Vetter I

References (3)

Title : Venom composition and pain-causing toxins of the Australian great carpenter bee Xylocopa aruana - Shi_2022_Sci.Rep_12_22168
Author(s) : Shi N , Szanto TG , He J , Schroeder CI , Walker AA , Deuis JR , Vetter I , Panyi G , King GF , Robinson SD
Ref : Sci Rep , 12 :22168 , 2022
Abstract : Most species of bee are capable of delivering a defensive sting which is often painful. A solitary lifestyle is the ancestral state of bees and most extant species are solitary, but information on bee venoms comes predominantly from studies on eusocial species. In this study we investigated the venom composition of the Australian great carpenter bee, Xylocopa aruana Ritsema, 1876. We show that the venom is relatively simple, composed mainly of one small amphipathic peptide (XYTX(1)-Xa1a), with lesser amounts of an apamin homologue (XYTX(2)-Xa2a) and a venom phospholipase-A(2) (PLA(2)). XYTX(1)-Xa1a is homologous to, and shares a similar mode-of-action to melittin and the bombilitins, the major components of the venoms of the eusocial Apis mellifera (Western honeybee) and Bombus spp. (bumblebee), respectively. XYTX(1)-Xa1a and melittin directly activate mammalian sensory neurons and cause spontaneous pain behaviours in vivo, effects which are potentiated in the presence of venom PLA(2). The apamin-like peptide XYTX(2)-Xa2a was a relatively weak blocker of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channels and, like A. mellifera apamin and mast cell-degranulating peptide, did not contribute to pain behaviours in mice. While the composition and mode-of-action of the venom of X. aruana are similar to that of A. mellifera, the greater potency, on mammalian sensory neurons, of the major pain-causing component in A. mellifera venom may represent an adaptation to the distinct defensive pressures on eusocial Apidae.
ESTHER : Shi_2022_Sci.Rep_12_22168
PubMedSearch : Shi_2022_Sci.Rep_12_22168
PubMedID: 36550366

Title : The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XV - Dujon_1997_Nature_387_98
Author(s) : Dujon B , Albermann K , Aldea M , Alexandraki D , Ansorge W , Arino J , Benes V , Bohn C , Bolotin-Fukuhara M , Bordonne R , Boyer J , Camasses A , Casamayor A , Casas C , Cheret G , Cziepluch C , Daignan-Fornier B , Dang DV , de Haan M , Delius H , Durand P , Fairhead C , Feldmann H , Gaillon L , Galisson F , Gamo FJ , Gancedo C , Goffeau A , Goulding SE , Grivell LA , Habbig B , Hand NJ , Hani J , Hattenhorst U , Hebling U , Hernando Y , Herrero E , Heumann K , Hiesel R , Hilger F , Hofmann B , Hollenberg CP , Hughes B , Jauniaux JC , Kalogeropoulos A , Katsoulou C , Kordes E , Lafuente MJ , Landt O , Louis EJ , Maarse AC , Madania A , Mannhaupt G , Marck C , Martin RP , Mewes HW , Michaux G , Paces V , Parle-McDermott AG , Pearson BM , Perrin A , Pettersson B , Poch O , Pohl TM , Poirey R , Portetelle D , Pujol A , Purnelle B , Ramezani Rad M , Rechmann S , Schwager C , Schweizer M , Sor F , Sterky F , Tarassov IA , Teodoru C , Tettelin H , Thierry A , Tobiasch E , Tzermia M , Uhlen M , Unseld M , Valens M , Vandenbol M , Vetter I , Vlcek C , Voet M , Volckaert G , Voss H , Wambutt R , Wedler H , Wiemann S , Winsor B , Wolfe KH , Zollner A , Zumstein E , Kleine K
Ref : Nature , 387 :98 , 1997
Abstract : Chromosome XV was one of the last two chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be discovered. It is the third-largest yeast chromosome after chromosomes XII and IV, and is very similar in size to chromosome VII. It alone represents 9% of the yeast genome (8% if ribosomal DNA is included). When systematic sequencing of chromosome XV was started, 93 genes or markers were identified, and most of them were mapped. However, very little else was known about chromosome XV which, in contrast to shorter chromosomes, had not been the object of comprehensive genetic or molecular analysis. It was therefore decided to start sequencing chromosome XV only in the third phase of the European Yeast Genome Sequencing Programme, after experience was gained on chromosomes III, XI and II. The sequence of chromosome XV has been determined from a set of partly overlapping cosmid clones derived from a unique yeast strain, and physically mapped at 3.3-kilobase resolution before sequencing. As well as numerous new open reading frames (ORFs) and genes encoding tRNA or small RNA molecules, the sequence of 1,091,283 base pairs confirms the high proportion of orphan genes and reveals a number of ancestral and successive duplications with other yeast chromosomes.
ESTHER : Dujon_1997_Nature_387_98
PubMedSearch : Dujon_1997_Nature_387_98
PubMedID: 9169874
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-FSH3 , yeast-yo059

Title : Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome II - Feldmann_1994_EMBO.J_13_5795
Author(s) : Feldmann H , Aigle M , Aljinovic G , Andre B , Baclet MC , Barthe C , Baur A , Becam AM , Biteau N , Boles E , Brandt T , Brendel M , Bruckner M , Bussereau F , Christiansen C , Contreras R , Crouzet M , Cziepluch C , Demolis N , Delaveau T , Doignon F , Domdey H , Dusterhus S , Dubois E , Dujon B , El Bakkoury M , Entian KD , Feurmann M , Fiers W , Fobo GM , Fritz C , Gassenhuber H , Glandsdorff N , Goffeau A , Grivell LA , de Haan M , Hein C , Herbert CJ , Hollenberg CP , Holmstrom K , Jacq C , Jacquet M , Jauniaux JC , Jonniaux JL , Kallesoe T , Kiesau P , Kirchrath L , Kotter P , Korol S , Liebl S , Logghe M , Lohan AJ , Louis EJ , Li ZY , Maat MJ , Mallet L , Mannhaupt G , Messenguy F , Miosga T , Molemans F , Muller S , Nasr F , Obermaier B , Perea J , Pierard A , Piravandi E , Pohl FM , Pohl TM , Potier S , Proft M , Purnelle B , Ramezani Rad M , Rieger M , Rose M , Schaaff-Gerstenschlager I , Scherens B , Schwarzlose C , Skala J , Slonimski PP , Smits PH , Souciet JL , Steensma HY , Stucka R , Urrestarazu A , van der Aart QJ , van Dyck L , Vassarotti A , Vetter I , Vierendeels F , Vissers S , Wagner G , de Wergifosse P , Wolfe KH , Zagulski M , Zimmermann FK , Mewes HW , Kleine K , Dsterhus S , Mller S , Pirard A , Schaaff-Gerstenschlger I
Ref : EMBO Journal , 13 :5795 , 1994
Abstract : In the framework of the EU genome-sequencing programmes, the complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome II (807 188 bp) has been determined. At present, this is the largest eukaryotic chromosome entirely sequenced. A total of 410 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, covering 72% of the sequence. Similarity searches revealed that 124 ORFs (30%) correspond to genes of known function, 51 ORFs (12.5%) appear to be homologues of genes whose functions are known, 52 others (12.5%) have homologues the functions of which are not well defined and another 33 of the novel putative genes (8%) exhibit a degree of similarity which is insufficient to confidently assign function. Of the genes on chromosome II, 37-45% are thus of unpredicted function. Among the novel putative genes, we found several that are related to genes that perform differentiated functions in multicellular organisms of are involved in malignancy. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the analysis of this chromosome confirmed general chromosome patterns but also revealed particular novel features of chromosomal organization. Alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local gene density along chromosome II, as observed in chromosomes XI and III. We propose that functional ARS elements are preferably located in the AT-rich regions that have a spacing of approximately 110 kb. Similarly, the 13 tRNA genes and the three Ty elements of chromosome II are found in AT-rich regions. In chromosome II, the distribution of coding sequences between the two strands is biased, with a ratio of 1.3:1. An interesting aspect regarding the evolution of the eukaryotic genome is the finding that chromosome II has a high degree of internal genetic redundancy, amounting to 16% of the coding capacity.
ESTHER : Feldmann_1994_EMBO.J_13_5795
PubMedSearch : Feldmann_1994_EMBO.J_13_5795
PubMedID: 7813418
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-LDH1 , yeast-MCFS2 , yeast-yby9