Willis NJ

References (9)

Title : Designed switch from covalent to non-covalent inhibitors of carboxylesterase Notum activity - Atkinson_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_251_115132
Author(s) : Atkinson BN , Willis NJ , Zhao Y , Patel C , Frew S , Costelloe K , Magno L , Svensson F , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 251 :115132 , 2023
Abstract : N-Acyl indolines 4 are potent, non-covalent Notum inhibitors developed from a covalent virtual screening hit 2a. The lead compounds were simple to synthesise, achieved excellent potency in a biochemical Notum-OPTS assay and restored Wnt signalling in a cell-based TCF/LEF reporter assay. Multiple high resolution X-ray structures established a common binding mode of these inhibitors with the indoline bound centred in the palmiteolate pocket with key interactions being aromatic stacking and a water mediated hydrogen bond to the oxyanion hole. These N-acyl indolines 4 will be useful tools for use in vitro studies to investigate the role of Notum in disease models, especially when paired with a structurally related covalent inhibitor (e.g. 4w and 2a). Overall, this study highlights the designed switch from covalent to non-covalent Notum inhibitors and so illustrates a complementary approach for hit generation and target inhibition.
ESTHER : Atkinson_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_251_115132
PubMedSearch : Atkinson_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_251_115132
PubMedID: 36934521
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Structural Analysis and Development of Notum Fragment Screening Hits - Zhao_2022_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_13_2060
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Mahy W , Willis NJ , Woodward HL , Steadman D , Bayle ED , Atkinson BN , Sipthorp J , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Harlos K , Jeganathan F , Constantinou S , Costa A , Kjaer S , Bictash M , Salinas PC , Whiting P , Vincent JP , Fish PV , Jones EY
Ref : ACS Chem Neurosci , 13 :2060 , 2022
Abstract : The Wnt signaling suppressor Notum is a promising target for osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, and colorectal cancers. To develop novel Notum inhibitors, we used an X-ray crystallographic fragment screen with the Diamond-SGC Poised Library (DSPL) and identified 59 fragment hits from the analysis of 768 data sets. Fifty-eight of the hits were found bound at the enzyme catalytic pocket with potencies ranging from 0.5 to >1000 microM. Analysis of the fragments' diverse binding modes, enzymatic inhibitory activities, and chemical properties led to the selection of six hits for optimization, and five of these resulted in improved Notum inhibitory potencies. One hit, 1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole 7, and its related cluster members, have shown promising lead-like properties. These became the focus of our fragment development activities, resulting in compound 7d with IC(50) 0.0067 microM. The large number of Notum fragment structures and their initial optimization provided an important basis for further Notum inhibitor development.
ESTHER : Zhao_2022_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_13_2060
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2022_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_13_2060
PubMedID: 35731924
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Virtual Screening Directly Identifies New Fragment-Sized Inhibitors of Carboxylesterase Notum with Nanomolar Activity - Steadman_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_562
Author(s) : Steadman D , Atkinson BN , Zhao Y , Willis NJ , Frew S , Monaghan A , Patel C , Armstrong E , Costelloe K , Magno L , Bictash M , Jones EY , Fish PV , Svensson F
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 65 :562 , 2022
Abstract : Notum is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling acting through the hydrolysis of a palmitoleoylate ester, which is required for Wnt activity. Inhibitors of Notum could be of use in diseases where dysfunctional Notum activity is an underlying cause. A docking-based virtual screen (VS) of a large commercial library was used to shortlist 952 compounds for experimental validation as inhibitors of Notum. The VS was successful with 31 compounds having an IC(50) < 500 nM. A critical selection process was then applied with two clusters and two singletons (1-4d) selected for hit validation. Optimization of 4d guided by structural biology identified potent inhibitors of Notum activity that restored Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in cell-based models. The [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyradizin-3(2H)-one series 4 represent a new chemical class of Notum inhibitors and the first to be discovered by a VS campaign. These results demonstrate the value of VS with well-designed docking models based on X-ray structures.
ESTHER : Steadman_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_562
PubMedSearch : Steadman_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_562
PubMedID: 34939789
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Design of a potent, selective and brain penetrant inhibitor of Wnt-deactivating enzyme Notum by optimization of a crystallographic fragment hit - Willis_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_7212
Author(s) : Willis NJ , Mahy W , Sipthorp J , Zhao Y , Woodward HL , Atkinson BN , Bayle ED , Svensson F , Frew S , Jeganathan F , Monaghan A , Benvegnu S , Jolly S , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Kjaer S , Howell SA , Snidjers AP , Bictash M , Salinas PC , Vincent JP , Jones EY , Whiting P , Fish PV
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 65 :7212 , 2022
Abstract : Notum is a carboxylesterase that suppresses Wnt signaling through deacylation of an essential palmitoleate group on Wnt proteins. There is a growing understanding of the role Notum plays in human disease such as colorectal cancer and Alzheimer'ss disease supporting the need to discover improved inhibitors, especially for use in models of neurodegeneration. Here, we describe the discovery and profile of 8l (ARUK3001185) as a potent, selective and brain pentrant inhibitor of Notum activity suitable for oral dosing in rodent models of disease. Crystallographic fragment screening of the Diamond-SGC Poised Library for binding to Notum, supported by a biochemical enzyme assay to rank inhibition activity, identifed 6a and 6b as a pair of outstanding hits. Fragment development of 6 delivered 8l that restored Wnt signaling in the presence of Notum in a cell-based reporter assay. Assessment in pharmacology screens showed 8l to be selective against serine hydrolases, kinases and drug targets.
ESTHER : Willis_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_7212
PubMedSearch : Willis_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_7212
PubMedID: 35536179
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : NOTUM from Apc-mutant cells biases clonal competition to initiate cancer - Flanagan_2021_Nature__
Author(s) : Flanagan DJ , Pentinmikko N , Luopajarvi K , Willis NJ , Gilroy K , Raven AP , McGarry L , Englund JI , Webb AT , Scharaw S , Nasreddin N , Hodder MC , Ridgway RA , Minnee E , Sphyris N , Gilchrist E , Najumudeen AK , Romagnolo B , Perret C , Williams AC , Clevers H , Nummela P , Lahde M , Alitalo K , Hietakangas V , Hedley A , Clark W , Nixon C , Kirschner K , Jones EY , Ristimaki A , Leedham SJ , Fish PV , Vincent JP , Katajisto P , Sansom OJ
Ref : Nature , : , 2021
Abstract : The tumour suppressor APC is the most commonly mutated gene in colorectal cancer. Loss of Apc in intestinal stem cells drives the formation of adenomas in mice via increased WNT signalling(1), but reduced secretion of WNT ligands increases the ability of Apc-mutant intestinal stem cells to colonize a crypt (known as fixation)(2). Here we investigated how Apc-mutant cells gain a clonal advantage over wild-type counterparts to achieve fixation. We found that Apc-mutant cells are enriched for transcripts that encode several secreted WNT antagonists, with Notum being the most highly expressed. Conditioned medium from Apc-mutant cells suppressed the growth of wild-type organoids in a NOTUM-dependent manner. Furthermore, NOTUM-secreting Apc-mutant clones actively inhibited the proliferation of surrounding wild-type crypt cells and drove their differentiation, thereby outcompeting crypt cells from the niche. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of NOTUM abrogated the ability of Apc-mutant cells to expand and form intestinal adenomas. We identify NOTUM as a key mediator during the early stages of mutation fixation that can be targeted to restore wild-type cell competitiveness and provide preventative strategies for people at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer.
ESTHER : Flanagan_2021_Nature__
PubMedSearch : Flanagan_2021_Nature__
PubMedID: 34079124
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Carboxylesterase Notum Is a Druggable Target to Modulate Wnt Signaling - Bayle_2021_J.Med.Chem__
Author(s) : Bayle ED , Svensson F , Atkinson BN , Steadman D , Willis NJ , Woodward HL , Whiting P , Vincent JP , Fish PV
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , : , 2021
Abstract : Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway is critically important for a number of cellular processes in both development and adult mammalian biology. This Perspective will provide a summary of current and emerging therapeutic opportunities in modulating Wnt signaling, especially through inhibition of Notum carboxylesterase activity. Notum was recently shown to act as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling through the removal of an essential palmitoleate group. Inhibition of Notum activity may represent a new approach to treat disease where aberrant Notum activity has been identified as the underlying cause. Reliable screening technologies are available to identify inhibitors of Notum, and structural studies are accelerating the discovery of new inhibitors. A selection of these hits have been optimized to give fit-for-purpose small molecule inhibitors of Notum. Three noteworthy examples are LP-922056 (26), ABC99 (27), and ARUK3001185 (28), which are complementary chemical tools for exploring the role of Notum in Wnt signaling.
ESTHER : Bayle_2021_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Bayle_2021_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedID: 33783220
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : 5-Phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-ones Are Potent Inhibitors of Notum Carboxylesterase Activity Identified by the Optimization of a Crystallographic Fragment Screening Hit - Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_12942
Author(s) : Mahy W , Willis NJ , Zhao Y , Woodward HL , Svensson F , Sipthorp J , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Hillier J , Kjr S , Frew S , Monaghan A , Bictash M , Salinas PC , Whiting P , Vincent JP , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 63 :12942 , 2020
Abstract : Carboxylesterase Notum is a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. There is an emerging understanding of the role Notum plays in disease, supporting the need to discover new small-molecule inhibitors. A crystallographic X-ray fragment screen was performed, which identified fragment hit 1,2,3-triazole 7 as an attractive starting point for a structure-based drug design hit-to-lead program. Optimization of 7 identified oxadiazol-2-one 23dd as a preferred example with properties consistent with drug-like chemical space. Screening 23dd in a cell-based TCF/LEF reporter gene assay restored the activation of Wnt signaling in the presence of Notum. Mouse pharmacokinetic studies with oral administration of 23dd demonstrated good plasma exposure and partial blood-brain barrier penetration. Significant progress was made in developing fragment hit 7 into lead 23dd (>600-fold increase in activity), making it suitable as a new chemical tool for exploring the role of Notum-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling.
ESTHER : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_12942
PubMedSearch : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_12942
PubMedID: 33124429
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Screening of a Custom-Designed Acid Fragment Library Identifies 1-Phenylpyrroles and 1-Phenylpyrrolidines as Inhibitors of Notum Carboxylesterase Activity - Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_9464
Author(s) : Mahy W , Patel M , Steadman D , Woodward HL , Atkinson BN , Svensson F , Willis NJ , Flint A , Papatheodorou D , Zhao Y , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Hillier J , Frew S , Monaghan A , Costa A , Bictash M , Walter MW , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 63 :9464 , 2020
Abstract : The Wnt family of proteins are secreted signaling proteins that play key roles in regulating cellular functions. Recently, carboxylesterase Notum was shown to act as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling by mediating the removal of an essential palmitoleate. Here we disclose two new chemical scaffolds that inhibit Notum enzymatic activity. Our approach was to create a fragment library of 250 acids for screening against Notum in a biochemical assay followed by structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Twenty fragments were identified as hits for Notum inhibition, and 14 of these fragments were shown to bind in the palmitoleate pocket of Notum. Optimization of 1-phenylpyrrole 20, guided by structure-based drug design, identified 20z as the most potent compound from this series. Similarly, the optimization of 1-phenylpyrrolidine 8 gave acid 26. This work demonstrates that inhibition of Notum activity can be achieved by small, drug-like molecules possessing favorable in vitro ADME profiles.
ESTHER : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_9464
PubMedSearch : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_9464
PubMedID: 32787107
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : An improved, scalable synthesis of Notum inhibitor LP-922056 using 1-chloro-1,2-benziodoxol-3-one as a superior electrophilic chlorinating agent - Willis_2019_Beilstein.J.Org.Chem_15_2790
Author(s) : Willis NJ , Bayle ED , Papageorgiou G , Steadman D , Atkinson BN , Mahy W , Fish PV
Ref : Beilstein J Org Chem , 15 :2790 , 2019
Abstract : Background: The carboxylesterase Notum has been shown to act as a key negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway by mediating the depalmitoleoylation of Wnt proteins. LP-922056 (1) is an orally active inhibitor of Notum. We are investigating the role of Notum in modulating Wnt signalling in the central nervous system and wished to establish if 1 would serve as a peripherally restricted control. An accessible and improved synthetic route would allow 1 to become more readily available as a chemical tool to explore the fundamental biology of Notum and build target validation to underpin new drug discovery programs. Results: An improved, scalable synthesis of 1 is reported. Key modifications include: (1) the introduction of the C7-cyclopropyl group was most effectively achieved with a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction with MIDA-boronate 11 (5 --> 6), and (2) C6 chlorination was performed with 1-chloro-1,2-benziodoxol-3-one (12) (6 --> 7) as a mild and selective electrophilic chlorination agent. This 7-step route from 16 has been reliably performed on large scale to produce multigram quantities of 1 in good efficiency and high purity. Pharmacokinetic studies in mouse showed CNS penetration of 1 is very low with a brain/plasma concentration ratio of just 0.01. A small library of amides 17 were prepared from acid 1 to explore if 1 could be modified to deliver a CNS penetrant tool by capping off the acid as an amide. Although significant Notum inhibition activity could be achieved, none of these amides demonstrated the required combination of metabolic stability along with cell permeability without evidence of P-gp mediated efflux. Conclusion: Mouse pharmacokinetic studies demonstrate that 1 is unsuitable for use in models of disease where brain penetration is an essential requirement of the compound but would be an ideal peripherally restricted control. These data will contribute to the understanding of drug levels of 1 to overlay with appropriate in vivo efficacy endpoints, i.e., the PK-PD relationship. The identification of a suitable analogue of 1 (or 17) which combines Notum inhibition with CNS penetration would be a valuable chemical probe for investigating the role of Notum in disease models.
ESTHER : Willis_2019_Beilstein.J.Org.Chem_15_2790
PubMedSearch : Willis_2019_Beilstein.J.Org.Chem_15_2790
PubMedID: 31807213
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM