Kroken S

References (5)

Title : The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion - Coleman_2009_PLoS.Genet_5_e1000618
Author(s) : Coleman JJ , Rounsley SD , Rodriguez-Carres M , Kuo A , Wasmann CC , Grimwood J , Schmutz J , Taga M , White GJ , Zhou S , Schwartz DC , Freitag M , Ma LJ , Danchin EG , Henrissat B , Coutinho PM , Nelson DR , Straney D , Napoli CA , Barker BM , Gribskov M , Rep M , Kroken S , Molnar I , Rensing C , Kennell JC , Zamora J , Farman ML , Selker EU , Salamov A , Shapiro H , Pangilinan J , Lindquist E , Lamers C , Grigoriev IV , Geiser DM , Covert SF , Temporini E , Vanetten HD
Ref : PLoS Genet , 5 :e1000618 , 2009
Abstract : The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of >50 species known as the "Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on supernumerary chromosomes might account for individual isolates having different environmental niches.
ESTHER : Coleman_2009_PLoS.Genet_5_e1000618
PubMedSearch : Coleman_2009_PLoS.Genet_5_e1000618
PubMedID: 19714214
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusso-cutas , nech7-c7yh18 , nech7-c7yir8 , nech7-c7yiz6 , nech7-c7yjl4 , nech7-c7yjp7 , nech7-c7yjq0 , nech7-c7ymg9 , nech7-c7ymv6 , nech7-c7yna5 , nech7-c7ynt6 , nech7-c7yq59 , nech7-c7yq86 , nech7-c7yqb0 , nech7-c7yqx3 , nech7-c7ysz7 , nech7-c7ysz8 , nech7-c7ytb2 , nech7-c7yum7 , nech7-c7yvb1 , nech7-c7yvb8 , nech7-c7yvf1 , nech7-c7yvq8 , nech7-c7yw21 , nech7-c7yx47 , nech7-c7yx92 , nech7-c7yxe7 , nech7-c7yxq5 , nech7-c7yxz4 , nech7-c7yy47 , nech7-c7yyj7 , nech7-c7yym7 , nech7-c7z0d7 , nech7-c7z0s1 , nech7-c7z1g9 , nech7-c7z1k9 , nech7-c7z2k4 , nech7-c7z2m9 , nech7-c7z2z2 , nech7-c7z3z3 , nech7-c7z4a4 , nech7-c7z5n1 , nech7-c7z5y2 , nech7-c7z6g5 , nech7-c7z7d0 , nech7-c7z7w8 , nech7-c7z8q7 , nech7-c7z9e7 , nech7-c7z073 , nech7-c7z354 , nech7-c7z389 , nech7-c7z688 , nech7-c7z855 , nech7-c7z987 , nech7-c7za94 , nech7-c7zah0 , nech7-c7zb79 , nech7-c7zbr8 , nech7-c7zcd1 , nech7-c7zdx8 , nech7-c7ze42 , nech7-c7ze84 , nech7-c7zed8 , nech7-c7zeh0 , nech7-c7zes2 , nech7-c7zgw2 , nech7-c7zha0 , nech7-c7zhy2 , nech7-c7zi55 , nech7-c7zig4 , nech7-c7zjg0 , nech7-c7zjv2 , nech7-c7zk96 , nech7-c7zkb5 , nech7-c7zkh4 , nech7-c7zla9 , nech7-c7zld2 , nech7-c7zlz1 , nech7-c7zm00 , nech7-c7zmn4 , nech7-c7zmu6 , nech7-c7zp06 , nech7-c7zp78 , nech7-c7zq58 , nech7-c7zq86 , nech7-c7zqb5 , nech7-c7zqk4 , nech7-c7zqp9 , nech7-c7zr59 , nech7-c7zrh2 , nech7-c7zrh3 , nech7-dapb , nech7-kex1 , nech7-c7zgl9 , nech7-c7z935 , nech7-c7znc0 , nech7-c7yiq8 , nech7-c7yiq7 , nech7-c7zhu0 , nech7-c7yw61 , nech7-c7yqd3 , nech7-c7zkb6 , nech7-c7z3b4 , nech7-c7ytr4 , nech7-c7zgf7 , 9hypo-a0a3m2s2j6 , nech7-c7yq54 , fusv7-cbpya

Title : The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization - Cuomo_2007_Science_317_1400
Author(s) : Cuomo CA , Guldener U , Xu JR , Trail F , Turgeon BG , Di Pietro A , Walton JD , Ma LJ , Baker SE , Rep M , Adam G , Antoniw J , Baldwin T , Calvo S , Chang YL , Decaprio D , Gale LR , Gnerre S , Goswami RS , Hammond-Kosack K , Harris LJ , Hilburn K , Kennell JC , Kroken S , Magnuson JK , Mannhaupt G , Mauceli E , Mewes HW , Mitterbauer R , Muehlbauer G , Munsterkotter M , Nelson D , O'Donnell K , Ouellet T , Qi W , Quesneville H , Roncero MI , Seong KY , Tetko IV , Urban M , Waalwijk C , Ward TJ , Yao J , Birren BW , Kistler HC
Ref : Science , 317 :1400 , 2007
Abstract : We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.
ESTHER : Cuomo_2007_Science_317_1400
PubMedSearch : Cuomo_2007_Science_317_1400
PubMedID: 17823352
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusof-f9fxz4 , gibze-a8w610 , gibze-b1pdn0 , gibze-i1r9e6 , gibze-i1rda9 , gibze-i1rdk7 , gibze-i1rec8 , gibze-i1rgs0 , gibze-i1rgy0 , gibze-i1rh52 , gibze-i1rhi8 , gibze-i1rig9 , gibze-i1rip5 , gibze-i1rpg6 , gibze-i1rsg2 , gibze-i1rv36 , gibze-i1rxm5 , gibze-i1rxp8 , gibze-i1rxv5 , gibze-i1s1u3 , gibze-i1s3j9 , gibze-i1s6l7 , gibze-i1s8i8 , gibze-i1s9x4 , gibze-ppme1 , gibze-q4huy1 , gibze-i1rg17 , gibze-i1rb76 , gibze-i1s1m7 , gibze-i1s3z6 , gibze-i1rd78 , gibze-i1rgl9 , gibze-i1rjp7 , gibze-i1s1q6 , gibze-i1ri35 , gibze-i1rf76 , gibze-i1rhp3 , gibza-a0a016pda4 , gibza-a0a016pl96 , gibze-i1rjb5 , gibze-i1rkc4 , gibze-a0a1c3ylb1 , gibze-gra11 , gibze-fsl2

Title : Two polyketide synthase-encoding genes are required for biosynthesis of the polyketide virulence factor, T-toxin, by Cochliobolus heterostrophus - Baker_2006_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_19_139
Author(s) : Baker SE , Kroken S , Inderbitzin P , Asvarak T , Li BY , Shi L , Yoder OC , Turgeon BG
Ref : Mol Plant Microbe Interact , 19 :139 , 2006
Abstract : Cochliobolus heterostrophus race T, causal agent of southern corn leaf blight, requires T-toxin (a family of C35 to C49 polyketides) for high virulence on T-cytoplasm maize. Production of T-toxin is controlled by two unlinked loci, Tox1A and Tox1B, carried on 1.2 Mb of DNA not found in race O, a mildly virulent form of the fungus that does not produce T-toxin, or in any other Cochliobolus spp. or closely related fungus. PKS1, a polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding gene at Tox1A, and DEC1, a decarboxylase-encoding gene at Tox1B, are necessary for T-toxin production. Although there is evidence that additional genes are required for T-toxin production, efforts to clone them have been frustrated because the genes are located in highly repeated, A+T-rich DNA. To overcome this difficulty, ligation specificity-based expression analysis display (LEAD), a comparative amplified fragment length polymorphism/gel fractionation/capillary sequencing procedure, was applied to cDNAs from a near-isogenic pair of race T (Tox1+) and race O (Tox1-) strains. This led to discovery of PKS2, a second PKS-encoding gene that maps at Tox1A and is required for both T-toxin biosynthesis and high virulence to maize. Thus, the carbon chain of each T-toxin family member likely is assembled by action of two PKSs, which produce two polyketides, one of which may act as the starter unit for biosynthesis of the mature T-toxin molecule.
ESTHER : Baker_2006_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_19_139
PubMedSearch : Baker_2006_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_19_139
PubMedID: 16529376
Gene_locus related to this paper: coch4-tox9

Title : Phylogenomic analysis of type I polyketide synthase genes in pathogenic and saprobic ascomycetes - Kroken_2003_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_100_15670
Author(s) : Kroken S , Glass NL , Taylor JW , Yoder OC , Turgeon BG
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 100 :15670 , 2003
Abstract : Fungal type I polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by PK synthases (PKSs) and include well known secondary metabolites such as the anticholesterol drug lovastatin and the potent natural carcinogen aflatoxin. Other type I PKs are known to be virulence factors for some plant pathogens and pigments such as melanin. In this study, a phylogenomic approach was used to investigate the origin and diversity of fungal genes encoding putative PKSs that are predicted to synthesize type I PKs. The resulting genealogy, constructed by using the highly conserved PKS ketosynthase (KS) domain, indicated that: (i). Species within subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota) but not early diverging ascomycetes, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomycotina) or Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Taphrinomycotina), had large numbers (7-25) of PKS genes. (ii). Bacteria and fungi had separate groups of PKS genes; the few exceptions are the likely result of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to various sublineages of fungi. (iii). The bulk of genes encoding fungal PKSs fell into eight groups. Four groups were predicted to synthesize variously reduced PKs, and four groups were predicted to make unreduced PKs. (iv). Species within different classes of Pezizomycotina shared the same groups of PKS genes. (v). Different fungal genomes shared few putative orthologous PKS genes, even between closely related genomes in the same class or genus. (vi) The discontinuous distributions of orthologous PKSs among fungal species can be explained by gene duplication, divergence, and gene loss; horizontal gene transfer among fungi does not need to be invoked.
ESTHER : Kroken_2003_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_100_15670
PubMedSearch : Kroken_2003_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_100_15670
PubMedID: 14676319
Gene_locus related to this paper: botci-q6rki2 , botci-q6rki7 , botci-q6rki8 , botfu-q6rki0 , botfu-q6rki4 , coche-q6rke7 , gibmo-q6rkl1

Title : The genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa - Galagan_2003_Nature_422_859
Author(s) : Galagan JE , Calvo SE , Borkovich KA , Selker EU , Read ND , Jaffe D , FitzHugh W , Ma LJ , Smirnov S , Purcell S , Rehman B , Elkins T , Engels R , Wang S , Nielsen CB , Butler J , Endrizzi M , Qui D , Ianakiev P , Bell-Pedersen D , Nelson MA , Werner-Washburne M , Selitrennikoff CP , Kinsey JA , Braun EL , Zelter A , Schulte U , Kothe GO , Jedd G , Mewes W , Staben C , Marcotte E , Greenberg D , Roy A , Foley K , Naylor J , Stange-Thomann N , Barrett R , Gnerre S , Kamal M , Kamvysselis M , Mauceli E , Bielke C , Rudd S , Frishman D , Krystofova S , Rasmussen C , Metzenberg RL , Perkins DD , Kroken S , Cogoni C , Macino G , Catcheside D , Li W , Pratt RJ , Osmani SA , DeSouza CP , Glass L , Orbach MJ , Berglund JA , Voelker R , Yarden O , Plamann M , Seiler S , Dunlap J , Radford A , Aramayo R , Natvig DO , Alex LA , Mannhaupt G , Ebbole DJ , Freitag M , Paulsen I , Sachs MS , Lander ES , Nusbaum C , Birren B
Ref : Nature , 422 :859 , 2003
Abstract : Neurospora crassa is a central organism in the history of twentieth-century genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology. Here, we report a high-quality draft sequence of the N. crassa genome. The approximately 40-megabase genome encodes about 10,000 protein-coding genes--more than twice as many as in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and only about 25% fewer than in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of the gene set yields insights into unexpected aspects of Neurospora biology including the identification of genes potentially associated with red light photobiology, genes implicated in secondary metabolism, and important differences in Ca2+ signalling as compared with plants and animals. Neurospora possesses the widest array of genome defence mechanisms known for any eukaryotic organism, including a process unique to fungi called repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Genome analysis suggests that RIP has had a profound impact on genome evolution, greatly slowing the creation of new genes through genomic duplication and resulting in a genome with an unusually low proportion of closely related genes.
ESTHER : Galagan_2003_Nature_422_859
PubMedSearch : Galagan_2003_Nature_422_859
PubMedID: 12712197
Gene_locus related to this paper: neucr-5E6.090 , neucr-64C2.080 , neucr-90C4.300 , neucr-a7uw78 , neucr-a7uwh6 , neucr-a7uwy7 , neucr-apth1 , neucr-ATG15 , neucr-B7H23.190 , neucr-B11O8.160 , neucr-B13B3.090 , neucr-B14D6.130 , neucr-B18E6.050 , neucr-B19A17.360 , neucr-B23G1.090 , neucr-CBPYA , neucr-MET5 , neucr-NCU00292.1 , neucr-NCU00350.1 , neucr-NCU00536.1 , neucr-NCU00825.1 , neucr-NCU02148.1 , neucr-NCU02679.1 , neucr-NCU02904.1 , neucr-NCU02924.1 , neucr-NCU03158.1 , neucr-NCU04930.1 , neucr-NCU06332.1 , neucr-NCU06573.1 , neucr-NCU07081.1 , neucr-NCU07415.1 , neucr-NCU07909.1 , neucr-NCU08752.1 , neucr-NCU09575.1 , neucr-NCU10022.1 , neucr-ppme1 , neucr-q6mfs7 , neucr-q7rxb4 , neucr-q7rxv5 , neucr-q7ry06 , neucr-q7ryd2 , neucr-q7rzk2 , neucr-q7s0g7 , neucr-q7s1x0 , neucr-q7s2b3 , neucr-q7s2c5 , neucr-q7s2p4 , neucr-q7s2u9 , neucr-q7s3c6 , neucr-q7s3c8 , neucr-q7s3m2 , neucr-q7s4e3 , neucr-q7s4f8 , neucr-q7s4j4 , neucr-q7s5d6 , neucr-q7s5m2 , neucr-q7s5v8 , neucr-q7s6c5 , neucr-q7s8h2 , neucr-q7s070 , neucr-q7s082 , neucr-q7s134 , neucr-q7s216 , neucr-q7s259 , neucr-q7s260 , neucr-q7s283 , neucr-q7s512 , neucr-q7s736 , neucr-q7s828 , neucr-q7s897 , neucr-q7sbf9 , neucr-q7sbn0 , neucr-q7scr4 , neucr-q7sdw5 , neucr-q7sdx9 , neucr-q7se51 , neucr-q7sea3 , neucr-q7sez8 , neucr-q7sff7 , neucr-q7sga3 , neucr-q7sgj0 , neucr-q7sgp3 , neucr-q7sha3 , neucr-q7sha5 , neucr-q7shu8 , neucr-q9p6a7 , neucr-q872l1 , neucr-f5hbr2 , neucr-q7ry64