Younus F

References (5)

Title : The molecular basis for the neofunctionalization of the juvenile hormone esterase duplication in Drosophila - Hopkins_2019_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_106_10
Author(s) : Hopkins DH , Rane RV , Younus F , Coppin CW , Pandey G , Jackson CJ , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 106 :10 , 2019
Abstract : The Drosophila melanogaster enzymes juvenile hormone esterase (DmJHE) and its duplicate, DmJHEdup, present ideal examples for studying the structural changes involved in the neofunctionalization of enzyme duplicates. DmJHE is a hormone esterase with precise regulation and highly specific activity for its substrate, juvenile hormone. DmJHEdup is an odorant degrading esterase (ODE) responsible for processing various kairomones in antennae. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that the JHE lineage predates the hemi/holometabolan split and that several duplications of JHEs have been templates for the evolution of secreted beta-esterases such as ODEs through the course of insect evolution. Our biochemical comparisons further show that DmJHE has sufficient substrate promiscuity and activity against odorant esters for a duplicate to evolve a general ODE function against a range of mid-long chain food esters, as is shown in DmJHEdup. This substrate range complements that of the only other general ODE known in this species, Esterase 6. Homology models of DmJHE and DmJHEdup enabled comparisons between each enzyme and the known structures of a lepidopteran JHE and Esterase 6. Both JHEs showed very similar active sites despite low sequence identity (30%). Both ODEs differed drastically from the JHEs and each other, explaining their complementary substrate ranges. A small number of amino acid changes are identified that may have been involved in the early stages of the neofunctionalization of DmJHEdup. Our results provide key insights into the process of neofunctionalization and the structural changes that can be involved.
ESTHER : Hopkins_2019_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_106_10
PubMedSearch : Hopkins_2019_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_106_10
PubMedID: 30611903
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-CG8424 , drome-CG8425

Title : Molecular basis for the behavioral effects of the odorant degrading enzyme Esterase 6 in Drosophila - Younus_2017_Sci.Rep_7_46188
Author(s) : Younus F , Fraser NJ , Coppin CW , Liu JW , Correy GJ , Chertemps T , Pandey G , Maibeche M , Jackson CJ , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Sci Rep , 7 :46188 , 2017
Abstract : Previous electrophysiological and behavioural studies implicate esterase 6 in the processing of the pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate and various food odorants that affect aggregation and reproductive behaviours. Here we show esterase 6 has relatively high activity against many of the short-mid chain food esters, but negligible activity against cis-vaccenyl acetate. The crystal structure of esterase 6 confirms its substrate-binding site can accommodate many short-mid chain food esters but not cis-vaccenyl acetate. Immunohistochemical assays show esterase 6 is expressed in non-neuronal cells in the third antennal segment that could be accessory or epidermal cells surrounding numerous olfactory sensilla, including basiconics involved in food odorant detection. Esterase 6 is also produced in trichoid sensilla, but not in the same cell types as the cis-vaccenyl acetate binding protein LUSH. Our data support a model in which esterase 6 acts as a direct odorant degrading enzyme for many bioactive food esters, but not cis-vaccenyl acetate.
ESTHER : Younus_2017_Sci.Rep_7_46188
PubMedSearch : Younus_2017_Sci.Rep_7_46188
PubMedID: 28393888
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-este6

Title : An antennal carboxylesterase from , esterase 6, is a candidate odorant-degrading enzyme toward food odorants - Chertemps_2015_Front.Physiol_6_315
Author(s) : Chertemps T , Younus F , Steiner C , Durand N , Coppin CW , Pandey G , Oakeshott JG , Maibeche M
Ref : Front Physiol , 6 :315 , 2015
Abstract : Reception of odorant molecules within insect olfactory organs involves several sequential steps, including their transport through the sensillar lymph, interaction with the respective sensory receptors, and subsequent inactivation. Odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) putatively play a role in signal dynamics by rapid degradation of odorants in the vicinity of the receptors, but this hypothesis is mainly supported by in vitro results. We have recently shown that an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (EST-6), is involved in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of the response of Drosophila melanogaster to its volatile pheromone ester, cis-vaccenyl acetate. However, as the expression pattern of the Est-6 gene in the antennae is not restricted to the pheromone responding sensilla, we tested here if EST-6 could play a broader function in the antennae. We found that recombinant EST-6 is able to efficiently hydrolyse several volatile esters that would be emitted by its natural food in vitro. Electrophysiological comparisons of mutant Est-6 null flies and a control strain (on the same genetic background) showed that the dynamics of the antennal response to these compounds is influenced by EST-6, with the antennae of the null mutants showing prolonged activity in response to them. Antennal responses to the strongest odorant, pentyl acetate, were then studied in more detail, showing that the repolarization dynamics were modified even at low doses but without modification of the detection threshold. Behavioral choice experiments with pentyl acetate also showed differences between genotypes; attraction to this compound was observed at a lower dose among the null than control flies. As EST-6 is able to degrade various bioactive odorants emitted by food and plays a role in the response to these compounds, we hypothesize a role as an ODE for this enzyme toward food volatiles.
ESTHER : Chertemps_2015_Front.Physiol_6_315
PubMedSearch : Chertemps_2015_Front.Physiol_6_315
PubMedID: 26594178
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-este6

Title : Identification of candidate odorant degrading gene\/enzyme systems in the antennal transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster - Younus_2014_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_53_30
Author(s) : Younus F , Chertemps T , Pearce SL , Pandey G , Bozzolan F , Coppin CW , Russell RJ , Maibeche-Coisne M , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 53 :30 , 2014
Abstract : The metabolism of volatile signal molecules by odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs) is crucial to the ongoing sensitivity and specificity of chemoreception in various insects, and a few specific esterases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have previously been implicated in this process. Significant progress has been made in characterizing ODEs in Lepidoptera but very little is known about them in Diptera, including in Drosophila melanogaster, a major insect model. We have therefore carried out a transcriptomic analysis of the antennae of D. melanogaster in order to identify candidate ODEs. Virgin male and female and mated female antennal transcriptomes were determined by RNAseq. As with the Lepidoptera, we found that many esterases, cytochrome P450 enzymes, GSTs and UGTs are expressed in D. melanogaster antennae. As olfactory genes generally show selective expression in the antennae, a comparison to previously published transcriptomes for other tissues has been performed, showing preferential expression in the antennae for one esterase, JHEdup, one cytochrome P450, CYP308a1, and one GST, GSTE4. These largely uncharacterized enzymes are now prime candidates for ODE functions. JHEdup was expressed heterologously and found to have high catalytic activity against a chemically diverse group of known ester odorants for this species. This is a finding consistent with an ODE although it might suggest a general role in clearing several odorants rather than a specific role in clearing a particular odorant. Our findings do not preclude the possibility of odorant degrading functions for other antennally expressed esterases, P450s, GSTs and UGTs but, if so, they suggest that these enzymes also have additional functions in other tissues.
ESTHER : Younus_2014_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_53_30
PubMedSearch : Younus_2014_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_53_30
PubMedID: 25038463
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-CG8424

Title : Structure and function of an insect alpha-carboxylesterase (alphaEsterase7) associated with insecticide resistance - Jackson_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_10177
Author(s) : Jackson CJ , Liu JW , Carr PD , Younus F , Coppin C , Meirelles T , Lethier M , Pandey G , Ollis DL , Russell RJ , Weik M , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 110 :10177 , 2013
Abstract : Insect carboxylesterases from the alphaEsterase gene cluster, such as alphaE7 (also known as E3) from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (LcalphaE7), play an important physiological role in lipid metabolism and are implicated in the detoxification of organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Despite the importance of OPs to agriculture and the spread of insect-borne diseases, the molecular basis for the ability of alpha-carboxylesterases to confer OP resistance to insects is poorly understood. In this work, we used laboratory evolution to increase the thermal stability of LcalphaE7, allowing its overexpression in Escherichia coli and structure determination. The crystal structure reveals a canonical alpha/beta-hydrolase fold that is very similar to the primary target of OPs (acetylcholinesterase) and a unique N-terminal alpha-helix that serves as a membrane anchor. Soaking of LcalphaE7 crystals in OPs led to the capture of a crystallographic snapshot of LcalphaE7 in its phosphorylated state, which allowed comparison with acetylcholinesterase and rationalization of its ability to protect insects against the effects of OPs. Finally, inspection of the active site of LcalphaE7 reveals an asymmetric and hydrophobic substrate binding cavity that is well-suited to fatty acid methyl esters, which are hydrolyzed by the enzyme with specificity constants ( approximately 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) indicative of a natural substrate.
ESTHER : Jackson_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_10177
PubMedSearch : Jackson_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_10177
PubMedID: 23733941
Gene_locus related to this paper: luccu-E3aest7