Wang JY

References (24)

Title : New Series of Zaxinone Mimics (MiZax) for Fundamental and Applied Research - Jamil_2023_Biomolecules_13_
Author(s) : Jamil M , Lin PY , Berqdar L , Wang JY , Takahashi I , Ota T , Alhammad N , Chen GE , Asami T , Al-Babili S
Ref : Biomolecules , 13 : , 2023
Abstract : The apocarotenoid zaxinone is a recently discovered regulatory metabolite required for proper rice growth and development. In addition, zaxinone and its two mimics (MiZax3 and MiZax5) were shown to have a remarkable growth-promoting activity on crops and a capability to reduce infestation by the root parasitic plant Striga through decreasing strigolactone (SL) production, suggesting their potential for application in agriculture and horticulture. In the present study, we developed a new series of MiZax via structural modification of the two potent zaxinone mimics (MiZax3 and MiZax5) and evaluated their effect on plant growth and Striga infestation. In general, the structural modifications to MiZax3 and MiZax5 did not additionally improve their overall performance but caused an increase in certain activities. In conclusion, MiZax5 and especially MiZax3 remain the likely most efficient zaxinone mimics for controlling Striga infestation.
ESTHER : Jamil_2023_Biomolecules_13_
PubMedSearch : Jamil_2023_Biomolecules_13_
PubMedID: 37627271

Title : Does zaxinone counteract strigolactones in shaping rice architecture? - Wang_2023_Plant.Signal.Behav_18_2184127
Author(s) : Wang JY , Braguy J , Al-Babili S
Ref : Plant Signal Behav , 18 :2184127 , 2023
Abstract : The cleavage of plant carotenoids leads to apocarotenoids, a group of metabolites including precursors of the hormones strigolactones (SLs) and abscisic acid, regulatory and signaling molecules. Zaxinone is a recently discovered apocarotenoid growth regulator that improves growth and suppress SL biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa). To test if zaxinone also counteracts the growth regulatory effects of SLs in rice, we co-supplied zaxinone and the synthetic SL analog rac-GR24 to the rice SL-deficient DWARF17 (d17) mutant. Results showed that co-application of GR24 and zaxinone still rescued d17 phenotype, indicating that zaxinone and GR24 act independently in regulating root and shoot growth and development in rice.
ESTHER : Wang_2023_Plant.Signal.Behav_18_2184127
PubMedSearch : Wang_2023_Plant.Signal.Behav_18_2184127
PubMedID: 36855265

Title : Zaxinone mimics (MiZax) efficiently promote growth and production of potato and strawberry plants under desert climate conditions - Wang_2023_Sci.Rep_13_17438
Author(s) : Wang JY , Jamil M , AlOtaibi TS , Abdelaziz ME , Ota T , Ibrahim OH , Berqdar L , Asami T , Ahmed Mousa MA , Al-Babili S
Ref : Sci Rep , 13 :17438 , 2023
Abstract : Climate changes and the rapid expanding human population have become critical concerns for global food security. One of the promising solutions is the employment of plant growth regulators (PGRs) for increasing crop yield and overcoming adverse growth conditions, such as desert climate. Recently, the apocarotenoid zaxinone and its two mimics (MiZax3 and MiZax5) have shown a promising growth-promoting activity in cereals and vegetable crops under greenhouse and field conditions. Herein, we further investigated the effect of MiZax3 and MiZax5, at different concentrations (5 and 10 microM in 2021; 2.5 and 5 microM in 2022), on the growth and yield of the two valuable vegetable crops, potato and strawberry, in the Kingdom of Saudi of Arabia. Application of both MiZax significantly increased plant agronomic traits, yield components and total yield, in five independent field trials from 2021 to 2022. Remarkably, the amount of applied MiZax was far less than humic acid, a widely applied commercial compound used here for comparison. Hence, our results indicate that MiZax are very promising PGRs that can be applied to promote the growth and yield of vegetable crops even under desert conditions and at relatively low concentrations.
ESTHER : Wang_2023_Sci.Rep_13_17438
PubMedSearch : Wang_2023_Sci.Rep_13_17438
PubMedID: 37838798

Title : Rational design of Striga hermonthica-specific seed germination inhibitors - Zarban_2022_Plant.Physiol_188_1369
Author(s) : Zarban RA , Hameed UFS , Jamil M , Ota T , Wang JY , Arold ST , Asami T , Al-Babili S
Ref : Plant Physiol , 188 :1369 , 2022
Abstract : The obligate hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica grows on cereal roots and presents a severe threat to global food security by causing enormous yield losses, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The rapidly increasing Striga seed bank in infested soils provides a major obstacle in controlling this weed. Striga seeds require host-derived strigolactones (SLs) for germination, and corresponding antagonists could be used as germination inhibitors. Recently, we demonstrated that the common detergent Triton X-100 is a specific inhibitor of Striga seed germination by binding noncovalently to its receptor, S. hermonthica HYPO-SENSITIVE TO LIGHT 7 (ShHTL7), without blocking the rice (Oryza sativa) SL receptor DWARF14 (OsD14). Moreover, triazole ureas, the potent covalently binding antagonists of rice SL perception with much higher activity toward OsD14, showed inhibition of Striga but were less specific. Considering that Triton X-100 is not suitable for field application and by combining structural elements of Triton and triazole urea, we developed two hybrid compounds, KK023-N1 and KK023-N2, as potential Striga-specific germination inhibitors. Both compounds blocked the hydrolysis activity of ShHTL7 but did not affect that of OsD14. Binding of KK023-N1 diminished ShHTL7 interaction with S. hermonthica MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2, a major component in SL signal transduction, and increased ShHTL7 thermal specificity. Docking studies indicate that KK023-N1 binding is not covalent but is caused by hydrophobic interactions. Finally, in vitro and greenhouse tests revealed specific inhibition of Striga seed germination, which led to a 38% reduction in Striga infestation in pot experiments. These findings reveal that KK023-N1 is a potential candidate for combating Striga and a promising basis for rational design and development of further Striga-specific herbicides.
ESTHER : Zarban_2022_Plant.Physiol_188_1369
PubMedSearch : Zarban_2022_Plant.Physiol_188_1369
PubMedID: 34850204
Gene_locus related to this paper: strhe-ShHTL7

Title : Evaluation of the Biostimulant Activity of Zaxinone Mimics (MiZax) in Crop Plants - Wang_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_874858
Author(s) : Wang JY , Jamil M , Hossain MG , Chen GE , Berqdar L , Ota T , Blilou I , Asami T , Al-Solimani SJ , Mousa MAA , Al-Babili S
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 13 :874858 , 2022
Abstract : Global food security is a critical concern that needs practical solutions to feed the expanding human population. A promising approach is the employment of biostimulants to increase crop production. Biostimulants include compounds that boost plant growth. Recently, mimics of zaxinone (MiZax) were shown to have a promising growth-promoting effect in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, we investigated the effect of MiZax on the growth and yield of three dicot horticultural plants, namely, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), capsicum (Capsicum annuum), and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in different growth environments, as well as on the growth and development of the monocot date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), an important crop in the Middle East. The application of MiZax significantly enhanced plant height, flower, and branch numbers, fruit size, and total fruit yield in independent field trials from 2020 to 2021. Importantly, the amount of applied MiZax was far less than that used with the commercial compound humic acid, a widely used biostimulant in horticulture. Our results indicate that MiZax have significant application potential to improve the performance and productivity of horticultural crops.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_874858
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_874858
PubMedID: 35783933

Title : Canonical strigolactones are not the major determinant of tillering but important rhizospheric signals in rice - Ito_2022_Sci.Adv_8_eadd1278
Author(s) : Ito S , Braguy J , Wang JY , Yoda A , Fiorilli V , Takahashi I , Jamil M , Felemban A , Miyazaki S , Mazzarella T , Chen GE , Shinozawa A , Balakrishna A , Berqdar L , Rajan C , Ali S , Haider I , Sasaki Y , Yajima S , Akiyama K , Lanfranco L , Zurbriggen MD , Nomura T , Asami T , Al-Babili S
Ref : Sci Adv , 8 :eadd1278 , 2022
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are a plant hormone inhibiting shoot branching/tillering and a rhizospheric, chemical signal that triggers seed germination of the noxious root parasitic plant Striga and mediates symbiosis with beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Identifying specific roles of canonical and noncanonical SLs, the two SL subfamilies, is important for developing Striga-resistant cereals and for engineering plant architecture. Here, we report that rice mutants lacking canonical SLs do not show the shoot phenotypes known for SL-deficient plants, exhibiting only a delay in establishing arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but release exudates with a significantly decreased Striga seed-germinating activity. Blocking the biosynthesis of canonical SLs by TIS108, a specific enzyme inhibitor, significantly lowered Striga infestation without affecting rice growth. These results indicate that canonical SLs are not the determinant of shoot architecture and pave the way for increasing crop resistance by gene editing or chemical treatment.
ESTHER : Ito_2022_Sci.Adv_8_eadd1278
PubMedSearch : Ito_2022_Sci.Adv_8_eadd1278
PubMedID: 36322663

Title : Striga hermonthica Suicidal Germination Activity of Potent Strigolactone Analogs: Evaluation from Laboratory Bioassays to Field Trials - Jamil_2022_Plants.(Basel)_11__
Author(s) : Jamil M , Wang JY , Yonli D , Ota T , Berqdar L , Traore H , Margueritte O , Zwanenburg B , Asami T , Al-Babili S
Ref : Plants (Basel) , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : The obligate hemiparasite Striga hermonthica is one of the major global biotic threats to agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa, causing severe yield losses of cereals. The germination of Striga seeds relies on host-released signaling molecules, mainly strigolactones (SLs). This dependency opens up the possibility of deploying SL analogs as "suicidal germination agents" to reduce the accumulated seed bank of Striga in infested soils. Although several synthetic SL analogs have been developed for this purpose, the utility of these compounds in realizing the suicidal germination strategy for combating Striga is still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of three potent SL analogs (MP3, MP16, and Nijmegen-1) under laboratory, greenhouse, and farmer's field conditions. All investigated analogs showed around a 50% Striga germination rate, equivalent to a 50% reduction in infestation, which was comparable to the standard SL analog GR24. Importantly, MP16 had the maximum reduction of Striga emergence (97%) in the greenhouse experiment, while Nijmegen-1 appeared to be a promising candidate under field conditions, with a 43% and 60% reduction of Striga emergence in pearl millet and sorghum fields, respectively. These findings confirm that the selected SL analogs appear to make promising candidates as simple suicidal agents both under laboratory and real African field conditions, which may support us to improve suicidal germination technology to deplete the Striga seed bank in African agriculture.
ESTHER : Jamil_2022_Plants.(Basel)_11__
PubMedSearch : Jamil_2022_Plants.(Basel)_11__
PubMedID: 35448773

Title : Multi-omics approaches explain the growth-promoting effect of the apocarotenoid growth regulator zaxinone in rice - Wang_2021_Commun.Biol_4_1222
Author(s) : Wang JY , Alseekh S , Xiao T , Ablazov A , Perez de Souza L , Fiorilli V , Anggarani M , Lin PY , Votta C , Novero M , Jamil M , Lanfranco L , Hsing YC , Blilou I , Fernie AR , Al-Babili S
Ref : Commun Biol , 4 :1222 , 2021
Abstract : The apocarotenoid zaxinone promotes growth and suppresses strigolactone biosynthesis in rice. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying its growth-promoting effect, we employed a combined omics approach integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis of rice seedlings treated with zaxinone, and determined the resulting changes at the cellular and hormonal levels. Metabolites as well as transcripts analysis demonstrate that zaxinone application increased sugar content and triggered glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and other sugar-related metabolic processes in rice roots. In addition, zaxinone treatment led to an increased root starch content and induced glycosylation of cytokinins. The transcriptomic, metabolic and hormonal changes were accompanied by striking alterations of roots at cellular level, which showed an increase in apex length, diameter, and the number of cells and cortex cell layers. Remarkably, zaxinone did not affect the metabolism of roots in a strigolactone deficient mutant, suggesting an essential role of strigolactone in the zaxinone growth-promoting activity. Taken together, our results unravel zaxinone as a global regulator of the transcriptome and metabolome, as well as of hormonal and cellular composition of rice roots. Moreover, they suggest that zaxinone promotes rice growth most likely by increasing sugar uptake and metabolism, and reinforce the potential of this compound in increasing rice performance.
ESTHER : Wang_2021_Commun.Biol_4_1222
PubMedSearch : Wang_2021_Commun.Biol_4_1222
PubMedID: 34697384

Title : Efficient Mimics for Elucidating Zaxinone Biology and Promoting Agricultural Applications - Wang_2020_Mol.Plant_13_1654
Author(s) : Wang JY , Jamil M , Lin PY , Ota T , Fiorilli V , Novero M , Zarban RA , Kountche BA , Takahashi I , Martinez C , Lanfranco L , Bonfante P , de Lera AR , Asami T , Al-Babili S
Ref : Mol Plant , 13 :1654 , 2020
Abstract : Zaxinone is an apocarotenoid regulatory metabolite required for normal rice growth and development. In addition, zaxinone has a large application potential in agriculture, due to its growth-promoting activity and capability to alleviate infestation by the root parasitic plant Striga through decreasing strigolactone (SL) production. However, zaxinone is poorly accessible to the scientific community because of its laborious organic synthesis that impedes its further investigation and utilization. In this study, we developed easy-to-synthesize and highly efficient mimics of zaxinone (MiZax). We performed a structure-activity relationship study using a series of apocarotenoids distinguished from zaxinone by different structural features. Using the obtained results, we designed several phenyl-based compounds synthesized with a high-yield through a simple method. Activity tests showed that MiZax3 and MiZax5 exert zaxinone activity in rescuing root growth of a zaxinone-deficient rice mutant, promoting growth, and reducing SL content in roots and root exudates of wild-type plants. Moreover, these compounds were at least as efficient as zaxinone in suppressing transcript level of SL biosynthesis genes and in alleviating Striga infestation under greenhouse conditions, and did not negatively impact mycorrhization. Taken together, MiZax are a promising tool for elucidating zaxinone biology and investigating rice development, and suitable candidates for combating Striga and increasing crop growth.
ESTHER : Wang_2020_Mol.Plant_13_1654
PubMedSearch : Wang_2020_Mol.Plant_13_1654
PubMedID: 32835886

Title : The Apocarotenoid Zaxinone Is a Positive Regulator of Strigolactone and Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Roots - Ablazov_2020_Front.Plant.Sci_11_578
Author(s) : Ablazov A , Mi J , Jamil M , Jia KP , Wang JY , Feng Q , Al-Babili S
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 11 :578 , 2020
Abstract : Carotenoids are ubiquitous precursors of important metabolites including hormones, such as strigolactones (SLs) and abscisic acid (ABA), and signaling and regulatory molecules, such as the recently discovered zaxinone. Strigolactones and ABA are key regulators of plant growth and development, adaptation to environmental changes and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Previously, we have shown that zaxinone, an apocarotenoid produced in rice by the enzyme zaxinone synthase (ZAS) that is common in mycorrhizal plants, is required for normal rice growth and development, and a negative regulator of SL biosynthesis. Zaxinone is also formed in Arabidopsis, which lacks ZAS, via an unknown route. In the present study, we investigated the biological activity of zaxinone in Arabidopsis, focusing on its effect on SL and ABA biosynthesis. For this purpose, we quantified the content of both hormones and determined the levels of related transcripts in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), roots upon zaxinone treatment. For SL quantification, we also employed Striga seed germination bioassay. Results obtained show that zaxinone application to hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings enhanced transcript levels of key biosynthetic genes of both hormones, led to higher root ABA and SL (methyl carlactonoate, MeCLA) content, and increased SL release, even under sufficient phosphate supply. Using the SL insensitive (max2-1) and the ABA deficient (aba1-6, aba2-1, and nced3) mutants, we also show that zaxinone application reduced hypocotyl growth and that this effect is caused by increasing ABA content. Our results suggest that zaxinone is a regulatory metabolite also in Arabidopsis, which triggers the biosynthesis of both carotenoid-derived hormones, SLs and ABA, in roots. In the non-mycotrophic plant Arabidopsis, zaxinone does not increase growth and may be perceived as a stress signal, while it acts as a growth-promoting metabolite and suppressor of SL biosynthesis in rice.
ESTHER : Ablazov_2020_Front.Plant.Sci_11_578
PubMedSearch : Ablazov_2020_Front.Plant.Sci_11_578
PubMedID: 32477389

Title : A New Series of Carlactonoic Acid Based Strigolactone Analogs for Fundamental and Applied Research - Jamil_2020_Front.Plant.Sci_11_434
Author(s) : Jamil M , Kountche BA , Wang JY , Haider I , Jia KP , Takahashi I , Ota T , Asami T , Al-Babili S
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 11 :434 , 2020
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of carotenoid derived plant hormones that play a key role in establishing plant architecture and adapting it to environmental changes, and are involved in plants response to biotic and abiotic stress. SLs are also released into the soil to serve as a chemical signal attracting beneficial mycorrhizal fungi. However, this signal also induces seed germination in root parasitic weeds that represent a major global threat for agriculture. This wide spectrum of biological functions has made SL research one of the most important current topics in fundamental and applied plant science. The availability of SLs is crucial for investigating SL biology as well as for agricultural application. However, natural SLs are produced in very low amounts, and their organic synthesis is quite difficult, which creates a need for efficient and easy-to-synthesize analogs and mimics. Recently, we have generated a set of SL analogs, Methyl Phenlactonoates (MPs), which resemble the non-canonical SL carlactonoic acid. In this paper, we describe the development and characterization of a new series of easy-to-synthesize MPs. The new analogs were assessed with respect to regulation of shoot branching, impact on leaf senescence, and induction of seed germination in different root parasitic plants species. Some of the new analogs showed higher efficiency in inhibiting shoot branching as well as in triggering parasitic seed germination, compared to the commonly used GR24. MP16 was the most outstanding analog showing high activity in different SL biological functions. In summary, our new analogs series contains very promising candidates for different applications, which include the usage in studies for understanding different aspects of SL biology as well as large scale field application for combating root parasitic weeds, such as Striga hermonthica that devastates cereal yields in sub-Saharan Africa.
ESTHER : Jamil_2020_Front.Plant.Sci_11_434
PubMedSearch : Jamil_2020_Front.Plant.Sci_11_434
PubMedID: 32373143

Title : The apocarotenoid metabolite zaxinone regulates growth and strigolactone biosynthesis in rice - Wang_2019_Nat.Commun_10_810
Author(s) : Wang JY , Haider I , Jamil M , Fiorilli V , Saito Y , Mi J , Baz L , Kountche BA , Jia KP , Guo X , Balakrishna A , Ntui VO , Reinke B , Volpe V , Gojobori T , Blilou I , Lanfranco L , Bonfante P , Al-Babili S
Ref : Nat Commun , 10 :810 , 2019
Abstract : Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) form hormones and signaling molecules. Here we show that a member of an overlooked plant CCD subfamily from rice, that we name Zaxinone Synthase (ZAS), can produce zaxinone, a novel apocarotenoid metabolite in vitro. Loss-of-function mutants (zas) contain less zaxinone, exhibit retarded growth and showed elevated levels of strigolactones (SLs), a hormone that determines plant architecture, mediates mycorrhization and facilitates infestation by root parasitic weeds, such as Striga spp. Application of zaxinone can rescue zas phenotypes, decrease SL content and release and promote root growth in wild-type seedlings. In conclusion, we show that zaxinone is a key regulator of rice development and biotic interactions and has potential for increasing crop growth and combating Striga, a severe threat to global food security.
ESTHER : Wang_2019_Nat.Commun_10_810
PubMedSearch : Wang_2019_Nat.Commun_10_810
PubMedID: 30778050

Title : Methylation at the C-3' in D-Ring of Strigolactone Analogs Reduces Biological Activity in Root Parasitic Plants and Rice - Jamil_2019_Front.Plant.Sci_10_353
Author(s) : Jamil M , Kountche BA , Haider I , Wang JY , Aldossary F , Zarban RA , Jia KP , Yonli D , Shahul Hameed UF , Takahashi I , Ota T , Arold ST , Asami T , Al-Babili S
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 10 :353 , 2019
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) regulate plant development and induce seed germination in obligate root parasitic weeds, e.g. Striga spp. Because organic synthesis of natural SLs is laborious, there is a large need for easy-to-synthesize and efficient analogs. Here, we investigated the effect of a structural modification of the D-ring, a conserved structural element in SLs. We synthesized and investigated the activity of two analogs, MP13 and MP26, which differ from previously published AR8 and AR36 only in the absence of methylation at C-3'. The de-methylated MP13 and MP26 were much more efficient in regulating plant development and inducing Striga seed germination, compared with AR8. Hydrolysis assays performed with purified Striga SL receptor and docking of AR8 and MP13 to the corresponding active site confirmed and explained the higher activity. Field trials performed in a naturally Striga-infested African farmer's field unraveled MP13 as a promising candidate for combating Striga by inducing germination in host's absence. Our findings demonstrate that methylation of the C-3' in D-ring in SL analogs has a negative impact on their activity and identify MP13 and, particularly, MP26 as potent SL analogs with simple structures, which can be employed to control Striga, a major threat to global food security.
ESTHER : Jamil_2019_Front.Plant.Sci_10_353
PubMedSearch : Jamil_2019_Front.Plant.Sci_10_353
PubMedID: 31001294

Title : The red bayberry genome and genetic basis of sex determination - Jia_2019_Plant.Biotechnol.J_17_397
Author(s) : Jia HM , Jia HJ , Cai QL , Wang Y , Zhao HB , Yang WF , Wang GY , Li YH , Zhan DL , Shen YT , Niu QF , Chang L , Qiu J , Zhao L , Xie HB , Fu WY , Jin J , Li XW , Jiao Y , Zhou CC , Tu T , Chai CY , Gao JL , Fan LJ , van de Weg E , Wang JY , Gao ZS
Ref : Plant Biotechnol J , 17 :397 , 2019
Abstract : Morella rubra, red bayberry, is an economically important fruit tree in south China. Here, we assembled the first high-quality genome for both a female and a male individual of red bayberry. The genome size was 313-Mb, and 90% sequences were assembled into eight pseudo chromosome molecules, with 32 493 predicted genes. By whole-genome comparison between the female and male and association analysis with sequences of bulked and individual DNA samples from female and male, a 59-Kb region determining female was identified and located on distal end of pseudochromosome 8, which contains abundant transposable element and seven putative genes, four of them are related to sex floral development. This 59-Kb female-specific region was likely to be derived from duplication and rearrangement of paralogous genes and retained non-recombinant in the female-specific region. Sex-specific molecular markers developed from candidate genes co-segregated with sex in a genetically diverse female and male germplasm. We propose sex determination follow the ZW model of female heterogamety. The genome sequence of red bayberry provides a valuable resource for plant sex chromosome evolution and also provides important insights for molecular biology, genetics and modern breeding in Myricaceae family.
ESTHER : Jia_2019_Plant.Biotechnol.J_17_397
PubMedSearch : Jia_2019_Plant.Biotechnol.J_17_397
PubMedID: 29992702
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9rosi-a0a6a1wtm7

Title : (-)-Phenserine Ameliorates Contusion Volume, Neuroinflammation, and Behavioral Impairments Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice - Hsueh_2019_Cell.Transplant_28_1183
Author(s) : Hsueh SC , Lecca D , Greig NH , Wang JY , Selman W , Hoffer BJ , Miller JP , Chiang YH
Ref : Cell Transplantation , 28 :1183 , 2019
Abstract : Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a major cause of mortality and morbidity, affects 10 million people worldwide, with limited treatment options. We have previously shown that (-)-phenserine (Phen), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor originally designed and tested in clinical phase III trials for Alzheimer's disease, can reduce neurodegeneration after TBI and reduce cognitive impairments induced by mild TBI. In this study, we used a mouse model of moderate to severe TBI by controlled cortical impact to assess the effects of Phen on post-trauma histochemical and behavioral changes. Animals were treated with Phen (2.5 mg/kg, IP, BID) for 5 days started on the day of injury and the effects were evaluated by behavioral and histological examinations at 1 and 2 weeks after injury. Phen significantly attenuated TBI-induced contusion volume, enlargement of the lateral ventricle, and behavioral impairments in motor asymmetry, sensorimotor functions, motor coordination, and balance functions. The morphology of microglia was shifted to an active from a resting form after TBI, and Phen dramatically reduced the ratio of activated to resting microglia, suggesting that Phen also mitigates neuroinflammation after TBI. While Phen has potent anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, its (+) isomer Posiphen shares many neuroprotective properties but is almost completely devoid of anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. We evaluated Posiphen at a similar dose to Phen and found similar mitigation in lateral ventricular size increase, motor asymmetry, motor coordination, and balance function, suggesting the improvement of these histological and behavioral tests by Phen treatment occur via pathways other than anti-acetylcholinesterase inhibition. However, the reduction of lesion size and improvement of sensorimotor function by Posiphen were much smaller than with equivalent doses of Phen. Taken together, these results show that post-injury treatment with Phen over 5 days significantly ameliorates severity of TBI. These data suggest a potential development of this compound for clinical use in TBI therapy.
ESTHER : Hsueh_2019_Cell.Transplant_28_1183
PubMedSearch : Hsueh_2019_Cell.Transplant_28_1183
PubMedID: 31177840

Title : Longitudinal monitoring of liver stiffness by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving entecavir - Wu_2018_Clin.Res.Hepatol.Gastroenterol_42_227
Author(s) : Wu SD , Ding H , Liu LL , Zhuang Y , Liu Y , Cheng LS , Wang SQ , Tseng YJ , Wang JY , Jiang W
Ref : Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol , 42 :227 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging measures liver stiffness (LS), which significantly correlates with the stage of liver fibrosis in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). AIM: We aimed to prospectively assess the clinical usefulness of ARFI during long-term antiviral therapy in CHB. METHOD: Seventy-one CHB patients were consecutively recruited and paired liver biopsies were performed in 27 patients. LS was assessed by ARFI semiannually during entecavir therapy. RESULTS: LS gradually decreased with treatment and continued to decrease after normalization of alanine aminotransaminase. Overall, 97.2% patients achieved improvement of LS, whereas 19.7% patients had more than 30% reduction in LS values between baseline and week 104. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the degree of LS reduction significantly correlated with the baseline levels of LS value, platelet and cholinesterase. In the 27 patients who underwent paired liver biopsies, LS significantly correlated with stage of fibrosis and inflammatory grade at baseline. LS values decreased more significantly in patients with fibrosis regression than those with static histological fibrosis. CONCLUSION: In CHB patients, LS assessed by ARFI was gradually reduced during antiviral therapy. Longitudinal monitoring of LS may be a promising noninvasive assessment of fibrosis regression during long-term antiviral therapy in CHB. Further large sample studies are needed.
ESTHER : Wu_2018_Clin.Res.Hepatol.Gastroenterol_42_227
PubMedSearch : Wu_2018_Clin.Res.Hepatol.Gastroenterol_42_227
PubMedID: 29066092

Title : The Apostasia genome and the evolution of orchids - Zhang_2017_Nature_549_379
Author(s) : Zhang GQ , Liu KW , Li Z , Lohaus R , Hsiao YY , Niu SC , Wang JY , Lin YC , Xu Q , Chen LJ , Yoshida K , Fujiwara S , Wang ZW , Zhang YQ , Mitsuda N , Wang M , Liu GH , Pecoraro L , Huang HX , Xiao XJ , Lin M , Wu XY , Wu WL , Chen YY , Chang SB , Sakamoto S , Ohme-Takagi M , Yagi M , Zeng SJ , Shen CY , Yeh CM , Luo YB , Tsai WC , Van de Peer Y , Liu ZJ
Ref : Nature , 549 :379 , 2017
Abstract : Constituting approximately 10% of flowering plant species, orchids (Orchidaceae) display unique flower morphologies, possess an extraordinary diversity in lifestyle, and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on Earth. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Apostasia shenzhenica, a representative of one of two genera that form a sister lineage to the rest of the Orchidaceae, providing a reference for inferring the genome content and structure of the most recent common ancestor of all extant orchids and improving our understanding of their origins and evolution. In addition, we present transcriptome data for representatives of Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae and Orchidoideae, and novel third-generation genome data for two species of Epidendroideae, covering all five orchid subfamilies. A. shenzhenica shows clear evidence of a whole-genome duplication, which is shared by all orchids and occurred shortly before their divergence. Comparisons between A. shenzhenica and other orchids and angiosperms also permitted the reconstruction of an ancestral orchid gene toolkit. We identify new gene families, gene family expansions and contractions, and changes within MADS-box gene classes, which control a diverse suite of developmental processes, during orchid evolution. This study sheds new light on the genetic mechanisms underpinning key orchid innovations, including the development of the labellum and gynostemium, pollinia, and seeds without endosperm, as well as the evolution of epiphytism; reveals relationships between the Orchidaceae subfamilies; and helps clarify the evolutionary history of orchids within the angiosperms.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Nature_549_379
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Nature_549_379
PubMedID: 28902843
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9aspa-a0a2i0b2l6 , 9aspa-a0a2i0w093 , 9aspa-a0a2i0asr1 , 9aspa-a0a2i0vyy1 , 9aspa-a0a2i0a218 , 9aspa-a0a2i0x5j6 , 9aspa-a0a2i0aji0 , 9aspa-a0a2i0a3k8 , 9aspa-a0a2i0win6 , 9aspa-a0a2i0vg82 , 9aspa-a0a2h9zyy3

Title : A highly selective near-infrared fluorescent probe for carboxylesterase 2 and its bioimaging applications in living cells and animals - Jin_2016_Biosens.Bioelectron_83_193
Author(s) : Jin Q , Feng L , Wang DD , Wu JJ , Hou J , Dai ZR , Sun SG , Wang JY , Ge GB , Cui JN , Yang L
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 83 :193 , 2016
Abstract : A near-infrared fluorescent probe (DDAB) for highly selective and sensitive detection of carboxylesterase 2 (CE2) has been designed, synthesized, and systematically studied both in vitro and in vivo. Upon addition of CE2, the ester bond of DDAB could be rapidly cleaved and then release a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore DDAO, which brings a remarkable yellow-to-blue color change and strong NIR fluorescence emission in physiological solutions. The newly developed probe exhibits excellent properties including good specificity, ultrahigh sensitivity and high imaging resolution. Moreover, DDAB has been applied to measure the real activities of CE2 in complex biological samples, as well as to screen CE2 inhibitors by using tissue preparations as the enzymes sources. The probe has also been successfully used to detect endogenous CE2 in living cells and in vivo for the first time, and the results demonstrate that such detection is highly reliable. All these prominent features of DDAB make it holds great promise for further investigation on CE2-associated biological process and for exploring the physiological functions of CE2 in living systems.
ESTHER : Jin_2016_Biosens.Bioelectron_83_193
PubMedSearch : Jin_2016_Biosens.Bioelectron_83_193
PubMedID: 27129028

Title : A Two-Photon Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe for Imaging Carboxylesterase 2 in Living Cells and Tissues - Jin_2015_ACS.Appl.Mater.Interfaces_7_28474
Author(s) : Jin Q , Feng L , Wang DD , Dai ZR , Wang P , Zou LW , Liu ZH , Wang JY , Yu Y , Ge GB , Cui JN , Yang L
Ref : ACS Appl Mater Interfaces , 7 :28474 , 2015
Abstract : In this study, a two-photon ratiometric fluorescent probe NCEN has been designed and developed for highly selective and sensitive sensing of human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2) based on the catalytic properties and substrate preference of hCE2. Upon addition of hCE2, the probe could be readily hydrolyzed to release 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide (NAH), which brings remarkable red-shift in fluorescence (90 nm) spectrum. The newly developed probe exhibits good specificity, ultrahigh sensitivity, and has been successfully applied to determine the real activities of hCE2 in complex biological samples such as cell and tissue preparations. NCEN has also been used for two-photon imaging of intracellular hCE2 in living cells as well as in deep-tissues for the first time, and the results showed that the probe exhibited high ratiometric imaging resolution and deep-tissue imaging depth. All these findings suggested that this probe holds great promise for applications in bioimaging of endogenous hCE2 in living cells and in exploring the biological functions of hCE2 in complex biological systems.
ESTHER : Jin_2015_ACS.Appl.Mater.Interfaces_7_28474
PubMedSearch : Jin_2015_ACS.Appl.Mater.Interfaces_7_28474
PubMedID: 26641926

Title : Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of combined use of sorafenib and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma - Zhou_2014_Jpn.J.Clin.Oncol_44_711
Author(s) : Zhou L , Li J , Ai DL , Fu JL , Peng XM , Zhang LZ , Wang JY , Zhao Y , Yang B , Yu Q , Liu CZ , Wang HM
Ref : Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology , 44 :711 , 2014
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials suggest that combining transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma shows a superior safety and tolerability profile. Our study aimed to retrospectively analyze the utility and prognostic factors of this combined therapy in these patients.
METHODS: Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, treated by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and sorafenib subsequently, between February 2010 and September 2012 in our hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. After sorafenib treatment for 12 weeks, abdominal enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate short-term outcomes and clinical benefit rate. Overall survival and adverse events were recorded during follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships between baseline characteristics and overall survival.
RESULTS: Fifty-one advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients were included. Common adverse events for sorafenib were hand-foot skin reaction, alopecia, diarrhea, anorexia and fatigue. The clinical benefit rate was 64% and the median survival time was 7.5 months. Median survival of patients with and without portal vein tumor thrombi was 6.0 months and 10.3 months (P < 0.001), respectively. Median survival of patients with cholinesterase >/=5000 U/l and < 5000 U/l was 10.6 months and 6.1 months (P < 0.001), respectively. Multivariate analysis identified the presence of portal vein tumor thrombi and low cholinesterase level as independent negative predictors of survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Combining sorafenib and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was safe and effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients with extrahepatic spread but without portal vein tumor thrombi. Portal vein tumor thrombi and cholinesterase level are independent predictors of prognosis following this combined therapy.
ESTHER : Zhou_2014_Jpn.J.Clin.Oncol_44_711
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2014_Jpn.J.Clin.Oncol_44_711
PubMedID: 24855686

Title : Analysis on interrelation between electroacupuncture-induced cumulative analgesic effect and hypothalamic cholinergic activities in chronic neuropathic pain rats - Wang_2012_Chin.J.Integr.Med_18_699
Author(s) : Wang JY , Meng FY , Chen SP , Gao YH , Liu JL
Ref : Chin J Integr Med , 18 :699 , 2012
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of repeated electroacupuncture (EA) of Zusanli (ST36)- Yanglingquan (GB34) on hypothalamic acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT) activities and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) mRNA expression in chronic constrictive injury (CCI) and/or ovariectomy (OVX) rats so as to reveal its underlying mechanism in cumulative analgesia. METHODS: A total of 103 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (n =15), CCI (n =15), CCI+EA2d (n =15), CCI+EA2W (n =15), OVX+CCI =13), OVX+CCI+EA2d (n =15), and OVX+CCI+EA2W groups (n =15). CCI model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve with surgical suture. Memory impairment model was established by removal of the bilateral ovaries. Morris water test was conducted to evaluate the OVX rats' memory learning ability, and the thermal pain threshold (PT) of the bilateral paws was detected the next morning after EA. EA (2/15 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral ST36-GB34 for 30 min, once daily for 2 days or 2 weeks, respectively. Hypothalamic AChE activity was detected by histochemistry, VAChT immunoactivity was determined by immunohistochemistry, and ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expressions were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In comparison with the normal control group, the AChE activity in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) regions of CCI group, AChE activity in paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ARC, and SON regions of OVX+CCI group, and hypothalamic muscarinic M1R mRNA expression levels in both CCI and OVX+CCI groups were down-regulated significantly (P <0.05). Compared with the CCI group, the AChE activities in hypothalamic ARC and SON regions of CCI+EA2d and CCI+EA2W groups and PVN region of CCI+EA2W group and hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expression levels in CCI+EA2W group were up-regulated considerably (P <0.05). In comparison with the OVX+CCI group, the AChE activities in PVN, ARC, and SON regions and the expressions of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and VAChT in ARC region of OVX+CCI+EA2W group were up-regulated remarkably (P <0.05). The effects in rats of CCI+EA2W group were evidently superior to those of OVX+CCI+EA2d group in up-regulating AChE activities in PVN, ARC, and SON regions, VAChT immunoactivity in ARC region, and expression levels of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA (P <0.05). Similar situations were found in OVX+CCI rats after EA2W. It suggested a cumulative effect after repeated EA of ST36-GB34. Comparison between CCI+EA2W and OVX+CCI+EA2W groups showed that the effects in rats of the former group were evidently better than those of the latter group in up-regulating AChE activity in ARC and SON regions and the expressions of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1 mRNA (P <0.05), suggesting a reduction of EA2W effects after OVX. CONCLUSION: Repeated EA can significantly up-regulate AChE and VAChT activities and ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus of CCI and OVX+CCI rats, which may contribute to the cumulative analgesic effects of repeated EA and be closely related to the animals' neuromemory ability.
ESTHER : Wang_2012_Chin.J.Integr.Med_18_699
PubMedSearch : Wang_2012_Chin.J.Integr.Med_18_699
PubMedID: 22936324

Title : Molecular cloning of the carboxylesterase gene and biochemical characterization of the encoded protein from Pseudomonas citronellolis ATCC 13674 - Chao_2003_Res.Microbiol_154_521
Author(s) : Chao YP , Fu H , Wang YL , Huang WB , Wang JY
Ref : Res Microbiol , 154 :521 , 2003
Abstract : A genomic library of Pseudomonas citronellolis ATCC 13674 was constructed and screened for esterase activity in Escherichia coli using tributyrin-containing medium. One positive transformant was isolated, and subsequent analyses of the plasmid by restriction mapping revealed a 4.1-kb DNA fragment potentially carrying an esterase gene. The deduced nucleotide sequence of the DNA was found to contain an open reading frame encoding carboxylesterase and designated estA. Amino acid sequence analysis of estA showed the serine conservative motif, GDSAG, located between residues 208 and 212. Together with Ser, residues 310 and 334 corresponding to aspartic acid and histidine, respectively, comprised the catalytic triad. With the aid of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, the carboxylesterase fused with poly His at its C-terminus was purified and shown to be strongly inhibited by the tryptophan modifier and mercuric ion, indicating the important role of conservative Trp (189) and cysteine (152 and/or 183) residues in maintaining the structural integrity of the protein. Further analyses showed that the carboxylesterase functioned optimally at 37-40 degrees C with pH ranging between 8 and 9 and displayed a broad substrate spectrum. The protein exhibited greater preference toward short-chain (C2-C4) than medium- and long-chain fatty acids. Higher substrate specificity on para-nitrophenol butyrate was observed in comparison with para-nitrophenol acetate as indicated by the higher kcat/Km value of the former.
ESTHER : Chao_2003_Res.Microbiol_154_521
PubMedSearch : Chao_2003_Res.Microbiol_154_521
PubMedID: 14499938
Gene_locus related to this paper: acilw-ESTA

Title : Glutathione transferase gene family from the housefly Musca domestica - Syvanen_1994_Mol.Gen.Genet_245_25
Author(s) : Syvanen M , Zhou ZH , Wang JY
Ref : Molecular & General Genetics , 245 :25 , 1994
Abstract : Three new glutathione transferase (GST) genes from the housefly Musca domestica are described. These genes, identified as MdGST-2, -3, and -4, were from cDNA clones obtained from a cDNA bank in phage lambda. The bank was prepared using poly(A)+ RNA from a housefly that is highly resistant to organophosphate insecticides because of enhanced expression of multiple members of the glutathione transferase gene family. The DNA sequence of each is reported and has a complete open reading frame that specified an amino acid sequence similar to other dipteran glutathione transferases. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we can conclude that the insect glutathione transferase gene family falls into two groups, each of which evolves at a different rate, presumably due to differences in functional constraints. We show that MdGST-1 (and their homologues from Drosophila and Lucilia) evolve at a significantly slower rate than the other members of the gene family. Each housefly GST cDNA was inserted into a bacterial plasmid expression system and a glutathione transferase activity was expressed in Escherichia coli. The transcription pattern of each of these glutathione transferases was examined in a variety of different housefly strains that are known to differ in their resistance to organophosphate insecticides due to different patterns of glutathione transferase expression. We found that the level of transcription for two of our clones was positively correlated with the level of organophosphate resistance.
ESTHER : Syvanen_1994_Mol.Gen.Genet_245_25
PubMedSearch : Syvanen_1994_Mol.Gen.Genet_245_25
PubMedID: 7845356

Title : Molecular cloning of a glutathione S-transferase overproduced in an insecticide-resistant strain of the housefly (Musca domestica) - Wang_1991_Mol.Gen.Genet_227_260
Author(s) : Wang JY , McCommas S , Syvanen M
Ref : Molecular & General Genetics , 227 :260 , 1991
Abstract : We report the cloning and sequencing of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from the housefly Musca domestica. A cDNA lambda gt11 library was prepared from the organophosphate insecticide-resistant housefly strain Cornell-R--a variant that has elevated GST activity. The lambda phage GST clone was identified on the basis of its ability to cross-hybridize to a GST DNA probe from Drosophila melanogaster. Based on amino acid homology to other GSTs and expression of GST activity in Escherichia coli, the Musca GST gene (MdGST-1) belongs to the GST gene family. Although organophosphate resistance in Cornell-R is largely due to one of the GSTs, MdGST-1 is probably not the enzyme responsible for resistance. The mutation that controls resistance to organophosphate insecticides in Cornell-R is highly unstable and we isolated spontaneous variants to both insecticide sensitivity and to even higher levels of resistance. This provided us with an isogenic set of three strains. We found that MdGST-1 transcript levels as measured by Northern assays are higher in all three Cornell-R strains relative to the sensitive wild type, but that the sensitive Cornell-R strain has more MdGST-1 transcript than does the highly resistant Cornell-R strain. These data as well as Southern analysis of genomic DNA allow us to conclude: (1) there are multiple GST genes in M. domestica; (2) the natural variant Cornell-R overproduces excess transcript from two and probably more of these genes; and (3) the unstable mutation in Cornell-R influences the levels of multiple GSTs.
ESTHER : Wang_1991_Mol.Gen.Genet_227_260
PubMedSearch : Wang_1991_Mol.Gen.Genet_227_260
PubMedID: 2062307