Schuhmacher R
Ref : Applied Environmental Microbiology , 76 :2353 , 2010
Abstract : Zearalenone (ZON) is a potent estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species most frequently on maize and therefore can be found in food and animal feed. Since animal production performance is negatively affected by the presence of ZON, its detoxification in contaminated plant material or by-products of bioethanol production would be advantageous. Microbial biotransformation into nontoxic metabolites is one promising approach. In this study the main transformation product of ZON formed by the yeast Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans was identified and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LC-diode array detector (DAD) analysis. The metabolite, named ZOM-1, was purified, and its molecular formula, C(18)H(24)O(7), was established by time of flight MS (TOF MS) from the ions observed at m/z 351.1445 [M-H](-) and at m/z 375.1416 [M+Na](+). Employing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the novel ZON metabolite was finally identified as (5S)-5-({2,4-dihydroxy-6-[(1E)-5-hydroxypent-1-en-1-yl]benzoyl}oxy)hexanoic acid. The structure of ZOM-1 is characterized by an opening of the macrocyclic ring of ZON at the ketone group at C6'. ZOM-1 did not show estrogenic activity in a sensitive yeast bioassay, even at a concentration 1,000-fold higher than that of ZON and did not interact with the human estrogen receptor in an in vitro competitive binding assay.
ESTHER : Vekiru_2010_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_76_2353
PubMedSearch : Vekiru_2010_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_76_2353
PubMedID: 20118365

Title : The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization - Cuomo_2007_Science_317_1400
Author(s) : Cuomo CA , Guldener U , Xu JR , Trail F , Turgeon BG , Di Pietro A , Walton JD , Ma LJ , Baker SE , Rep M , Adam G , Antoniw J , Baldwin T , Calvo S , Chang YL , Decaprio D , Gale LR , Gnerre S , Goswami RS , Hammond-Kosack K , Harris LJ , Hilburn K , Kennell JC , Kroken S , Magnuson JK , Mannhaupt G , Mauceli E , Mewes HW , Mitterbauer R , Muehlbauer G , Munsterkotter M , Nelson D , O'Donnell K , Ouellet T , Qi W , Quesneville H , Roncero MI , Seong KY , Tetko IV , Urban M , Waalwijk C , Ward TJ , Yao J , Birren BW , Kistler HC
Ref : Science , 317 :1400 , 2007
Abstract : We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.
ESTHER : Cuomo_2007_Science_317_1400
PubMedSearch : Cuomo_2007_Science_317_1400
PubMedID: 17823352
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusof-f9fxz4 , gibze-a8w610 , gibze-b1pdn0 , gibze-i1r9e6 , gibze-i1rda9 , gibze-i1rdk7 , gibze-i1rec8 , gibze-i1rgs0 , gibze-i1rgy0 , gibze-i1rh52 , gibze-i1rhi8 , gibze-i1rig9 , gibze-i1rip5 , gibze-i1rpg6 , gibze-i1rsg2 , gibze-i1rv36 , gibze-i1rxm5 , gibze-i1rxp8 , gibze-i1rxv5 , gibze-i1s1u3 , gibze-i1s3j9 , gibze-i1s6l7 , gibze-i1s8i8 , gibze-i1s9x4 , gibze-ppme1 , gibze-q4huy1 , gibze-i1rg17 , gibze-i1rb76 , gibze-i1s1m7 , gibze-i1s3z6 , gibze-i1rd78 , gibze-i1rgl9 , gibze-i1rjp7 , gibze-i1s1q6 , gibze-i1ri35 , gibze-i1rf76 , gibze-i1rhp3 , gibza-a0a016pda4 , gibza-a0a016pl96 , gibze-i1rjb5 , gibze-i1rkc4 , gibze-a0a1c3ylb1 , gibze-gra11 , gibze-fsl2