Uno Y

References (12)

Title : Transcript abundance of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in two dog breeds compared with 14 species including humans - Uno_2024_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_55_101002
Author(s) : Uno Y , Yamato O , Yamazaki H
Ref : Drug Metab Pharmacokinet , 55 :101002 , 2024
Abstract : Drug-metabolizing enzymes are important in drug development and therapy, but have not been fully identified and characterized in many species, lines, and breeds. Liver transcriptomic data were analyzed for phase I cytochromes P450, flavin-containing monooxygenases, and carboxylesterases and phase II UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and glutathione S-transferases. Comparisons with a variety of species (humans, rhesus macaques, African green monkeys, baboons, common marmosets, cattle, sheep, pigs, cats, dogs, rabbits, tree shrews, rats, mice, and chickens) revealed both general similarities and differences in the transcript abundances of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Similarly, Beagle and Shiba dogs were examined by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq). Consequently, no substantial differences in transcript abundance were noted in different breeds of pigs and dogs and in different lines of mice and rats. Therefore, the expression profiles of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme transcripts appear to be similar in Shiba and Beagle dogs and pig breeds and the rat and mouse lines analyzed, although some differences were found in other species.
ESTHER : Uno_2024_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_55_101002
PubMedSearch : Uno_2024_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_55_101002
PubMedID: 38452615

Title : Drug-oxidizing and conjugating non-cytochrome P450 (non-P450) enzymes in cynomolgus monkeys and common marmosets as preclinical models for humans - Uno_2021_Biochem.Pharmacol_197_114887
Author(s) : Uno Y , Uehara S , Yamazaki H
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 197 :114887 , 2021
Abstract : Many drug oxidations and conjugations are mediated by a variety of cytochromes P450 (P450) and non-P450 enzymes in humans and non-human primates. These non-P450 enzymes include aldehyde oxidases (AOX), carboxylesterases (CES), flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO), glutathione S-transferases (GST), arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT),sulfotransferases (SULT), and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and their substrates include both endobiotics and xenobiotics. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, an Old-World monkey) are widely used in preclinical studies because of their genetic and physiological similarities to humans. However, many reports have indicated the usefulness of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, a New World monkey) as an alternative non-human primate model. Although knowledge of the drug-metabolizing properties of non-P450 enzymes in non-human primates is relatively limited, new research has started to provide an insight into the molecular characteristics of these enzymes in cynomolgus macaques and common marmosets. This mini-review provides collective information on the isoforms of non-P450 enzymes AOX, CES, FMO, GST, NAT, SULT, and UGT and their enzymatic profiles in cynomolgus macaques and common marmosets. In general, these non-P450 cynomolgus macaque and marmoset enzymes have high sequence identities and similar substrate recognitions to their human counterparts. However, these enzymes also exhibit some limited differences in function between species, just as P450 enzymes do, possibly due to small structural differences in amino acid residues. The findings summarized here provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of polymorphic non-P450 enzymes and should contribute to the successful application of non-human primates as model animals for humans.
ESTHER : Uno_2021_Biochem.Pharmacol_197_114887
PubMedSearch : Uno_2021_Biochem.Pharmacol_197_114887
PubMedID: 34968483

Title : Differences in hydrolase activities in the liver and small intestine between marmosets and humans - Honda_2021_Drug.Metab.Dispos__
Author(s) : Honda S , Fukami T , Hirosawa K , Tsujiguchi T , Zhang Y , Nakano M , Uehara S , Uno Y , Yamazaki H , Nakajima M
Ref : Drug Metabolism & Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals , : , 2021
Abstract : For drug development, species differences in drug-metabolism reactions present obstacles for predicting pharmacokinetics in humans. We characterized the species differences in hydrolases among humans and mice, rats, dogs, and cynomolgusmonkeys. In this study, to expand the series of such studies, we attempted to characterize marmoset hydrolases. We measured hydrolase activities for 24 compounds using marmoset liver and intestinal microsomes, as well as recombinant marmoset carboxylesterase (CES) 1, CES2, and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC). The contributions of CES1, CES2, and AADAC to hydrolysis in marmoset liver microsomes were estimated by correcting the activities by using the ratios of hydrolase protein levels in the liver microsomes and those in recombinant systems. For 6 out of 8 human CES1 substrates,the activities in marmoset liver microsomes were lower than those in human liver microsomes. For 2 human CES2 substrates and 3 out of 7 human AADAC substrates, the activities in marmoset liver microsomes were higher than those in human liver microsomes. Notably, among the 3 rifamycins, only rifabutin was hydrolyzed by marmoset tissue microsomes and recombinant AADAC. The activities for all substrates in marmoset intestinal microsomes tended to be lower than those in liver microsomes, which suggests that the first-pass effects of the CES and AADAC substrates are dueto hepatic hydrolysis. In most cases, the sums of the values of the contributions of CES1, CES2, and AADAC were below 100%, which indicated the involvement of other hydrolases in marmosets. In conclusion, we clarified the substrate preferences of hydrolases in marmosets. Significance Statement This study confirmed that there are large differences in hydrolase activities between humans and marmosets by characterizing marmoset hydrolase activities for compounds that are substrates of human CES1, CES2, or AADAC. The data obtained in this study may be useful for considering whether marmosets are appropriate for examining the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of new chemical entities in preclinical studies.
ESTHER : Honda_2021_Drug.Metab.Dispos__
PubMedSearch : Honda_2021_Drug.Metab.Dispos__
PubMedID: 34135089

Title : Identification and Characterization of a New Carboxylesterase 2 Isozyme, mfCES2C, in the Small Intestine of Cynomolgus Monkeys - Ohura_2020_Drug.Metab.Dispos_48_146
Author(s) : Ohura K , Igawa Y , Tanaka M , Matsumoto K , Kasahara A , Wada N , Kubota K , Uno Y , Imai T
Ref : Drug Metabolism & Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals , 48 :146 , 2020
Abstract : In contrast to a single human carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) isozyme (hCE2), three CES2 genes have been identified in cynomolgus monkeys: mfCES2A, mfCES2B, and mfCES2C . Although mfCES2A protein is expressed in several organs, mfCES2B is a pseudogene and the phenotype of the mfCES2C gene has not yet been clarified in tissues. In previous studies, we detected an unidentified esterase in the region of CES2 mobility upon nondenaturing PAGE analysis of monkey intestinal microsomes, which showed immunoreactivity for anti-mfCES2A antibody. The aim of the present study was to identify this unidentified esterase from monkey small intestine. The esterase was separated on nondenaturing PAGE gel and digested in-gel with trypsin. The amino acid sequences of fragmented peptides were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The unidentified esterase was shown to be identical to mfCES2C (XP_015298642.1, predicted from the genome sequence data). mfCES2C consists of 559 amino acid residues and shows approximately 90% homology with mfCES2A (561 amino acid residues). In contrast to the ubiquitous expression of mfCES2A, mfCES2C is only expressed in the small intestine, kidney, and skin. The hydrolytic properties of recombinant mfCES2C, expressed in HEK293 cells, with respect to p-nitrophenyl derivatives, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, and irinotecan were similar to those of recombinant mfCES2A. However, mfCES2C showed a hydrolase activity for O-n-valeryl propranolol higher than mfCES2A. It is concluded that the previously unidentified monkey intestinal CES2 is mfCES2C, which shows different hydrolytic properties to mfCES2A, depending on the substrate. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In the present research, we determined that mfCES2C, a novel monkey CES2 isozyme, is expressed in the small intestine and kidney of the cynomolgus monkey. Interestingly, mfCES2C showed a relatively wide substrate specificity for ester-containing compounds. These findings may, in early stages of drug development, support the use of in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation for the intestinal hydrolysis of ester drugs in the cynomolgus monkey.
ESTHER : Ohura_2020_Drug.Metab.Dispos_48_146
PubMedSearch : Ohura_2020_Drug.Metab.Dispos_48_146
PubMedID: 31836607
Gene_locus related to this paper: macfa-a0a2k5uar1

Title : Molecular characterization and polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase in cynomolgus macaques - Uno_2018_J.Med.Primatol_47_185
Author(s) : Uno Y , Uehara S , Mahadhi HMD , Ohura K , Hosokawa M , Imai T
Ref : J Med Primatol , 47 :185 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme essential for drug metabolism, has been investigated as antidotes against organophosphorus nerve agents, and the efficacy and safety have been studied in cynomolgus macaques. BChE polymorphisms partly account for variable BChE activities among individuals in humans, but have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques. METHODS: Molecular characterization was carried out by analyzing primary sequence, gene, tissue expression, and genetic variants. RESULTS: In cynomolgus and human BChE, phylogenetically closely related, amino acid residues important for enzyme function were conserved, and gene and genomic structure were similar. Cynomolgus BChE mRNA was most abundantly expressed in liver among the 10 tissue types analyzed. Re-sequencing found 26 non-synonymous genetic variants in 121 cynomolgus and 23 rhesus macaques, indicating that macaque BChE is polymorphic, although none of these variants corresponded to the null or defective alleles of human BChE. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest molecular similarities of cynomolgus and human BChE.
ESTHER : Uno_2018_J.Med.Primatol_47_185
PubMedSearch : Uno_2018_J.Med.Primatol_47_185
PubMedID: 29573432
Gene_locus related to this paper: macfa-BCHE

Title : Analysis of carboxylesterase 2 transcript variants in cynomolgus macaque liver - Uno_2018_Xenobiotica__1
Author(s) : Uno Y , Igawa Y , Tanaka M , Kayoko O , Hosokawa M , Imai T
Ref : Xenobiotica , :1 , 2018
Abstract : 1. Carboxylesterase (CES) is important for the detoxification of a wide range of drugs and xenobiotics. In this study, the hepatic level of CES2 mRNA was examined in cynomolgus macaques used widely in preclinical studies for drug metabolism. 2. Three CES2 mRNAs were present in cynomolgus macaque liver. The mRNA level was highest for cynomolgus CES2A (formerly CES2v3), much lower for cynomolgus CES2B (formerly CES2v1), and extremely low for cynomolgus CES2C (formerly CES2v2). Most various transcript variants produced from cynomolgus CES2B gene did not contain a complete coding region. Thus, CES2A is the major CES2 enzyme in cynomolgus liver. 3. A new transcript variant of CES2A, CES2Av2, was identified. CES2Av2 contained exon 3 region different from wild-type (CES2Av1). In cynomolgus macaques expressing only CES2Av2 transcript, CES2A contained the sequence of CES2B in exon 3 and vicinity, probably due to gene conversion. 4. On genotyping, this CES2Av2 allele was prevalent in Indochinese cynomolgus macaques, but not in Indonesian cynomolgus or rhesus macaques. CES2Av2 recombinant protein showed similar activity to CES2Av1 protein for several substrates. 5. It is concluded that CES2A is the major cynomolgus hepatic CES2, and new transcript variant, CES2Av2, has similar functions to CES2Av1.
ESTHER : Uno_2018_Xenobiotica__1
PubMedSearch : Uno_2018_Xenobiotica__1
PubMedID: 29384423

Title : Analysis of gene expression for microminipig liver transcriptomes using parallel long-read technology and short-read sequencing - Sakai_2016_Biopharm.Drug.Dispos_37_220
Author(s) : Sakai C , Iwano S , Shimizu M , Onodera J , Uchida M , Sakurada E , Yamazaki Y , Asaoka Y , Imura N , Uno Y , Murayama N , Hayashi R , Yamazaki H , Miyamoto Y
Ref : Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition , 37 :220 , 2016
Abstract : The microminipig is one of the smallest minipigs that has emerged as a possible experimental animal model, because it shares many anatomical and/or physiological similarities with humans, including the coronary artery distribution in the heart, the digestive physiology, the kidney size and its structure, and so on. However, information on gene expression profiles, including those on drug-metabolizing phase I and II enzymes, in the microminipig is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify transcripts in microminipig livers and to determine gene expression profiles. De novo assembly and expression analyses of microminipig transcripts were conducted with liver samples from three male and three female microminipigs using parallel long-read and short-read sequencing technologies. After unique sequences had been automatically aligned by assembling software, the mean contig length of 50843 transcripts was 707 bp. The expression profiles of cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2, 2C, 2E1 and 3A genes in livers in microminipigs were similar to those in humans. Liver carboxylesterase (CES) precursor, liver CES-like, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2C1-like, amine sulfotransferase (SULT)-like, N-acetyltransferases (NAT8) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) A2 genes, which are relatively unknown genes in pigs and/or humans, were expressed strongly. Furthermore, no significant gender differences were observed in the gene expression profiles of phase I enzymes, whereas UGT2B17, SULT1E1, SULT2A1, amine SULT-like, NAT8 and GSTT4 genes were different between males and females among phase II enzyme genes under the present sample conditions. These results provide a foundation for mechanistic studies and the use of microminipigs as model animals for drug development in the future. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ESTHER : Sakai_2016_Biopharm.Drug.Dispos_37_220
PubMedSearch : Sakai_2016_Biopharm.Drug.Dispos_37_220
PubMedID: 27214158

Title : Differences in Intestinal Hydrolytic Activities between Cynomolgus Monkeys and Humans: Evaluation of Substrate Specificities Using Recombinant Carboxylesterase 2 Isozymes - Igawa_2016_Mol.Pharm_13_3176
Author(s) : Igawa Y , Fujiwara S , Ohura K , Hirokawa T , Nishizawa Y , Uehara S , Uno Y , Imai T
Ref : Mol Pharm , 13 :3176 , 2016
Abstract : Cynomolgus monkeys, used as an animal model to predict human pharmacokinetics, occasionally show different oral absorption patterns to humans due to differences in their intestinal metabolism. In this study, we investigated the differences between intestinal hydrolytic activities in cynomolgus monkeys and humans, in particular the catalyzing activities of their carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) isozymes. For this purpose we used both human and monkey microsomes and recombinant enzymes derived from a cell culture system. Monkey intestinal microsomes showed lower hydrolytic activity than human microsomes for several substrates. Interestingly, in contrast to human intestinal hydrolysis, which is not enantioselective, monkey intestine showed preferential R-form hydrolysis of propranolol derivatives. Recombinant CES2 isozymes from both species, mfCES2v3 from monkeys and human hCE2, showed similar metabolic properties to their intestinal microsomes when expressed in HEK293 cells. Recombinant hCE2 and mfCES2v3 showed similar Km values for both enantiomers of all propranolol derivatives tested. However, recombinant mfCES2v3 showed extreme R-enantioselective hydrolysis, and both hCE2 and mfCES2v3 showed lower activity for O-3-methyl-n-butyryl propranolol than for O-n-valeryl and O-2-methyl-n-butyryl propranolol. This lower hydrolytic activity was characterized by lower Vmax values. Docking simulations of the protein-ligand complex demonstrated that the enantioselectivity of mfCES2v3 for propranolol derivatives was possibly caused by the orientation of its active site being deformed by an amino acid change of Leu107 to Gln107 and the insertion of Met309, compared with hCE2. In addition, molecular dynamics simulation indicated the possibility that the interatomic distance between the catalytic triad and the substrate was elongated by a 3-positioned methyl in the propranolol derivatives. Overall, these findings will help us to understand the differences in intestinal hydrolytic activities between cynomolgus monkeys and humans.
ESTHER : Igawa_2016_Mol.Pharm_13_3176
PubMedSearch : Igawa_2016_Mol.Pharm_13_3176
PubMedID: 27454346

Title : Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis - Session_2016_Nature_538_336
Author(s) : Session AM , Uno Y , Kwon T , Chapman JA , Toyoda A , Takahashi S , Fukui A , Hikosaka A , Suzuki A , Kondo M , van Heeringen SJ , Quigley I , Heinz S , Ogino H , Ochi H , Hellsten U , Lyons JB , Simakov O , Putnam N , Stites J , Kuroki Y , Tanaka T , Michiue T , Watanabe M , Bogdanovic O , Lister R , Georgiou G , Paranjpe SS , van Kruijsbergen I , Shu S , Carlson J , Kinoshita T , Ohta Y , Mawaribuchi S , Jenkins J , Grimwood J , Schmutz J , Mitros T , Mozaffari SV , Suzuki Y , Haramoto Y , Yamamoto TS , Takagi C , Heald R , Miller K , Haudenschild C , Kitzman J , Nakayama T , Izutsu Y , Robert J , Fortriede J , Burns K , Lotay V , Karimi K , Yasuoka Y , Dichmann DS , Flajnik MF , Houston DW , Shendure J , DuPasquier L , Vize PD , Zorn AM , Ito M , Marcotte EM , Wallingford JB , Ito Y , Asashima M , Ueno N , Matsuda Y , Veenstra GJ , Fujiyama A , Harland RM , Taira M , Rokhsar DS
Ref : Nature , 538 :336 , 2016
Abstract : To explore the origins and consequences of tetraploidy in the African clawed frog, we sequenced the Xenopus laevis genome and compared it to the related diploid X. tropicalis genome. We characterize the allotetraploid origin of X. laevis by partitioning its genome into two homoeologous subgenomes, marked by distinct families of 'fossil' transposable elements. On the basis of the activity of these elements and the age of hundreds of unitary pseudogenes, we estimate that the two diploid progenitor species diverged around 34 million years ago (Ma) and combined to form an allotetraploid around 17-18 Ma. More than 56% of all genes were retained in two homoeologous copies. Protein function, gene expression, and the amount of conserved flanking sequence all correlate with retention rates. The subgenomes have evolved asymmetrically, with one chromosome set more often preserving the ancestral state and the other experiencing more gene loss, deletion, rearrangement, and reduced gene expression.
ESTHER : Session_2016_Nature_538_336
PubMedSearch : Session_2016_Nature_538_336
PubMedID: 27762356
Gene_locus related to this paper: xenla-a0a1l8f4t7 , xenla-a0a1l8fbc6 , xenla-a0a1l8fct2 , xenla-q2tap9 , xenla-q4klb6 , xenla-q5xh09 , xenla-q6ax59 , xenla-q6dcw6 , xenla-q6irp4 , xenla-q6pad5 , xenla-q7sz70 , xenla-Q7ZXQ6 , xenla-q66kx1 , xenla-q640y7 , xenla-q642r3 , xenla-Q860X9 , xenla-BCHE2 , xenla-a0a1l8g7v4 , xenla-a0a1l8g1u7 , xenla-a0a1l8fmc5 , xenla-a0a1l8g467 , xenla-a0a1l8g4e4 , xenla-a0a1l8ga66 , xenla-a0a1l8gaw4 , xenla-a0a1l8gt68 , xenla-a0a1l8h0b2 , xenla-a0a1l8fdr1 , xenla-a0a1l8fdt7 , xenla-a0a1l8fi72 , xenla-a0a1l8fi73 , xenla-a0a1l8fi77 , xenla-a0a1l8fi96 , xenla-a0a1l8hc38 , xenla-a0a1l8hn27 , xenla-a0a1l8hry6 , xenla-a0a1l8hw96 , xenla-a0a1l8i2x6 , xenla-a0a1l8hei7 , xenla-a0a1l8gnd1 , xenla-a0a1l8i2g3 , xenla-a0a1l8hdn0 , xenla-a0a1l8h622

Title : Isolation and characterization of arylacetamide deacetylase in cynomolgus macaques - Uno_2015_J.Vet.Med.Sci_77_721
Author(s) : Uno Y , Hosokawa M , Imai T
Ref : J Vet Med Sci , 77 :721 , 2015
Abstract : Arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC), a microsomal serine esterase, hydrolyzes drugs, such as flutamide, phenacetin and rifampicin. Because AADAC has not been fully investigated at molecular levels in cynomolgus macaques, the non-human primate species widely used in drug metabolism studies, cynomolgus AADAC cDNA was isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence, highly homologous (92%) to human AADAC, was more closely clustered with human AADAC than the dog, rat or mouse ortholog in a phylogenetic tree. AADAC was flanked by AADACL2 and SUCNR1 in the cynomolgus and human genomes. Moreover, relatively abundant expression of AADAC mRNA was found in liver and jejunum, the drug-metabolizing organs, in cynomolgus macaques, similar to humans. The results suggest molecular similarities of AADAC between cynomolgus macaques and humans.
ESTHER : Uno_2015_J.Vet.Med.Sci_77_721
PubMedSearch : Uno_2015_J.Vet.Med.Sci_77_721
PubMedID: 25715734

Title : Systematic identification and characterization of carboxylesterases in cynomolgus macaques - Uno_2014_Drug.Metab.Dispos_42_2002
Author(s) : Uno Y , Uehara S , Hosokawa M , Imai T
Ref : Drug Metabolism & Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals , 42 :2002 , 2014
Abstract : Carboxylesterase (CES) is important for detoxification of a wide range of drugs and xenobiotics and catalyzes cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Cynomolgus macaques are widely used in drug metabolism studies; however, cynomolgus CES has not been fully investigated at molecular levels, partly due to the lack of gene information. In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNAs for CES homologous to human CES1, CES2, and CES5A in cynomolgus macaques. By genome analysis, in the cynomolgus macaque genome, three gene sequences were found for CES1(v1-3) and CES2(v1-3), whereas one gene sequence was found for CES5A. Cynomolgus CES1, CES2, and CES5A genes were located in the genomic regions corresponding to the human genes. We successfully identified CES1v1, CES1v2, CES2v1, CES2v3, and CES5A cDNAs from cynomolgus liver. Sequence analysis showed that amino acid sequences of each CES were highly homologous to that of the human homolog. All five CESs had sequences characteristic for CES enzymes, including the catalytic triad and oxyanion hole loop. By quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the most abundant expression of CES mRNAs among the 10 tissue types analyzed was observed in liver (CES1v1 and CES2v3 mRNAs), jejunum (CES2v1 mRNAs), and kidney (CES1v2 and CES5A mRNA), the organs important for drug metabolism and excretion. The results indicated that cynomolgus macaques express at least five CES genes, which potentially encode intact CES proteins.
ESTHER : Uno_2014_Drug.Metab.Dispos_42_2002
PubMedSearch : Uno_2014_Drug.Metab.Dispos_42_2002
PubMedID: 25256558
Gene_locus related to this paper: macfa-CES1v2 , macfa-CES1v1 , macfa-CES5 , macfa-CES2v3

Title : Effect of fasting on PPARgamma and AMPK activity in adipocytes - Kajita_2008_Diabetes.Res.Clin.Pract_81_144
Author(s) : Kajita K , Mune T , Ikeda T , Matsumoto M , Uno Y , Sugiyama C , Matsubara K , Morita H , Takemura M , Seishima M , Takeda J , Ishizuka T
Ref : Diabetes Res Clin Pract , 81 :144 , 2008
Abstract : We investigated the effects of fasting on gene expression and intracellular signals regulating energy metabolism in adipose tissue. Following fasting for 15h or 39h, epididymal fat pads were isolated from Wistar rats. PPARgamma mRNA levels decreased in the adipose tissues isolated from rats fasted for 39h, whereas adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA levels increased. Overnight fasting increased the AMP/ATP ratio and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipose tissue, but not in muscle or liver tissue. In addition, the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR) on PPARgamma expression in primary cultured adipocytes was investigated. AICAR reduced PPARgamma mRNA levels but increased aP2 and LPL mRNA levels. Thus, fasting-induced AMPK activation may affect on the regulation of gene expression in adipocytes.
ESTHER : Kajita_2008_Diabetes.Res.Clin.Pract_81_144
PubMedSearch : Kajita_2008_Diabetes.Res.Clin.Pract_81_144
PubMedID: 18562038