Laitinen JT

References (25)

Title : Discovery of 12-Thiazole Abietanes as Selective Inhibitors of the Human Metabolic Serine Hydrolase hABHD16A - Ahonen_2018_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_9_1269
Author(s) : Ahonen TJ , Savinainen JR , Yli-Kauhaluoma J , Kalso E , Laitinen JT , Moreira VM
Ref : ACS Med Chem Lett , 9 :1269 , 2018
Abstract : Screening of an in-house library of compounds identified 12-thiazole abietanes as a new class of reversible inhibitors of the human metabolic serine hydrolase. Further optimization of the first hit compound lead to the 2-methylthiazole derivative 18, with an IC50 value of 3.4 +/- 0.2 muM and promising selectivity. ABHD16A has been highlighted as a new target for inflammation-mediated pain, although selective inhibitors of hABHD16A (human ABHD16A) have not yet been reported. Our study presents abietane-type diterpenoids as an attractive starting point for the design of selective ABHD16A inhibitors, which will contribute toward understanding the significance of hABHD16A inhibition in vivo.
ESTHER : Ahonen_2018_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_9_1269
PubMedSearch : Ahonen_2018_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_9_1269
PubMedID: 30613338
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD16A

Title : Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of [(11)C]MA-PB-1 for in vivo imaging of brain monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) - Ahamed_2017_Eur.J.Med.Chem_136_104
Author(s) : Ahamed M , Attili B , van Veghel D , Ooms M , Berben P , Celen S , Koole M , Declercq L , Savinainen JR , Laitinen JT , Verbruggen A , Bormans G
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 136 :104 , 2017
Abstract : MAGL is a potential therapeutic target for oncological and psychiatric diseases. Our objective was to develop a PET tracer for in vivo quantification of MAGL. We report [(11)C]MA-PB-1 as an irreversible MAGL inhibitor PET tracer. The in vitro inhibitory activity, ex vivo distribution, brain kinetics and specificity of [(11)C]MA-PB-1 binding were studied. Ex vivo biodistribution and microPET showed good brain uptake which could be blocked by pretreatment with both MA-PB-1 and a structurally non-related MAGL inhibitor MJN110. These initial results suggest that [(11)C]MA-PB-1 is a suitable tracer for in vivo imaging of MAGL.
ESTHER : Ahamed_2017_Eur.J.Med.Chem_136_104
PubMedSearch : Ahamed_2017_Eur.J.Med.Chem_136_104
PubMedID: 28486208

Title : A Sensitive and Versatile Fluorescent Activity Assay for ABHD6 - Savinainen_2016_Methods.Mol.Biol_1412_169
Author(s) : Savinainen JR , Navia-Paldanius D , Laitinen JT
Ref : Methods Mol Biol , 1412 :169 , 2016
Abstract : The alpha/beta-hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6) enzyme is a newly found serine hydrolase whose substrate profile resembles that of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the major 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) hydrolase in the brain. Here, we describe a sensitive fluorescent assay of ABHD6 activity in a 96-well-plate format that allows parallel testing of inhibitor activities of up to 40 compounds in a single assay. The method utilizes lysates of HEK293 cells transiently overexpressing human ABHD6 as the enzymatic source, and kinetically monitors glycerol liberated in the hydrolysis of 1(3)-AG, the preferred arachidonoyl glycerol isomer. Glycerol output is coupled to an enzymatic cascade generating the fluorescent end-product resorufin. The approach has major benefits compared to laborious traditional mass spectrometric methods and liquid scintillation-based assays, or approaches using unnatural substrates.
ESTHER : Savinainen_2016_Methods.Mol.Biol_1412_169
PubMedSearch : Savinainen_2016_Methods.Mol.Biol_1412_169
PubMedID: 27245903

Title : A Sensitive and Versatile Fluorescent Activity Assay for ABHD12 - Savinainen_2016_Methods.Mol.Biol_1412_179
Author(s) : Savinainen JR , Navia-Paldanius D , Laitinen JT
Ref : Methods Mol Biol , 1412 :179 , 2016
Abstract : Despite great progress in identifying and deorphanizing members of the human metabolic serine hydrolase (mSH) family, the fundamental role of numerous enzymes in this large protein class has remained unclear. One recently found mSH is alpha/beta-hydrolase domain containing 12 (ABHD12) enzyme, whose natural substrate in vivo appears to be the lysophospholipid lysophosphatidylserine (LPS). In vitro, ABHD12 together with monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and ABHD6 hydrolyzes also monoacylglycerols (MAGs) such as the primary endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Traditional approaches for determining 2-AG hydrolase activity are rather laborious, and often utilize unnatural substrates. Here, we describe a sensitive fluorescent assay of ABHD12 activity in a 96-well-plate format that allows simultaneous testing of inhibitor activities of up to 40 compounds in a single assay. The method utilizes lysates of HEK293 cells transiently overexpressing human ABHD12 as the enzymatic source, and kinetically monitors glycerol liberated in the hydrolysis of 1(3)-AG, the preferred MAG substrate of this enzyme. Glycerol output is coupled to an enzymatic cascade generating the fluorescent end-product resorufin. This methodology has helped to identify the first class of inhibitors showing selectivity for ABHD12 over the other mSHs.
ESTHER : Savinainen_2016_Methods.Mol.Biol_1412_179
PubMedSearch : Savinainen_2016_Methods.Mol.Biol_1412_179
PubMedID: 27245904

Title : In Vivo Characterization of the Ultrapotent Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor {4-[bis-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)methyl]-piperidin-1-yl}(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)m ethanone (JJKK-048) - Aaltonen_2016_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_359_62
Author(s) : Aaltonen N , Kedzierska E , Orzelska-Gorka J , Lehtonen M , Navia-Paldanius D , Jakupovic H , Savinainen JR , Nevalainen T , Laitinen JT , Parkkari T , Gynther M
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 359 :62 , 2016
Abstract : Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a serine hydrolase that acts as a principal degradative enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). In addition to terminating the signaling function of 2-AG, MAGL liberates arachidonic acid to be used as a primary source for neuroinflammatory prostaglandin synthesis in the brain. MAGL activity also contributes to cancer pathogenicity by producing precursors for tumor-promoting bioactive lipids. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAGL provide valuable tools for characterization of MAGL and 2-AG signaling pathways. They also hold great therapeutic potential to treat several pathophysiological conditions, such as pain, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. We have previously reported piperidine triazole urea, {4-[bis-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)methyl]-piperidin-1-yl}(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)m ethanone (JJKK-048), to be an ultrapotent and highly selective inhibitor of MAGL in vitro. Here, we characterize in vivo effects of JJKK-048. Acute in vivo administration of JJKK-048 induced a massive increase in mouse brain 2-AG levels without affecting brain anandamide levels. JJKK-048 appeared to be extremely potent in vivo. Activity-based protein profiling revealed that JJKK-048 maintains good selectivity toward MAGL over other serine hydrolases. Our results are also the first to show that JJKK-048 promoted significant analgesia in a writhing test with a low dose that did not cause cannabimimetic side effects. At a high dose, JJKK-048 induced analgesia both in the writhing test and in the tail-immersion test, as well as hypomotility and hyperthermia, but not catalepsy.
ESTHER : Aaltonen_2016_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_359_62
PubMedSearch : Aaltonen_2016_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_359_62
PubMedID: 27451409

Title : Chemoproteomic, biochemical and pharmacological approaches in the discovery of inhibitors targeting human alpha\/beta-hydrolase domain containing 11 (ABHD11) - Navia-Paldanius_2016_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_93_253
Author(s) : Navia-Paldanius D , Patel JZ , Lopez Navarro M , Jakupovic H , Goffart S , Pasonen-Seppanen S , Nevalainen TJ , Jaaskelainen T , Laitinen T , Laitinen JT , Savinainen JR
Ref : Eur J Pharm Sci , 93 :253 , 2016
Abstract : ABHD11 (alpha/beta-hydrolase domain containing 11) is a non-annotated enzyme belonging to the family of metabolic serine hydrolases (mSHs). Its natural substrates and products are unknown. Using competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to identify novel inhibitors of human (h)ABHD11, three compounds from our chemical library exhibited low nanomolar potency towards hABHD11. Competitive ABPP of various proteomes revealed fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the sole off-target among the mSHs. Our fluorescent activity assays designed for natural lipase substrates revealed no activity of hABHD11 towards mono- or diacylglycerols. A broader profiling using para-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked substrates indicated no amidase/protease, phosphatase, sulfatase, phospholipase C or phosphodiesterase activity. Instead, hABHD11 readily utilized para-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPC4), indicating lipase/esterase-type activity that could be exploited in inhibitor discovery. Additionally, a homology model was created based on the crystal structure of bacterial esterase YbfF. In contrast to YbfF, which reportedly hydrolyze long-chain acyl-CoA, hABHD11 did not utilize oleoyl-CoA or arachidonoyl-CoA. In conclusion, the present study reports the discovery of potent hABHD11 inhibitors with good selectivity among mSHs. We developed substrate-based activity assays for hABHD11 that could be further exploited in inhibitor discovery and created the first homology-based hABHD11 model, offering initial insights into the active site of this poorly characterized enzyme.
ESTHER : Navia-Paldanius_2016_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_93_253
PubMedSearch : Navia-Paldanius_2016_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_93_253
PubMedID: 27544863
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD11

Title : Increased tonic cannabinoid CB1R activity and brain region-specific desensitization of CB1R Gi\/o signaling axis in mice with global genetic knockout of monoacylglycerol lipase - Navia-Paldanius_2015_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_77_180
Author(s) : Navia-Paldanius D , Aaltonen N , Lehtonen M , Savinainen JR , Taschler U , Radner FP , Zimmermann R , Laitinen JT
Ref : Eur J Pharm Sci , 77 :180 , 2015
Abstract : In mammalian brain, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the primary enzyme responsible for terminating signaling function of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Previous in vivo studies with mice indicate that both genetic and chronic pharmacological inactivation of MAGL result in 8-30-fold increase of 2-AG concentration in the brain, causing desensitization and downregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) activity, leading to functional and behavioral tolerance. However, direct evidence for reduced CB1R activity in the brain is lacking. In this study, we used functional autoradiography to assess basal and agonist-stimulated CB1R-dependent Gi/o protein activity in multiple brain regions of MAGL-KO mice in comparison to their wild-type (WT) littermates. In addition, the role of endogenous cannabinoids in basal CB1R signaling was assessed after comprehensive pharmacological blockade of 2-AG hydrolysis by determining the contents of endocannabinoids (eCBs) in WT and MAGL-KO brain tissues by LC/MS/MS technology. To show whether lack of MAGL cause compensatory alterations in the serine hydrolase activity, we compared serine hydrolase pattern of WT and MAGL-KO using activity-based protein profiling. Consistent with studies using chronic pharmacological MAGL inactivation in vivo, we observed a statistically significant decrease of CB1R-Gi/o signaling in most of the studied brain regions. In MAGL-KO brain sections, elevated 2-AG levels were mirrored to heightened basal CB1R-dependent Gi/o-activity, as well as, dampened agonist-evoked responses in several brain regions. The non-selective serine hydrolase inhibitor methylarachidonoylfluorophosphonate (MAFP) was able to significantly elevate 2-AG levels in brain sections of MAGL-KO mice, indicating that additional serine hydrolases possess 2-AG hydrolytic activity in MAGL-KO brain sections.
ESTHER : Navia-Paldanius_2015_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_77_180
PubMedSearch : Navia-Paldanius_2015_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_77_180
PubMedID: 26070239

Title : Revisiting 1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-ones: Utilization in the Development of ABHD6 Inhibitors - Patel_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_6335
Author(s) : Patel JZ , van Bruchem J , Laitinen T , Kaczor AA , Navia-Paldanius D , Parkkari T , Savinainen JR , Laitinen JT , Nevalainen TJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 23 :6335 , 2015
Abstract : This article describes our systematic approach to exploring the utility of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one scaffold in the development of ABHD6 inhibitors. Compound 3-(3-aminobenzyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-169, 52) was identified as a potent inhibitor of hABHD6, with an IC50 value of 216nM. This compound at 10muM concentration did not inhibit any other endocannabinoid hydrolases, such as FAAH, MAGL and ABHD12, or bind to the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Moreover, in competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), compound 52 (JZP-169) at 10muM selectively targeted ABHD6 of the serine hydrolases of mouse brain membrane proteome. Reversibility studies indicated that compound 52 inhibited hABHD6 in an irreversible manner. Finally, homology modelling and molecular docking studies were used to gain insights into the binding of compound 52 to the active site of hABHD6.
ESTHER : Patel_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_6335
PubMedSearch : Patel_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_6335
PubMedID: 26344596

Title : Optimization of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as potent and selective ABHD6 inhibitors - Patel_2015_ChemMedChem_10_253
Author(s) : Patel JZ , Nevalainen TJ , Savinainen JR , Adams Y , Laitinen T , Runyon RS , Vaara M , Ahenkorah S , Kaczor AA , Navia-Paldanius D , Gynther M , Aaltonen N , Joharapurkar AA , Jain MR , Haka AS , Maxfield FR , Laitinen JT , Parkkari T
Ref : ChemMedChem , 10 :253 , 2015
Abstract : At present, inhibitors of alpha/beta-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) are viewed as a promising approach to treat inflammation and metabolic disorders. This article describes the development of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as ABHD6 inhibitors. Altogether, 34 compounds were synthesized, and their inhibitory activity was tested using lysates of HEK293 cells transiently expressing human ABHD6 (hABHD6). Among the compound series, 4-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl cyclooctyl(methyl)carbamate (JZP-430) potently and irreversibly inhibited hABHD6 (IC50 =44 nM) and showed approximately 230-fold selectivity over fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the main off-targets of related compounds. Additionally, activity-based protein profiling indicated that JZP-430 displays good selectivity among the serine hydrolases of the mouse brain membrane proteome. JZP-430 has been identified as a highly selective, irreversible inhibitor of hABHD6, which may provide a novel approach in the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes.
ESTHER : Patel_2015_ChemMedChem_10_253
PubMedSearch : Patel_2015_ChemMedChem_10_253
PubMedID: 25504894
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD6

Title : Loratadine analogues as MAGL inhibitors - Patel_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_25_1436
Author(s) : Patel JZ , Ahenkorah S , Vaara M , Staszewski M , Adams Y , Laitinen T , Navia-Paldanius D , Parkkari T , Savinainen JR , Walczynski K , Laitinen JT , Nevalainen TJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 25 :1436 , 2015
Abstract : Compound 12a (JZP-361) acted as a potent and reversible inhibitor of human recombinant MAGL (hMAGL, IC50=46nM), and was found to have almost 150-fold higher selectivity over human recombinant fatty acid amide hydrolase (hFAAH, IC50=7.24muM) and 35-fold higher selectivity over human alpha/beta-hydrolase-6 (hABHD6, IC50=1.79muM). Additionally, compound 12a retained H1 antagonistic affinity (pA2=6.81) but did not show cannabinoid receptor activity, when tested at concentrations 10muM. Hence, compound 12a represents a novel dual-acting pharmacological tool possessing both MAGL-inhibitory and antihistaminergic activities.
ESTHER : Patel_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_25_1436
PubMedSearch : Patel_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_25_1436
PubMedID: 25752982

Title : Brain regional cannabinoid CB1 receptor signalling and alternative enzymatic pathways for 2-arachidonoylglycerol generation in brain sections of diacylglycerol lipase deficient mice - Aaltonen_2014_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_51_87
Author(s) : Aaltonen N , Riera Ribas C , Lehtonen M , Savinainen JR , Laitinen JT
Ref : Eur J Pharm Sci , 51 :87 , 2014
Abstract : Endocannabinoids are the endogenous ligands of the G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors. The principal brain endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), is enzymatically produced by postsynaptic neurons and then activates presynaptic CB1 receptors in a retrograde manner. The primary pathway for 2-AG generation is believed to be conversion from the diacylglycerols (DAGs) by two sn-1-specific lipases, DAGLalpha and DAGLbeta. Previous studies with DAGL-deficient mice indicated that DAGLalpha is the major enzyme needed for retrograde synaptic 2-AG signalling. The current study investigated whether the CB1 receptor-mediated Gi/o protein activity is altered in brain cryosections of DAGL-deficient mice when compared to wild-type mice and whether the sn-1-specific DAGLs are able to generate 2-AG in brain cryosections. Functional autoradiography indicated that brain regional CB1 receptor-Gi/o-activity largely remained unaltered in DAGLalpha-knockout and DAGLbeta-knockout mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Following comprehensive pharmacological blockade of 2-AG hydrolysis, brain sections generated sufficient amounts of 2-AG to activate CB1 receptors throughout the regions endowed with these receptors. As demonstrated by LC/MS/MS, this pool of 2-AG was generated via tetrahydrolipstatin-sensitive enzymatic pathways distinct from DAGLalpha or DAGLbeta. We conclude that in addition to the sn-1-specific DAGLs, additional 2-AG generating enzymatic pathways are active in brain sections.
ESTHER : Aaltonen_2014_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_51_87
PubMedSearch : Aaltonen_2014_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_51_87
PubMedID: 24012970

Title : Mutation of cys242 of human monoacylglycerol lipase disrupts balanced hydrolysis of 1- and 2-monoacylglycerols and selectively impairs inhibitor potency - Laitinen_2014_Mol.Pharmacol_85_510
Author(s) : Laitinen T , Navia-Paldanius D , Rytilahti R , Marjamaa JJ , Karizkova J , Parkkari T , Pantsar T , Poso A , Laitinen JT , Savinainen JR
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 85 :510 , 2014
Abstract : Considerable progress has been made in recent years in developing selective, potent monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors. In the investigations of measures to inhibit this enzyme, less attention has been paid to improving our understanding of its catalytic mechanisms or substrate preferences. In our study, we used site-directed mutagenesis, and we show via versatile activity assays combined with molecular modeling that Cys242 and Tyr194, the two opposing amino acid residues in the catalytic cavity of MAGL, play important roles in determining the rate and the isomer preferences of monoacylglycerol hydrolysis. In contrast to wild-type enzymes that hydrolyzed 1- and 2-monoacylglycerols at similar rates, mutation of Cys242 to alanine caused a significant reduction in overall activity (maximal velocity, Vmax), particularly skewing the balanced hydrolysis of isomers to favor the 2-isomer. Molecular modeling studies indicate that this was caused by structural features unfavorable toward 1-isomers as well as impaired recognition of OH-groups in the glycerol moiety. Direct functional involvement of Cys242 in the catalysis was found unlikely due to the remote distance from the catalytic serine. Unlike C242A, mutation of Tyr194 did not bias the hydrolysis of 1- and 2-monoacylglycerols but significantly compromised overall activity. Finally, mutation of Cys242 was also found to impair inhibition of MAGL, especially that by fluorophosphonate derivatives (13- to 63-fold reduction in potency). Taken together, this study provides new experimental and modeling insights into the molecular mechanisms of MAGL-catalyzed hydrolysis of the primary endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol and related monoacylglycerols.
ESTHER : Laitinen_2014_Mol.Pharmacol_85_510
PubMedSearch : Laitinen_2014_Mol.Pharmacol_85_510
PubMedID: 24368842
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-MGLL

Title : Discovery of Triterpenoids as Reversible Inhibitors of alpha\/beta-hydrolase Domain Containing 12 (ABHD12) - Parkkari_2014_PLoS.One_9_e98286
Author(s) : Parkkari T , Haavikko R , Laitinen T , Navia-Paldanius D , Rytilahti R , Vaara M , Lehtonen M , Alakurtti S , Yli-Kauhaluoma J , Nevalainen T , Savinainen JR , Laitinen JT
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e98286 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: alpha/beta-hydrolase domain containing (ABHD)12 is a recently discovered serine hydrolase that acts in vivo as a lysophospholipase for lysophosphatidylserine. Dysfunctional ABHD12 has been linked to the rare neurodegenerative disorder called PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinosis pigmentosa, cataract). In vitro, ABHD12 has been implicated in the metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Further studies on ABHD12 function are hampered as no selective inhibitor have been identified to date. In contrast to the situation with the other endocannabinoid hydrolases, ABHD12 has remained a challenging target for inhibitor development as no crystal structures are available to facilitate drug design. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the unexpected discovery that certain triterpene-based structures inhibit human ABHD12 hydrolase activity in a reversible manner, the best compounds showing submicromolar potency. Based on structure activity relationship (SAR) data collected for 68 natural and synthetic triterpenoid structures, a pharmacophore model has been constructed. A pentacyclic triterpene backbone with carboxyl group at position 17, small hydrophobic substituent at the position 4, hydrogen bond donor or acceptor at position 3 accompanied with four axial methyl substituents was found crucial for ABHD12 inhibitor activity. Although the triterpenoids typically may have multiple protein targets, we witnessed unprecedented selectivity for ABHD12 among the metabolic serine hydrolases, as activity-based protein profiling of mouse brain membrane proteome indicated that the representative ABHD12 inhibitors did not inhibit other serine hydrolases, nor did they target cannabinoid receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified reversibly-acting triterpene-based inhibitors that show remarkable selectivity for ABHD12 over other metabolic serine hydrolases. Based on SAR data, we have constructed the first pharmacophore model of ABHD12 inhibitors. This model should pave the way for further discovery of novel lead structures for ABHD12 selective inhibitors.
ESTHER : Parkkari_2014_PLoS.One_9_e98286
PubMedSearch : Parkkari_2014_PLoS.One_9_e98286
PubMedID: 24879289
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD12

Title : Piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) - Korhonen_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem_22_6694
Author(s) : Korhonen J , Kuusisto A , van Bruchem J , Patel JZ , Laitinen T , Navia-Paldanius D , Laitinen JT , Savinainen JR , Parkkari T , Nevalainen TJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 22 :6694 , 2014
Abstract : The key hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), are potential targets for various therapeutic applications. In this paper, we present more extensively the results of our previous work on piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as FAAH and MAGL inhibitors. The best compounds of these series function as potent and selective MAGL/FAAH inhibitors or as dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors at nanomolar concentrations. This study revealed that MAGL inhibitors should comprise leaving-groups with a conjugate acid pKa of 8-10, while diverse leaving groups are tolerated for FAAH inhibitors.
ESTHER : Korhonen_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem_22_6694
PubMedSearch : Korhonen_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem_22_6694
PubMedID: 25282655

Title : Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization of the Human Lymphocyte Antigen B-Associated Transcript 5 (BAT5\/ABHD16A) - Savinainen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e109869
Author(s) : Savinainen JR , Patel JZ , Parkkari T , Navia-Paldanius D , Marjamaa JJ , Laitinen T , Nevalainen T , Laitinen JT
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e109869 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Human lymphocyte antigen B-associated transcript 5 (BAT5, also known as ABHD16A) is a poorly characterized 63 kDa protein belonging to the alpha/beta-hydrolase domain (ABHD) containing family of metabolic serine hydrolases. Its natural substrates and biochemical properties are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequence comparison between seven mammalian BAT5 orthologs revealed that the overall primary structure was highly (>/=95%) conserved. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) confirmed successful generation of catalytically active human (h) and mouse (m) BAT5 in HEK293 cells, enabling further biochemical characterization. A sensitive fluorescent glycerol assay reported hBAT5-mediated hydrolysis of medium-chain saturated (C14ratio0), long-chain unsaturated (C18ratio1, C18ratio2, C20ratio4) monoacylglycerols (MAGs) and 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2-2-glycerol ester (15d-PGJ2-G). In contrast, hBAT5 possessed only marginal diacylglycerol (DAG), triacylglycerol (TAG), or lysophospholipase activity. The best MAG substrates were 1-linoleylglycerol (1-LG) and 15d-PGJ2-G, both exhibiting low-micromolar Km values. BAT5 had a neutral pH optimum and showed preference for the 1(3)- vs. 2-isomers of MAGs C18ratio1, C18ratio2 and C20ratio4. Inhibitor profiling revealed that beta-lactone-based lipase inhibitors were nanomolar inhibitors of hBAT5 activity (palmostatin B > tetrahydrolipstatin > ebelactone A). Moreover, the hormone-sensitive lipase inhibitor C7600 (5-methoxy-3-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-3H-[1], [3], [4]oxadiazol-2-one) was identified as a highly potent inhibitor (IC50 8.3 nM). Phenyl and benzyl substituted analogs of C7600 with increased BAT5 selectivity were synthesized and a preliminary SAR analysis was conducted to obtain initial insights into the active site dimensions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides an initial characterization of BAT5 activity, unveiling the biochemical and pharmacological properties with in vitro substrate preferences and inhibitor profiles. Utilization of glycerolipid substrates and sensitivity to lipase inhibitors suggest that BAT5 is a genuine lipase with preference for long-chain unsaturated MAGs and could in this capacity regulate glycerolipid metabolism in vivo as well. This preliminary SAR data should pave the way towards increasingly potent and BAT5-selective inhibitors.
ESTHER : Savinainen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e109869
PubMedSearch : Savinainen_2014_PLoS.One_9_e109869
PubMedID: 25290914
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD16A , mouse-Abhd16a

Title : Robust Hydrolysis of Prostaglandin Glycerol Esters by Human Monoacylglycerol Lipase (MAGL) - Savinainen_2014_Mol.Pharmacol_86_522
Author(s) : Savinainen JR , Kansanen E , Pantsar T , Navia-Paldanius D , Parkkari T , Lehtonen M , Laitinen T , Nevalainen T , Poso A , Levonen AL , Laitinen JT
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 86 :522 , 2014
Abstract : The primary route of inactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the central nervous system is through enzymatic hydrolysis, mainly carried out by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), along with a small contribution by the alpha/beta-hydrolase domain (ABHD) proteins ABHD6 and ABHD12. Recent methodological progress allowing kinetic monitoring of glycerol liberation has facilitated substrate profiling of the human endocannabinoid hydrolases, and these studies have revealed that the three enzymes have distinct monoacylglycerol substrate and isomer preferences. Here, we have extended this substrate profiling to cover four prostaglandin glycerol esters, namely, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2-2-glycerol (15d-PGJ2-G), PGD2-G, PGE2-G, and PGF2 alpha-G. We found that the three enzymes hydrolyzed the tested substrates, albeit with distinct rates and preferences. Although human ABHD12 (hABHD12) showed only marginal activity toward PGE2-G, hABHD6 preferentially hydrolyzed PGD2-G, and human MAGL (hMAGL) robustly hydrolyzed all four. This was particularly intriguing for MAGL activity toward 15d-PGJ2-G whose hydrolysis rate rivaled that of the best monoacylglycerol substrates. Molecular modeling studies combined with kinetic analysis supported favorable interaction with the hMAGL active site. Long and short MAGL isoforms shared a similar substrate profile, and hMAGL hydrolyzed 15d-PGJ2-G also in living cells. The ability of 15d-PGJ2-G to activate the canonical nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling pathway used by 15d-PGJ2 was assessed, and these studies revealed for the first time that 15d-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2-G similarly activated Nrf2 signaling as well as transcription of target genes of this pathway. Our study challenges previous claims regarding the ability of MAGL to catalyze PG-G hydrolysis and extend the MAGL substrate profile beyond the classic monoacylglycerols.
ESTHER : Savinainen_2014_Mol.Pharmacol_86_522
PubMedSearch : Savinainen_2014_Mol.Pharmacol_86_522
PubMedID: 25140003
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD6 , human-ABHD12 , human-MGLL

Title : Piperazine and piperidine triazole ureas as ultrapotent and highly selective inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase - Aaltonen_2013_Chem.Biol_20_379
Author(s) : Aaltonen N , Savinainen JR , Ribas CR , Ronkko J , Kuusisto A , Korhonen J , Navia-Paldanius D , Hayrinen J , Takabe P , Kasnanen H , Pantsar T , Laitinen T , Lehtonen M , Pasonen-Seppanen S , Poso A , Nevalainen T , Laitinen JT
Ref : Chemical Biology , 20 :379 , 2013
Abstract : Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) terminates the signaling function of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). During 2-AG hydrolysis, MAGL liberates arachidonic acid, feeding the principal substrate for the neuroinflammatory prostaglandins. In cancer cells, MAGL redirects lipid stores toward protumorigenic signaling lipids. Thus MAGL inhibitors may have great therapeutic potential. Although potent and increasingly selective MAGL inhibitors have been described, their number is still limited. Here, we have characterized piperazine and piperidine triazole ureas that combine the high potency attributable to the triazole leaving group together with the bulky aromatic benzodioxolyl moiety required for selectivity, culminating in compound JJKK-048 that potently (IC50 < 0.4 nM) inhibited human and rodent MAGL. JJKK-048 displayed low cross-reactivity with other endocannabinoid targets. Activity-based protein profiling of mouse brain and human melanoma cell proteomes suggested high specificity also among the metabolic serine hydrolases.
ESTHER : Aaltonen_2013_Chem.Biol_20_379
PubMedSearch : Aaltonen_2013_Chem.Biol_20_379
PubMedID: 23521796
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-MGLL

Title : Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of human alpha\/beta-hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6) and 12 (ABHD12) - Navia-Paldanius_2012_J.Lipid.Res_53_2413
Author(s) : Navia-Paldanius D , Savinainen JR , Laitinen JT
Ref : J Lipid Res , 53 :2413 , 2012
Abstract : In the central nervous system, three enzymes belonging to the serine hydrolase family are thought to regulate the life time of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (C20:4) (2-AG). From these, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is well characterized and, on a quantitative basis, is the main 2-AG hydrolase. The postgenomic proteins alpha/beta-hydrolase domain containing (ABHD)6 and ABHD12 remain poorly characterized. By applying a sensitive fluorescent glycerol assay, we delineate the substrate preferences of human ABHD6 and ABHD12 in comparison with MAGL. We show that the three hydrolases are genuine MAG lipases; medium-chain saturated MAGs were the best substrates for hABHD6 and hMAGL, whereas hABHD12 preferred the 1 (3)- and 2-isomers of arachidonoylglycerol. Site-directed mutagenesis of the amino acid residues forming the postulated catalytic triad (ABHD6: S148-D278-H306, ABHD12: S246-D333-H372) abolished enzymatic activity as well as labeling with the active site serine-directed fluorophosphonate probe TAMRA-FP. However, the role of D278 and H306 as residues of the catalytic core of ABHD6 could not be verified because none of the mutants showed detectable expression. Inhibitor profiling revealed striking potency differences between hABHD6 and hABHD12, a finding that, when combined with the substrate profiling data, should facilitate further efforts toward the design of potent and selective inhibitors, especially those targeting hABHD12, which currently lacks such inhibitors.
ESTHER : Navia-Paldanius_2012_J.Lipid.Res_53_2413
PubMedSearch : Navia-Paldanius_2012_J.Lipid.Res_53_2413
PubMedID: 22969151
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD6 , human-ABHD12

Title : The serine hydrolases MAGL, ABHD6 and ABHD12 as guardians of 2-arachidonoylglycerol signalling through cannabinoid receptors - Savinainen_2012_Acta.Physiol.(Oxf)_204_267
Author(s) : Savinainen JR , Saario SM , Laitinen JT
Ref : Acta Physiol (Oxf) , 204 :267 , 2012
Abstract : The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a lipid mediator involved in various physiological processes. In response to neural activity, 2-AG is synthesized post-synaptically, then activates pre-synaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) in a retrograde manner, resulting in transient and long-lasting reduction of neurotransmitter release. The signalling competence of 2-AG is tightly regulated by the balanced action between 'on demand' biosynthesis and degradation. We review recent research on monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), ABHD6 and ABHD12, three serine hydrolases that together account for approx. 99% of brain 2-AG hydrolase activity. MAGL is responsible for approx. 85% of 2-AG hydrolysis and colocalizes with CB1R in axon terminals. It is therefore ideally positioned to terminate 2-AG-CB1R signalling regardless of the source of this endocannabinoid. Its acute pharmacological inhibition leads to 2-AG accumulation and CB1R-mediated behavioural responses. Chronic MAGL inactivation results in 2-AG overload, desensitization of CB1R signalling and behavioural tolerance. ABHD6 accounts for approx. 4% of brain 2-AG hydrolase activity but in neurones it rivals MAGL in efficacy. Neuronal ABHD6 resides post-synaptically, often juxtaposed with CB1Rs, and its acute inhibition leads to activity-dependent accumulation of 2-AG. In cortical slices, selective ABHD6 blockade facilitates CB1R-dependent long-term synaptic depression. ABHD6 is therefore positioned to guard intracellular pools of 2-AG at the site of generation. ABHD12 is highly expressed in microglia and accounts for approx. 9% of total brain 2-AG hydrolysis. Mutations in ABHD12 gene are causally linked to a neurodegenerative disease called PHARC. Whether ABHD12 qualifies as a bona fide member to the endocannabinoid system remains to be established.
ESTHER : Savinainen_2012_Acta.Physiol.(Oxf)_204_267
PubMedSearch : Savinainen_2012_Acta.Physiol.(Oxf)_204_267
PubMedID: 21418147
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD6 , human-ABHD12 , human-MGLL

Title : Characterization of binding properties of monoglyceride lipase inhibitors by a versatile fluorescence-based technique - Savinainen_2010_Anal.Biochem_399_132
Author(s) : Savinainen JR , Yoshino M , Minkkila A , Nevalainen T , Laitinen JT
Ref : Analytical Biochemistry , 399 :132 , 2010
Abstract : Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) is a serine hydrolase that terminates the signaling of the primary endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Versatile high-throughput screening methods allowing the testing of MGL inhibitors are rare, thereby limiting the development and analysis of novel inhibitors. Here we describe an improved fluorescence-based technique that is capable of determining time- and dose-dependent inhibition of MGL with one or multiple binding sites and, at the same time, is capable of revealing the reversibility of inhibitor binding in a simple kinetic assay format. Known reference compounds as well as novel inhibitors, such as JZL184 and CAY10499, were evaluated for their MGL-binding properties and potency.
ESTHER : Savinainen_2010_Anal.Biochem_399_132
PubMedSearch : Savinainen_2010_Anal.Biochem_399_132
PubMedID: 20005861
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-MGLL

Title : Screening of various hormone-sensitive lipase inhibitors as endocannabinoid-hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitors -
Author(s) : Minkkila A , Savinainen JR , Kasnanen H , Xhaard H , Nevalainen T , Laitinen JT , Poso A , Leppanen J , Saario SM
Ref : ChemMedChem , 4 :1253 , 2009
PubMedID: 19472270

Title : Therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitors - Saario_2007_Basic.Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol_101_287
Author(s) : Saario SM , Laitinen JT
Ref : Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol , 101 :287 , 2007
Abstract : The specific protein target of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the main active ingredient of Cannabis sativa L., was characterized from rat brain nearly 20 years ago, and several endogenous compounds and proteins comprising the endocannabinoid (eCB) system have since been discovered. It has become evident that the eCB system consists of at least two cannabinoid receptors (i.e. the CB1 and CB2 receptors), in addition to their endogenous ligands (the eCBs) and several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of the eCBs. The two well-established eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are produced by neurons on demand, act near their sites of synthesis and are effectively metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGL), respectively. Inhibitors specifically targeting these enzymes could offer novel therapeutic approaches (e.g. for the treatment of pain and movement disorders). This MiniReview summarizes the literature concerning the potential therapeutic potential of FAAH and MGL inhibitors.
ESTHER : Saario_2007_Basic.Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol_101_287
PubMedSearch : Saario_2007_Basic.Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol_101_287
PubMedID: 17910610

Title : Characterization of the sulfhydryl-sensitive site in the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol in rat cerebellar membranes - Saario_2005_Chem.Biol_12_649
Author(s) : Saario SM , Salo OM , Nevalainen T , Poso A , Laitinen JT , Jarvinen T , Niemi R
Ref : Chemical Biology , 12 :649 , 2005
Abstract : We have previously reported that the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), is hydrolyzed in rat cerebellar membranes by monoglyceride lipase (MGL)-like enzymatic activity. The present study shows that, like MGL, 2-AG-degrading enzymatic activity is sensitive to inhibition by sulfhydryl-specific reagents. Inhibition studies of this enzymatic activity by N-ethylmaleimide analogs revealed that analogs with bulky hydrophobic N-substitution were more potent inhibitors than hydrophilic or less bulky agents. Interestingly, the substrate analog N-arachidonylmaleimide was found to be the most potent inhibitor. A comparison model of MGL was constructed to get a view on the cysteine residues located near the binding site. These findings support our previous conclusion that the 2-AG-degrading enzymatic activity in rat cerebellar membranes corresponds to MGL or MGL-like enzyme and should facilitate further efforts to develop potent and more selective MGL inhibitors.
ESTHER : Saario_2005_Chem.Biol_12_649
PubMedSearch : Saario_2005_Chem.Biol_12_649
PubMedID: 15975510

Title : Monoglyceride lipase-like enzymatic activity is responsible for hydrolysis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in rat cerebellar membranes - Saario_2004_Biochem.Pharmacol_67_1381
Author(s) : Saario SM , Savinainen JR , Laitinen JT , Jarvinen T , Niemi R
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 67 :1381 , 2004
Abstract : 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endogenous cannabinoid that binds to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, inducing cannabimimetic effects. However, the cannabimimetic effects of 2-AG are weak in vivo due to its rapid enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-AG has been proposed to mainly occur by monoglyceride lipase (monoacylglycerol lipase). Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), is also able to hydrolyse 2-AG. In the present study, we investigated the hydrolysis of endocannabinoids in rat cerebellar membranes and observed that enzymatic activity towards 2-AG was 50-fold higher than that towards AEA. Furthermore, various inhibitors for 2-AG hydrolase activity were studied in rat cerebellar membranes. 2-AG hydrolysis was inhibited by methyl arachidonylfluorophosphonate, hexadecylsulphonyl fluoride and phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride with ic(50) values of 2.2 nM, 241 nM and 155 microM, respectively. Potent FAAH inhibitors, such as OL-53 and URB597, did not inhibit the hydrolysis of 2-AG, suggesting that 2-AG is inactivated in rat cerebellar membranes by an enzyme distinct of FAAH. The observation that the hydrolysis of 1(3)-AG and 2-AG occurred at equal rates supports the role of MGL in 2-AG inactivation. This enzyme assay provides a useful method for future inhibition studies of 2-AG degrading enzyme(s) in brain membrane preparation having considerably higher MGL-like activity when compared to FAAH activity.
ESTHER : Saario_2004_Biochem.Pharmacol_67_1381
PubMedSearch : Saario_2004_Biochem.Pharmacol_67_1381
PubMedID: 15013854

Title : Cholinergic signaling in the rat pineal gland. - Laitinen_1995_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_15_177
Author(s) : Laitinen JT , Laitinen KS , Kokkola T
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 15 :177 , 1995
Abstract : 1. Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland is mainly sympathetic. Pineal synthesis of melatonin and its levels in the circulation are thought to be under strict adrenergic control of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). In addition, several putative pineal neurotransmitters modulate melatonin synthesis and secretion. 2. In this review, we summarize what is currently known on the pineal cholinergic system. Cholinergic signaling in the rat pineal gland is suggested based on the localization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as muscarinic and nicotinic ACh binding sites in the gland. 3. A functional role of ACh may be regulation of pineal synaptic ribbon numbers and modulation of melatonin secretion, events possibly mediated by phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and activation of protein kinase C via muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). 4. We also present previously unpublished data obtained using primary cultures of rat pinealocytes in an attempt to get more direct information on the effects of cholinergic stimulus on pinealocyte melatonin secretion. These studies revealed that the cholinergic effects on melatonin release are restricted mainly to intact pineal glands since they were not readily detected in primary pinealocyte cultures.
ESTHER : Laitinen_1995_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_15_177
PubMedSearch : Laitinen_1995_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_15_177
PubMedID: 8590450