References (7)

Title : Resistance Mechanism of Plutella xylostella (L.) Associated with Amino Acid Substitutions in Acetylcholinesterase-1: Insights from Homology Modeling, Docking and Molecular Dynamic Simulation - Zolfaghari_2024_Insects_15_
Author(s) : Zolfaghari M , Xiao Y , Safiul Azam FM , Yin F , Peng ZK , Li ZY
Ref : Insects , 15 : , 2024
Abstract : Plutella xylostella, a destructive crucifer pest, can rapidly develop resistance to most classes of pesticides. This study investigated the molecular resistance mechanisms to chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide. Two P. xylostella genes, ace1 and ace2, were described. The nucleotide sequence results revealed no variation in ace2, while the resistant strain (Kar-R) had four amino acid alterations in ace1, two of which (A298S and G324A) were previously shown to confer organophosphate resistance in P. xylostella. In the present study, the 3D model structures of both the wild-type (Gu-S) and mutant (Kar-R) of P. xylostella ace1 strains were studied through molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations and molecular docking. Molecular dynamics simulations of RMSD revealed less structural deviation in the ace1 mutant than in its wild-type counterpart. Higher flexibility in the 425-440 amino acid region in the mutant active site (Glu422 and Acyl pocket) increased the active site's entropy, reducing the enzyme's affinity for the inhibitors. Gene expression analysis revealed that the relative transcription levels of ace1 were significantly different in the Kar-R strain compared with the Gu-S strain. This study enhances the understanding of the mechanisms governing ace1's resistance to insecticide and provides essential insights for new insecticides as well as valuable insights into environmentally conscious pest management techniques.
ESTHER : Zolfaghari_2024_Insects_15_
PubMedSearch : Zolfaghari_2024_Insects_15_
PubMedID: 38535339
Gene_locus related to this paper: pluxy-ACHE , pluxy-ACHE1

Title : Insight into Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) with Antioxidant, Anti-Acetylcholinesterase, and Neuroprotective Activities - Liu_2022_Plant.Foods.Hum.Nutr__
Author(s) : Liu DF , Bai M , Du NN , Shen S , Li ZY , Zhang X , Guo R , Yao GD , Song SJ , Huang XX
Ref : Plant Foods Hum Nutr , : , 2022
Abstract : Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a link between the consumption of daily functional fruits rich in phenols and the prevention of disease for neurodegenerative disorders. Hawthorn products are derived from the functional fruit hawthorn, which is rich in phenols and has been used around the world for centuries. In order to explore the phenolic components in hawthorn, the investigation of the ethanol extract led to the separation of five new phenol compounds (1a/1b, 2-4), including one pair of enantiomers (1a/1b), along with seven disclosed analogs (5-11). Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The compounds (1-11) were tested for antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. Apart from that, monomeric compounds 2, 4, and 6 exhibited more potent protective capabilities against H(2)O(2) (hydrogen peroxide)-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Meanwhile, electronic analyses were performed using the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to analyze compounds 2, 4, and 6. Furthermore, compounds (1-11) measured acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities, and 2, 4, and 6 possessed greater AChE inhibitory activity than donepezil. At the same time, molecular docking was used to investigate the possible mechanism of the interaction between active compounds (2, 4, and 6) and AChE.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Plant.Foods.Hum.Nutr__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Plant.Foods.Hum.Nutr__
PubMedID: 35986175

Title : Bacillus thuringiensis and Chlorantraniliprole Trigger the Expression of Detoxification-Related Genes in the Larval Midgut of Plutella xylostella - Shabbir_2021_Front.Physiol_12_780255
Author(s) : Shabbir MZ , Yang X , Batool R , Yin F , Kendra PE , Li ZY
Ref : Front Physiol , 12 :780255 , 2021
Abstract : Background: Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), has developed resistance to many insecticides. The molecular mechanism of DBM resistance to Bt-G033A combined with chlorantraniliprole (CL) remains undefined. Methods: In this study, field-resistant strains of Plutella xylostella to three pesticides, namely, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin (Bt-G033A), CL, and a mixture of Bt + CL, were selected to evaluate the resistance level. Additionally, transcriptomic profiles of a susceptible (SS-DBM), field-resistant (FOH-DBM), Bt-resistant (Bt-DBM), CL-resistant (CL-DBM), and Bt + CL-resistant (BtC-DBM) strains were performed by comparative analysis to identify genes responsible for detoxification. Results: The Bt-G033A was the most toxic chemical to all the DBM strains among the three insecticides. The comparative analysis identified 25,518 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pairs/combinations of strains. DEGs were enriched in pathways related to metabolic and catalytic activity and ABC transporter in resistant strains. In total, 17 metabolic resistance-related candidate genes were identified in resistance to Bt-G033A, CL, and Bt + CL by co-expression network analysis. Within candidate genes, the majority was upregulated in key genes including cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase, and acetylcholinesterase in CL- and BtC-resistant strains. Furthermore, aminopeptidase N (APN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cadherin, trypsin, and ABC transporter genes were eminent as Bt-resistance-related genes. Expression patterns of key genes by the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) proved the credibility of transcriptome data and suggest their association in the detoxification process. Conclusion: To date, this study is the most comprehensive research presenting functional transcriptome analysis of DBM using Bt-G033A and CL combined insecticidal activity.
ESTHER : Shabbir_2021_Front.Physiol_12_780255
PubMedSearch : Shabbir_2021_Front.Physiol_12_780255
PubMedID: 34966290

Title : Assessing the Single and Combined Toxicity of Chlorantraniliprole and Bacillus thuringiensis (GO33A) against Four Selected Strains of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), and a Gene Expression Analysis - Shabbir_2021_Toxins.(Basel)_13_
Author(s) : Shabbir MZ , He L , Shu C , Yin F , Zhang J , Li ZY
Ref : Toxins (Basel) , 13 : , 2021
Abstract : Concerns about resistance development to conventional insecticides in diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.), the most destructive pest of Brassica vegetables, have stimulated interest in alternative pest management strategies. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Bt GO33A) combined with chlorantraniliprole (Chl) has not been documented. Here, we examined single and combined toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and Bt to assess the levels of resistance in four DBM strains. Additionally, enzyme activities were tested in field-original highly resistant (FOH-DBM), Bt-resistant (Bt-DBM), chlorantraniliprole-resistant (CL-DBM), and Bt + chlorantraniliprole-resistant (BtC-DBM) strains. The Bt product had the highest toxicity to all four DBM strains followed by the mixture of insecticides (Bt + Chl) and chlorantraniliprole. Synergism between Bt and chlorantraniliprole was observed; the combination of Bt + (Bt + Chl) (1:1, LC(50):LC(50)) was the most toxic, showing a synergistic effect against all four DBM strains with a poison ratio of 1.35, 1.29, 1.27, and 1.25. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxyl-esterase (CarE) activities showed positive correlations with chlorantraniliprole resistance, but no correlation was observed with resistance to Bt and Bt + Chl insecticides. Expression of genes coding for PxGST, CarE, AChE, and MFO using qRT-PCR showed that the PxGST and MFO were significantly overexpressed in Bt-DBM. However, AChE and CarE showed no difference in the four DBM strains. Mixtures of Bt with chlorantraniliprole exhibited synergistic effects and may aid the design of new combinations of pesticides to delay resistance in DBM strains substantially.
ESTHER : Shabbir_2021_Toxins.(Basel)_13_
PubMedSearch : Shabbir_2021_Toxins.(Basel)_13_
PubMedID: 33809820

Title : cDNA cloning and characterization of the carboxylesterase pxCCE016b from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. - Yasin_2020_Arch.Microbiol__
Author(s) : Hu ZD , Feng X , Lin QS , Chen HY , Li ZY , Yin F , Liang P , Gao XW
Ref : Journal of Integrative Agriculture , 15 :1059 , 2016
Abstract : Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and can be found in almost all living organisms. As the metabolic enzymes, carboxylesterases are involved in insecticides resistance in insects for long time. In our previous studies, the enhanced carboxylesterase activities were found in the chlorantraniliprole resistance strain of diamondback moth (DBM). However, the related enzyme gene of chlorantraniliprole resistance has not been clear in this strain. Here, a full-length cDNA of carboxylesterase pxCCE016b was cloned and exogenously expressed in Escherichia coli at the first time, which contained a 1693 bp open reading frame (ORF) and encoded a protein of 542 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that this cDNA has a predicted mass of 61.56 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point value of 5.78. The sequence of deduced amino acid possessed the classical structural features: a type-B carboxylesterase signature 2 (EDCLYLNVYTK), a type-B carboxylesterase serine active site (FGGDPENITIFGESAG) and the catalytic triad (Ser186, Glu316, and His444). The real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the expression level of the pxCCE016b was significantly higher in the chlorantraniliprole resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. Furthermore, pxCCE016b was highly expressed in the midgut and epidermis of the DBM larvae. When the 3rd-instar larvae of resistant DBM were exposed to abamectin, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb insecticides, the up-regulated expression of pxCCE016b was observed only in the group treated by chlorantraniliprole. In addition, recombinant vector pET-pxCCE016b was constructed with the most coding region (1 293 bp) and large number of soluble recombinant proteins (less than 48 kDa) were expressed successfully with prokaryotic cell. Western blot analysis showed that it was coded by pxCCE016b. All the above findings provide important information for further functional study, although we are uncertainty whether the pxCCE016b gene is actually involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance.
ESTHER : Yasin_2020_Arch.Microbiol__
PubMedSearch : Yasin_2020_Arch.Microbiol__
Gene_locus related to this paper: pluxy-a0a088qel8

Title : Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome II - Feldmann_1994_EMBO.J_13_5795
Author(s) : Feldmann H , Aigle M , Aljinovic G , Andre B , Baclet MC , Barthe C , Baur A , Becam AM , Biteau N , Boles E , Brandt T , Brendel M , Bruckner M , Bussereau F , Christiansen C , Contreras R , Crouzet M , Cziepluch C , Demolis N , Delaveau T , Doignon F , Domdey H , Dusterhus S , Dubois E , Dujon B , El Bakkoury M , Entian KD , Feurmann M , Fiers W , Fobo GM , Fritz C , Gassenhuber H , Glandsdorff N , Goffeau A , Grivell LA , de Haan M , Hein C , Herbert CJ , Hollenberg CP , Holmstrom K , Jacq C , Jacquet M , Jauniaux JC , Jonniaux JL , Kallesoe T , Kiesau P , Kirchrath L , Kotter P , Korol S , Liebl S , Logghe M , Lohan AJ , Louis EJ , Li ZY , Maat MJ , Mallet L , Mannhaupt G , Messenguy F , Miosga T , Molemans F , Muller S , Nasr F , Obermaier B , Perea J , Pierard A , Piravandi E , Pohl FM , Pohl TM , Potier S , Proft M , Purnelle B , Ramezani Rad M , Rieger M , Rose M , Schaaff-Gerstenschlager I , Scherens B , Schwarzlose C , Skala J , Slonimski PP , Smits PH , Souciet JL , Steensma HY , Stucka R , Urrestarazu A , van der Aart QJ , van Dyck L , Vassarotti A , Vetter I , Vierendeels F , Vissers S , Wagner G , de Wergifosse P , Wolfe KH , Zagulski M , Zimmermann FK , Mewes HW , Kleine K , Dsterhus S , Mller S , Pirard A , Schaaff-Gerstenschlger I
Ref : EMBO Journal , 13 :5795 , 1994
Abstract : In the framework of the EU genome-sequencing programmes, the complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome II (807 188 bp) has been determined. At present, this is the largest eukaryotic chromosome entirely sequenced. A total of 410 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, covering 72% of the sequence. Similarity searches revealed that 124 ORFs (30%) correspond to genes of known function, 51 ORFs (12.5%) appear to be homologues of genes whose functions are known, 52 others (12.5%) have homologues the functions of which are not well defined and another 33 of the novel putative genes (8%) exhibit a degree of similarity which is insufficient to confidently assign function. Of the genes on chromosome II, 37-45% are thus of unpredicted function. Among the novel putative genes, we found several that are related to genes that perform differentiated functions in multicellular organisms of are involved in malignancy. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the analysis of this chromosome confirmed general chromosome patterns but also revealed particular novel features of chromosomal organization. Alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local gene density along chromosome II, as observed in chromosomes XI and III. We propose that functional ARS elements are preferably located in the AT-rich regions that have a spacing of approximately 110 kb. Similarly, the 13 tRNA genes and the three Ty elements of chromosome II are found in AT-rich regions. In chromosome II, the distribution of coding sequences between the two strands is biased, with a ratio of 1.3:1. An interesting aspect regarding the evolution of the eukaryotic genome is the finding that chromosome II has a high degree of internal genetic redundancy, amounting to 16% of the coding capacity.
ESTHER : Feldmann_1994_EMBO.J_13_5795
PubMedSearch : Feldmann_1994_EMBO.J_13_5795
PubMedID: 7813418
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-LDH1 , yeast-MCFS2 , yeast-yby9

Title : Poster 36. Membrane bound acetylcholinesterase on the external side of nerve-terminals plasma membrane -
Author(s) : Bon C , Li ZY
Ref : In: Cholinesterases, fundamental and applied aspects : proceedings of the Second International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Brzin M, Barnard EA, Sket D, Eds) De Gruyter , 1984