Toyoda A

References (26)

Title : The Chara Genome: Secondary Complexity and Implications for Plant Terrestrialization - Nishiyama_2018_Cell_174_448
Author(s) : Nishiyama T , Sakayama H , de Vries J , Buschmann H , Saint-Marcoux D , Ullrich KK , Haas FB , Vanderstraeten L , Becker D , Lang D , Vosolsobe S , Rombauts S , Wilhelmsson PKI , Janitza P , Kern R , Heyl A , Rumpler F , Villalobos L , Clay JM , Skokan R , Toyoda A , Suzuki Y , Kagoshima H , Schijlen E , Tajeshwar N , Catarino B , Hetherington AJ , Saltykova A , Bonnot C , Breuninger H , Symeonidi A , Radhakrishnan GV , Van Nieuwerburgh F , Deforce D , Chang C , Karol KG , Hedrich R , Ulvskov P , Glockner G , Delwiche CF , Petrasek J , Van de Peer Y , Friml J , Beilby M , Dolan L , Kohara Y , Sugano S , Fujiyama A , Delaux PM , Quint M , Theissen G , Hagemann M , Harholt J , Dunand C , Zachgo S , Langdale J , Maumus F , Van Der Straeten D , Gould SB , Rensing SA
Ref : Cell , 174 :448 , 2018
Abstract : Land plants evolved from charophytic algae, among which Charophyceae possess the most complex body plans. We present the genome of Chara braunii; comparison of the genome to those of land plants identified evolutionary novelties for plant terrestrialization and land plant heritage genes. C. braunii employs unique xylan synthases for cell wall biosynthesis, a phragmoplast (cell separation) mechanism similar to that of land plants, and many phytohormones. C. braunii plastids are controlled via land-plant-like retrograde signaling, and transcriptional regulation is more elaborate than in other algae. The morphological complexity of this organism may result from expanded gene families, with three cases of particular note: genes effecting tolerance to reactive oxygen species (ROS), LysM receptor-like kinases, and transcription factors (TFs). Transcriptomic analysis of sexual reproductive structures reveals intricate control by TFs, activity of the ROS gene network, and the ancestral use of plant-like storage and stress protection proteins in the zygote.
ESTHER : Nishiyama_2018_Cell_174_448
PubMedSearch : Nishiyama_2018_Cell_174_448
PubMedID: 30007417
Gene_locus related to this paper: chabu-a0a388kgf1 , chabu-a0a388jwy2

Title : Complete genome sequence and expression profile of the commercial lytic enzyme producer Lysobacter enzymogenes M497-1 - Takami_2017_DNA.Res_24_169
Author(s) : Takami H , Toyoda A , Uchiyama I , Itoh T , Takaki Y , Arai W , Nishi S , Kawai M , Shin-Ya K , Ikeda H
Ref : DNA Research , 24 :169 , 2017
Abstract : Lysobacter enzymogenes M497-1 is a producer of commercialized achromopeptidase and is expected to harbour genes encoding various other antimicrobial enzymes. Here, we present the complete sequence of the genome of M497-1 and the expression profiles of the genes for various antimicrobial enzymes. Of the 117 peptidase-encoding genes found in the 6.1-Mb genome of M497-1, 15 genes (aside from the gene encoding the achromopeptidase) were expressed at a level higher than that of the average ribosomal protein genes in the 24-h culture. Thus, the strain was found more valuable than hitherto considered. In addition, M497-1 harbours 98 genes involved in the biosynthesis of various natural products, 16 of which are M497-1-specific across 4 Lysobacter species. A gene cluster starting at LEN_2603 through LEN_2673 among the 98 genes closely resembled the lysobactin biosynthesis gene cluster of Lysobacter sp. ATCC 53042. It is likely that M497-1 may produce lysobactin or related antibacterial compounds. Furthermore, comparative genomic analysis of M497-1 and four other Lysobacter species revealed that their core genome structure comprises 3,737 orthologous groups. Our findings are expected to advance further biotechnological application of Lysobacter spp. as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.
ESTHER : Takami_2017_DNA.Res_24_169
PubMedSearch : Takami_2017_DNA.Res_24_169
PubMedID: 28065880
Gene_locus related to this paper: lysen-a0a1j1ebl3 , lysen-a0a1j1e5b0 , lysen-a0a0s2dfs0

Title : Draft Sequencing of the Heterozygous Diploid Genome of Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Using a Hybrid Assembly Approach - Shimizu_2017_Front.Genet_8_180
Author(s) : Shimizu T , Tanizawa Y , Mochizuki T , Nagasaki H , Yoshioka T , Toyoda A , Fujiyama A , Kaminuma E , Nakamura Y
Ref : Front Genet , 8 :180 , 2017
Abstract : Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is one of the most abundantly produced mandarin varieties of citrus, known for its seedless fruit production and as a breeding parent of citrus. De novo assembly of the heterozygous diploid genome of Satsuma ("Miyagawa Wase") was conducted by a hybrid assembly approach using short-read sequences, three mate-pair libraries, and a long-read sequence of PacBio by the PLATANUS assembler. The assembled sequence, with a total size of 359.7 Mb at the N50 length of 386,404 bp, consisted of 20,876 scaffolds. Pseudomolecules of Satsuma constructed by aligning the scaffolds to three genetic maps showed genome-wide synteny to the genomes of Clementine, pummelo, and sweet orange. Gene prediction by modeling with MAKER-P proposed 29,024 genes and 37,970 mRNA; additionally, gene prediction analysis found candidates for novel genes in several biosynthesis pathways for gibberellin and violaxanthin catabolism. BUSCO scores for the assembled scaffold and predicted transcripts, and another analysis by BAC end sequence mapping indicated the assembled genome consistency was close to those of the haploid Clementine, pummel, and sweet orange genomes. The number of repeat elements and long terminal repeat retrotransposon were comparable to those of the seven citrus genomes; this suggested no significant failure in the assembly at the repeat region. A resequencing application using the assembled sequence confirmed that both kunenbo-A and Satsuma are offsprings of Kishu, and Satsuma is a back-crossed offspring of Kishu. These results illustrated the performance of the hybrid assembly approach and its ability to construct an accurate heterozygous diploid genome.
ESTHER : Shimizu_2017_Front.Genet_8_180
PubMedSearch : Shimizu_2017_Front.Genet_8_180
PubMedID: 29259619
Gene_locus related to this paper: citsi-a0a067e7f4 , 9rosi-v4u6v9 , citsi-a0a067dhb0 , citsi-a0a067f614 , citun-a0a2h5ny34 , citsi-a0a067f6y7 , citcl-v4syg1

Title : Extremotolerant tardigrade genome and improved radiotolerance of human cultured cells by tardigrade-unique protein - Hashimoto_2016_Nat.Commun_7_12808
Author(s) : Hashimoto T , Horikawa DD , Saito Y , Kuwahara H , Kozuka-Hata H , Shin IT , Minakuchi Y , Ohishi K , Motoyama A , Aizu T , Enomoto A , Kondo K , Tanaka S , Hara Y , Koshikawa S , Sagara H , Miura T , Yokobori S , Miyagawa K , Suzuki Y , Kubo T , Oyama M , Kohara Y , Fujiyama A , Arakawa K , Katayama T , Toyoda A , Kunieda T
Ref : Nat Commun , 7 :12808 , 2016
Abstract : Tardigrades, also known as water bears, are small aquatic animals. Some tardigrade species tolerate almost complete dehydration and exhibit extraordinary tolerance to various physical extremes in the dehydrated state. Here we determine a high-quality genome sequence of Ramazzottius varieornatus, one of the most stress-tolerant tardigrade species. Precise gene repertoire analyses reveal the presence of a small proportion (1.2% or less) of putative foreign genes, loss of gene pathways that promote stress damage, expansion of gene families related to ameliorating damage, and evolution and high expression of novel tardigrade-unique proteins. Minor changes in the gene expression profiles during dehydration and rehydration suggest constitutive expression of tolerance-related genes. Using human cultured cells, we demonstrate that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein suppresses X-ray-induced DNA damage by approximately 40% and improves radiotolerance. These findings indicate the relevance of tardigrade-unique proteins to tolerability and tardigrades could be a bountiful source of new protection genes and mechanisms.
ESTHER : Hashimoto_2016_Nat.Commun_7_12808
PubMedSearch : Hashimoto_2016_Nat.Commun_7_12808
PubMedID: 27649274
Gene_locus related to this paper: ramva-a0a1d1uki4 , ramva-a0a1d1uvm7 , ramva-a0a1d1ula4 , ramva-a0a1d1v5e3 , ramva-a0a1d1unv1 , ramva-a0a1d1vjq5 , ramva-a0a1d1vlp2 , ramva-a0a1d1vh75 , ramva-a0a1d1vzz5

Title : Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis - Session_2016_Nature_538_336
Author(s) : Session AM , Uno Y , Kwon T , Chapman JA , Toyoda A , Takahashi S , Fukui A , Hikosaka A , Suzuki A , Kondo M , van Heeringen SJ , Quigley I , Heinz S , Ogino H , Ochi H , Hellsten U , Lyons JB , Simakov O , Putnam N , Stites J , Kuroki Y , Tanaka T , Michiue T , Watanabe M , Bogdanovic O , Lister R , Georgiou G , Paranjpe SS , van Kruijsbergen I , Shu S , Carlson J , Kinoshita T , Ohta Y , Mawaribuchi S , Jenkins J , Grimwood J , Schmutz J , Mitros T , Mozaffari SV , Suzuki Y , Haramoto Y , Yamamoto TS , Takagi C , Heald R , Miller K , Haudenschild C , Kitzman J , Nakayama T , Izutsu Y , Robert J , Fortriede J , Burns K , Lotay V , Karimi K , Yasuoka Y , Dichmann DS , Flajnik MF , Houston DW , Shendure J , DuPasquier L , Vize PD , Zorn AM , Ito M , Marcotte EM , Wallingford JB , Ito Y , Asashima M , Ueno N , Matsuda Y , Veenstra GJ , Fujiyama A , Harland RM , Taira M , Rokhsar DS
Ref : Nature , 538 :336 , 2016
Abstract : To explore the origins and consequences of tetraploidy in the African clawed frog, we sequenced the Xenopus laevis genome and compared it to the related diploid X. tropicalis genome. We characterize the allotetraploid origin of X. laevis by partitioning its genome into two homoeologous subgenomes, marked by distinct families of 'fossil' transposable elements. On the basis of the activity of these elements and the age of hundreds of unitary pseudogenes, we estimate that the two diploid progenitor species diverged around 34 million years ago (Ma) and combined to form an allotetraploid around 17-18 Ma. More than 56% of all genes were retained in two homoeologous copies. Protein function, gene expression, and the amount of conserved flanking sequence all correlate with retention rates. The subgenomes have evolved asymmetrically, with one chromosome set more often preserving the ancestral state and the other experiencing more gene loss, deletion, rearrangement, and reduced gene expression.
ESTHER : Session_2016_Nature_538_336
PubMedSearch : Session_2016_Nature_538_336
PubMedID: 27762356
Gene_locus related to this paper: xenla-a0a1l8f4t7 , xenla-a0a1l8fbc6 , xenla-a0a1l8fct2 , xenla-q2tap9 , xenla-q4klb6 , xenla-q5xh09 , xenla-q6ax59 , xenla-q6dcw6 , xenla-q6irp4 , xenla-q6pad5 , xenla-q7sz70 , xenla-Q7ZXQ6 , xenla-q66kx1 , xenla-q640y7 , xenla-q642r3 , xenla-Q860X9 , xenla-BCHE2 , xenla-a0a1l8g7v4 , xenla-a0a1l8g1u7 , xenla-a0a1l8fmc5 , xenla-a0a1l8g467 , xenla-a0a1l8g4e4 , xenla-a0a1l8ga66 , xenla-a0a1l8gaw4 , xenla-a0a1l8gt68 , xenla-a0a1l8h0b2 , xenla-a0a1l8fdr1 , xenla-a0a1l8fdt7 , xenla-a0a1l8fi72 , xenla-a0a1l8fi73 , xenla-a0a1l8fi77 , xenla-a0a1l8fi96 , xenla-a0a1l8hc38 , xenla-a0a1l8hn27 , xenla-a0a1l8hry6 , xenla-a0a1l8hw96 , xenla-a0a1l8i2x6 , xenla-a0a1l8hei7 , xenla-a0a1l8gnd1 , xenla-a0a1l8i2g3 , xenla-a0a1l8hdn0 , xenla-a0a1l8h622

Title : The Gonium pectorale genome demonstrates co-option of cell cycle regulation during the evolution of multicellularity - Hanschen_2016_Nat.Commun_7_11370
Author(s) : Hanschen ER , Marriage TN , Ferris PJ , Hamaji T , Toyoda A , Fujiyama A , Neme R , Noguchi H , Minakuchi Y , Suzuki M , Kawai-Toyooka H , Smith DR , Sparks H , Anderson J , Bakaric R , Luria V , Karger A , Kirschner MW , Durand PM , Michod RE , Nozaki H , Olson BJ
Ref : Nat Commun , 7 :11370 , 2016
Abstract : The transition to multicellularity has occurred numerous times in all domains of life, yet its initial steps are poorly understood. The volvocine green algae are a tractable system for understanding the genetic basis of multicellularity including the initial formation of cooperative cell groups. Here we report the genome sequence of the undifferentiated colonial alga, Gonium pectorale, where group formation evolved by co-option of the retinoblastoma cell cycle regulatory pathway. Significantly, expression of the Gonium retinoblastoma cell cycle regulator in unicellular Chlamydomonas causes it to become colonial. The presence of these changes in undifferentiated Gonium indicates extensive group-level adaptation during the initial step in the evolution of multicellularity. These results emphasize an early and formative step in the evolution of multicellularity, the evolution of cell cycle regulation, one that may shed light on the evolutionary history of other multicellular innovations and evolutionary transitions.
ESTHER : Hanschen_2016_Nat.Commun_7_11370
PubMedSearch : Hanschen_2016_Nat.Commun_7_11370
PubMedID: 27102219
Gene_locus related to this paper: gonpe-a0a150g7b7 , gonpe-a0a150g7j0 , gonpe-a0a150fxi1 , gonpe-a0a150gb26 , gonpe-a0a150grd7 , gonpe-a0a150gvy9 , gonpe-a0a150h2v5

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of Aurantimicrobium minutum Type Strain KNCT, a Planktonic Ultramicrobacterium Isolated from River Water - Nakai_2016_Genome.Announc_4_e00616
Author(s) : Nakai R , Fujisawa T , Nakamura Y , Nishide H , Uchiyama I , Baba T , Toyoda A , Fujiyama A , Naganuma T , Niki H
Ref : Genome Announc , 4 : , 2016
Abstract : Aurantimicrobium minutum type strain KNC(T) is a planktonic ultramicrobacterium isolated from river water in western Japan. Strain KNC(T) has an extremely small, streamlined genome of 1,622,386 bp comprising 1,575 protein-coding sequences. The genome annotation suggests that strain KNC(T) has an actinorhodopsin-based photometabolism.
ESTHER : Nakai_2016_Genome.Announc_4_e00616
PubMedSearch : Nakai_2016_Genome.Announc_4_e00616
PubMedID: 27365350
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9mico-a0a173lyl3

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of a Phenanthrene Degrader, Mycobacterium sp. Strain EPa45 (NBRC 110737), Isolated from a Phenanthrene-Degrading Consortium - Kato_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00782
Author(s) : Kato H , Ogawa N , Ohtsubo Y , Oshima K , Toyoda A , Mori H , Nagata Y , Kurokawa K , Hattori M , Fujiyama A , Tsuda M
Ref : Genome Announc , 3 : , 2015
Abstract : A phenanthrene degrader, Mycobacterium sp. EPa45, was isolated from a phenanthrene-degrading consortium. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of EPa45, which has a 6.2-Mb single circular chromosome. We propose a phenanthrene degradation pathway in EPa45 based on the complete genome sequence.
ESTHER : Kato_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00782
PubMedSearch : Kato_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00782
PubMedID: 26184940
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9myco-a0a0g3iim6 , 9myco-a0a0g3ijm3 , 9myco-a0a0g3ipv9 , 9myco-a0a0g3iuf8 , 9myco-a0a0g3ivy5 , 9myco-a0a0g3ihb1

Title : High frequency of phylogenetically diverse reductive dehalogenase-homologous genes in deep subseafloor sedimentary metagenomes - Kawai_2014_Front.Microbiol_5_80
Author(s) : Kawai M , Futagami T , Toyoda A , Takaki Y , Nishi S , Hori S , Arai W , Tsubouchi T , Morono Y , Uchiyama I , Ito T , Fujiyama A , Inagaki F , Takami H
Ref : Front Microbiol , 5 :80 , 2014
Abstract : Marine subsurface sediments on the Pacific margin harbor diverse microbial communities even at depths of several hundreds meters below the seafloor (mbsf) or more. Previous PCR-based molecular analysis showed the presence of diverse reductive dehalogenase gene (rdhA) homologs in marine subsurface sediment, suggesting that anaerobic respiration of organohalides is one of the possible energy-yielding pathways in the organic-rich sedimentary habitat. However, primer-independent molecular characterization of rdhA has remained to be demonstrated. Here, we studied the diversity and frequency of rdhA homologs by metagenomic analysis of five different depth horizons (0.8, 5.1, 18.6, 48.5, and 107.0 mbsf) at Site C9001 off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan. From all metagenomic pools, remarkably diverse rdhA-homologous sequences, some of which are affiliated with novel clusters, were observed with high frequency. As a comparison, we also examined frequency of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB), key functional genes for microbial sulfate reduction. The dsrAB were also widely observed in the metagenomic pools whereas the frequency of dsrAB genes was generally smaller than that of rdhA-homologous genes. The phylogenetic composition of rdhA-homologous genes was similar among the five depth horizons. Our metagenomic data revealed that subseafloor rdhA homologs are more diverse than previously identified from PCR-based molecular studies. Spatial distribution of similar rdhA homologs across wide depositional ages indicates that the heterotrophic metabolic processes mediated by the genes can be ecologically important, functioning in the organic-rich subseafloor sedimentary biosphere.
ESTHER : Kawai_2014_Front.Microbiol_5_80
PubMedSearch : Kawai_2014_Front.Microbiol_5_80
PubMedID: 24624126
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9zzzz-x0wci8 , 9zzzz-x1k9j7 , 9zzzz-x0se68 , 9zzzz-x0tpm6 , 9zzzz-x0tv89 , 9zzzz-x0ws69 , 9zzzz-x1tg33 , 9zzzz-x1anx0 , 9zzzz-x1m8t8 , 9zzzz-x1a5i7 , 9zzzz-x1k2t2 , 9zzzz-x0uzq5

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of a Thermophilic Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen, Methanothermobacter sp. Strain CaT2 - Kosaka_2013_Genome.Announc_1_
Author(s) : Kosaka T , Toh H , Toyoda A
Ref : Genome Announc , 1 : , 2013
Abstract : We isolated a thermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanothermobacter sp. strain CaT2, which is able to aggregate and utilize formate. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this organism.
ESTHER : Kosaka_2013_Genome.Announc_1_
PubMedSearch : Kosaka_2013_Genome.Announc_1_
PubMedID: 23990577
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9eury-t2gj08

Title : A deeply branching thermophilic bacterium with an ancient acetyl-CoA pathway dominates a subsurface ecosystem - Takami_2012_PLoS.One_7_e30559
Author(s) : Takami H , Noguchi H , Takaki Y , Uchiyama I , Toyoda A , Nishi S , Chee GJ , Arai W , Nunoura T , Itoh T , Hattori M , Takai K
Ref : PLoS ONE , 7 :e30559 , 2012
Abstract : A nearly complete genome sequence of Candidatus 'Acetothermum autotrophicum', a presently uncultivated bacterium in candidate division OP1, was revealed by metagenomic analysis of a subsurface thermophilic microbial mat community. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of proteins common among 367 prokaryotes suggests that Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' is one of the earliest diverging bacterial lineages. It possesses a folate-dependent Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway of CO(2) fixation, is predicted to have an acetogenic lifestyle, and possesses the newly discovered archaeal-autotrophic type of bifunctional fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase. A phylogenetic analysis of the core gene cluster of the acethyl-CoA pathway, shared by acetogens, methanogens, some sulfur- and iron-reducers and dechlorinators, supports the hypothesis that the core gene cluster of Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' is a particularly ancient bacterial pathway. The habitat, physiology and phylogenetic position of Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' support the view that the first bacterial and archaeal lineages were H(2)-dependent acetogens and methanogenes living in hydrothermal environments.
ESTHER : Takami_2012_PLoS.One_7_e30559
PubMedSearch : Takami_2012_PLoS.One_7_e30559
PubMedID: 22303444
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-h5srl9 , 9chlr-h5sfm8

Title : Complete genome sequence of the wild-type commensal Escherichia coli strain SE15, belonging to phylogenetic group B2 - Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
Author(s) : Toh H , Oshima K , Toyoda A , Ogura Y , Ooka T , Sasamoto H , Park SH , Iyoda S , Kurokawa K , Morita H , Itoh K , Taylor TD , Hayashi T , Hattori M
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 192 :1165 , 2010
Abstract : Escherichia coli SE15 (O150:H5) is a human commensal bacterium recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B2, which includes the majority of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
ESTHER : Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
PubMedSearch : Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
PubMedID: 20008064
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Aes , ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C0410 , ecoli-C2429 , ecoli-C4836 , ecoli-dlhh , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-mhpc , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-yeiG , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yiel , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-ypt1 , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-YfhR , ecos5-d2nhh3 , yerpe-YBTT , ecolx-f4suw9

Title : Comparative genomic analysis of 1047 completely sequenced cDNAs from an Arabidopsis-related model halophyte, Thellungiella halophila - Taji_2010_BMC.Plant.Biol_10_261
Author(s) : Taji T , Komatsu K , Katori T , Kawasaki Y , Sakata Y , Tanaka S , Kobayashi M , Toyoda A , Seki M , Shinozaki K
Ref : BMC Plant Biol , 10 :261 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Thellungiella halophila (also known as T. salsuginea) is a model halophyte with a small size, short life cycle, and small genome. Thellungiella genes exhibit a high degree of sequence identity with Arabidopsis genes (90% at the cDNA level). We previously generated a full-length enriched cDNA library of T. halophila from various tissues and from whole plants treated with salinity, chilling, freezing stress, or ABA. We determined the DNA sequences of 20 000 cDNAs at both the 5'- and 3' ends, and identified 9569 distinct genes.
RESULTS: Here, we completely sequenced 1047 Thellungiella full-length cDNAs representing abiotic-stress-related genes, transcription factor genes, and protein phosphatase 2C genes. The predicted coding sequences, 5'-UTRs, and 3'-UTRs were compared with those of orthologous genes from Arabidopsis for length, sequence similarity, and structure. The 5'-UTR sequences of Thellungiella and Arabidopsis orthologs shared a significant level of similarity, although the motifs were rearranged. While examining the stress-related Thellungiella coding sequences, we found a short splicing variant of T. halophila salt overly sensitive 1 (ThSOS1), designated ThSOS1S. ThSOS1S contains the transmembrane domain of ThSOS1 but lacks the C-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression level of ThSOS1S under normal growth conditions was higher than that of ThSOS1. We also compared the expression levels of Na+-transport-system genes between Thellungiella and Arabidopsis by using full-length cDNAs from each species as probes. Several genes that play essential roles in Na+ excretion, compartmentation, and diffusion (SOS1, SOS2, NHX1, and HKT1) were expressed at higher levels in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis.
CONCLUSIONS: The full-length cDNA sequences obtained in this study will be essential for the ongoing annotation of the Thellungiella genome, especially for further improvement of gene prediction. Moreover, they will enable us to find splicing variants such as ThSOS1S (AB562331).
ESTHER : Taji_2010_BMC.Plant.Biol_10_261
PubMedSearch : Taji_2010_BMC.Plant.Biol_10_261
PubMedID: 21106055
Gene_locus related to this paper: theha-e4mwi7 , theha-e4mwx5 , theha-e4mxu0 , eutsa-v4kvd3

Title : Whole genome assembly of a natto production strain Bacillus subtilis natto from very short read data - Nishito_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_243
Author(s) : Nishito Y , Osana Y , Hachiya T , Popendorf K , Toyoda A , Fujiyama A , Itaya M , Sakakibara Y
Ref : BMC Genomics , 11 :243 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Bacillus subtilis natto is closely related to the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis Marburg 168, and functions as a starter for the production of the traditional Japanese food "natto" made from soybeans. Although re-sequencing whole genomes of several laboratory domesticated B. subtilis 168 derivatives has already been attempted using short read sequencing data, the assembly of the whole genome sequence of a closely related strain, B. subtilis natto, from very short read data is more challenging, particularly with our aim to assemble one fully connected scaffold from short reads around 35 bp in length.
RESULTS: We applied a comparative genome assembly method, which combines de novo assembly and reference guided assembly, to one of the B. subtilis natto strains. We successfully assembled 28 scaffolds and managed to avoid substantial fragmentation. Completion of the assembly through long PCR experiments resulted in one connected scaffold for B. subtilis natto. Based on the assembled genome sequence, our orthologous gene analysis between natto BEST195 and Marburg 168 revealed that 82.4% of 4375 predicted genes in BEST195 are one-to-one orthologous to genes in 168, with two genes in-paralog, 3.2% are deleted in 168, 14.3% are inserted in BEST195, and 5.9% of genes present in 168 are deleted in BEST195. The natto genome contains the same alleles in the promoter region of degQ and the coding region of swrAA as the wild strain, RO-FF-1. These are specific for gamma-PGA production ability, which is related to natto production. Further, the B. subtilis natto strain completely lacked a polyketide synthesis operon, disrupted the plipastatin production operon, and possesses previously unidentified transposases.
CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the whole genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis natto provided detailed analyses of a set of genes related to natto production, demonstrating the number and locations of insertion sequences that B. subtilis natto harbors but B. subtilis 168 lacks. Multiple genome-level comparisons among five closely related Bacillus species were also carried out. The determined genome sequence of B. subtilis natto and gene annotations are available from the Natto genome browser http:\/\/natto-genome.org/.
ESTHER : Nishito_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_243
PubMedSearch : Nishito_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_243
PubMedID: 20398357
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-CAH , bacsu-lip , bacsu-LIPB , bacsu-pnbae , bacsu-YBAC , bacsu-YDEN , bacsu-ydjp , bacsu-yfhM , bacsu-yisY , bacsu-YJCH , bacsu-YTMA , bacsu-YTPA , bacsu-ytxm , bacsu-YUII , bacsu-YVAK , bacsu-RsbQ

Title : Analysis of multiple occurrences of alternative splicing events in Arabidopsis thaliana using novel sequenced full-length cDNAs - Iida_2009_DNA.Res_16_155
Author(s) : Iida K , Fukami-Kobayashi K , Toyoda A , Sakaki Y , Kobayashi M , Seki M , Shinozaki K
Ref : DNA Research , 16 :155 , 2009
Abstract : Alternative splicing (AS) is a mechanism by which multiple types of mature mRNAs are generated from a single pre-mature mRNA. In this study, we completely sequenced 1800 full-length cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana, which had 5' and/or 3' sequences that were previously found to have AS events or alternative transcription start sites. Unexpectedly, these sequences gave us further evidence of AS, as 601 out of 1800 transcripts showed novel AS events. We focused on the combination patterns of multiple AS events within individual genes. Interestingly, some specific AS event combination patterns tended to appear more frequently than expected. The two most common patterns were: (i) alternative donor-0 approximately 12 times of exon skips-alternative acceptor and (ii) several times ( approximately 8) of retained introns. We also found that multiple AS events in a transcript tend to have the same effects concerning the length of the mature mRNA. Our current results are consistent with our previous observations, which showed changes in AS profiles under different conditions, and suggest the involvement of hypothetical cis- and trans-acting factors in the regulation of AS events.
ESTHER : Iida_2009_DNA.Res_16_155
PubMedSearch : Iida_2009_DNA.Res_16_155
PubMedID: 19423640
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AT2G42690 , arath-AT5G20060 , arath-eds1 , arath-MES2 , arath-o65713 , arath-pip , arath-Q8LFB7 , arath-q66gm8 , arath-B9DFR3

Title : Large-scale collection and annotation of full-length enriched cDNAs from a model halophyte, Thellungiella halophila - Taji_2008_BMC.Plant.Biol_8_115
Author(s) : Taji T , Sakurai T , Mochida K , Ishiwata A , Kurotani A , Totoki Y , Toyoda A , Sakaki Y , Seki M , Ono H , Sakata Y , Tanaka S , Shinozaki K
Ref : BMC Plant Biol , 8 :115 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Thellungiella halophila (also known as Thellungiella salsuginea) is a model halophyte with a small plant size, short life cycle, and small genome. It easily undergoes genetic transformation by the floral dipping method used with its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Thellungiella genes exhibit high sequence identity (approximately 90% at the cDNA level) with Arabidopsis genes. Furthermore, Thellungiella not only shows tolerance to extreme salinity stress, but also to chilling, freezing, and ozone stress, supporting the use of Thellungiella as a good genomic resource in studies of abiotic stress tolerance. RESULTS: We constructed a full-length enriched Thellungiella (Shan Dong ecotype) cDNA library from various tissues and whole plants subjected to environmental stresses, including high salinity, chilling, freezing, and abscisic acid treatment. We randomly selected about 20,000 clones and sequenced them from both ends to obtain a total of 35 171 sequences. CAP3 software was used to assemble the sequences and cluster them into 9569 nonredundant cDNA groups. We named these cDNAs "RTFL" (RIKEN Thellungiella Full-Length) cDNAs. Information on functional domains and Gene Ontology (GO) terms for the RTFL cDNAs were obtained using InterPro. The 8289 genes assigned to InterPro IDs were classified according to the GO terms using Plant GO Slim. Categorical comparison between the whole Arabidopsis genome and Thellungiella genes showing low identity to Arabidopsis genes revealed that the population of Thellungiella transport genes is approximately 1.5 times the size of the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. This suggests that these genes regulate a unique ion transportation system in Thellungiella. CONCLUSION: As the number of Thellungiella halophila (Thellungiella salsuginea) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was 9388 in July 2008, the number of ESTs has increased to approximately four times the original value as a result of this effort. Our sequences will thus contribute to correct future annotation of the Thellungiella genome sequence. The full-length enriched cDNA clones will enable the construction of overexpressing mutant plants by introduction of the cDNAs driven by a constitutive promoter, the complementation of Thellungiella mutants, and the determination of promoter regions in the Thellungiella genome.
ESTHER : Taji_2008_BMC.Plant.Biol_8_115
PubMedSearch : Taji_2008_BMC.Plant.Biol_8_115
PubMedID: 19014467
Gene_locus related to this paper: theha-e4mwi7 , theha-e4mwx5 , theha-e4mxu0 , eutsa-v4kvd3

Title : The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype - Putnam_2008_Nature_453_1064
Author(s) : Putnam NH , Butts T , Ferrier DE , Furlong RF , Hellsten U , Kawashima T , Robinson-Rechavi M , Shoguchi E , Terry A , Yu JK , Benito-Gutierrez EL , Dubchak I , Garcia-Fernandez J , Gibson-Brown JJ , Grigoriev IV , Horton AC , de Jong PJ , Jurka J , Kapitonov VV , Kohara Y , Kuroki Y , Lindquist E , Lucas S , Osoegawa K , Pennacchio LA , Salamov AA , Satou Y , Sauka-Spengler T , Schmutz J , Shin IT , Toyoda A , Bronner-Fraser M , Fujiyama A , Holland LZ , Holland PW , Satoh N , Rokhsar DS
Ref : Nature , 453 :1064 , 2008
Abstract : Lancelets ('amphioxus') are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage, with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian period. Here we describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic approximately 520-megabase genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyse it in the context of chordate evolution. Whole-genome comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets and vertebrates), and allow not only reconstruction of the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor but also partial reconstruction of its genomic organization, as well as a description of two genome-wide duplications and subsequent reorganizations in the vertebrate lineage. These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution.
ESTHER : Putnam_2008_Nature_453_1064
PubMedSearch : Putnam_2008_Nature_453_1064
PubMedID: 18563158
Gene_locus related to this paper: brafl-ACHE1 , brafl-ACHE2 , brafl-ACHEA , brafl-ACHEB , brafl-c3xqm2 , brafl-c3xqm5 , brafl-c3xtl0 , brafl-c3xtl1 , brafl-c3xut6 , brafl-c3xut7 , brafl-c3xvw5 , brafl-c3xx27 , brafl-c3xx28 , brafl-c3xx30 , brafl-c3xx32 , brafl-c3xx36 , brafl-c3xx38 , brafl-c3xx39 , brafl-c3xx40 , brafl-c3xx41 , brafl-c3xxt9 , brafl-c3xyd7 , brafl-c3xyd8 , brafl-c3xyd9 , brafl-c3xye0 , brafl-c3xyt7 , brafl-c3xzy1 , brafl-c3xzy2 , brafl-c3y1p9 , brafl-c3y1t3 , brafl-c3y2u3 , brafl-c3y4l1 , brafl-c3y6v9 , brafl-c3y6y4 , brafl-c3y7d7 , brafl-c3y7s1 , brafl-c3y8k5 , brafl-c3y8t3 , brafl-c3y8t4 , brafl-c3y8t5 , brafl-c3y8v8 , brafl-c3y8w1.1 , brafl-c3y8w2 , brafl-c3y9i7 , brafl-c3y9i8 , brafl-c3y9l9 , brafl-c3y9y3 , brafl-c3y087 , brafl-c3yan2 , brafl-c3yaw4 , brafl-c3ybw7 , brafl-c3yc67 , brafl-c3ydm8 , brafl-c3yfm5 , brafl-c3yfz8 , brafl-c3ygc7 , brafl-c3ygc9.1 , brafl-c3ygd0 , brafl-c3ygd1 , brafl-c3ygd2.1 , brafl-c3ygd4 , brafl-c3ygg6 , brafl-c3ygr1 , brafl-c3yi63 , brafl-c3yi64 , brafl-c3yi67 , brafl-c3yi68 , brafl-c3yi69 , brafl-c3yk61 , brafl-c3ykb2 , brafl-c3yla7 , brafl-c3ylp9 , brafl-c3ylq0 , brafl-c3ylq1 , brafl-c3ymu0 , brafl-c3yne9 , brafl-c3ypm6 , brafl-c3yr72 , brafl-c3yra8 , brafl-c3ys59 , brafl-c3yv27 , brafl-c3ywf1 , brafl-c3ywh9 , brafl-c3yx17 , brafl-c3yx19 , brafl-c3yxb9 , brafl-c3yxi7 , brafl-c3yyq5 , brafl-c3yz04 , brafl-c3z1c7 , brafl-c3z1u9 , brafl-c3z1v0 , brafl-c3z3n7 , brafl-c3z5c8 , brafl-c3z9f4 , brafl-c3z066 , brafl-c3z139 , brafl-c3z975 , brafl-c3zab8 , brafl-c3zab9 , brafl-c3zbr4 , brafl-c3zci7 , brafl-c3zcy8 , brafl-c3zd14 , brafl-c3zer1 , brafl-c3zf44 , brafl-c3zf47 , brafl-c3zf48 , brafl-c3zfs6 , brafl-c3zhm6 , brafl-c3ziv7.1 , brafl-c3ziv7.2 , brafl-c3zlg0 , brafl-c3zlg2 , brafl-c3zlg3 , brafl-c3zli5 , brafl-c3zme7 , brafl-c3zme8 , brafl-c3zmp8 , brafl-c3zmv1 , brafl-c3zmv2 , brafl-c3znd6 , brafl-c3znl2 , brafl-c3zqg7 , brafl-c3zqz2 , brafl-c3zs46 , brafl-c3zs49 , brafl-c3zs56 , brafl-c3zv54 , brafl-c3zvv1 , brafl-c3zwz6 , brafl-c3zxg2 , brafl-c3zxq3 , brafl-c3yim2 , brafl-c3zfs5 , brafl-c3zfs3 , brafl-c3xr79 , brafl-c3y7r2 , brafl-c3yj62 , brafl-c3zg22 , brafl-c3y2t9 , brafl-c3y2u0 , brafl-c3ycg1 , brafl-c3ycg2 , brafl-c3ycg4 , brafl-c3z1l3 , brafl-c3zn71 , brafl-c3zj72 , brafl-c3yf35 , brafl-c3z474 , brafl-c3zqr8 , brafl-c3yde6

Title : The Physcomitrella genome reveals evolutionary insights into the conquest of land by plants - Rensing_2008_Science_319_64
Author(s) : Rensing SA , Lang D , Zimmer AD , Terry A , Salamov A , Shapiro H , Nishiyama T , Perroud PF , Lindquist EA , Kamisugi Y , Tanahashi T , Sakakibara K , Fujita T , Oishi K , Shin IT , Kuroki Y , Toyoda A , Suzuki Y , Hashimoto S , Yamaguchi K , Sugano S , Kohara Y , Fujiyama A , Anterola A , Aoki S , Ashton N , Barbazuk WB , Barker E , Bennetzen JL , Blankenship R , Cho SH , Dutcher SK , Estelle M , Fawcett JA , Gundlach H , Hanada K , Heyl A , Hicks KA , Hughes J , Lohr M , Mayer K , Melkozernov A , Murata T , Nelson DR , Pils B , Prigge M , Reiss B , Renner T , Rombauts S , Rushton PJ , Sanderfoot A , Schween G , Shiu SH , Stueber K , Theodoulou FL , Tu H , Van de Peer Y , Verrier PJ , Waters E , Wood A , Yang L , Cove D , Cuming AC , Hasebe M , Lucas S , Mishler BD , Reski R , Grigoriev IV , Quatrano RS , Boore JL
Ref : Science , 319 :64 , 2008
Abstract : We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family complexity; loss of genes associated with aquatic environments (e.g., flagellar arms); acquisition of genes for tolerating terrestrial stresses (e.g., variation in temperature and water availability); and the development of the auxin and abscisic acid signaling pathways for coordinating multicellular growth and dehydration response. The Physcomitrella genome provides a resource for phylogenetic inferences about gene function and for experimental analysis of plant processes through this plant's unique facility for reverse genetics.
ESTHER : Rensing_2008_Science_319_64
PubMedSearch : Rensing_2008_Science_319_64
PubMedID: 18079367
Gene_locus related to this paper: phypa-a9rbi6 , phypa-a9rfh1 , phypa-a9rg19 , phypa-a9rgt9 , phypa-a9rhz9 , phypa-a9rkj1 , phypa-a9rns2 , phypa-a9rp52 , phypa-a9rq03 , phypa-a9ry17 , phypa-a9ry72 , phypa-a9s5n8 , phypa-a9s6w1 , phypa-a9s8c7 , phypa-a9s299 , phypa-a9san7 , phypa-a9sc75 , phypa-a9se75 , phypa-a9sg07 , phypa-a9skf7 , phypa-a9skr1 , phypa-a9skw1 , phypa-a9sl58 , phypa-a9slp7 , phypa-a9smq5 , phypa-a9sp13 , phypa-a9ssb0 , phypa-a9sse1 , phypa-a9ssf6 , phypa-a9st85 , phypa-a9sx74 , phypa-a9sy58 , phypa-a9syy4 , phypa-a9t0n4 , phypa-a9t0p4 , phypa-a9t1j2 , phypa-a9t5h1 , phypa-a9t7g6 , phypa-a9t8u8 , phypa-a9t9c9 , phypa-a9t9d9 , phypa-a0a7i4d2t7 , phypa-a9t498 , phypa-a9tbu4 , phypa-a9tc36 , phypa-a9tds0 , phypa-a9te64 , phypa-a9tfw2 , phypa-a9tin6 , phypa-a9tja4 , phypa-a9tmp3 , phypa-a9tmr4 , phypa-a9tql4 , phypa-a9tr83 , phypa-a9tsl1 , phypa-a9tsv6 , phypa-a9tu05 , phypa-a9tw81 , phypa-a9tyr8 , phypa-a9u0c9 , phypa-a9u0k3 , phypa-a9u0p4 , phypa-a9u2u7 , phypa-a9u3s0 , phypa-a9tfm7 , phypa-a9tfp6 , phypa-a9syg9 , phypa-a9tzk2 , phypa-a9tvg4 , phypa-a9t1y4 , phypa-a9tqt6 , phypa-a9st18 , phypa-a9tix9 , phypa-a0a2k1kfe3 , phypa-a9sqk3 , phypa-a0a2k1ie71 , phypa-a0a2k1kg29 , phypa-a0a2k1iji3

Title : The medaka draft genome and insights into vertebrate genome evolution - Kasahara_2007_Nature_447_714
Author(s) : Kasahara M , Naruse K , Sasaki S , Nakatani Y , Qu W , Ahsan B , Yamada T , Nagayasu Y , Doi K , Kasai Y , Jindo T , Kobayashi D , Shimada A , Toyoda A , Kuroki Y , Fujiyama A , Sasaki T , Shimizu A , Asakawa S , Shimizu N , Hashimoto S , Yang J , Lee Y , Matsushima K , Sugano S , Sakaizumi M , Narita T , Ohishi K , Haga S , Ohta F , Nomoto H , Nogata K , Morishita T , Endo T , Shin IT , Takeda H , Morishita S , Kohara Y
Ref : Nature , 447 :714 , 2007
Abstract : Teleosts comprise more than half of all vertebrate species and have adapted to a variety of marine and freshwater habitats. Their genome evolution and diversification are important subjects for the understanding of vertebrate evolution. Although draft genome sequences of two pufferfishes have been published, analysis of more fish genomes is desirable. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of a small egg-laying freshwater teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Medaka is native to East Asia and an excellent model system for a wide range of biology, including ecotoxicology, carcinogenesis, sex determination and developmental genetics. In the assembled medaka genome (700 megabases), which is less than half of the zebrafish genome, we predicted 20,141 genes, including approximately 2,900 new genes, using 5'-end serial analysis of gene expression tag information. We found single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at an average rate of 3.42% between the two inbred strains derived from two regional populations; this is the highest SNP rate seen in any vertebrate species. Analyses based on the dense SNP information show a strict genetic separation of 4 million years (Myr) between the two populations, and suggest that differential selective pressures acted on specific gene categories. Four-way comparisons with the human, pufferfish (Tetraodon), zebrafish and medaka genomes revealed that eight major interchromosomal rearrangements took place in a remarkably short period of approximately 50 Myr after the whole-genome duplication event in the teleost ancestor and afterwards, intriguingly, the medaka genome preserved its ancestral karyotype for more than 300 Myr.
ESTHER : Kasahara_2007_Nature_447_714
PubMedSearch : Kasahara_2007_Nature_447_714
PubMedID: 17554307
Gene_locus related to this paper: fugru-3cxest , fugru-4cxest , fugru-4neur , fugru-ACHE , fugru-ACHEE , fugru-balip , fugru-BCHE , fugru-BCHEB , fugru-cxest , oryla-ACHE , oryla-BCHE , oryla-d2x2i4 , oryla-h2m6h1 , oryla-h2m7w4 , oryla-h2m361 , oryla-h2mbn6 , oryla-h2mfw1 , oryla-h2mhi0 , oryla-h2mhl7 , oryla-h2mpb5 , oryla-h2mqz5 , oryla-h2mvs7 , oryla-h2mz49 , oryla-h2n1l9 , oryla-nlgn2 , takru-1neur , takru-2bneur , takru-3bneur , takru-h2rke7 , takru-h2rmg3 , takru-h2rsj9 , takru-h2rw77 , takru-h2ryq0 , takru-h2sci9 , takru-h2se90 , takru-h2spg7 , takru-h2sxi1 , takru-h2ts55 , takru-h2ts56 , takru-h2uxa9 , takru-h2vaf1 , takru-nlgn2a , takru-nlgn3a , takru-nlgn4a , oryla-h2mff8 , oryla-h2m2f0 , oryla-h2ler5 , takru-h2tsm6 , takru-h2tq49 , takru-h2tq47 , takru-h2s286 , takru-h2tng4 , takru-h2tq50 , takru-h2tng3 , takru-h2tng2 , oryla-h2lj38 , oryla-h2mxe6 , takru-h2tq48 , oryla-h2lf11 , takru-h2u5j0 , takru-h2rpm8 , oryla-h2n273 , oryla-h2n271 , oryla-h2lum7 , takru-h2tpz2 , takru-h2u3j1 , oryla-h2mdv3 , takru-h2tzm9 , takru-h2u8u6 , oryla-h2lcw8 , oryla-h2lc35 , oryla-h2ln66 , oryla-h2m8k0 , oryla-h2mdj7 , oryla-h2lw61 , oryla-h2lxe3 , oryla-h2l8y7 , oryla-h2mr84 , oryla-h2mr95 , oryla-h2mcz6 , oryla-h2lxr5 , oryla-h2ly57 , oryla-a0a3p9kz03 , oryla-a0a3p9hfu1 , oryla-h2m307 , oryla-h2lch5 , oryla-h2ldw9 , oryla-a0a3b3ic40 , oryla-h2ldi5 , oryla-h2mun1 , oryla-a0a3p9jla3

Title : Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification - Taylor_2006_Nature_440_497
Author(s) : Taylor TD , Noguchi H , Totoki Y , Toyoda A , Kuroki Y , Dewar K , Lloyd C , Itoh T , Takeda T , Kim DW , She X , Barlow KF , Bloom T , Bruford E , Chang JL , Cuomo CA , Eichler E , Fitzgerald MG , Jaffe DB , LaButti K , Nicol R , Park HS , Seaman C , Sougnez C , Yang X , Zimmer AR , Zody MC , Birren BW , Nusbaum C , Fujiyama A , Hattori M , Rogers J , Lander ES , Sakaki Y
Ref : Nature , 440 :497 , 2006
Abstract : Chromosome 11, although average in size, is one of the most gene- and disease-rich chromosomes in the human genome. Initial gene annotation indicates an average gene density of 11.6 genes per megabase, including 1,524 protein-coding genes, some of which were identified using novel methods, and 765 pseudogenes. One-quarter of the protein-coding genes shows overlap with other genes. Of the 856 olfactory receptor genes in the human genome, more than 40% are located in 28 single- and multi-gene clusters along this chromosome. Out of the 171 disorders currently attributed to the chromosome, 86 remain for which the underlying molecular basis is not yet known, including several mendelian traits, cancer and susceptibility loci. The high-quality data presented here--nearly 134.5 million base pairs representing 99.8% coverage of the euchromatic sequence--provide scientists with a solid foundation for understanding the genetic basis of these disorders and other biological phenomena.
ESTHER : Taylor_2006_Nature_440_497
PubMedSearch : Taylor_2006_Nature_440_497
PubMedID: 16554811
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PRCP

Title : DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 18 - Nusbaum_2005_Nature_437_551
Author(s) : Nusbaum C , Zody MC , Borowsky ML , Kamal M , Kodira CD , Taylor TD , Whittaker CA , Chang JL , Cuomo CA , Dewar K , Fitzgerald MG , Yang X , Abouelleil A , Allen NR , Anderson S , Bloom T , Bugalter B , Butler J , Cook A , Decaprio D , Engels R , Garber M , Gnirke A , Hafez N , Hall JL , Norman CH , Itoh T , Jaffe DB , Kuroki Y , Lehoczky J , Lui A , Macdonald P , Mauceli E , Mikkelsen TS , Naylor JW , Nicol R , Nguyen C , Noguchi H , O'Leary SB , O'Neill K , Piqani B , Smith CL , Talamas JA , Topham K , Totoki Y , Toyoda A , Wain HM , Young SK , Zeng Q , Zimmer AR , Fujiyama A , Hattori M , Birren BW , Sakaki Y , Lander ES
Ref : Nature , 437 :551 , 2005
Abstract : Chromosome 18 appears to have the lowest gene density of any human chromosome and is one of only three chromosomes for which trisomic individuals survive to term. There are also a number of genetic disorders stemming from chromosome 18 trisomy and aneuploidy. Here we report the finished sequence and gene annotation of human chromosome 18, which will allow a better understanding of the normal and disease biology of this chromosome. Despite the low density of protein-coding genes on chromosome 18, we find that the proportion of non-protein-coding sequences evolutionarily conserved among mammals is close to the genome-wide average. Extending this analysis to the entire human genome, we find that the density of conserved non-protein-coding sequences is largely uncorrelated with gene density. This has important implications for the nature and roles of non-protein-coding sequence elements.
ESTHER : Nusbaum_2005_Nature_437_551
PubMedSearch : Nusbaum_2005_Nature_437_551
PubMedID: 16177791
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LIPG

Title : DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee chromosome 22 - Watanabe_2004_Nature_429_382
Author(s) : Watanabe H , Fujiyama A , Hattori M , Taylor TD , Toyoda A , Kuroki Y , Noguchi H , BenKahla A , Lehrach H , Sudbrak R , Kube M , Taenzer S , Galgoczy P , Platzer M , Scharfe M , Nordsiek G , Blocker H , Hellmann I , Khaitovich P , Paabo S , Reinhardt R , Zheng HJ , Zhang XL , Zhu GF , Wang BF , Fu G , Ren SX , Zhao GP , Chen Z , Lee YS , Cheong JE , Choi SH , Wu KM , Liu TT , Hsiao KJ , Tsai SF , Kim CG , S OO , Kitano T , Kohara Y , Saitou N , Park HS , Wang SY , Yaspo ML , Sakaki Y
Ref : Nature , 429 :382 , 2004
Abstract : Human-chimpanzee comparative genome research is essential for narrowing down genetic changes involved in the acquisition of unique human features, such as highly developed cognitive functions, bipedalism or the use of complex language. Here, we report the high-quality DNA sequence of 33.3 megabases of chimpanzee chromosome 22. By comparing the whole sequence with the human counterpart, chromosome 21, we found that 1.44% of the chromosome consists of single-base substitutions in addition to nearly 68,000 insertions or deletions. These differences are sufficient to generate changes in most of the proteins. Indeed, 83% of the 231 coding sequences, including functionally important genes, show differences at the amino acid sequence level. Furthermore, we demonstrate different expansion of particular subfamilies of retrotransposons between the lineages, suggesting different impacts of retrotranspositions on human and chimpanzee evolution. The genomic changes after speciation and their biological consequences seem more complex than originally hypothesized.
ESTHER : Watanabe_2004_Nature_429_382
PubMedSearch : Watanabe_2004_Nature_429_382
PubMedID: 15164055
Gene_locus related to this paper: pantr-a0a2j8lmv7

Title : The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21 - Hattori_2000_Nature_405_311
Author(s) : Hattori M , Fujiyama A , Taylor TD , Watanabe H , Yada T , Park HS , Toyoda A , Ishii K , Totoki Y , Choi DK , Groner Y , Soeda E , Ohki M , Takagi T , Sakaki Y , Taudien S , Blechschmidt K , Polley A , Menzel U , Delabar J , Kumpf K , Lehmann R , Patterson D , Reichwald K , Rump A , Schillhabel M , Schudy A , Zimmermann W , Rosenthal A , Kudoh J , Schibuya K , Kawasaki K , Asakawa S , Shintani A , Sasaki T , Nagamine K , Mitsuyama S , Antonarakis SE , Minoshima S , Shimizu N , Nordsiek G , Hornischer K , Brant P , Scharfe M , Schon O , Desario A , Reichelt J , Kauer G , Blocker H , Ramser J , Beck A , Klages S , Hennig S , Riesselmann L , Dagand E , Haaf T , Wehrmeyer S , Borzym K , Gardiner K , Nizetic D , Francis F , Lehrach H , Reinhardt R , Yaspo ML
Ref : Nature , 405 :311 , 2000
Abstract : Chromosome 21 is the smallest human autosome. An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome, the most frequent genetic cause of significant mental retardation, which affects up to 1 in 700 live births. Several anonymous loci for monogenic disorders and predispositions for common complex disorders have also been mapped to this chromosome, and loss of heterozygosity has been observed in regions associated with solid tumours. Here we report the sequence and gene catalogue of the long arm of chromosome 21. We have sequenced 33,546,361 base pairs (bp) of DNA with very high accuracy, the largest contig being 25,491,867 bp. Only three small clone gaps and seven sequencing gaps remain, comprising about 100 kilobases. Thus, we achieved 99.7% coverage of 21q. We also sequenced 281,116 bp from the short arm. The structural features identified include duplications that are probably involved in chromosomal abnormalities and repeat structures in the telomeric and pericentromeric regions. Analysis of the chromosome revealed 127 known genes, 98 predicted genes and 59 pseudogenes.
ESTHER : Hattori_2000_Nature_405_311
PubMedSearch : Hattori_2000_Nature_405_311
PubMedID: 10830953
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LIPI

Title : A novel multiple PDZ domain-containing molecule interacting with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and neuronal cell adhesion proteins - Hirao_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_21105
Author(s) : Hirao K , Hata Y , Ide N , Takeuchi M , Irie M , Yao I , Deguchi M , Toyoda A , Sudhof TC , Takai Y
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 273 :21105 , 1998
Abstract : At synaptic junctions, pre- and postsynaptic membranes are connected by cell adhesion and have distinct structures for specialized functions. The presynaptic membranes have a machinery for fast neurotransmitter release, and the postsynaptic membranes have clusters of neurotransmitter receptors. The molecular mechanism of the assembly of synaptic junctions is not yet clear. Pioneering studies identified postsynaptic density (PSD)-95/SAP90 as a prototypic synaptic scaffolding protein to maintain the structure of synaptic junctions. PSD-95/SAP90 belongs to a family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases and binds N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, potassium channels, and neuroligins through the PDZ domains and GKAP/SAPAP/DAP through the guanylate kinase (GK) domain. We performed here a yeast two-hybrid screening for SAPAP-interacting molecules and identified a novel protein that has an inverse structure of membrane-associated guanylate kinases with an NH2-terminal GK-like domain followed by two WW and five PDZ domains. It binds SAPAP through the GK-like domain and NMDA receptors and neuroligins through the PDZ domains. We named this protein S-SCAM (synaptic scaffolding molecule) because S-SCAM may assemble receptors and cell adhesion proteins at synaptic junctions.
ESTHER : Hirao_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_21105
PubMedSearch : Hirao_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_21105
PubMedID: 9694864
Gene_locus related to this paper: ratno-1neur

Title : Binding of neuroligins to PSD-95 - Irie_1997_Science_277_1511
Author(s) : Irie M , Hata Y , Takeuchi M , Ichtchenko K , Toyoda A , Hirao K , Takai Y , Rosahl TW , Sudhof TC
Ref : Science , 277 :1511 , 1997
Abstract : PSD-95 is a component of postsynaptic densities in central synapses. It contains three PDZ domains that localize N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 (NMDA2 receptor) and K+ channels to synapses. In mouse forebrain, PSD-95 bound to the cytoplasmic COOH-termini of neuroligins, which are neuronal cell adhesion molecules that interact with beta-neurexins and form intercellular junctions. Neuroligins bind to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95, whereas NMDA2 receptors and K+ channels interact with the first and second PDZ domains. Thus different PDZ domains of PSD-95 are specialized for distinct functions. PSD-95 may recruit ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors to intercellular junctions formed between neurons by neuroligins and beta-neurexins.
ESTHER : Irie_1997_Science_277_1511
PubMedSearch : Irie_1997_Science_277_1511
PubMedID: 9278515
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NLGN1 , human-NLGN2 , human-NLGN3 , human-NLGN4X

Title : Possible nicotinic receptor-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission in nucleus of the solitary tract - Shiraki_1997_Am.J.Physiol_272_R869
Author(s) : Shiraki T , Toyoda A , Sugino H , Hori A , Kobayashi S
Ref : American Journal of Physiology , 272 :R869 , 1997
Abstract : Signal transmission from afferent nerves to neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) may be mediated partially by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we investigated nAChR-mediated signal transmission using rat NTS slices. First, we characterized nAChRs by obtaining patch-clamp recordings from NTS neuronal cell bodies. Under whole cell voltage-clamp conditions at -60 mV, application of nicotine induced an inward current, and this effect was blocked by hexamethonium. In outside-out patch recordings, nicotine was seen to induce a hexamethonium-sensitive single-channel current. Second, we investigated nAChR-mediated signal transmission. Fast synaptic transmission mediated by nAChRs was not detected. The action of diffusible acetylcholine (ACh) on nAChRs was then tested using the outside-out patches excised from NTS neurons as probes for ACh. When the patch was placed at a distance of 20-30 microm from the cell body, single-channel currents were recorded, and these were inhibited by hexamethonium. The frequency of channel opening was increased by high-extracellular potassium concentration solution suggesting the voltage-dependent release ofACh that acts on nAChRs. These results suggested that nAChR-mediated signal transmission from sensory afferents to NTS neurons is in part mediated by diffusible ACh.
ESTHER : Shiraki_1997_Am.J.Physiol_272_R869
PubMedSearch : Shiraki_1997_Am.J.Physiol_272_R869
PubMedID: 9087649