Jones EY

References (19)

Title : Designed switch from covalent to non-covalent inhibitors of carboxylesterase Notum activity - Atkinson_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_251_115132
Author(s) : Atkinson BN , Willis NJ , Zhao Y , Patel C , Frew S , Costelloe K , Magno L , Svensson F , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 251 :115132 , 2023
Abstract : N-Acyl indolines 4 are potent, non-covalent Notum inhibitors developed from a covalent virtual screening hit 2a. The lead compounds were simple to synthesise, achieved excellent potency in a biochemical Notum-OPTS assay and restored Wnt signalling in a cell-based TCF/LEF reporter assay. Multiple high resolution X-ray structures established a common binding mode of these inhibitors with the indoline bound centred in the palmiteolate pocket with key interactions being aromatic stacking and a water mediated hydrogen bond to the oxyanion hole. These N-acyl indolines 4 will be useful tools for use in vitro studies to investigate the role of Notum in disease models, especially when paired with a structurally related covalent inhibitor (e.g. 4w and 2a). Overall, this study highlights the designed switch from covalent to non-covalent Notum inhibitors and so illustrates a complementary approach for hit generation and target inhibition.
ESTHER : Atkinson_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_251_115132
PubMedSearch : Atkinson_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_251_115132
PubMedID: 36934521
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Structural Analysis and Development of Notum Fragment Screening Hits - Zhao_2022_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_13_2060
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Mahy W , Willis NJ , Woodward HL , Steadman D , Bayle ED , Atkinson BN , Sipthorp J , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Harlos K , Jeganathan F , Constantinou S , Costa A , Kjaer S , Bictash M , Salinas PC , Whiting P , Vincent JP , Fish PV , Jones EY
Ref : ACS Chem Neurosci , 13 :2060 , 2022
Abstract : The Wnt signaling suppressor Notum is a promising target for osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, and colorectal cancers. To develop novel Notum inhibitors, we used an X-ray crystallographic fragment screen with the Diamond-SGC Poised Library (DSPL) and identified 59 fragment hits from the analysis of 768 data sets. Fifty-eight of the hits were found bound at the enzyme catalytic pocket with potencies ranging from 0.5 to >1000 microM. Analysis of the fragments' diverse binding modes, enzymatic inhibitory activities, and chemical properties led to the selection of six hits for optimization, and five of these resulted in improved Notum inhibitory potencies. One hit, 1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole 7, and its related cluster members, have shown promising lead-like properties. These became the focus of our fragment development activities, resulting in compound 7d with IC(50) 0.0067 microM. The large number of Notum fragment structures and their initial optimization provided an important basis for further Notum inhibitor development.
ESTHER : Zhao_2022_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_13_2060
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2022_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_13_2060
PubMedID: 35731924
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Virtual Screening Directly Identifies New Fragment-Sized Inhibitors of Carboxylesterase Notum with Nanomolar Activity - Steadman_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_562
Author(s) : Steadman D , Atkinson BN , Zhao Y , Willis NJ , Frew S , Monaghan A , Patel C , Armstrong E , Costelloe K , Magno L , Bictash M , Jones EY , Fish PV , Svensson F
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 65 :562 , 2022
Abstract : Notum is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling acting through the hydrolysis of a palmitoleoylate ester, which is required for Wnt activity. Inhibitors of Notum could be of use in diseases where dysfunctional Notum activity is an underlying cause. A docking-based virtual screen (VS) of a large commercial library was used to shortlist 952 compounds for experimental validation as inhibitors of Notum. The VS was successful with 31 compounds having an IC(50) < 500 nM. A critical selection process was then applied with two clusters and two singletons (1-4d) selected for hit validation. Optimization of 4d guided by structural biology identified potent inhibitors of Notum activity that restored Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in cell-based models. The [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyradizin-3(2H)-one series 4 represent a new chemical class of Notum inhibitors and the first to be discovered by a VS campaign. These results demonstrate the value of VS with well-designed docking models based on X-ray structures.
ESTHER : Steadman_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_562
PubMedSearch : Steadman_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_562
PubMedID: 34939789
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Design of a potent, selective and brain penetrant inhibitor of Wnt-deactivating enzyme Notum by optimization of a crystallographic fragment hit - Willis_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_7212
Author(s) : Willis NJ , Mahy W , Sipthorp J , Zhao Y , Woodward HL , Atkinson BN , Bayle ED , Svensson F , Frew S , Jeganathan F , Monaghan A , Benvegnu S , Jolly S , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Kjaer S , Howell SA , Snidjers AP , Bictash M , Salinas PC , Vincent JP , Jones EY , Whiting P , Fish PV
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 65 :7212 , 2022
Abstract : Notum is a carboxylesterase that suppresses Wnt signaling through deacylation of an essential palmitoleate group on Wnt proteins. There is a growing understanding of the role Notum plays in human disease such as colorectal cancer and Alzheimer'ss disease supporting the need to discover improved inhibitors, especially for use in models of neurodegeneration. Here, we describe the discovery and profile of 8l (ARUK3001185) as a potent, selective and brain pentrant inhibitor of Notum activity suitable for oral dosing in rodent models of disease. Crystallographic fragment screening of the Diamond-SGC Poised Library for binding to Notum, supported by a biochemical enzyme assay to rank inhibition activity, identifed 6a and 6b as a pair of outstanding hits. Fragment development of 6 delivered 8l that restored Wnt signaling in the presence of Notum in a cell-based reporter assay. Assessment in pharmacology screens showed 8l to be selective against serine hydrolases, kinases and drug targets.
ESTHER : Willis_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_7212
PubMedSearch : Willis_2022_J.Med.Chem_65_7212
PubMedID: 35536179
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Structural Insights into Notum Covalent Inhibition - Zhao_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_11354
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Svensson F , Steadman D , Frew S , Monaghan A , Bictash M , Moreira T , Chalk R , Lu W , Fish PV , Jones EY
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 64 :11354 , 2021
Abstract : The carboxylesterase Notum hydrolyzes a palmitoleate moiety from Wingless/Integrated(Wnt) ligands and deactivates Wnt signaling. Notum inhibitors can restore Wnt signaling which may be of therapeutic benefit for pathologies such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease. We report the identification of a novel class of covalent Notum inhibitors, 4-(indolin-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoate esters. High-resolution crystal structures of the Notum inhibitor complexes reveal a common covalent adduct formed between the nucleophile serine-232 and hydrolyzed butyric esters. The covalent interaction in solution was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Inhibitory potencies vary depending on the warheads used. Mechanistically, the resulting acyl-enzyme intermediate carbonyl atom is positioned at an unfavorable angle for the approach of the active site water, which, combined with strong hydrophobic interactions with the enzyme pocket residues, hinders the intermediate from being further processed and results in covalent inhibition. These insights into Notum catalytic inhibition may guide development of more potent Notum inhibitors.
ESTHER : Zhao_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_11354
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_11354
PubMedID: 34292747
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : NOTUM from Apc-mutant cells biases clonal competition to initiate cancer - Flanagan_2021_Nature__
Author(s) : Flanagan DJ , Pentinmikko N , Luopajarvi K , Willis NJ , Gilroy K , Raven AP , McGarry L , Englund JI , Webb AT , Scharaw S , Nasreddin N , Hodder MC , Ridgway RA , Minnee E , Sphyris N , Gilchrist E , Najumudeen AK , Romagnolo B , Perret C , Williams AC , Clevers H , Nummela P , Lahde M , Alitalo K , Hietakangas V , Hedley A , Clark W , Nixon C , Kirschner K , Jones EY , Ristimaki A , Leedham SJ , Fish PV , Vincent JP , Katajisto P , Sansom OJ
Ref : Nature , : , 2021
Abstract : The tumour suppressor APC is the most commonly mutated gene in colorectal cancer. Loss of Apc in intestinal stem cells drives the formation of adenomas in mice via increased WNT signalling(1), but reduced secretion of WNT ligands increases the ability of Apc-mutant intestinal stem cells to colonize a crypt (known as fixation)(2). Here we investigated how Apc-mutant cells gain a clonal advantage over wild-type counterparts to achieve fixation. We found that Apc-mutant cells are enriched for transcripts that encode several secreted WNT antagonists, with Notum being the most highly expressed. Conditioned medium from Apc-mutant cells suppressed the growth of wild-type organoids in a NOTUM-dependent manner. Furthermore, NOTUM-secreting Apc-mutant clones actively inhibited the proliferation of surrounding wild-type crypt cells and drove their differentiation, thereby outcompeting crypt cells from the niche. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of NOTUM abrogated the ability of Apc-mutant cells to expand and form intestinal adenomas. We identify NOTUM as a key mediator during the early stages of mutation fixation that can be targeted to restore wild-type cell competitiveness and provide preventative strategies for people at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer.
ESTHER : Flanagan_2021_Nature__
PubMedSearch : Flanagan_2021_Nature__
PubMedID: 34079124
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Small-molecule inhibitors of carboxylesterase Notum - Zhao_2021_Future.Med.Chem__
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Jolly S , Benvegnu S , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Future Med Chem , : , 2021
Abstract : Notum has recently been identified as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling through the removal of an essential palmitoleate group from Wnt proteins. There are emerging reports that Notum plays a role in human disease, with published data suggesting that targeting Notum could represent a new therapeutic approach for treating cancer, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Complementary hit-finding strategies have been applied with successful approaches that include high-throughput screening, activity-based protein profiling, screening of fragment libraries and virtual screening campaigns. Structural studies are accelerating the discovery of new inhibitors of Notum. Three fit-for-purpose examples are LP-922056, ABC99 and ARUK3001185. The application of these small-molecule inhibitors is helping to further advance an understanding of the role Notum plays in human disease.
ESTHER : Zhao_2021_Future.Med.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2021_Future.Med.Chem__
PubMedID: 33882714
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Notum Deacylates Octanoylated Ghrelin - Zhao_2021_Mol.Metab__101201
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Schuhmacher LN , Roberts M , Kakugawa S , Bineva-Todd G , Howell S , O'Reilly N , Perret C , Snijders AP , Vincent JP , Jones EY
Ref : Mol Metab , :101201 , 2021
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: The only proteins known to be modified by O-linked lipidation are Wnts and ghrelin, and enzymatic removal of this post-translational modification inhibits ligand activity. Indeed, the Wnt-deacylase activity of Notum is the basis of its ability to act as a feedback inhibitor of Wnt signalling. Whether Notum also deacylates ghrelin has not been determined. METHODS: We used mass-spectrometry to assay ghrelin deacylation by Notum and co-crystallisation to reveal enzyme-substrate interactions at the atomic level. CRISPR/Cas technology was used to tag endogenous Notum and assess its localisation in mice while liver-specific Notum knock-out mice allowed us to investigate the physiological role of Notum in modulating the level of ghrelin deacylation. RESULTS: Mass-spectrometry detected the removal of octanoyl from ghrelin by purified active Notum, but not by an inactive mutant. The 2.2 A resolution crystal structure of the Notum-ghrelin complex shows the octanoyl lipid is accommodated in the hydrophobic pocket of Notum. The knock-in allele expressing HA-tagged Notum reveals that Notum is produced in the liver and present in the bloodstream, albeit at a low level. Liver-specific inactivation of Notum in animals fed with a high fat diet leads to a small but significant increase in acylated ghrelin in the circulation, while no such increase is seen in wildtype animals on the same diet. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our data demonstrate Notum can act as a ghrelin deacylase, and that this may be physiologically relevant under high fat diet conditions. Our work therefore adds Notum to the list of enzymes, including butylcholineasterase and other carboxylesterases, that modulate the acylation state of ghrelin. The contribution of multiple enzymes could help tune the activity of this important hormone to a wide range of physiological conditions.
ESTHER : Zhao_2021_Mol.Metab__101201
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2021_Mol.Metab__101201
PubMedID: 33647468
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : 5-Phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-ones Are Potent Inhibitors of Notum Carboxylesterase Activity Identified by the Optimization of a Crystallographic Fragment Screening Hit - Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_12942
Author(s) : Mahy W , Willis NJ , Zhao Y , Woodward HL , Svensson F , Sipthorp J , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Hillier J , Kjr S , Frew S , Monaghan A , Bictash M , Salinas PC , Whiting P , Vincent JP , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 63 :12942 , 2020
Abstract : Carboxylesterase Notum is a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. There is an emerging understanding of the role Notum plays in disease, supporting the need to discover new small-molecule inhibitors. A crystallographic X-ray fragment screen was performed, which identified fragment hit 1,2,3-triazole 7 as an attractive starting point for a structure-based drug design hit-to-lead program. Optimization of 7 identified oxadiazol-2-one 23dd as a preferred example with properties consistent with drug-like chemical space. Screening 23dd in a cell-based TCF/LEF reporter gene assay restored the activation of Wnt signaling in the presence of Notum. Mouse pharmacokinetic studies with oral administration of 23dd demonstrated good plasma exposure and partial blood-brain barrier penetration. Significant progress was made in developing fragment hit 7 into lead 23dd (>600-fold increase in activity), making it suitable as a new chemical tool for exploring the role of Notum-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling.
ESTHER : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_12942
PubMedSearch : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_12942
PubMedID: 33124429
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Caffeine inhibits Notum activity by binding at the catalytic pocket - Zhao_2020_Commun.Biol_3_555
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Ren J , Hillier J , Lu W , Jones EY
Ref : Commun Biol , 3 :555 , 2020
Abstract : Notum inhibits Wnt signalling via enzymatic delipidation of Wnt ligands. Restoration of Wnt signalling by small molecule inhibition of Notum may be of therapeutic benefit in a number of pathologies including Alzheimer's disease. Here we report Notum activity can be inhibited by caffeine (IC(50) 19 microM), but not by demethylated caffeine metabolites: paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline. Cellular luciferase assays show Notum-suppressed Wnt3a function can be restored by caffeine with an EC(50) of 46 microM. The dissociation constant (K(d)) between Notum and caffeine is 85 microM as measured by surface plasmon resonance. High-resolution crystal structures of Notum complexes with caffeine and its minor metabolite theophylline show both compounds bind at the centre of the enzymatic pocket, overlapping the position of the natural substrate palmitoleic lipid, but using different binding modes. The structural information reported here may be of relevance for the design of more potent brain-accessible Notum inhibitors.
ESTHER : Zhao_2020_Commun.Biol_3_555
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2020_Commun.Biol_3_555
PubMedID: 33033363
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Screening of a Custom-Designed Acid Fragment Library Identifies 1-Phenylpyrroles and 1-Phenylpyrrolidines as Inhibitors of Notum Carboxylesterase Activity - Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_9464
Author(s) : Mahy W , Patel M , Steadman D , Woodward HL , Atkinson BN , Svensson F , Willis NJ , Flint A , Papatheodorou D , Zhao Y , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Hillier J , Frew S , Monaghan A , Costa A , Bictash M , Walter MW , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 63 :9464 , 2020
Abstract : The Wnt family of proteins are secreted signaling proteins that play key roles in regulating cellular functions. Recently, carboxylesterase Notum was shown to act as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling by mediating the removal of an essential palmitoleate. Here we disclose two new chemical scaffolds that inhibit Notum enzymatic activity. Our approach was to create a fragment library of 250 acids for screening against Notum in a biochemical assay followed by structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Twenty fragments were identified as hits for Notum inhibition, and 14 of these fragments were shown to bind in the palmitoleate pocket of Notum. Optimization of 1-phenylpyrrole 20, guided by structure-based drug design, identified 20z as the most potent compound from this series. Similarly, the optimization of 1-phenylpyrrolidine 8 gave acid 26. This work demonstrates that inhibition of Notum activity can be achieved by small, drug-like molecules possessing favorable in vitro ADME profiles.
ESTHER : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_9464
PubMedSearch : Mahy_2020_J.Med.Chem_63_9464
PubMedID: 32787107
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Discovery of 2-phenoxyacetamides as inhibitors of the Wnt-depalmitoleating enzyme NOTUM from an X-ray fragment screen - Atkinson_2019_Medchemcomm_10_1361
Author(s) : Atkinson BN , Steadman D , Zhao YG , Sipthorp J , Vecchia L , Ruza RR , Jeganathan F , Lines G , Frew S , Monaghan A , Kjaer S , Bictash M , Jones Y , Fish PV , Zhao Y , Jones EY
Ref : Medchemcomm , 10 :1361 , 2019
Abstract : NOTUM is a carboxylesterase that has been shown to act by mediating the O-depalmitoleoylation of Wnt proteins resulting in suppression of Wnt signaling. Here, we describe the development of NOTUM inhibitors that restore Wnt signaling for use in in vitro disease models where NOTUM over activity is an underlying cause. A crystallographic fragment screen with NOTUM identified 2-phenoxyacetamide 3 as binding in the palmitoleate pocket with modest inhibition activity (IC50 33 muM). Optimization of hit 3 by SAR studies guided by SBDD identified indazole 38 (IC50 0.032 muM) and isoquinoline 45 (IC50 0.085 muM) as potent inhibitors of NOTUM. The binding of 45 to NOTUM was rationalized through an X-ray co-crystal structure determination which showed a flipped binding orientation compared to 3. However, it was not possible to combine NOTUM inhibition activity with metabolic stability as the majority of the compounds tested were rapidly metabolized in an NADPH-independent manner.
ESTHER : Atkinson_2019_Medchemcomm_10_1361
PubMedSearch : Atkinson_2019_Medchemcomm_10_1361
PubMedID: 31534655
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Structural characterisation of melatonin as an inhibitor of the Wnt deacylase Notum - Zhao_2019_J.Pineal.Res__e12630
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Ren J , Hillier J , Jones M , Lu W , Jones EY
Ref : J Pineal Res , :e12630 , 2019
Abstract : The hormone melatonin, secreted from the pineal gland, mediates multiple physiological effects including modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. The Wnt palmitoleate lipid modification is essential for its signalling activity, while the carboxylesterase Notum can remove the lipid from Wnt and inactivate it. Notum enzyme inhibition can therefore upregulate Wnt signalling. While searching for Notum inhibitors by crystallographic fragment screening, a hit compound N-[2-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide that is structurally similar to melatonin, came to our attention. We then soaked melatonin and its precursor N-acetylserotonin into Notum crystals and obtained high resolution structures (<= 1.5 A) of their complexes. In each of the structures, two compound molecules bind with Notum: one at the enzyme's catalytic pocket, overlapping the space occupied by the acyl tail of the Wnt palmitoleate lipid; and the other at the edge of the pocket opposite the substrate entrance. Although the inhibitory activity of melatonin shown by in vitro enzyme assays is low (IC50 75 microM), the structural information reported here provides a basis for the design of potent and brain accessible drugs for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, in which up-regulation of Wnt signalling may be beneficial.
ESTHER : Zhao_2019_J.Pineal.Res__e12630
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2019_J.Pineal.Res__e12630
PubMedID: 31876313
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Scaffold-hopping identifies furano[2,3-d]pyrimidine amides as potent Notum inhibitors - Atkinson_2019_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__126751
Author(s) : Atkinson BN , Steadman D , Mahy W , Zhao Y , Sipthorp J , Bayle ED , Svensson F , Papageorgiou G , Jeganathan F , Frew S , Monaghan A , Bictash M , Jones EY , Fish PV
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , :126751 , 2019
Abstract : The carboxylesterase Notum is a key negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway by mediating the depalmitoleoylation of Wnt proteins. Our objective was to discover potent small molecule inhibitors of Notum suitable for exploring the regulation of Wnt signaling in the central nervous system. Scaffold-hopping from thienopyrimidine acids 1 and 2, supported by X-ray structure determination, identified 3-methylimidazolin-4-one amides 20-24 as potent inhibitors of Notum with activity across three orthogonal assay formats (biochemical, extra-cellular, occupancy). A preferred example 24 demonstrated good stability in mouse microsomes and plasma, and cell permeability in the MDCK-MDR1 assay albeit with modest P-gp mediated efflux. Pharmacokinetic studies with 24 were performed in vivo in mouse with single oral administration of 24 showing good plasma exposure and reasonable CNS penetration. We propose that 24 is a new chemical tool suitable for cellular studies to explore the fundamental biology of Notum.
ESTHER : Atkinson_2019_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__126751
PubMedSearch : Atkinson_2019_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__126751
PubMedID: 31862412
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NOTUM

Title : Notum Is Required for Neural and Head Induction via Wnt Deacylation, Oxidation, and Inactivation - Zhang_2015_Dev.Cell_32_719
Author(s) : Zhang X , Cheong SM , Amado NG , Reis AH , MacDonald BT , Zebisch M , Jones EY , Abreu JG , He X
Ref : Dev Cell , 32 :719 , 2015
Abstract : Secreted Wnt morphogens are essential for embryogenesis and homeostasis and require a lipid/palmitoleoylate modification for receptor binding and activity. Notum is a secreted Wnt antagonist that belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily, but its mechanism of action and roles in vertebrate embryogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we report that Notum hydrolyzes the Wnt palmitoleoylate adduct extracellularly, resulting in inactivated Wnt proteins that form oxidized oligomers incapable of receptor binding. Thus, Notum is a Wnt deacylase, and palmitoleoylation is obligatory for the Wnt structure that maintains its active monomeric conformation. Notum is expressed in naive ectoderm and neural plate in Xenopus and is required for neural and head induction. These findings suggest that Notum is a prerequisite for the "default" neural fate and that distinct mechanisms of Wnt inactivation by the Tiki protease in the Organizer and the Notum deacylase in presumptive neuroectoderm orchestrate vertebrate brain development.
ESTHER : Zhang_2015_Dev.Cell_32_719
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2015_Dev.Cell_32_719
PubMedID: 25771893

Title : Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity - Kakugawa_2015_Nature_519_187
Author(s) : Kakugawa S , Langton PF , Zebisch M , Howell SA , Chang TH , Liu Y , Feizi T , Bineva G , O'Reilly N , Snijders AP , Jones EY , Vincent JP
Ref : Nature , 519 :187 , 2015
Abstract : Signalling by Wnt proteins is finely balanced to ensure normal development and tissue homeostasis while avoiding diseases such as cancer. This is achieved in part by Notum, a highly conserved secreted feedback antagonist. Notum has been thought to act as a phospholipase, shedding glypicans and associated Wnt proteins from the cell surface. However, this view fails to explain specificity, as glypicans bind many extracellular ligands. Here we provide genetic evidence in Drosophila that Notum requires glypicans to suppress Wnt signalling, but does not cleave their glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. Structural analyses reveal glycosaminoglycan binding sites on Notum, which probably help Notum to co-localize with Wnt proteins. They also identify, at the active site of human and Drosophila Notum, a large hydrophobic pocket that accommodates palmitoleate. Kinetic and mass spectrometric analyses of human proteins show that Notum is a carboxylesterase that removes an essential palmitoleate moiety from Wnt proteins and thus constitutes the first known extracellular protein deacylase.
ESTHER : Kakugawa_2015_Nature_519_187
PubMedSearch : Kakugawa_2015_Nature_519_187
PubMedID: 25731175
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-q9vux3 , human-NOTUM

Title : Structural basis for cell surface patterning through NetrinG-NGL interactions - Seiradake_2011_EMBO.J_30_4479
Author(s) : Seiradake E , Coles CH , Perestenko PV , Harlos K , McIlhinney RA , Aricescu AR , Jones EY
Ref : EMBO Journal , 30 :4479 , 2011
Abstract : Brain wiring depends on cells making highly localized and selective connections through surface protein-protein interactions, including those between NetrinGs and NetrinG ligands (NGLs). The NetrinGs are members of the structurally uncharacterized netrin family. We present a comprehensive crystallographic analysis comprising NetrinG1-NGL1 and NetrinG2-NGL2 complexes, unliganded NetrinG2 and NGL3. Cognate NetrinG-NGL interactions depend on three specificity-conferring NetrinG loops, clasped tightly by matching NGL surfaces. We engineered these NGL surfaces to implant custom-made affinities for NetrinG1 and NetrinG2. In a cellular patterning assay, we demonstrate that NetrinG-binding selectivity can direct the sorting of a mixed population of NGLs into discrete cell surface subdomains. These results provide a molecular model for selectivity-based patterning in a neuronal recognition system, dysregulation of which is associated with severe neuropsychological disorders.
ESTHER : Seiradake_2011_EMBO.J_30_4479
PubMedSearch : Seiradake_2011_EMBO.J_30_4479
PubMedID: 21946559

Title : Crystal structure of the GluR2 amino-terminal domain provides insights into the architecture and assembly of ionotropic glutamate receptors - Clayton_2009_J.Mol.Biol_392_1125
Author(s) : Clayton A , Siebold C , Gilbert RJ , Sutton GC , Harlos K , McIlhinney RA , Jones EY , Aricescu AR
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 392 :1125 , 2009
Abstract : Ionotropic glutamate receptors are functionally diverse but have a common architecture, including the 400-residue amino-terminal domain (ATD). We report a 1.8-A resolution crystal structure of human GluR2-ATD. This dimeric structure provides a mechanism for how the ATDs can drive receptor assembly and subtype-restricted composition. Lattice contacts in a 4.1-A resolution crystal form reveal a tetrameric (dimer-dimer) arrangement consistent with previous cellular and cryo-electron microscopic data for full-length AMPA receptors.
ESTHER : Clayton_2009_J.Mol.Biol_392_1125
PubMedSearch : Clayton_2009_J.Mol.Biol_392_1125
PubMedID: 19651138

Title : Positional cloning of a novel gene influencing asthma from chromosome 2q14. - Allen_2003_Nat.Genet_35_258
Author(s) : Allen M , Heinzmann A , Noguchi E , Abecasis G , Broxholme J , Ponting CP , Bhattacharyya S , Tinsley J , Zhang Y , Holt R , Jones EY , Lench N , Carey A , Jones H , Dickens NJ , Dimon C , Nicholls R , Baker C , Xue L , Townsend E , Kabesch M , Weiland SK , Carr D , von Mutius E , Adcock IM , Barnes PJ , Lathrop GM , Edwards M , Moffatt MF , Cookson WO
Ref : Nat Genet , 35 :258\ , 2003
Abstract : Asthma is a common disease in children and young adults. Four separate reports have linked asthma and related phenotypes to an ill-defined interval between 2q14 and 2q32 (refs. 1-4), and two mouse genome screens have linked bronchial hyper-responsiveness to the region homologous to 2q14 (refs. 5,6). We found and replicated association between asthma and the D2S308 microsatellite, 800 kb distal to the IL1 cluster on 2q14. We sequenced the surrounding region and constructed a comprehensive, high-density, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage disequilibrium (LD) map. SNP association was limited to the initial exons of a solitary gene of 3.6 kb (DPP10), which extends over 1 Mb of genomic DNA. DPP10 encodes a homolog of dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs) that cleave terminal dipeptides from cytokines and chemokines, and it presents a potential new target for asthma therapy.
ESTHER : Allen_2003_Nat.Genet_35_258
PubMedSearch : Allen_2003_Nat.Genet_35_258
PubMedID: 14566338
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP10