Maelicke A


Full name : Maelicke Alfred

First name : Alfred

Mail : Galantos Pharma GmbH, Freiligrathstrasse 12, 55131 Mainz

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Country : Germany

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References (77)

Title : First in human study with a prodrug of galantamine: Improved benefit-risk ratio? - Baakman_2016_Alzheimers.Dement.(N.Y)_2_13
Author(s) : Baakman AC , t Hart E , Kay DG , Stevens J , Klaassen ES , Maelicke A , Groeneveld GJ
Ref : Alzheimers Dement (N Y) , 2 :13 , 2016
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Gln-1062 (Memogain) is a pharmacologically inactive prodrug of galantamine. Owing to its lipophilic nature, it preferentially enters the brain, where it is cleaved into active galantamine. Gln-1062 is expected to have fewer peripheral side effects than other cholinesterase inhibitors, with improved effectiveness.
METHODS: This was a double-blind, comparator and placebo-controlled, sequential cohort, single ascending dose study in 58 healthy subjects with Gln-1062 in doses of 5.5, 11, 22, 33, and 44 mg, compared with oral galantamine 16 mg and donepezil 10 mg. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were assessed.
RESULTS: Gln-1062 doses up to 33 mg were well tolerated and induced a dose-dependent increase in the plasma concentrations of Gln-1062 and galantamine. Gln-1062 had a dose-dependent positive effect on verbal memory and attention, mainly in the first hours after drug administration. DISCUSSION: Gln-1062 was better tolerated than galantamine in doses with the same molarity and led to improved effects in cognitive tests. This is most likely caused by the more favorable distribution ratio between peripheral and central cholinesterase inhibition. These results give reason for further exploration of this compound.
ESTHER : Baakman_2016_Alzheimers.Dement.(N.Y)_2_13
PubMedSearch : Baakman_2016_Alzheimers.Dement.(N.Y)_2_13
PubMedID: 29067291

Title : Nasal Application of the Galantamine Pro-drug Memogain Slows Down Plaque Deposition and Ameliorates Behavior in 5X Familial Alzheimer's Disease Mice - Bhattacharya_2015_J.Alzheimers.Dis_46_123
Author(s) : Bhattacharya S , Maelicke A , Montag D
Ref : J Alzheimers Dis , 46 :123 , 2015
Abstract : The plant alkaloid galantamine is an established symptomatic drug treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing cognitive and global relief in human patients. However, as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, gastrointestinal side effects limit the dosage and duration of treatment. Memogain (Gln-1062), a pro-drug, liberates galantamine on cleavage by a carboxyesterase in the brain. The possibility to deliver Memogain intranasally may further circumvent side effects, allowing higher dosing compared to galantamine. In this study, the 5X Familial Alzheimer's Disease (5XFAD) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of chronic Memogain treatment on behavior and amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaque deposition in the brain. Chronic intranasal dosage of 6 mg/kg body weight twice daily was tolerated well, whereas the double dose caused body weight loss in males and was less effective in some behavioral tests. 8 weeks of chronic treatment resulted in improved performance in behavioral tests, such as open field and light-dark avoidance, and in fear conditioning already at mildly affected stages at the age of 18 weeks compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, after treatment a significantly lower plaque density in the brain, i.e., in the entorhinal cortex (reduction 20% females, 40% males) and the hippocampus (19% females, 31% males) at the age of 18 weeks was observed. These results show that nasal application of Memogain effectively delivers the drug to the brain with the potential to retard plaque deposition and improve behavioral symptoms in AD similar to the approved galantamine.
ESTHER : Bhattacharya_2015_J.Alzheimers.Dis_46_123
PubMedSearch : Bhattacharya_2015_J.Alzheimers.Dis_46_123
PubMedID: 25720404

Title : Galantamine-induced amyloid-{beta} clearance mediated via stimulation of microglial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - Takata_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_40180
Author(s) : Takata K , Kitamura Y , Saeki M , Terada M , Kagitani S , Kitamura R , Fujikawa Y , Maelicke A , Tomimoto H , Taniguchi T , Shimohama S
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 285 :40180 , 2010
Abstract : Reduction of brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease (AD), and microglial Abeta phagocytosis is noted as an Abeta clearance system in brains. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for symptomatic treatment of AD. Galantamine also acts as an allosterically potentiating ligand (APL) for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). APL-binding site is located close to but distinct from that for acetylcholine on nAChRs, and FK1 antibody specifically binds to the APL-binding site without interfering with the acetylcholine-binding site. We found that in human AD brain, microglia accumulated on Abeta deposits and expressed alpha7 nAChRs including the APL-binding site recognized with FK1 antibody. Treatment of rat microglia with galantamine significantly enhanced microglial Abeta phagocytosis, and acetylcholine competitive antagonists as well as FK1 antibody inhibited the enhancement. Thus, the galantamine-enhanced microglial Abeta phagocytosis required the combined actions of an acetylcholine competitive agonist and the APL for nAChRs. Indeed, depletion of choline, an acetylcholine-competitive alpha7 nAChR agonist, from the culture medium impeded the enhancement. Similarly, Ca(2+) depletion or inhibition of the calmodulin-dependent pathways for the actin reorganization abolished the enhancement. These results suggest that galantamine sensitizes microglial alpha7 nAChRs to choline and induces Ca(2+) influx into microglia. The Ca(2+)-induced intracellular signaling cascades may then stimulate Abeta phagocytosis through the actin reorganization. We further demonstrated that galantamine treatment facilitated Abeta clearance in brains of rodent AD models. In conclusion, we propose a further advantage of galantamine in clinical AD treatment and microglial nAChRs as a new therapeutic target.
ESTHER : Takata_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_40180
PubMedSearch : Takata_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_40180
PubMedID: 20947502

Title : Localization by site-directed mutagenesis of a galantamine binding site on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor extracellular domain - Ludwig_2010_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_30_469
Author(s) : Ludwig J , Hoffle-Maas A , Samochocki M , Luttmann E , Albuquerque EX , Fels G , Maelicke A
Ref : J Recept Signal Transduct Res , 30 :469 , 2010
Abstract : Galantamine is an approved drug treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Initially identified as a weak cholinesterase inhibitor, we have established that galantamine mainly acts as an 'allosterically potentiating ligand (APL)' of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Meanwhile other 'positive allosteric modulators (PAM)' of nAChR channel activity have been discovered, and for one of them a binding site within the transmembrane domain has been proposed. Here we show, by performing site-directed mutagenesis studies of ectopically expressed chimeric chicken alpha7/mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor-channel complex, in combination with whole-cell current measurements, in the presence and absence of galantamine, that the APL binding site is different from the proposed PAM binding site. We demonstrate that residues T197, I196, and F198 of ss-strand 10 represent major elements of the galantamine binding site. Residue K123, earlier suggested as being 'close to' the APL binding site, is not part of this site but rather appears to play a role in coupling of agonist binding to channel opening and closing. Our data confirm our earlier results that the galantamine binding site is different from the ACh binding site. Both sites are in close proximity and hence may influence each other in a synergistic fashion. Other interesting areas identified in the present study are a 'hinge' region around and containing residues F122, K123, and K143 possibly being involved in relaying the signal of agonist binding to gating of the transmembrane channel, and a 'folding centre', with P119 as the dominating residue, that crucially positions the agonist binding site with respect to the hinge region.
ESTHER : Ludwig_2010_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_30_469
PubMedSearch : Ludwig_2010_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_30_469
PubMedID: 21062106

Title : Memogain is a galantamine pro-drug having dramatically reduced adverse effects and enhanced efficacy - Maelicke_2010_J.Mol.Neurosci_40_135
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Hoeffle-Maas A , Ludwig J , Maus A , Samochocki M , Jordis U , Koepke AK
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 40 :135 , 2010
Abstract : Memogain (Gln-1062) is an inactive pro-drug of galantamine, the latter being a plant alkaloid approved for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Memogain has more than 15-fold higher bioavailability in the brain than the same doses of galantamine. In the brain, Memogain is enzymatically cleaved to galantamine, thereby regaining its pharmacological activity as a cholinergic enhancer. In animal models of drug-induced amnesia, Memogain produced several fold larger cognitive improvement than the same doses of galantamine, without exhibiting any significant levels of gastrointestinal side effects that are typical for the unmodified drug and other inhibitors of cholinesterases, such as donepezil and rivastigmin. In the ferret, dramatically reduced emetic and behavioral responses were observed when Memogain was administered instead of galantamine. Based on these and other preclinical data, Memogain may represent an advantageous drug treatment for Alzheimer's disease, combining much lesser gastrointestinal side effects and considerably higher potency in enhancing cognition, as compared to presently available drugs.
ESTHER : Maelicke_2010_J.Mol.Neurosci_40_135
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_2010_J.Mol.Neurosci_40_135
PubMedID: 19669943

Title : Evaluating the suitability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies for standard immunodetection procedures - Moser_2007_J.Neurochem_102_479
Author(s) : Moser N , Mechawar N , Jones I , Gochberg-Sarver A , Orr-Urtreger A , Plomann M , Salas R , Molles BE , Marubio L , Roth U , Maskos U , Winzer-Serhan U , Bourgeois JP , Le Sourd AM , De Biasi M , Schroder H , Lindstrom JM , Maelicke A , Changeux JP , Wevers A
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 102 :479 , 2007
Abstract : Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play important roles in numerous cognitive processes as well as in several debilitating central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In order to fully elucidate the diverse roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in CNS function and dysfunction, a detailed knowledge of their cellular and subcellular localizations is essential. To date, methods to precisely localize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the CNS have predominantly relied on the use of anti-receptor subunit antibodies. Although data obtained by immunohistology and immunoblotting are generally in accordance with ligand binding studies, some discrepancies remain, in particular with electrophysiological findings. In this context, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit-deficient mice should be ideal tools for testing the specificity of subunit-directed antibodies. Here, we used standard protocols for immunohistochemistry and western blotting to examine the antibodies raised against the alpha3-, alpha4-, alpha7-, beta2-, and beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits on brain tissues of the respective knock-out mice. Unexpectedly, for each of the antibodies tested, immunoreactivity was the same in wild-type and knock-out mice. These data imply that, under commonly used conditions, these antibodies are not suited for immunolocalization. Thus, particular caution should be exerted with regards to the experimental approach used to visualize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain.
ESTHER : Moser_2007_J.Neurochem_102_479
PubMedSearch : Moser_2007_J.Neurochem_102_479
PubMedID: 17419810

Title : The N-butylcarbamate derivative of galantamine acts as an allosteric potentiating ligand on alpha7 nicotinic receptors in hippocampal neurons: clinical implications for treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Popa_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_227
Author(s) : Popa RV , Pereira EF , Lopes C , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 30 :227 , 2006
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive impairments that become severe enough to interfere with the daily activities of patients and eventually lead to death (Chung and Cummings, 2000). Arecent study reports that approx 24 million people suffer from dementia worldwide. If the mortality rate does not change and no curative or preventive treatment is developed, this number is expected to double every 20 yr worldwide (Ferri et al., 2005). Although the causes of AD remain obscure, it has been reported that incremental loss of cholinergic neurons and of nicotinic receptor (nAChR) function/expression in specific brain regions correlates well with the severity of the symptoms at early stages of the disease (Hellstrom-Lindahl et al., 1999; Nordberg, 2001; Perry et al., 2001; Wevers et al., 1999). In patients with more advanced stages of AD, such a correlation between the magnitude of nAChR loss and of cognitive decline does not appear to exist (Sabbagh et al., 2001). The nicotinic cholinergic system plays a central role in modulating different forms of associative learning known to be impaired in AD patients, including the eyeblink classical conditioning (Woodruff-Pak, 2001), and in maintaining neuronal viability. Neuroprotection and cognitive improvement result from increasing the activity of different nAChR subtypes, including those bearing the alpha7 subunit (Carlson et al., 1998; Hejmadi et al., 2003; Kihara et al., 1997; Levin et al., 2006). Thus, increasing nAChR activity in the brain was proposed as a mechanism to slow down the progression of the disease (Maelicke and Albuquerque, 1996).
ESTHER : Popa_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_227
PubMedSearch : Popa_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_227
PubMedID: 17192682

Title : Memantine blocks alpha7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors more potently than n-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat hippocampal neurons - Aracava_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_312_1195
Author(s) : Aracava Y , Pereira EF , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 312 :1195 , 2005
Abstract : The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine is an approved drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Other such treatments are cholinesterase inhibitors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-sensitizing agents such as galantamine. The present study was designed to test whether memantine exerts any effect on the cholinergic system, in particular the Ca(2+)-conducting alpha7(*) nAChR, in cultured hippocampal neurons. Memantine caused a concentration-dependent reduction of the amplitudes of whole-cell currents evoked by the alpha7(*) nAChR-selective agonist choline (10 mM) or by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (50 muM) plus glycine (10 muM). It also inhibited tonically activated NMDA receptors. Memantine was more potent in inhibiting alpha7(*) nAChRs than NMDA receptors; at -60 mV, the IC(50) values for memantine were 0.34 and 5.1 muM, respectively. Consistent with an open-channel blocking mechanism, memantine-induced NMDA receptor inhibition was voltage and use-dependent; the Hill coefficient (n(H)) was approximately 1. Memantine-induced alpha7(*) nAChR inhibition had an n(H) < 1 and showed a variable voltage dependence; the effect was voltage-independent at 0.1 muM, becoming voltage-dependent at >/=1 muM. Thus, memantine interacts with more than one class of sites on the alpha7(*) nAChRs. One is voltage-sensitive and therefore likely to be within the receptor channel. The other is voltage-insensitive and therefore likely to be in the extracellular domain of the receptor. It is suggested that blockade of alpha7(*) nAChRs by memantine could decrease its effectiveness for treatment of AD, particularly at early stages when the degrees of nAChR dysfunction and of cognitive decline correlate well.
ESTHER : Aracava_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_312_1195
PubMedSearch : Aracava_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_312_1195
PubMedID: 15522999

Title : Nicotinic receptor modulation. -
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Pereira EF , Samochocki M , Alkondon M , Christoph U , Maelicke A
Ref : Cholinergic Mechanisms, CRC Press :297 , 2004

Title : Sensitivity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to the opiate antagonists naltrexone and naloxone: receptor blockade and up-regulation - Almeida_2004_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_14_1879
Author(s) : Almeida LE , Pereira EF , Camara AL , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 14 :1879 , 2004
Abstract : In HEK293 cells stably expressing alpha4beta2 nAChRs, naltrexone, but not naloxone, blocked alpha4beta2 nAChRs via an open-channel blocking mechanism. In primary hippocampal cultures, naltrexone inhibited alpha7 nAChRs up-regulated by nicotine, and in organotypic hippocampal cultures naltrexone caused a time-dependent up-regulation of functional alpha7 nAChRs that was detected after removal of the drug. These results indicate that naltrexone could be used as a smoking cessation aid.
ESTHER : Almeida_2004_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_14_1879
PubMedSearch : Almeida_2004_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_14_1879
PubMedID: 15050620

Title : Galantamine is an allosterically potentiating ligand of neuronal nicotinic but not of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors - Samochocki_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_305_1024
Author(s) : Samochocki M , Hoffle A , Fehrenbacher A , Jostock R , Ludwig J , Christner C , Radina M , Zerlin M , Ullmer C , Pereira EF , Lubbert H , Albuquerque EX , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 305 :1024 , 2003
Abstract : Galantamine (Reminyl), an approved treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a potent allosteric potentiating ligand (APL) of human alpha 3 beta 4, alpha 4 beta 2, and alpha 6 beta 4 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and of the chicken/mouse chimeric alpha 7/5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor, as was shown by whole-cell patch-clamp studies of human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing a single nAChR subtype. Galantamine potentiates agonist responses of the four nAChR subtypes studied in the same window of concentrations (i.e., 0.1-1 microM), which correlates with the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of the drug at the recommended daily dosage of 16 to 24 mg. At concentrations >10 microM, galantamine acts as an nAChR inhibitor. The other presently approved AD drugs, donepezil and rivastigmine, are devoid of the nicotinic APL action; at micromolar concentrations they also block nAChR activity. Using five CHO-SRE-Luci cell lines, each of them expressing a different human muscarinic receptor, and a reporter gene assay, we show that galantamine does not alter the activity of M1-M5 receptors, thereby confirming that galantamine modulates selectively the activity of nAChRs. These studies support our previous proposal that the therapeutic action of galantamine is mainly produced by its sensitizing action on nAChRs rather than by general cholinergic enhancement due to cholinesterase inhibition. Galantamine's APL action directly addresses the nicotinic deficit in AD.
ESTHER : Samochocki_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_305_1024
PubMedSearch : Samochocki_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_305_1024
PubMedID: 12649296

Title : The nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand galantamine facilitates synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system - Santos_2002_Mol.Pharmacol_61_1222
Author(s) : Santos MD , Alkondon M , Pereira EF , Aracava Y , Eisenberg HM , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 61 :1222 , 2002
Abstract : In this study, the patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effects of galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand (APL) used for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, on synaptic transmission in brain slices. In rat hippocampal and human cerebral cortical slices, 1 microM galantamine, acting as a nicotinic APL, increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release triggered by 10 microM acetylcholine (ACh). Likewise, 1 microM galantamine, acting as an APL on presynaptically located nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) that are tonically active, potentiated glutamatergic or GABA-ergic transmission between Schaffer collaterals and CA1 neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The cholinesterase inhibitors rivastigmine, donepezil, and metrifonate, which are devoid of nicotinic APL action, did not affect synaptic transmission. Exogenous application of ACh indicated that high and low levels of nAChR activation in the Schaffer collaterals inhibit and facilitate, respectively, glutamate release onto CA1 neurons. The finding then that the nAChR antagonists methyllycaconitine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine facilitated glutamatergic transmission between Schaffer collaterals and CA1 neurons indicated that in a single hippocampal slice, the inhibitory action of strongly, tonically activated nAChRs in some glutamatergic fibers prevails over the facilitatory action of weakly, tonically activated nAChRs in other glutamatergic fibers synapsing onto a given neuron. Galantamine is known to sensitize nAChRs to activation by low, but not high agonist concentrations. Therefore, at 1 microM, galantamine is likely to increase facilitation of synaptic transmission by weakly, tonically activated nAChRs just enough to override inhibition by strongly, tonically activated nAChRs. In conclusion, the nicotinic APL action can be an important determinant of the therapeutic effectiveness of galantamine.
ESTHER : Santos_2002_Mol.Pharmacol_61_1222
PubMedSearch : Santos_2002_Mol.Pharmacol_61_1222
PubMedID: 11961141

Title : Unconventional ligands and modulators of nicotinic receptors - Pereira_2002_J.Neurobiol_53_479
Author(s) : Pereira EF , Hilmas C , Santos MD , Alkondon M , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Neurobiology , 53 :479 , 2002
Abstract : Evidence gathered from epidemiologic and behavioral studies have indicated that neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of a number of neurologic disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. In the mammalian brain, neuronal nAChRs, in addition to mediating fast synaptic transmission, modulate fast synaptic transmission mediated by the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, respectively. Of major interest, however, is the fact that the activity of the different subtypes of neuronal nAChR is also subject to modulation by substances of endogenous origin such as choline, the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid, neurosteroids, and beta-amyloid peptides and by exogenous substances, including the so-called nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligands, of which galantamine is the prototype, and psychotomimetic drugs such as phencyclidine and ketamine. The present article reviews and discusses the effects of unconventional ligands on nAChR activity and briefly describes the potential benefits of using some of these compounds in the treatment of neuropathologic conditions in which nAChR function/expression is known to be altered.
ESTHER : Pereira_2002_J.Neurobiol_53_479
PubMedSearch : Pereira_2002_J.Neurobiol_53_479
PubMedID: 12436414

Title : [New theory! Galantamine and nicotinic-cholinergic transmission] -
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Weichel C
Ref : Pharm Unserer Zeit , 31 :390 , 2002
PubMedID: 12162069

Title : Allosteric sensitization of nicotinic receptors by galantamine, a new treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease - Maelicke_2001_Biol.Psychiatry_49_279
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Samochocki M , Jostock R , Fehrenbacher A , Ludwig J , Albuquerque EX , Zerlin M
Ref : Biological Psychiatry , 49 :279 , 2001
Abstract : Cholinesterase inhibitors are the only approved drug treatment for patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, the clinical potency of these drugs does not correlate well with their activity as cholinesterase inhibitors, nor is their action as short lived as would be expected from purely symptomatic treatment. A few cholinesterase inhibitors, including galantamine, produce beneficial effects even after drug treatment has been terminated. These effects assume modes of action other than mere esterase inhibition and are capable of inducing systemic changes. We have recently discovered a mechanism that could account, at least in part, for the above-mentioned unexpected properties of some cholinesterase inhibitors. We have found that a subgroup of cholinesterase inhibitors, including galantamine but excluding tacrine, directly interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds, named allosterically potentiating ligands, sensitize nicotinic receptors by increasing the probability of channel opening induced by acetylcholine and nicotinic agonists and by slowing down receptor desensitization. The allosterically potentiating ligand action, which is not necessarily associated with cholinesterase inhibition, has been demonstrated by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to occur in natural murine and human neurons and in murine and human cell lines expressing various subtypes of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
ESTHER : Maelicke_2001_Biol.Psychiatry_49_279
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_2001_Biol.Psychiatry_49_279
PubMedID: 11230879

Title : Pharmacokinetic rationale for switching from donepezil to galantamine - Maelicke_2001_Clin.Ther_23 Suppl A_A8
Author(s) : Maelicke A
Ref : Clin Ther , 23 Suppl A :A8 , 2001
Abstract : Galantamine, the most recently approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) for use in the United States, has allosteric modulating activity at nicotinic receptors and inhibits acetylcholinesterase. This dual mechanism of action may make galantamine an attractive option for patients with Alzheimer's disease who have not benefited from their current therapy; thus, methods for switching patients from donepezil or rivastigmine to galantamine are needed. Protocols for switching patients from one AChEI to another must consider both the time required for washout of the first drug and the rate of dose escalation of the second drug. Both issues depend on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology of the drugs under consideration. Because the common property of the drugs considered here is their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, it seems reasonable to keep this activity at or below the activity achieved by the first drug at all times. In addition, the patient's condition should be monitored to avoid deterioration resulting from subtherapeutic drug concentrations during the switch. The switching protocol proposed here has been based on an analysis of mean plasma concentrations of donepezil following administration of a single dose and on the established pharmacokinetics of galantamine.
ESTHER : Maelicke_2001_Clin.Ther_23 Suppl A_A8
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_2001_Clin.Ther_23 Suppl A_A8
PubMedID: 11396871

Title : The pharmacological rationale for treating vascular dementia with galantamine (Reminyl) - Maelicke_2001_Int.J.Clin.Pract.Suppl__24
Author(s) : Maelicke A
Ref : Int J Clin Pract Suppl , :24 , 2001
Abstract : There is considerable evidence indicating that, as in Alzheimer's disease, the central cholinergic system is impaired in vascular dementia (VaD). Using lessons learned from Alzheimer's disease research, it has been proposed that enhancement of the cholinergic system is a rational approach to treating the symptoms of VaD. Galantamine's dual mode of action may provide a greater chance of success in treating patients with Alzheimer's disease through enhanced efficacy on the cognitive, functional and behavioural aspects of dementia. Trials are currently underway to see if this broad spectrum of efficacy extends to patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease ('mixed' dementia) or VaD, as well as other conditions, and the results are eagerly awaited.
ESTHER : Maelicke_2001_Int.J.Clin.Pract.Suppl__24
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_2001_Int.J.Clin.Pract.Suppl__24
PubMedID: 11406923

Title : Modulation of nicotinic receptor activity in the central nervous system: a novel approach to the treatment of Alzheimer disease - Albuquerque_2001_Alzheimer.Dis.Assoc.Disord_15 Suppl 1_S19
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Santos MD , Alkondon M , Pereira EF , Maelicke A
Ref : Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders , 15 Suppl 1 :S19 , 2001
Abstract : Impaired cholinergic function in the central nervous system is an early feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Currently, cholinergic deficit is usually corrected by increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the synapse by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). One of the most consistent cholinergic deficits in AD is the reduced expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the brain. Since these receptors are essential for learning and memory, restoring nicotinic cholinergic function is a promising approach to treating AD. Allosteric modulation of nAChR is a novel approach, which circumvents development of tolerance through long-term use of conventional nicotinic agonists. Allosteric modulators interact with receptor-binding sites distinct from those capable of recognizing the natural agonist. Positive allosteric modulation of nAChR activity has no effect on conductance of single channels; instead, by facilitating channel opening, it potentiates responses evoked by the interaction of the natural agonist with presynaptic and postsynaptic nAChR. Allosteric modulation of nAChR activity could therefore potentially produce a significant benefit in AD. One such allosteric modulator is galantamine. In addition to increasing nAChR activity, galantamine also inhibits AChE. This novel, dual mechanism of action distinguishes galantamine from many other AChE inhibitors. Galantamine has been shown to improve cognitive and daily function for at least 6 months in placebo-controlled trials, and to maintain these functions at baseline levels for at least 12 months in a 6-month open-label extension study. Galantamine has positive effects on nAChR expression, which are likely to contribute to its sustained efficacy in the treatment of AD patients.
ESTHER : Albuquerque_2001_Alzheimer.Dis.Assoc.Disord_15 Suppl 1_S19
PubMedSearch : Albuquerque_2001_Alzheimer.Dis.Assoc.Disord_15 Suppl 1_S19
PubMedID: 11669505

Title : Allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease - Maelicke_2000_Eur.J.Pharmacol_393_165
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 393 :165 , 2000
Abstract : The basic symptoms of Alzheimer's dementia, i.e., a loss in cognitive function, are due to impaired nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission. To compensate for this impairment by drug treatment, blockers of the acetylcholine-degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase are applied, even though this approach obviously is prone to many side-effects, including those of muscarinic nature. We have recently described a novel class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands which, similar to the action of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors, allosterically potentiate submaximal nicotinic responses. The sensitizing effect is a consequence of facilitated channel opening in the presence of allosterically potentiating ligand (APL). Representative members of this class of ligands are the plant alkaloids physostigmine, galanthamine, and codeine. Because APLs could enhance nicotinic neurotransmission under conditions of reduced secretion and/or increased degradation of acetylcholine or reduced acetylcholine-sensitivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, they could have a preventive and corrective action on impaired but still functioning nicotinic neurotransmission.
ESTHER : Maelicke_2000_Eur.J.Pharmacol_393_165
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_2000_Eur.J.Pharmacol_393_165
PubMedID: 10771010

Title : alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and modulation of gabaergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus - Alkondon_2000_Eur.J.Pharmacol_393_59
Author(s) : Alkondon M , Braga MF , Pereira EF , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 393 :59 , 2000
Abstract : The present report provides new findings regarding modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission by alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity in CA1 interneurons of rat hippocampal slices. Recordings were obtained from tight-seal cell-attached patches of the CA1 interneurons, and agonists were delivered to the neurons via a modified U-tube. Application for 6 s of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor-selective agonist choline (> or =1 mM) to all CA1 interneurons tested triggered action potentials that were detected as fast current transients. The activity triggered by choline terminated well before the end of the agonist pulse, was blocked by the alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (50 nM) and was concentration dependent; the higher the concentration of choline the higher the frequency of events and the shorter the delay for detection of the first event. In 40% of the neurons tested, choline-triggered action potentials decreased in amplitude progressively until no more events could be detected despite the presence of the agonist. Primarily, this finding could be explained by Na(+)-channel inactivation associated with membrane depolarization induced by alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation. In 60% of the neurons, the amplitude of choline-induced action potentials was sustained at the intial level, but again the activity did not last as long as the agonist pulse, in this case apparently because of agonist-induced receptor desensitization. These results altogether demonstrate that agonists interacting with alpha7 nicotinic receptors, including the natural transmitter acetylcholine and its metabolite choline, influence GABAergic transmission, not only by activating these receptors, but also by controlling the rate of Na(+)-channel inactivation and/or by inducing receptor desensitization.
ESTHER : Alkondon_2000_Eur.J.Pharmacol_393_59
PubMedSearch : Alkondon_2000_Eur.J.Pharmacol_393_59
PubMedID: 10770998

Title : Galantamine is an allosterically potentiating ligand of the human alpha4\/beta2 nAChR - Samochocki_2000_Acta.Neurol.Scand.Suppl_176_68
Author(s) : Samochocki M , Zerlin M , Jostock R , Groot Kormelink PJ , Luyten WH , Albuquerque EX , Maelicke A
Ref : Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplementum , 176 :68 , 2000
Abstract : Galantamine (Reminyl) is a novel drug treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Originally established as a reversible inhibitor of the acetylcholine-degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), galantamine also acts as an allosterically potentiating ligand (APL) on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Having previously established this second mode of action on nAChRs from murine brain, we demonstrate here the same action of galantamine on the most abundant nAChR in the human brain, the alpha4/beta2 subtype. This nAChR-sensitizing action is not a common property of all, or most, AChE inhibitors, as is shown by the absence of this effect for other therapeutically applied AChE inhibitors including tacrine, metrifonate, rivastigmine and donepezil. The possible benefits for therapy of AD of an APL action on nicotinic receptors is discussed.
ESTHER : Samochocki_2000_Acta.Neurol.Scand.Suppl_176_68
PubMedSearch : Samochocki_2000_Acta.Neurol.Scand.Suppl_176_68
PubMedID: 11261808

Title : Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors and Synaptic Transmission in the Mammalian Central Nervous System -
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Pereira EF , Alkondon M , Eisenberg HM , Maelicke A
Ref : Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology , 144 :337 , 2000

Title : Allosterically potentiating ligands of nicotinic receptors as a treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease - Maelicke_2000_Behav.Brain.Res_113_199
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Schrattenholz A , Samochocki M , Radina M , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Behavioural Brain Research , 113 :199 , 2000
Abstract : One of the most prominent cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the reduced number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the hippocampus and cortex of AD patients, as compared to age-matched controls. This deficit results in reduced nicotinic cholinergic excitation which may not only impair postsynaptic depolarization but also presynaptic neurotransmitter release and Ca2+-dependent intracellular signaling, including transcriptional activity. Presently, the most common approach to correct the nicotinic cholinergic deficit in AD is the application of cholinesterase inhibitors. Due to the resulting increase in synaptic acetylcholine levels, both in concentration and time, additional nAChR molecules, e.g. those more distant from the ACh release sites, could be activated. As an obvious disadvantage, this approach affects cholinergic neurotransmission as a whole, including muscarinic neurotransmission. As a novel and alternative approach, a treatment strategy which exclusively targets nicotinic receptors is suggested. The strategy is based on a group of modulating ligands of nicotinic receptors, named allosterically potentiating ligands (APL), which increase the probability of channel opening induced by ACh and nicotinic agonists, and in addition decrease receptor desensitization. The action of APL on nicotinic receptors is reminiscent of that of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors and of that of glycine on the NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptor. Representative nicotinic APL are the plant alkaloids physostigmine, galanthamine and codeine, and the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT). The potentiating effect of APL on nicotinic neurotransmission has been shown by whole-cell patch-clamp studies in natural murine and human neurons, and in murine and human cell lines expressing various subtypes of neuronal nAChR.
ESTHER : Maelicke_2000_Behav.Brain.Res_113_199
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_2000_Behav.Brain.Res_113_199
PubMedID: 10942046

Title : Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Non-neuronal Cells, Expression and Renaturation of Ligand Binding Domain, and Modulatory Control by Allosterically Acting Ligands -
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Schrattenholz A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology , 144 :477 , 2000

Title : Neuronal nicotinic receptors in synaptic functions in humans and rats: physiological and clinical relevance - Albuquerque_2000_Behav.Brain.Res_113_131
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Pereira EF , Mike A , Eisenberg HM , Maelicke A , Alkondon M
Ref : Behavioural Brain Research , 113 :131 , 2000
Abstract : The present report describes the participation of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in controlling the excitability of local neuronal circuitries in the rat hippocampus and in the human cerebral cortex. The patch-clamp technique was used to record responses triggered by the non-selective agonist ACh and the alpha7-nAChR-selective agonist choline in interneurons of human cerebral cortical and rat hippocampal slices. Evidence is provided that functional alpha7- and alpha4beta2-like nAChRs are present on somatodendritic and/or preterminal/terminal regions of interneurons in the CA1 field of the rat hippocampus and in the human cerebral cortex and that activation of the different nAChR subtypes present in the preterminal/terminal areas of the interneurons triggers the tetrodotoxin-sensitive release of GABA. Modulation by nAChRs of GABAergic transmission, which can result either in inhibition or disinhibition of pyramidal neurons, depends both on the receptor subtype present in the interneurons and on the agonist acting upon these receptors. Not only do alpha7 nAChRs desensitize faster than alpha4beta2 nAChRs, but also alpha7 nAChR desensitization induced by ACh lasts longer than that induced by choline. These mechanisms, which appear to be retained across species, might explain the involvement of nAChRs in cognitive functions and in such neurological disorders as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.
ESTHER : Albuquerque_2000_Behav.Brain.Res_113_131
PubMedSearch : Albuquerque_2000_Behav.Brain.Res_113_131
PubMedID: 10942040

Title : Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease: histotopographical correlation with amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated-tau protein - Wevers_1999_Eur.J.Neurosci_11_2551
Author(s) : Wevers A , Monteggia L , Nowacki S , Bloch W , Schutz U , Lindstrom JM , Pereira EF , Eisenberg H , Giacobini E , de Vos RA , Steur EN , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX , Schroder H
Ref : European Journal of Neuroscience , 11 :2551 , 1999
Abstract : Impairment of cholinergic transmission and decreased numbers of nicotinic binding sites are well-known features accompanying the cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to elucidate the underlying cause of this cholinoceptive dysfunction, the expression of two pharmacologically different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits (alpha4, alpha7) was studied in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer patients as compared to controls. Patch-clamp recordings of 14 dissociated neurons of control cortices showed responses suggesting the existence of alpha4- and alpha7-containing functional nAChRs in the human cortex. In cortices of Alzheimer patients and controls, the pattern of distribution and the number of alpha4 and alpha7 mRNA-expressing neurons were similar, whereas at the protein level a decrease in the density of alpha4- and alpha7-expressing neurons of approximately 30% was observed in Alzheimer patients. The histotopographical correlation of nAChR expression with accompanying pathological changes, e.g. accumulation of hyperphosphorylated-tau (HP-tau) protein and beta-amyloid showed that neurons in the vicinity of beta-amyloid plaques bore both nAChR transcripts. Neurons heavily labelled for HP-tau, however, expressed little or no alpha4 and alpha7 mRNA. These results point to an impaired synthesis of nAChRs on the protein level as a possible cause of the cholinoceptive deficit in AD. Further investigations need to elucidate whether interactions of HP-tau with nAChR mRNA, or alterations in the quality of alpha4 and alpha7 transcripts give rise to decreased protein expression at the level of individual neurons.
ESTHER : Wevers_1999_Eur.J.Neurosci_11_2551
PubMedSearch : Wevers_1999_Eur.J.Neurosci_11_2551
PubMedID: 10383644

Title : Expression of functional alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor during mammalian muscle development and denervation - Fischer_1999_Eur.J.Neurosci_11_2856
Author(s) : Fischer U , Reinhardt S , Albuquerque EX , Maelicke A
Ref : European Journal of Neuroscience , 11 :2856 , 1999
Abstract : We have studied, on the transcriptional, protein and functional level, the expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the course of rat muscle development, denervation and renervation. At foetal day 13, alpha7 nAChR expression was observed in somites and developing muscles of the back, but not yet in migrating myoblasts. Two days later, concomitant with myoblast aggregation, the alpha7 isoform began to be expressed in isolated myoblasts, with the highest level of expression in the frontal zone of the migrating wave. On foetal day 18, a time when the myoblasts in the upper hindleg have fused, alpha7 nAChR expression was most prominent in the outer layer of muscle tissue. The highest level of expression was observed in the first postnatal week, when practically all muscle cells stained positively for alpha7 protein. During the following weeks, alpha7 nAChR expression slowly decreased and practically disappeared in adult hindleg muscle. Following chronic denervation of adult Soleus muscle fibres, expression of alpha7 nAChR returned within 2-4 weeks. Electrophysiological measurements showed that the alpha7 nAChR of chronically denervated soleus muscle fibres were functional and, in particular, that they could be activated by choline. The presence of the alpha7 nAChR in developing and denervated muscle suggests a role for this nicotinic receptor in neuronal pathfinding and/or endplate stabilization.
ESTHER : Fischer_1999_Eur.J.Neurosci_11_2856
PubMedSearch : Fischer_1999_Eur.J.Neurosci_11_2856
PubMedID: 10457182

Title : Neuronal nicotinic receptors in the locust Locusta migratoria. Cloning and expression - Hermsen_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_18394
Author(s) : Hermsen B , Stetzer E , Thees R , Heiermann R , Schrattenholz A , Ebbinghaus U , Kretschmer A , Methfessel C , Reinhardt S , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 273 :18394 , 1998
Abstract : We have identified five cDNA clones that encode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits expressed in the nervous system of the locust Locusta migratoria. Four of the subunits are ligand-binding alpha subunits, and the other is a structural beta subunit. The existence of at least one more nAChR gene, probably encoding a beta subunit, is indicated. Based on Northern analysis and in situ hybridization, the five subunit genes are expressed. localpha1, localpha3, and locbeta1 are the most abundant subunits and are expressed in similar areas of the head ganglia and retina of the adult locust. Because Loc<alpha3 binds alpha-bungarotoxin with high affinity, it may form a homomeric nAChR subtype such as the mammalian alpha7 nAChR. Localpha1 and Locbeta1 may then form the predominant heteromeric nAChR in the locust brain. localpha4 is mainly expressed in optic lobe ganglionic cells and localpha2 in peripherally located somata of mushroom body neurons. localpha3 mRNA was additionally detected in cells interspersed in the somatogastric epithelium of the locust embryo, suggesting that this isoform may also be involved in functions other than neuronal excitability. Transcription of all nAChR subunit genes begins approximately 3 days before hatching and continues throughout adult life. Electrophysiological recordings from head ganglionic neurons also indicate the existence of more than one functionally distinct nAChR subtype. Our results suggest the existence of several nAChR subtypes, at least some of them heteromeric, in this insect species.
ESTHER : Hermsen_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_18394
PubMedSearch : Hermsen_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_18394
PubMedID: 9660807

Title : Incorporation of the acetylcholine receptor dimer from Torpedo californica in a peptide supported lipid membrane investigated by surface plasmon and fluorescence spectroscopy - Schmidt_1998_Biosens.Bioelectron_13_585
Author(s) : Schmidt EK , Liebermann T , Kreiter M , Jonczyk A , Naumann R , Offenhausser A , Neumann E , Kukol A , Maelicke A , Knoll W
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 13 :585 , 1998
Abstract : The dimer species (M(r) 580,000) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, was incorporated into a thiopeptide supported lipid bilayer. The incorporation was achieved by fusion of liposomes with reconstituted receptor onto a gold-supported thiopeptide lipid monolayer. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPS) was used to monitor in real time the fusion process as well as the specific binding of the antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. A recently developed extension of SPS offering enhanced sensitivity and specificity, surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS), was then used to monitor subsequent binding of the monoclonal WF6 and polyclonal antibody, respectively. The latter was fluorescence labeled with Cy5. The different binding assays indicate the successful incorporation of the receptor in the lipid bilayer.
ESTHER : Schmidt_1998_Biosens.Bioelectron_13_585
PubMedSearch : Schmidt_1998_Biosens.Bioelectron_13_585
PubMedID: 9828354

Title : Expression and renaturation of the N-terminal extracellular domain of torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit - Schrattenholz_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_32393
Author(s) : Schrattenholz A , Pfeiffer S , Pejovic V , Rudolph R , Godovac-Zimmermann J , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 273 :32393 , 1998
Abstract : The N-terminal extracellular region (amino acids 1-209) of the alpha-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata electric tissue was expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli using the pET 3a vector. Employing a novel protocol of unfolding and refolding, in the absence of detergent, a water-soluble globular protein of 25 kDa was obtained displaying approximately 15% alpha-helical and 45% beta-structure. The fragment bound alpha-[3H]bungarotoxin in 1:1 stoichiometry with a KD value of 0.5 nM as determined from kinetic measurements (4 nM from equilibrium binding). The kinetics of association of toxin and fragment were of second order, with a similar rate constant (8.2 x 10(5) M-1 s-1) as observed previously for the membrane-bound heteropentameric nAChR. Binding of small ligands was demonstrated by competition with alpha-[3H]bungarotoxin yielding the following KI values: acetylcholine, 69 microM; nicotine, 0.42 microM; anatoxin-a, 3 miroM; tubocurarine, 400 microM; and methyllycaconitine, 0.12 microM. The results demonstrate that the N-terminal extracellular region of the nAChR alpha-subunit forms a self-assembling domain that functionally expresses major elements of the ligand binding sites of the receptor.
ESTHER : Schrattenholz_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_32393
PubMedSearch : Schrattenholz_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_32393
PubMedID: 9829968

Title : Properties of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological characterization and modulation of synaptic function -
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Alkondon M , Pereira EF , Castro NG , Schrattenholz A , Barbosa CT , Bonfante-Cabarcas R , Aracava Y , Eisenberg HM , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 280 :1117 , 1997
PubMedID: 9067295

Title : Choline is a selective agonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat brain neurons - Alkondon_1997_Eur.J.Neurosci_9_2734
Author(s) : Alkondon M , Pereira EF , Cortes WS , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : European Journal of Neuroscience , 9 :2734 , 1997
Abstract : In the present study, we demonstrate that choline, a precursor of acetylcholine (ACh) and a product of acetylcholine hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acts as an efficient and relatively selective agonist of alpha7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in neurons cultured from the rat hippocampus, olfactory bulb and thalamus as well as in PC12 cells. Choline was able to activate postsynaptic and presynaptic alpha7 nAChRs, with the latter action resulting in the release of other neurotransmitters. Although choline was approximately one order of magnitude less potent than ACh (EC50 of 1.6 mM for choline and 0.13 mM for ACh), it acted as a full agonist at alpha7 nAChRs. In contrast, choline did not activate alpha4beta2 agonist-bearing nAChRs on hippocampal neurons, and acted as a partial agonist at alpha3beta4-containing nAChRs on PC12 cells. The ethyl alcohol moiety of choline is required for the selective action on alpha7 nAChR. Exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons for 10 min to choline (10-100 microM) resulted in desensitization of the native alpha7 nAChRs. Moreover, chronic exposure (10 days) of the cultured hippocampal neurons to a desensitizing concentration of choline (approximately 30 microM) decreased their responsiveness to ACh. The selective action of choline on native alpha7 nAChRs suggests that this naturally occurring compound may act in vivo as an endogenous ligand for these receptors. Putative physiological actions of choline include retrograde messenger activity during the development of the mammalian central nervous system and during periods of elevated synaptic activity that leads to long-term potentiation.
ESTHER : Alkondon_1997_Eur.J.Neurosci_9_2734
PubMedSearch : Alkondon_1997_Eur.J.Neurosci_9_2734
PubMedID: 9517478

Title : Methamidophos: an anticholinesterase without significant effects on postsynaptic receptors or transmitter release - Camara_1997_Neurotoxicol_18_589
Author(s) : Camara AL , Braga MF , Rocha ES , Santos MD , Cortes WS , Cintra WM , Aracava Y , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Neurotoxicology , 18 :589 , 1997
Abstract : Methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphoroamidothiolate, Tamaron), an organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterase of limited toxicity, is widely used as an insecticide and acaricide. To provide additional insight into the molecular basis of its action, we have used electrophysiological and biochemical techniques to study the effects of methamidophos on the neuromuscular junction of rat and frog and on the central nervous system of rat. Methamidophos has a relatively weak inhibitory action on cholinesterases in rat diaphragm muscle, brain and hippocampal homogenates, with IC50 values on the order of 20-20 microM. An even weaker anticholinesterase activity was found in frog muscle homogenates, with the IC50 being above 300 microM. As further evidence of anticholinesterase activity, methamidophos (1-100 microM) was able to reverse the blockade by d-tubocurarine (0.5-0.7 microM) of neuromuscular transmission in rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by methamidophos was long lasting, which is consistent with the formation by the agent of a covalent bond with the enzyme's active serine residue. The action was also slowly reversible, which suggests spontaneous reactivation of the enzyme. electrophysiological studies at the rat neuromuscular junction showed that, due to its anticholinesterase activity, methamidophos increased the amplitude and prolonged the decay phase of nerve-evoked and spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials. In contrast to other OP compounds, e.g., paraoxon (Rocha et al., 1996a), methamidophos did not affect neurotransmitter release, nor did it interact directly with the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Moreover, it contrast to paraoxon, methamidophos did not affect the whole-cell currents induced by application of acetylcholine, glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid recorded to cultured hippocampal neurons. Based on these data, methamidophos appears to have a selective effect on cholinesterase.
ESTHER : Camara_1997_Neurotoxicol_18_589
PubMedSearch : Camara_1997_Neurotoxicol_18_589
PubMedID: 9291508

Title : Allosteric modulation of Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ion channel activity by noncompetitive agonists - Maelicke_1997_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_17_11
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Coban T , Storch A , Schrattenholz A , Pereira EF , Albuquerque EX
Ref : J Recept Signal Transduct Res , 17 :11 , 1997
Abstract : Similar to other neuroreceptors of the vertebrate central nervous system, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is subject to modulatory control by allosterically acting ligands. Of particular interest in this regard are allosteric ligands that enhance the sensitivity of the receptor to its natural agonist acetylcholine (ACh), as such ligands could be useful as drugs in diseases associated with impaired nicotinic neurotransmission. Here we discuss the action of a novel class of nAChR ligands which act as allosterically potentiating ligands (APL) on the nicotinic responses induced by ACh and competitive agonists. In addition, APLs also act as noncompetitive agonists of very low efficacy, and as direct blockers of ACh-activated channels. These actions are observed with nAChRs from brain, muscle and electric tissue, and they depend on the structure of the APL and the concentration range applied. We focus here on Torpedo nAChR because (i) the unusual pharmacology of these ligands was first discovered with this system, and (ii) large quantities of this receptor are readily available for biochemical studies.
ESTHER : Maelicke_1997_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_17_11
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_1997_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_17_11
PubMedID: 9029479

Title : Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on hippocampal neurons: distribution on the neuronal surface and modulation of receptor activity - Albuquerque_1997_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_17_243
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Pereira EF , Alkondon M , Schrattenholz A , Maelicke A
Ref : J Recept Signal Transduct Res , 17 :243 , 1997
Abstract : The recent development of a technique that uses infrared microscopy for the visualization of well-defined areas on the surface of neurons, and a computerized system of micromanipulators led to the discovery that functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed at higher density on the dendrites than on the soma of rat hippocampal neurons. The finding that the expression of alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive, alpha 7-bearing, nAChRs and dihydro-beta-erythroidine-sensitive, alpha 4 beta 2 nAChRs tends to increase along the dendritic length suggests that these receptors may be highly involved in the integration of synaptic functions in hippocampal neurons. The present report also discusses the finding that ligands such as the anticholinesterase galanthamine can modulate the nAChR activity by binding to a novel receptor site, and that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) may serve as an endogenous ligand for this site. The ability of 5-HT to modulate the nAChR function in vivo supports the concept that the overall CNS function is determined not only by the neuronal network established by the neuronal wiring, but also by a chemical network established by the ability of a single substance to act as the primary neurotransmitter in one system and as a co-transmitter in another system.
ESTHER : Albuquerque_1997_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_17_243
PubMedSearch : Albuquerque_1997_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_17_243
PubMedID: 9029494

Title : Mapping of a binding site for ATP within the extracellular region of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta-subunit - Schrattenholz_1997_Biochemistry_36_13333
Author(s) : Schrattenholz A , Roth U , Godovac-Zimmermann J , Maelicke A
Ref : Biochemistry , 36 :13333 , 1997
Abstract : Using 2,8,5'-[3H]ATP as a direct photoaffinity label for membrane-bound nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata, we have identified a binding site for ATP in the extracellular region of the beta-subunit of the receptor. Photolabeling was completely inhibited in the presence of saturating concentrations of nonradioactive ATP, whereas neither the purinoreceptor antagonists suramin, theophyllin, and caffeine nor the nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine affected the labeling reaction. Competitive and noncompetitive nicotinic agonists and Ca2+ increased the yield of the photoreaction by up to 50%, suggesting that the respective binding sites are allosterically linked with the ATP site. The dissociation constant KD of binding of ATP to the identified site on the nAChR was of the order of 10(-4) M. Sites of labeling were found in the sequence regions Leu11-Pro17 and Asp152-His163 of the nAChR beta-subunit. These regions may represent parts of a single binding site for ATP, which is discontinuously distributed within the primary structure of the N-terminal extracellular domain. The existence of an extracellular binding site for ATP confirms, on the molecular level, that this nucleotide can directly act on nicotinic receptors, as has been suggested from previous electrophysiological and biochemical studies.
ESTHER : Schrattenholz_1997_Biochemistry_36_13333
PubMedSearch : Schrattenholz_1997_Biochemistry_36_13333
PubMedID: 9341225

Title : Nicotinic receptors of the vertebrate CNS: introductory remarks -
Author(s) : Maelicke A
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 109 :107 , 1996
PubMedID: 9009697

Title : Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on hippocampal neurons: cell compartment-specific expression and modulatory control of channel activity -
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Pereira EF , Bonfante-Cabarcas R , Marchioro M , Matsubayashi H , Alkondon M , Maelicke A
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 109 :111 , 1996
PubMedID: 9009698

Title : Diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain. V. alpha-Bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic receptors in olfactory bulb neurons and presynaptic modulation of glutamate release - Alkondon_1996_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_278_1460
Author(s) : Alkondon M , Rocha ES , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 278 :1460 , 1996
Abstract : The presence of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on cultured neurons of the rat olfactory bulb was evaluated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Application of acetylcholine (ACh) to 78% of the tested olfactory bulb neurons evoked whole-cell currents (referred to as direct response), which are very similar in characteristics to type IA currents. Their peak amplitude increased, while their rise-time and decay-time constants decreased with increasing agonist concentration. In 12% of the neurons, ACh evoked single or multiple miniature postsynaptic currents (referred to as indirect response) for which amplitude, rise time, and decay-time constants were not dependent upon the ACh concentration. Methyllycaconitine (1 nM), a selective competitive antagonist at the alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive neuronal nAChR, reversibly blocked both responses, whereas 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-di-one (10 microM) reversibly blocked only the indirect responses. Whereas tetrodotoxin (0.2-2 microM) failed to affect the indirect response, Ca(+2)-free, Mg(+2)-containing external solution decreased reversibly and significantly the frequency of ACh-evoked miniature postsynaptic currents. The pharmacology and kinetics of the two types of responses are consistent with the existence in the olfactory bulb neurons of alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nAChRs at both postsynaptic and presynaptic sites, the presynaptic receptors being located on glutamatergic synapses where they modulate the release of the transmitter. The dimensions of the soma and dendrites of the neurons suggest that the direct response is obtained from periglomerular and/or granular neurons, and the indirect response from short-axon and/or external tufted cells. The present results suggest that 1) nicotinic synaptic transmission could play an important role in modulating the bulbar output at the glomerular level, and 2) a presynaptic modulatory effect is one of the functions for the alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nAChRs in the mammalian central nervous system.
ESTHER : Alkondon_1996_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_278_1460
PubMedSearch : Alkondon_1996_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_278_1460
PubMedID: 8819534

Title : Paraoxon: cholinesterase-independent stimulation of transmitter release and selective block of ligand-gated ion channels in cultured hippocampal neurons - Rocha_1996_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_278_1175
Author(s) : Rocha ES , Swanson KL , Aracava Y , Goolsby JE , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 278 :1175 , 1996
Abstract : Paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate) is the neurotoxic metabolite of the insecticide parathion (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate). The effects of organophosphorus compounds on peripheral synapses have been attributed to inhibition of cholinesterase and to direct actions on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but less is known about the actions of organophosphorus compounds, including paraoxon, in the central nervous system. We investigated initially the effects of paraoxon on spontaneous transmitter release by recording miniature postsynaptic currents (MPSCs) from cultured rat hippocampal neurons using the whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique. Paraoxon (0.3 microM) in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) and atropine (1 microM) caused a significant increase in the frequency of gamma-aminobutyric acid- and glutamate-mediated MPSCs, but did not change the peak amplitudes or decay-time constants of these MPSCs. In contrast, application of nicotinic agonists or antagonists did not change the MPSC frequency. The presynaptic effect of paraoxon shown here was not mediated by actions on muscarinic or nicotinic receptors, or by elevated acetylcholine levels secondary to inhibition of cholinesterase. In addition, agonists were applied to assess the postsynaptic effects of paraoxon on excitatory and inhibitory amino acid receptors. Paraoxon (30 microM-1 mM) blocked the ion channels of glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acidA, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but not the ion channels of kalnate- and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors. The combined effects of paraoxon on spontaneous transmitter release and on the functions of several ligand-gated receptors may constitute mechanisms relevant to the neurotoxicity of paraoxon.
ESTHER : Rocha_1996_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_278_1175
PubMedSearch : Rocha_1996_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_278_1175
PubMedID: 8819500

Title : Ligand-gated ion channels in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons with long dendrites - Barbosa_1996_Neurosci.Lett_210_177
Author(s) : Barbosa CT , Alkondon M , Aracava Y , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 210 :177 , 1996
Abstract : A technique for dissociation of hippocampi of 3-25-day-old rats is described by which pyramidal and bipolar neurons with many long (up to 200 microns) dendrites can be obtained. Dissociation of CA1 neurons was achieved by mechanical means, in the absence of Ca2+, and without the use of proteolytic enzymes. The functional properties of the dissociated neurons were assessed using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Whole-cell currents were elicited by U-tube application of the agonists N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine (ACh), and spontaneous miniature currents were also observed in these neurons. ACh-elicited currents were blocked by methyllycaconitine (MLA, 1 nM) and Pb2+ (0.1-10 microM). These results establish acutely dissociated neurons as a simple and reliable preparation for the study of the pharmacology, kinetics and subcellular distribution of ligand-gated ion channels.
ESTHER : Barbosa_1996_Neurosci.Lett_210_177
PubMedSearch : Barbosa_1996_Neurosci.Lett_210_177
PubMedID: 8805124

Title : Stable expression in HEK-293 cells of the rat alpha3\/beta4 subtype of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor - Stetzer_1996_FEBS.Lett_397_39
Author(s) : Stetzer E , Ebbinghaus U , Storch A , Poteur L , Schrattenholz A , Kramer G , Methfessel C , Maelicke A
Ref : FEBS Letters , 397 :39 , 1996
Abstract : The alpha3/beta4 subtype of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells that co-expressed a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel. alpha3/beta4-nAChR-expressing clones were identified using the fura-2 Ca2+ imaging technique, and were further characterised by single-cell and whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Acetylcholine (ACh) induced fast activating currents which showed desensitisation and inward rectification. The conductance of the ACh-activated channel was 29 pS. The order of potency of the nicotinic agonists tested was cytisine approximately = nicotine > acetylcholine. The EC50 value for ACh was 145 microM; the Hill coefficient was close to 2. The currents elicited by ACh were effectively blocked by nicotinic antagonists, but not by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. These properties are comparable to the pharmacological and physiological profile of ganglionic nicotinic receptors and type III currents of cultured hippocampal neurons.
ESTHER : Stetzer_1996_FEBS.Lett_397_39
PubMedSearch : Stetzer_1996_FEBS.Lett_397_39
PubMedID: 8941710

Title : Agonist responses of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are potentiated by a novel class of allosterically acting ligands - Schrattenholz_1996_Mol.Pharmacol_49_1
Author(s) : Schrattenholz A , Pereira EF , Roth U , Weber KH , Albuquerque EX , Maelicke A
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 49 :1 , 1996
Abstract : Similar to the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor and the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are subject to positive modulatory control by allosterically acting ligands. Exogenous ligands such as galanthamine and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine, when applied in submicromolar concentrations with nicotinic agonists, significantly increase the frequency of opening of nicotinic receptor channels and potentiate agonist-activated currents. Because these effects have been shown to be blocked by the monoclonal antibody FK1, they are mediated by binding sites that are located on alpha subunits of nicotinic receptors and distinct from those for acetylcholine and acetylcholine-competitive ligands. At higher concentrations, the potentiating effect of these ligands decreases and is eventually overcome by an inhibition of the agonist-induced response. The sensitizing actions of galanthamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and related compounds, at submicromolar concentrations, may reflect the existence of cross-talk between adjacent neuroreceptors and synapses in the central nervous system and thus suggests the formation of transiently active chemical networks in the vertebrate brain.
ESTHER : Schrattenholz_1996_Mol.Pharmacol_49_1
PubMedSearch : Schrattenholz_1996_Mol.Pharmacol_49_1
PubMedID: 8569694

Title : Cellular distribution in the rat telencephalon of mRNAs encoding for the alpha 3 and alpha 4 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor - Lobron_1995_Brain.Res.Mol.Brain.Res_30_70
Author(s) : Lobron C , Wevers A , Damgen K , Jeske A , Rontal D , Birtsch C , Heinemann S , Reinhardt S , Maelicke A , Schroder H
Ref : Brain Research Mol Brain Res , 30 :70 , 1995
Abstract : Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies provide evidence for the involvement of different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor isoforms in rat neocortical and hippocampal signal transduction. Yet, rather little is known on the cellular localization of these isoforms. With the availability of isoform specific nucleic acid probes and sensitive non-isotopic detection systems, nicotinic receptors can be studied on the mRNA level in individual neurons. In this way, we have paradigmatically studied the distribution of the alpha 3 and alpha 4 isoform mRNAs of the nicotinic receptor in the rat telencephalon. In the cerebral cortex, alpha 3 transcripts were mainly located in pyramidal neurons of layers V and VI and in some non-pyramidal cells in layer IV, while alpha 4 mRNA was detected in different types of neurons located in almost all layers. In the hippocampus, local distribution of both transcripts was comparable. Only very few labeled neurons were observed in the dentate gyrus. In the CA region, the specific mRNAs were detected in pyramidal perikarya and individual neurons in the strata oriens and lacunosum-moleculare. Our data show that the applied method is sufficiently sensitive and isoform-selective in order to study the differential expression of nicotinic receptors on the cellular level in the mammalian brain.
ESTHER : Lobron_1995_Brain.Res.Mol.Brain.Res_30_70
PubMedSearch : Lobron_1995_Brain.Res.Mol.Brain.Res_30_70
PubMedID: 7609646

Title : Nicotinic receptor function in the mammalian central nervous system - Albuquerque_1995_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_757_48
Author(s) : Albuquerque EX , Pereira EF , Castro NG , Alkondon M , Reinhardt S , Schroder H , Maelicke A
Ref : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 757 :48 , 1995
Abstract : The diversity of neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in addition to their possible involvement in such pathological conditions as Alzheimer's disease have directed our research towards the characterization of these receptors in various mammalian brain areas. Our studies have relied on electrophysiological, biochemical, and immunofluorescent techniques applied to cultured and acutely dissociated hippocampal neurons, and have been aimed at identifying the various subtypes of nAChRs expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), at defining the mechanisms by which CNS nAChR activity is modulated, and at determining the ion permeability of CNS nAChR channels. Our findings can be summarized as follows: (1) hippocampal neurons express at least three subtypes of CNS nAChRs--an alpha 7-subunit-bearing nAChR that subserves fast-inactivating, alpha-BGT-sensitive currents, which are referred to as type IA, and alpha 4 beta 2 nAChR that subserves slowly inactivating, dihydro-beta-erythroidine-sensitive currents, which are referred to as type II, and an alpha 3 beta 4 nAChR that subserves slowly inactivating, mecamylamine-sensitive currents, which are referred to as type III; (2) nicotinic agonists can activate a single type of nicotinic current in olfactory bulb neurons, that is, type IA currents; (3) alpha 7-subunit-bearing nAChR channels in the hippocampus have a brief lifetime, a high conductance, and a high Ca2+ permeability; (4) the peak amplitude of type IA currents tends to rundown with time, and this rundown can be prevented by the presence of ATP-regenerating compounds (particularly phosphocreatine) in the internal solution; (5) rectification of type IA currents is dependent on the presence of Mg2+ in the internal solution; and (6) there is an ACh-insensitive site on neuronal and nonneuronal nAChRs through which the receptor channel can be activated. These findings lay the groundwork for a better understanding of the physiological role of these receptors in synaptic transmission in the CNS.
ESTHER : Albuquerque_1995_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_757_48
PubMedSearch : Albuquerque_1995_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_757_48
PubMedID: 7611705

Title : Noncompetitive agonism at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors\; functional significance for CNS signal transduction - Maelicke_1995_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_15_333
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Schrattenholz A , Storch A , Schroder B , Gutbrod O , Methfessel C , Weber KH , Pereira EE , Alkondon M , Albuquerque EX
Ref : J Recept Signal Transduct Res , 15 :333 , 1995
Abstract : The alkaloids (-)physostigmine (Phy), galanthamine (Gal) and codeine (Cod), and several derivatives and homologous compounds, can act as noncompetitive agonists (NCA) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) from Torpedo electrocytes, frog and mammalian muscle cells, clonal rat pheochromocytoma cells, cultured hippocampal neurons and several ectopic expression systems, by interacting with a binding site on the alpha-subunits of these nAChRs that is insensitive to the natural transmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), and ACh-competitive agonists and antagonists. Several endogenous ligands, including opioid-type compounds, can also act via this site, albeit at higher concentrations than is typical for the interaction with their cognate receptors. The NCA-evoked responses can be observed at the single-channel level but they do not summate to significant macroscopic currents, suggesting that the major role of NCAs is to act as "co-agonists", thereby potentiating nAChR channel activation by the natural transmitter. In more general terms, noncompetitive agonists may constitute part of a "chemical network", by which intercellular messengers, in addition to serving their cognate receptors, could modulate the sensitivity of other neuroreceptors to their archetypic ligands. Such a mode of action would make centrally acting NCAs interesting candidate drugs in the treatment of neuro-degenerative diseases.
ESTHER : Maelicke_1995_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_15_333
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_1995_J.Recept.Signal.Transduct.Res_15_333
PubMedID: 8903949

Title : Physostigmine, galanthamine and codeine act as 'noncompetitive nicotinic receptor agonists' on clonal rat pheochromocytoma cells - Storch_1995_Eur.J.Pharmacol_290_207
Author(s) : Storch A , Schrattenholz A , Cooper JC , Abdel Ghani EM , Gutbrod O , Weber KH , Reinhardt S , Lobron C , Hermsen B , Soskic V , Pereira EF , Albuquerque EX , Methfessel C , Maelicke A
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 290 :207 , 1995
Abstract : The acetylcholine esterase inhibitor (-)-physostigmine has been shown to act as agonist on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from muscle and brain, by binding to sites on the alpha-polypeptide that are distinct from those for the natural transmitter acetylcholine (Schrder et al., 1994). In the present report we show that (-)-physostigmine, galanthamine, and the morphine derivative codeine activate single-channel currents in outside-out patches excised from clonal rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Although several lines of evidence demonstrate that the three alkaloids act on the same channels as acetylcholine, the competitive nicotinic antagonist methyllycaconitine only inhibited channel activation by acetylcholine but not by (-)-physostigmine, galanthamine or codeine. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody FK1, which competitively inhibits (-)-physostigmine binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, did not affect channel activation by acetylcholine but inhibited activation by (-)-physostigmine, galanthamine and codeine. The three alkaloids therefore act via binding sites distinct from those for acetylcholine, in a 'noncompetitive' fashion. The potency of (-)-physostigmine and related compounds to act as a noncompetitive agonist is unrelated to the level of acetylcholine esterase inhibition induced by these drugs. (-)-Physostigmine, galanthamine and codeine do not evoke sizable whole-cell currents, which is due to the combined effects of low open-channel probability, slow onset and slow inactivation of response. In contrast, they sensitize PC12 cell nicotinic receptors in their submaximal response to acetylcholine. While the abundance of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor isoforms expressed in PC12 cells excludes identification of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes that interact with noncompetitive agonists, the identical patterns of single-channel current amplitudes observed with acetylcholine and with noncompetitive agonists suggested that all PC12 cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes that respond to acetylcholine also respond to noncompetitive agonist. The action of noncompetitive agonists therefore seems to be highly conserved between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, in agreement with the high level of structural conservation in the sequence region harboring major elements of this site.
ESTHER : Storch_1995_Eur.J.Pharmacol_290_207
PubMedSearch : Storch_1995_Eur.J.Pharmacol_290_207
PubMedID: 7589215

Title : Monoclonal antibodies FK1 and WF6 define two neighboring ligand binding sites on Torpedo acetylcholine receptor alpha-polypeptide - Schroder_1994_J.Biol.Chem_269_10407
Author(s) : Schroder B , Reinhardt-Maelicke S , Schrattenholz A , McLane KE , Kretschmer A , Conti-Tronconi BM , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 269 :10407 , 1994
Abstract : Previous studies have identified the sequence region flanking the invariant vicinal cysteinyl residues at positions 192 and 193 of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit as containing major elements of the binding site for acetylcholine and its agonists and antagonists, including antibody WF6 (Conti-Tronconi, B. M., Diethelm, B. M., Wu, X., Tang, F., Bertazzon, T., Schroder, B., Reinhardt-Maelicke, A., and Maelicke, A. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 2575-2584). Recently we have shown that the sequence region flanking lysine alpha 125 contains elements of the binding site for physostigmine and related ligands, including antibody FK1 (Schrattenholz, A., Godovac-Zimmerman, J., Schafer, H.-J., Albuquerque, E. X., and Maelicke, A. (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 216, 671-677). Here we report the identification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, employing fragments of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit N-terminal region and a panel of synthetic peptides matching in sequence preselected portions of this subunit, of the sequence regions alpha 118-145 and alpha 181-216 as contributing to the FK1 epitope. Of the synthetic peptides employed, alpha 118-137 displayed the highest affinity of FK1 binding. Binding of FK1 and WF6 to single residue-substituted analogs of the sequence alpha 181-200 indicated that the two antibodies have different attachment point patterns within this sequence region. These results, and those of ligand competition studies, suggest that the binding sites for FK1 and physostigmine, and those of WF6 and acetylcholine, are within the same general region of the receptor's three-dimensional structure. The sites neighbor each other, with limited overlap in the case of occupation by high molecular weight ligands.
ESTHER : Schroder_1994_J.Biol.Chem_269_10407
PubMedSearch : Schroder_1994_J.Biol.Chem_269_10407
PubMedID: 8144624

Title : Diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal neurons. II. The rundown and inward rectification of agonist-elicited whole-cell currents and identification of receptor subunits by in situ hybridization - Alkondon_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_271_494
Author(s) : Alkondon M , Reinhardt S , Lobron C , Hermsen B , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 271 :494 , 1994
Abstract : Our previous study demonstrated for the first time that nicotinic currents evoked in rat hippocampal neurons could be grouped into four categories (types IA, IB, II and III) according to their functional and pharmacological characteristics. In the second part of our continuing studies, the structural and functional diversity of nicotinic receptors expressed in hippocampal neurons was further explored. Type IA, the predominant and alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive current, but not type II, the alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive current, showed rundown in the peak amplitude during the whole-cell recording. The rundown of type IA currents could be prevented when the ATP-regenerating compound phosphocreatine, alone or in combination with ATP and creatine phosphokinase, was added to the internal recording solution. The addition to the internal solution of either the microfilament-stabilizing agent phalloidin (5 microM) or the microtubule-stabilizing agent taxol (50 microM) did not alter or prevent rundown in type IA currents. Type IA and type II currents showed inward rectification. The inward rectification of type IA currents was dependent on the presence of intracellular Mg++, whereas that of type II currents was independent of Mg++. When Mg++ was present in the internal pipette solution, the inward rectification of type IA currents was sustained throughout the recording time. However, when nominally Mg(++)-free internal solution was used, the inward rectification decreased with recording time in type IA currents, but not in type II currents, as a consequence of removal of intracellular Mg++. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of alpha 7-, alpha 4- and beta 2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in cultured hippocampal neurons. The distribution among the neurons of the mRNAs for alpha 7- and alpha 4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, correlated with the frequency with which type IA and type II currents, respectively, could be evoked in these neurons. The present results provide evidence for 1) the presence of intracellular high-energy phosphate-dependent processes linked with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subserving type IA currents, 2) a requirement of intracellular Mg++ for the inward rectification of type IA currents and 3) a correlation between the distribution of nAChR subunits and the different probabilities of eliciting distinct types of nicotinic currents in hippocampal neurons.
ESTHER : Alkondon_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_271_494
PubMedSearch : Alkondon_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_271_494
PubMedID: 7525930

Title : Physostigmine and galanthamine: probes for a novel binding site on the alpha 4 beta 2 subtype of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors stably expressed in fibroblast cells - Pereira_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_270_768
Author(s) : Pereira EF , Alkondon M , Reinhardt S , Maelicke A , Peng X , Lindstrom JM , Whiting P , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 270 :768 , 1994
Abstract : In the present study, we demonstrated that the chicken alpha 4 beta 2 neuronal nicotinic receptor stably expressed in transfected mouse fibroblasts (M10 cells) can be activated via the acetylcholine-binding site or via a site that is distinct from that for acetylcholine and recognizes physostigmine and galanthamine as agonists. In outside-out patches excised from dexamethasone-induced M10 cells, (+)-anatoxin-a, physostigmine and galanthamine (each at 1 microM) activated single channels with conductances of 18 and 30 pS. Dihydro-beta-erythroidine (1-30 nM), but not the nicotinic receptor-specific monoclonal antibody FK1, reduced the frequency of channels activated by anatoxin (1 microM). On the other hand, the frequency of channel activity induced by physostigmine (1 microM) was unaffected by dihydro-beta-erythroidine and was markedly decreased by FK1. In uninduced M10 cells and in dexamethasone-treated untransfected fibroblasts, we observed that physostigmine, galanthamine and nicotinic agonists did not evoke whole-cell or single-channel currents. Also, neither [3H]L-nicotine nor FK1 was able to bind to uninduced M10 cells. In dexamethasone-induced M10 cells, the nicotinic agonists acetylcholine, anatoxin, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, (-)-nicotine, and cytisine (each at 100 microM) activated whole-cell currents that showed a marked inward rectification and were sensitive to blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (100 nM). However, neither galanthamine nor physostigmine could evoke whole-cell currents in cells that were responsive to nicotinic agonists. Other effects of physostigmine and galanthamine on the nicotinic receptor that outweight the agonist properties of these compounds could account for their inability to evoke whole-cell currents.
ESTHER : Pereira_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_270_768
PubMedSearch : Pereira_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_270_768
PubMedID: 8071869

Title : Identification of purine binding sites on Torpedo acetylcholine receptor - Schrattenholz_1994_J.Recept.Res_14_197
Author(s) : Schrattenholz A , Roth U , Schuhen A , Schafer HJ , Godovac-Zimmermann J , Albuquerque EX , Maelicke A
Ref : J Recept Res , 14 :197 , 1994
Abstract : Electrophysiological studies from this and other laboratories have suggested a direct action of ATP on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). To determine the site of binding of this purine derivative, we have covalently modified the nAChR from Torpedo marmorata electrocytes employing 2-[3H]-8-azido-ATP as a photoactivable affinity label. Covalently attached radioactivity was predominantly found in the beta-polypeptide of the receptor. Based on the results of protection studies with several nAChR ligands whose target sites at the receptor are known, we conclude that the purine site(s) differ from those of acetylcholine and of physostigmine, galanthamine and related ligands, and those of local anesthetics.
ESTHER : Schrattenholz_1994_J.Recept.Res_14_197
PubMedSearch : Schrattenholz_1994_J.Recept.Res_14_197
PubMedID: 8083864

Title : A novel agonist binding site on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - Pereira_1993_J.Recept.Res_13_413
Author(s) : Pereira EF , Alkondon M , Tano T , Castro NG , Froes-Ferrao MM , Rozental R , Aronstam RS , Schrattenholz A , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : J Recept Res , 13 :413 , 1993
Abstract : This report provides evidence that physostigmine (Phy) and benzoquinonium (BZQ) are able to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) through binding site(s) distinct from those of the natural transmitter, ACh. Such findings are in agreement with a second pathway of activation of nAChRs. Receptor activation may be modulated through the novel site, and, consequently, physiological processes involving nicotinic synapses could be controlled. Using patch clamp techniques, single channel currents activated by ACh and anatoxin were recorded from frog interosseal muscle fibers under cell-attached condition and outside-out patches excised from cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Whole cell nicotinic currents were also studied in the cultured neurons. In most of the neurons, nicotinic responses were blocked by the nicotinic antagonists methyllycaconitine (MLA) and alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT). Evaluation of the effects of Phy and BZQ on the muscle and on the alpha-BGT- and MLA-sensitive neuronal nAChRs demonstrated that both compounds were open channel blockers at these receptors. Furthermore, at low micromolar concentrations, Phy and BZQ activated the nAChRs of all preparations tested, such an effect being unexpectedly resistant to alpha-BGT or MLA. Thus, the nAChRs could be activated via two distinct binding sites: one for ACh and the other for Phy and BZQ. These findings and previous biochemical results led us to suggest that a putative endogenous ligand could bind to the new site and thereby regulate the activation of nAChRs in nicotinic synapses.
ESTHER : Pereira_1993_J.Recept.Res_13_413
PubMedSearch : Pereira_1993_J.Recept.Res_13_413
PubMedID: 8450498

Title : Identification and functional characterization of a new agonist site on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of cultured hippocampal neurons - Pereira_1993_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_265_1474
Author(s) : Pereira EF , Reinhardt-Maelicke S , Schrattenholz A , Maelicke A , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 265 :1474 , 1993
Abstract : Electrophysiological and biochemical techniques were used to demonstrate that alpha-bungarotoxin-, methyllycaconitine-sensitive neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can be activated via a novel agonist site(s). The residue proposed to be essential to this site is the amino acid Lys-125 of the receptor alpha subunit. In outside-out patches excised from cultured hippocampal neurons, physostigmine (PHY) and 1-methyl-PHY activated single channels whose main conductances were 46 and 23 pS. This action was insensitive to DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, atropine, tetrodotoxin and competitive nicotinic antagonists, but blocked by benzoquinonium or FK1, a nAChR-specific antibody raised against rat muscle nAChR alpha subunits that binds to the novel site. Indirect immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that FK1 binds to the hippocampal neurons, as would be expected based on the high degree of homology among nAChR alpha subunits from diverse sources in the region surrounding Lys-125. PHY prevented the binding of FK1, thus supporting that FK1 is a specific probe for the PHY site. High-affinity sites (KD approximately 35 nM) for 1-methyl-PHY were identified in hippocampal neurons. Similar to PHY, benzoquinonium (0.1-10 microM) and galanthamine (1-10 microM) activated nicotinic single channels. The agonists benzoquinonium and PHY were also open-channel blockers at the neuronal nAChRs, whereas galanthamine was predominantly a desensitizing agent. In mouse fibroblasts transfected with cDNAs of alpha 4 and beta 2 neuronal nAChR subunits, PHY also activated single channels that were blocked by FK1. In these cells, dihydro-beta-erythroidine blocked single channels activated by (+)-anatoxin-a and did not affect those opened by PHY. Thus, the present results suggest that the novel agonist site located on the receptor alpha subunit is a common feature of neuronal nAChRs.
ESTHER : Pereira_1993_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_265_1474
PubMedSearch : Pereira_1993_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_265_1474
PubMedID: 8510023

Title : Physostigmine and neuromuscular transmission - Maelicke_1993_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_681_140
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Coban T , Schrattenholz A , Schroder B , Reinhardt-Maelicke S , Storch A , Godovac-Zimmermann J , Methfessel C , Pereira EF , Albuquerque EX
Ref : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 681 :140 , 1993
Abstract : Single channel studies carried out in cultured rat myoballs and cultured hippocampal neurons, and ion flux studies performed on Torpedo electrocyte membrane vesicles, showed that physostigmine (Phy), a well-established acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, interacts directly with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Low concentrations (0.1 microM) of Phy activate the receptor integral channel, whereas higher concentrations blocked the channel in its opened state. In contrast to channel activation by acetylcholine (ACh) and classical cholinergic agonists, however, Phy was capable of activating the nAChR channel even when the ACh binding sites were blocked by competitive antagonists, such as alpha-neurotoxins and d-tubocurarine, or when the nAChR was desensitized by preincubation with high concentrations of ACh. The binding site at which Phy binds and activates the nAChR was mapped. It was located within the N-terminal extracellular region of the alpha-polypeptide, in close proximity to the binding site of the natural transmitter. These data identify a novel binding site at nAChRs from many species and tissues that may be involved in receptor regulatory processes.
ESTHER : Maelicke_1993_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_681_140
PubMedSearch : Maelicke_1993_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_681_140
PubMedID: 8395146

Title : Biochemical characterization of a novel channel-activating site on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - Schrattenholz_1993_J.Recept.Res_13_393
Author(s) : Schrattenholz A , Coban T , Schroder B , Okonjo KO , Kuhlmann J , Pereira EF , Albuquerque EX , Maelicke A
Ref : J Recept Res , 13 :393 , 1993
Abstract : We have studied the interaction of the reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor (-)physostigmine and several structurally related compounds with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata electric tissue by means of ligand-induced ion flux into nAChR-rich membrane vesicles, direct binding studies and photoaffinity labeling. (-)Physostigmine acts as a channel-activating ligand at low concentrations and as a direct channel blocker at elevated concentrations. Channel activation is not inhibited by desensitizing concentrations of ACh or ACh-competitive ligands (including alpha-bungarotoxin and D-tubocurarine) but is inhibited by antibody FK1 and several other compounds. From photoaffinity labeling using tritiated physostigmine and mapping of the epitope for the Phy-competitive antibody FK1, the binding site for physostigmine is located within the alpha-subunit of the Torpedo nAChR and is distinct from the acetylcholine binding site. Our data suggest a second pathway of nAChR channel activation that may function physiologically as an allosteric control of receptor activity.
ESTHER : Schrattenholz_1993_J.Recept.Res_13_393
PubMedSearch : Schrattenholz_1993_J.Recept.Res_13_393
PubMedID: 7680720

Title : Photoaffinity labeling of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor by physostigmine - Schrattenholz_1993_Eur.J.Biochem_216_671
Author(s) : Schrattenholz A , Godovac-Zimmermann J , Schafer HJ , Albuquerque EX , Maelicke A
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 216 :671 , 1993
Abstract : The plant alkaloid physostigmine, an established anti-cholinesterase agent of the carbamate type, has recently been shown to bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata electrocytes [Okonjo, K. O., Kuhlmann, J. & Maelicke, A. (1991) Eur. J. Biochem. 200, 671-677]. Pharmacological studies of physostigmine-induced ion flux into nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-rich membrane vesicles, indicated distinct binding sites for physostigmine and acetylcholine. As shown in this study by photoaffinity labeling with [phenyl-(n)-3H](-)physostigmine, the physostigmine-binding site is located within the same subunit (alpha polypeptide) of the receptor as the acetylcholine-binding site. Using a variety of proteolytic cleavage conditions for the purified alpha polypeptide, several [3H]physostigmine-labeled peptides were isolated and sequenced. From the radioactivity released in the course of the Edman degradations of the labeled peptides, it was found that the label was associated in all cases with Lys125. These results identify a novel ligand-binding site for the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that is different in location from binding sites identified previously for acetylcholine, its established agonists and antagonists, and direct channel blockers.
ESTHER : Schrattenholz_1993_Eur.J.Biochem_216_671
PubMedSearch : Schrattenholz_1993_Eur.J.Biochem_216_671
PubMedID: 8375401

Title : Peptidergic and cholinergic receptors on cultured astrocytes of different regions of the rat CNS -
Author(s) : Hosli L , Hosli E , Maelicke A , Schroder H
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 94 :317 , 1992
PubMedID: 1337614

Title : Desensitization is a property of the cholinergic binding region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, not of the receptor-integral ion channel - Kuhlmann_1991_FEBS.Lett_279_216
Author(s) : Kuhlmann J , Okonjo KO , Maelicke A
Ref : FEBS Letters , 279 :216 , 1991
Abstract : The reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor (-)-physostigmine (eserine) is the prototype of a new class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activating ligands: it induces cation fluxes into nAChR-rich membrane vesicles from Torpedo marmorata electric tissue even under conditions of antagonist blocked acetylcholine binding sites (Okonjo, Kuhlmann, Maelicke, Neuron, in press). This suggests that eserine exerts its channel-activating property via binding sites at the nAChR separate from those of the natural transmitter. We now report that eserine can activate the channel even when the receptor has been preincubated (desensitized) with elevated concentrations of acetylcholine. Thus the conformational state of the receptor corresponding to desensitization is confined to the transmitter binding region, leaving the channel fully activatable-albeit only from other than the transmitter binding site(s).
ESTHER : Kuhlmann_1991_FEBS.Lett_279_216
PubMedSearch : Kuhlmann_1991_FEBS.Lett_279_216
PubMedID: 1705896

Title : Acetylcholine esterase: the structure -
Author(s) : Maelicke A
Ref : Trends in Biochemical Sciences , 16 :355 , 1991
PubMedID: 1785133

Title : Nicotinic cholinoceptive neurons of the frontal cortex are reduced in Alzheimer's disease - Schroder_1991_Neurobiol.Aging_12_259
Author(s) : Schroder H , Giacobini E , Struble RG , Zilles K , Maelicke A
Ref : Neurobiology of Aging , 12 :259 , 1991
Abstract : The cellular distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was studied in the frontal cortex (area 10) of 1) Alzheimer patients and compared to 2) age-matched and 3) middle-aged controls using the monoclonal antibody WF 6 and an immunoperoxidase protocol. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the number of labeled neurons among all three groups tested (middle-aged controls greater than aged controls greater than Alzheimer cases). No differences were seen for cresyl violet-stained samples. These findings underline that the nicotinic receptor decrease found with radioligand binding may reflect a postsynaptic in addition to a presynaptic component.
ESTHER : Schroder_1991_Neurobiol.Aging_12_259
PubMedSearch : Schroder_1991_Neurobiol.Aging_12_259
PubMedID: 1876232

Title : Cellular distribution and expression of cortical acetylcholine receptors in aging and Alzheimer's disease - Schroder_1991_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_640_189
Author(s) : Schroder H , Giacobini E , Struble RG , Zilles K , Maelicke A , Luiten PG , Strosberg AD
Ref : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 640 :189 , 1991
Abstract : Ligand binding studies show marked reductions of nicotinic, but not of muscarinic binding sites in Alzheimer's disease. Using monoclonal antibodies we studied immunohistochemically the expression of the respective receptor proteins in the frontal cortex of middle-aged (55 +/- 5 yr) controls, age-matched controls (73 +/- 6 yr), and patients with Alzheimer's disease (74 +/- 5 yr). Density of nicotinic cholinoceptive neurons was 8000/mm3 for middle-aged controls and 4000/mm3 for age-matched controls, but only 900/mm3 in Alzheimer's brains (p less than 0.0001). Densities of muscarinic cholinoceptive and of Nissl-stained neurons were not significantly different between the groups, pointing to a selective decrease of nicotinic receptor protein expression in cortical neurons with aging and in Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Schroder_1991_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_640_189
PubMedSearch : Schroder_1991_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_640_189
PubMedID: 1776738

Title : A second pathway of activation of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor channel - Okonjo_1991_Eur.J.Biochem_200_671
Author(s) : Okonjo KO , Kuhlmann J , Maelicke A
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 200 :671 , 1991
Abstract : We have studied the interaction of the reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor (-)physostigmine (D-eserine) with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata electric tissue by means of ligand-induced ion flux into nAChR-rich membrane vesicles and of equilibrium binding. We find that (-) physostigmine induces cation flux (and also binds to the receptor) even in the presence of saturating concentrations of antagonists of acetylcholine, such as D-tubocurarine, alpha-bungarotoxin or antibody WF6. The direct action on the acetylcholine receptor is not affected by removal of the methylcarbamate function from the drug and thus is not due to carbamylation of the receptor. Antibodies FK1 and benzoquinonium antagonize channel activation (and binding) of eserine, suggesting that the eserine binding site(s) is separate from, but adjacent to, the acetylcholine binding site at the receptor. In addition to the channel activating site(s) with an affinity of binding in the 50 microM range, there exists a further class of low-affinity (Kd approximately mM) sites from which eserine acts as a direct blocker of the acetylcholine-activated channel. Our results suggest the existence of a second pathway of activation of the nAChR channel.
ESTHER : Okonjo_1991_Eur.J.Biochem_200_671
PubMedSearch : Okonjo_1991_Eur.J.Biochem_200_671
PubMedID: 1717267

Title : Structure and Function of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor -
Author(s) : Maelicke A
Ref : Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology , 86 :267 , 1988

Title : Immunochemical characterization of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis - Kyriatsoulis_1988_J.Hepatol_6_283
Author(s) : Kyriatsoulis A , Manns M , Gerken G , Lohse AW , Maelicke A , Wessler I , Reske K , Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH
Ref : Journal of Hepatology , 6 :283 , 1988
Abstract : Although the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies is the main characteristic of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), other autoantibodies have been described in this disease. This study employs immunoblot methods to test whether the sera of PBC patients also contain antibodies directed against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR). We show that the majority of patients' sera indeed react with AChR just as sera of myasthenic patients do. In contrast, however, these anti-AChR antibodies do not lead to significant clinical symptoms of myasthenia. In all cases studied, PBC sera recognized a protein with the molecular weight of the alpha-chain of acetylcholine receptor (40 kDa). In addition, with both liver mitochondria and AChR-rich membranes as antigens, PBC sera reacted with proteins with apparent molecular weights around 68 kDa and the same pI values. This protein is not present in purified AChR preparations. These data suggest structural, if not functional, relationships between membrane components of liver mitochondria and muscle endplates.
ESTHER : Kyriatsoulis_1988_J.Hepatol_6_283
PubMedSearch : Kyriatsoulis_1988_J.Hepatol_6_283
PubMedID: 3292637

Title : Equilibrium binding of cholinergic ligands to the membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor - Covarrubias_1986_J.Biol.Chem_261_14955
Author(s) : Covarrubias M , Prinz H , Meyers HW , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 261 :14955 , 1986
Abstract : We have studied the binding equilibria of the membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata with representative cholinergic ligands by means of two fluorescence and a rapid centrifugation assay. Based on the established mechanism of acetylcholine binding to the receptor (Fels, G., Wolff, E. K., and Maelicke, A. (1982) Eur. J. Biochem. 127, 31-38), the obtained binding and competition data were analyzed assuming two classes of interacting sites for all ligands studied. The experimental data were consistent with this assumption and, based on the obtained KD values, suggest weak positively cooperative interactions of binding sites when occupied by agonists but independent (or negatively cooperative interacting) sites when occupied by antagonists. Based on the fluorescence binding assay employed, agonists and antagonists induce different conformational states of the liganded receptor. These states seem to be similar for all antagonists tested but differ for the different agonists tested. The existence of ligand-specific conformational states suggests a close link of these states with receptor function.
ESTHER : Covarrubias_1986_J.Biol.Chem_261_14955
PubMedSearch : Covarrubias_1986_J.Biol.Chem_261_14955
PubMedID: 3771559

Title : Ligand-specific state transitions of the membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor - Covarrubias_1984_FEBS.Lett_169_229
Author(s) : Covarrubias M , Prinz H , Maelicke A
Ref : FEBS Letters , 169 :229 , 1984
Abstract : We have developed a simple, direct and time-resolved method to monitor ligand-induced changes in agonist affinity of the membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor. The assay is based on the quenching of fluorescence of NBD-5-acylcholine observed upon binding of this cholinergic agonist to the receptor. Under conditions of partial saturation with the fluorescent agonist, agonists and local anesthetics but not antagonists can induce an increase in affinity of the receptor for NBD-5-acylcholine. The effect is not observed with receptor fully saturated with the fluorescent agonist. The half-life of the observed change in affinity is independent of the nature of the agonist or local anesthetic applied (t1/2 approximately 60 s at 22 degrees C). We conclude that the same state transition of the receptor can be induced by two groups of cholinergic ligands that are assumed to be non-competitive with each other and to have distinctly different modes of action. The time course of the transition is reminiscent of the slow process of desensitization observed in vivo.
ESTHER : Covarrubias_1984_FEBS.Lett_169_229
PubMedSearch : Covarrubias_1984_FEBS.Lett_169_229
PubMedID: 6714426

Title : Appendix. Synthesis of NBD-5-acylcholine -
Author(s) : Jurss R , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 258 :10272 , 1983
PubMedID: 6885780

Title : Synthesis and properties of NBD-n-acylcholines, fluorescent analogs of acetylcholine - Meyers_1983_Eur.J.Biochem_137_399
Author(s) : Meyers HW , Jurss R , Brenner HR , Fels G , Prinz H , Watzke H , Maelicke A
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 137 :399 , 1983
Abstract : We have synthesized a homologous series of fluorescent analogs of acetylcholine, N-7-(4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazolyl)-omega-amino-n-alkanoic acid beta (N,N,N-trialkylammonium) ethylesters (NBD-n-acylcholines) and report here on their physiological and biochemical properties. All NBD-n-acylcholines trimethylated at the cholinergic nitrogen are agonists of acetylcholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. Their potencies in depolarizing frog muscle cells decrease with decreasing chain length. The affinities of binding to the purified receptor from Electrophorus electricus also decrease with decreasing chain length with a large drop in affinity for the derivatives n = 4 and n = 3. The rate constants of association to acetylcholine receptor and to acetylcholine esterase are of the order of 10(8) M-1 S-1 and do not vary significantly with the chain length of the NBD-n-acylcholines. In contrast, the dissociation rate constants decrease with increasing chain length. The quenching of fluorescence of NBD-n-acylcholines accompanying binding to purified receptor and esterase from E. electricus appears to be due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the omega-amino group as donor and an unidentified acceptor group in a hydrophobic pocket of the protein. With their advantageous fluorescence properties, their simple pharmacology, and their clear structure-function relationships, these compounds are useful tools for the study of cholinergic mechanisms.
ESTHER : Meyers_1983_Eur.J.Biochem_137_399
PubMedSearch : Meyers_1983_Eur.J.Biochem_137_399
PubMedID: 6607162

Title : Interaction of cholinergic ligands with the purified acetylcholine receptor protein. I. Equilibrium binding studies - Prinz_1983_J.Biol.Chem_258_10263
Author(s) : Prinz H , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 258 :10263 , 1983
Abstract : We have studied the binding equilibria of two fluorescent ligands and several nonfluorescent cholinergic ligands with the purified acetylcholine receptor from Electrophorus electricus. The assay was based on the specifically cholinergic and reversible quenching of fluorescence observed upon complex formation between the receptor protein and N-7-(4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)-5-aminopentanoic acid beta-(N-trimethylammonium) ethyl ester. This way, a large body of accurate, true equilibrium data was obtained. We find 1) all ligands studied compete for the same number of binding sites at the receptor; 2) agonists compete for half of these sites with high affinity and for the other half of these sites with significantly lower affinity; 3) antagonists compete for all of these sites with one affinity; and 4) in the presence of disulfide reducing agents, the binding patterns of some agonists and antagonists are changed in accordance with the electrophysiological changes observed under the same conditions with Rana pipiens Sartorius muscle fibers. Our studies indicate that the mechanism of ligand recognition is still functional at equilibrium and is not subject to the presence of an intact membrane environment. Furthermore, the existence of two types of agonist sites at every receptor molecule excludes most of the presently discussed two-state models as the basis for a mechanism of receptor-ligand interaction. To explain sigmoidal dose-response curves, a two-site model is already sufficient.
ESTHER : Prinz_1983_J.Biol.Chem_258_10263
PubMedSearch : Prinz_1983_J.Biol.Chem_258_10263
PubMedID: 6885779

Title : Interaction of cholinergic ligands with the purified acetylcholine receptor protein. II. Kinetic studies - Prinz_1983_J.Biol.Chem_258_10273
Author(s) : Prinz H , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 258 :10273 , 1983
Abstract : We have studied the kinetics of interaction of N-7-(4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3,diazole)-5-aminopentanoic acid beta-(N-trimethylammonium) ethyl ester with the purified acetylcholine receptor from Electrophorus electricus. By employing a laser stopped flow fluorimeter, the full course of the kinetics was observed. The initial analysis of data yielded the following results. 1) Both association and dissociation kinetics are composed of several overlapping reaction steps. 2) Dissociation of monoliganded receptor is biphasic. This indicates the existence of two forms in equilibrium of the monoliganded receptor. 3) Displacement of fluorescent ligand by competing ligand follows a more complicated pattern. In particular, the late stages of the dissociation kinetics are increasingly slowed down the higher the concentration of competing ligand. This indicates a strictly ordered mode of association and dissociation, i.e. first on-last off for cholinergic ligands and the receptor. These and the previous finding of two agonist binding sites at the receptor (Prinz, H., and Maelicke, A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 10263-10272) were employed to develop minimal reaction schemes that can account for the experimental data. They require two sites but four different ligand-receptor complexes and a strictly ordered mode of binding. The reaction schemes were used to simultaneously fit whole sets of association and dissociation kinetics. The fits reinforced the conclusions drawn by the initial analysis and also provided the rate constants for all reaction steps considered in the schemes. The following additional results were obtained. 4) One form of the monoliganded and diliganded receptor are formed with very large rate constants (greater than 2 X 10(8) M-1 s-1); the other complexes are formed more slowly. 5) The rapidly formed diliganded receptor (AR-A) has a rather short half-life while the other form of diliganded receptor (AR*A) develops more slowly and dominates at equilibrium. The obtained reaction schemes and rate constants invite comparison with physiological data. For example, the properties of the two forms of diliganded receptor correlate with those of the active and desensitized state of the endplate as defined by electrophysiological studies.
ESTHER : Prinz_1983_J.Biol.Chem_258_10273
PubMedSearch : Prinz_1983_J.Biol.Chem_258_10273
PubMedID: 6885781

Title : Interaction of acetylcholine esterase with fluorescent analogs of acetylcholine -
Author(s) : Jurss R , Maelicke A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 256 :2887 , 1981
PubMedID: 7204380

Title : Agonist-activated ionic channels in acetylcholine receptor reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers - Boheim_1981_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_78_3586
Author(s) : Boheim G , Hanke W , Barrantes FJ , Eibl H , Sakmann B , Fels G , Maelicke A
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 78 :3586 , 1981
Abstract : Planar lipid bilayers were formed with the mixed chain phospholipid 1-stearoyl-3-myristolglycero-2-phosphocholine. Acetylcholine receptor membrane fragments or the purified receptor protein was incorporated into these bilayers by fusing receptor-containing vesicles with the planar membranes a few degrees below the lipid phase transition temperature. Single-channel currents activated by nicotinic agonists in the reconstituted system resembled those observed in intact rat and frog muscle membrane as measured by the patch clamp technique. The observed channel characteristics did not depend on the degree of receptor purification. Thus, the receptor-enriched fragments and those depleted of nonreceptor peripheral peptides, the purified receptor monomer/dimer mixtures, and the isolated receptor monomer as defined by gel electrophoresis all shared similar electrochemical properties in the synthetic lipid bilayer. The agonist-activated ionic channel seems, therefore, to be contained within the receptor monomer.
ESTHER : Boheim_1981_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_78_3586
PubMedSearch : Boheim_1981_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_78_3586
PubMedID: 6267599

Title : NBD-5-acylcholine: fluorescent analog of acetylcholine and agonist at the neuromuscular junction - Jurss_1979_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_76_1064
Author(s) : Jurss R , Prinz H , Maelicke A
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 76 :1064 , 1979
Abstract : We have studied the properties of N-7-(4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)-omega-aminohexanoic acid beta-(N-trimethylammonium)ethyl ester, a fluorescent analog of acetylcholine at the cellular level by using pharmacological and electrophysiological techniques and at the molecular level by measuring the kinetics of interaction with solubilized acetylcholine receptor and with acetylcholine esterase (EC The fluorescent drug is a powerful agonist of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and also strongly desensitizes muscle fibers. Interaction with acetylcholine receptor is accompanied by large changes in the drug's fluorescence. From the kinetics of interaction studied by means of a stopped-flow fluorimeter with laser light source, we obtained a second-order forward rate constant in excess of 1 X 10(8) M-1 sec-1 and an initial dissociation rate constant (k1) of 0.5 sec-1 for receptor from Electrophorous electricus. Interaction of this analog with acetylcholine esterase from E. electricus is accompanied by a transient decrease in fluorescence followed by an increase leading to a stable plateau value at a level near the original one. The initial decrease in fluorescence followed second-order kinetics with k2 of the order of 10(9) M-1 sec-1. The slower consecutive reaction which could be blocked by phosphorylation of the esteratic site, was of first order with k1 = 0.05 sec-1.
ESTHER : Jurss_1979_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_76_1064
PubMedSearch : Jurss_1979_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_76_1064
PubMedID: 312497

Title : Metabolism of acetylcholine receptor in chick embryo muscle cells: effects of RSV and PMA - Miskin_1978_Cell_15_1287
Author(s) : Miskin R , Easton TG , Maelicke A , Reich E
Ref : Cell , 15 :1287 , 1978
Abstract : We have investigated some aspects of the metabolism of the integral membrane protein acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in normal and transformed cultures of chick embryo muscle cells. Turnover of AChR in control muscle cell cultures was compared with turnover in cultures infected and transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and with cultures treated with the tumor promoter phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The parameters of AChR metabolism were estimated using 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin as a stoichiometric high affinity ligand for the AChR. We found that both RSV transformation and PMA increased the rate of degradation and decreased the rate of synthesis of AChR. The consequent reduction in steady state receptor levels suggests that oncogenic transformation and tumor promoter significantly alter the metabolism of cell surface membranes. We also observed that parameters of AChR metabolism in control cultures changed systematically in a pattern which depended upon the age of the culture as well as the use of embryo extract or fetal bovine serum as medium supplements. The muscle cell system allows quantitative measurement of an integral membrane protein and its metabolism, and may serve as a more general model for alterations in membrane and surface receptor metabolism associated with the transformed state.
ESTHER : Miskin_1978_Cell_15_1287
PubMedSearch : Miskin_1978_Cell_15_1287
PubMedID: 215321

Title : Acetylcholine receptor. Responses to drug binding -
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Fulpius BW , Klett RP , Reich E
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 252 :4811 , 1977
PubMedID: 873918

Title : On the interaction between cobra alpha-neurotoxin and the acetylcholine receptor -
Author(s) : Maelicke A , Reich E
Ref : Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology , 40 :231 , 1976
PubMedID: 1065526

Title : The acetylcholine receptor: studies of the interaction with Alpha-Neurotoxin from Naja naja Siamensis -
Author(s) : Fulpius BW , Maelicke A , Klett RP , Reich E
Ref : Cholinergic.Mechanisms, Raven Press :375 , 1975