Mahomoodally MF

References (97)

Title : UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS metabolite profiles of different extracts from Pelargonium endlicherianum parts and their biological properties based on network pharmacological approaches - Zengin_2024_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300728
Author(s) : Zengin G , Leyva-Jimenez FJ , Fernandez-Ochoa A , Bouyahya A , Yildiztugay E , Carretero AS , Mahomoodally MF , Ponniya SKM , Nilofar , Koyuncu I , Yuksekdag O , Cadiz-Gurrea ML
Ref : Arch Pharm (Weinheim) , :e2300728 , 2024
Abstract : In the present study, we aimed to investigate the chemical profiles and biological activities of different extracts (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, ethanol, and water) of Pelargonium endlicherianum parts (aerial parts and roots). Free radical scavenging, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating were assayed for antioxidant properties. To detect enzyme inhibitory properties, cholinesterase, amylase, glucosidase, and tyrosinase were chosen as target enzymes. The ethanol extract of the aerial parts contained higher amounts of total bioactive compounds (120.53 mg GAE/g-24.46 mg RE/g). The ethanol and water extracts of these parts were tentatively characterized by UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and 95 compounds were annotated. In addition, the highest acetylcholiesterase (3.74 mg GALAE/g) and butyrylcholinesterase (3.92 mg GALAE/g) abilities were observed by the ethanol extract of roots. The water extract from aerial parts exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effects on multiple cancer cell lines, especially A549 (IC(50) : 23.2 microg/mL) and HT-29 (IC(50) : 27.43 microg/mL) cells. Using network pharmacology, P. endlicherianum compounds were studied against cancer, revealing well-connected targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, and growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (GRB2) with significant impact on cancer-related pathways. The results could open a new path from natural treasure to functional applications with P. endlicherianum and highlight a new study on other uninvestigated Pelargonium species.
ESTHER : Zengin_2024_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300728
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2024_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300728
PubMedID: 38314893

Title : Bioactive agents from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. ex G. Don bark extracts for health promotion and nutraceutical uses - Sut_2023_J.Sci.Food.Agric__
Author(s) : Sut S , Dall'Acqua S , Sinan KI , Zengin G , Uba AI , Etienne OK , Jugreet S , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Sci Food Agric , : , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Parkia biglobosa stem bark extracts were prepared using methanol, methanol 80%, water and ethyl acetate to study their phytochemical contents, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory properties. RESULTS: LC-QTOF-MS and LC-MS(n) revealed the presence of flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and gallotannins. Particularly, the water extract contained rutin (480 microg/100 mg) and 3-caffeoylquinic acid (1109 microg/100 mg) in higher amounts, while the 80% methanol extract contains methoxyluteolin-7-O-rutinoside and catechin derivatives as major compounds. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were yielded in the range of 32.26-119.88 mg GAE/g and 0.60-2.39 mg RE/g, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity was also displayed in the range of 0.53-6.34 mmol TE/g. Both the methanolic extracts showed higher total antioxidant capacity which could be related to the total phenolic contents. Radical scavenging capacity in DPPH (37.21-508.30 mg TE/g) and ABTS (60.95-1068.06 mg TE/g) assays, reducing power in CUPRAC (54.23-1002.78 mg TE/g) and FRAP (33.18-558.68 mg TE/g) assays as well as metal chelating activity (2.45-11.28 mg EDTAE/g) were exhibited by all extracts. All extracts were found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (0.23-2.47 mg GALAE/g), tyrosinase (27.20-83.33 mg KAE/g), amylase (mmol ACAE/g). On the other hand, all extracts except the water extract, inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (5.38-6.56 mg GALAE/g), while only the water and ethyl acetate extract showed glucosidase inhibitory potential (1.96 and 1.82 mmol ACAE/g). In general, the water extract was found to be a weaker enzyme inhibitor suggesting that water is not the preferrable extraction solvent to obtain active products. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the stem bark extracts of P. biglobosa contains good amount of phytochemical and extracts present significant antioxidant as well as reasonable enzyme inhibitory effects. Hence, these findings suggest that further studies can be performed on more specific biological targets and models of bioactivity to determine their safe usage as a nutraceutical or for the preparation functional foods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Sut_2023_J.Sci.Food.Agric__
PubMedSearch : Sut_2023_J.Sci.Food.Agric__
PubMedID: 38009330

Title : Uncovering chemical profiles, biological potentials, and protection effect against ECM destruction in H(2) O(2) -treated HDF cells of the extracts of Stachys tundjeliensis - Kurt-Celep_2023_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300528
Author(s) : Kurt-Celep I , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Sinan KI , Uba AI , Nilofar , Mahomoodally MF , Aumeeruddy MZ , Cakilcioglu U , Dall'Acqua S , Zengin G
Ref : Arch Pharm (Weinheim) , :e2300528 , 2023
Abstract : The genus Stachys L., one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family, is highly represented in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the bio-pharmaceutical potential and phenolic contents of six different extracts from aerial parts of Stachys tundjeliensis. The obtained results showed that the ethanol extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the antioxidant assays. Meanwhile, the ethanol extract displayed strong inhibitory activity against alpha-tyrosinase, the dichloromethane extract exhibited potent inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase, and the n-hexane extract against alpha-amylase. Based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, more than 90 secondary metabolites, including hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, and their glycosides, acylquinic acids, phenylethanoid glycosides, and various flavonoids were identified or tentatively annotated in the studied S. tundjeliensis extracts. It was observed that the application of S. tundjeliensis eliminated H(2) O(2) -induced oxidative stress. It was determined that protein levels of phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, and activator protein-1, which are activated in the nucleus, decreased, and the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 also decreased to basal levels. Overall, these findings suggest that S. tundjeliensis contains diverse bioactive compounds for the development of nutraceuticals or functional foods with potent biological properties.
ESTHER : Kurt-Celep_2023_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300528
PubMedSearch : Kurt-Celep_2023_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300528
PubMedID: 37974540

Title : Unveiling the Antioxidant, Clinical Enzyme Inhibitory Properties and Cytotoxic Potential of Tambourissa peltata Baker-An Understudied Endemic Plant - Suroowan_2023_Molecules_28_
Author(s) : Suroowan S , Llorent-Martinez EJ , Zengin G , Buskaran K , Fakurazi S , Abdalla AN , Khalid A , Le Van B , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Molecules , 28 : , 2023
Abstract : This study documents for the first time the phytochemical composition and biological activities of Tambourissa peltata Baker, an endemic plant from Mauritius. Phytochemical extraction was performed using ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water as solvents. The phytochemical composition was determined through HPLC-MS and other standard assays. The DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and phosphomolybdenum assays were employed for the determination of the antioxidant potential, whereas cell viability assays were used to determine the cytotoxicity. The highest phenolic and phenolic acid contents were obtained in the aqueous extract (179.91 +/- 0.67 gallic acid equivalents/g and 55.74 +/- 1.43 caffeic acid equivalents/g). The highest quantity of flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate extract (28.97 +/- 0.46 rutin equivalents/g). The methanolic extract was the highest source of flavonols (33.71 +/- 0.13 mg catechin equivalents/g). A total of 34 phytochemicals were identified, mainly proanthocyanidins and flavonoid glycosides. The highest antioxidant activity in DPPH (973.40 +/- 5.65 mg TE (Trolox equivalents)/g), ABTS (2030.37 +/- 40.83 mg TE/g), FRAP (1461.39 +/- 5.95 mg TE/g), CUPRAC (1940.99 +/- 20.95 mg TE/g) and phosphomolybdenum (8.37 +/- 0.23 mmol TE/g) assays was recorded for the aqueous extract. The ethyl acetate extract was the most active metal chelator. The highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was the methanolic extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract was the most active against BChE. The tyrosinase enzyme was most inhibited by the methanolic extract. Alpha-amylase and glucosidase were most inhibited by the aqueous extract. The methanolic extract was capable of inducing cell cytotoxicity to the human colorectal carcinoma without damaging normal cells. T. peltata warrants further attention from the scientific community given its multifaceted biological properties.
ESTHER : Suroowan_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedSearch : Suroowan_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedID: 36677655

Title : Above the Invasive and Ornamental Attributes of the Traveler's Palm: An In Vitro and In Silico Insight into the Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Enzymatic, Cytotoxic and Phytochemical Characterization of Ravenala madagascariensis - Suroowan_2023_Antioxidants.(Basel)_12_
Author(s) : Suroowan S , Llorent-Martinez EJ , Zengin G , Dall , x , Acqua S , Sut S , Buskaran K , Fakurazi S , Le Van B , Abdalla M , Abdalla AN , Khalid A , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 12 : , 2023
Abstract : Ravenala madagascariensis is a widely known ornamental and medicinal plant, but with a dearth of scientific investigations regarding its phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Hence, these properties were appraised in this study. The DPPH (154.08 +/- 2.43 mgTE/g), FRAP (249.40 +/- 3.01 mgTE/g), CUPRAC (384.57 +/- 1.99 mgTE/g), metal chelating (29.68 +/- 0.74 mgEDTAE/g) and phosphomolybdenum assay (2.38 +/- 0.07 mmolTE/g) results demonstrated that the aqueous extract had the most prominent antioxidant activity, while the methanolic extract displayed the best antioxidant potential in the ABTS assay (438.46 +/- 1.69 mgTE/g). The HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS analysis allowed the characterization of 41 metabolites. The methanolic extract was the most active against acetylcholinesterase. All extracts were active against the alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes, with the ethyl acetate extract being the most active against the alpha-amylase enzyme, while the methanolic extract showed the best alpha-glucosidase inhibition. A plethora of metabolites bonded more energetically with the assayed enzymes active sites based on the results of the in silico studies. R. madagascariensis extracts used in this study exhibited cytotoxicity against HT29 cells. The IC(50) of the methanolic extract was lower (506.99 ug/mL). Based on the heat map, whereby flavonoids were found to be in greater proportion in the extracts, it can be concluded that the flavonoid portion of the extracts contributed to the most activity.
ESTHER : Suroowan_2023_Antioxidants.(Basel)_12_
PubMedSearch : Suroowan_2023_Antioxidants.(Basel)_12_
PubMedID: 36671049

Title : An In-Depth Study on the Metabolite Profile and Biological Properties of Primula auriculata Extracts: A Fascinating Sparkle on the Way from Nature to Functional Applications - Kurt-Celep_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
Author(s) : Kurt-Celep I , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Gevrenova R , Uba AI , Zengin G , Yildiztugay E , Picot-Allain CMN , Lorenzo JM , Mahomoodally MF , Montesano D
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : The biological activity of the aerial part and rhizomes of Primula auriculata were assessed for the first time. The biological activities (antioxidant properties, enzyme inhibition, and AGE inhibition) as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the ethyl acetate, ethanol, hydro-ethanol and water extracts of P. auriculata aerial parts and rhizomes were determined. Cell viability assays and gelatin zymography were also performed for MMP-2/-9 to determine the molecular mechanisms of action. The gene expression for MMPs was described with RT-PCR. The levels of various proteins, including phospho-Nf-kappaB, BCL-2, BAX, p-53, and cyclin D1 as well as RAGE were measured using Western blot analysis. The hydro-ethanol extract of the aerial part possessed the highest phenolic (56.81 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (63.92 mg RE/g) contents. In-depth profiling of the specialized metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) allowed for the identification and annotation of 65 compounds, including phenolic acids and glycosides, flavones, flavonols, chalcones, dihydrochalcones, and saponins. The hydro-ethanol extract of the aerial parts (132.65, 180.87, 172.46, and 108.37 mg TE/g, for the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays, respectively) and the ethanol extract of the rhizomes (415.06, 638.30, 477.77, and 301.02 mg TE/g, for the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays, respectively) exhibited the highest free radical scavenging and reducing activities. The ethanol and hydro-ethanol extracts of both the P. auriculata aerial part and rhizomes exhibited higher inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, while the hydro-ethanol extracts (1.16 mmol ACAE/g, for both the aerial part and rhizomes extracts) were more active in the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. After the treatment of an HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line with the extracts, the apoptosis mechanism was initiated, the integrity of the ECM was remodeled, and cell proliferation was also taken under control. In this way, Primula extracts were shown to be potential drug sources in the treatment of colorectal cancer. They were also detected as natural MMP inhibitors. The findings presented in the present study appraise the bioactivity of P. auriculata, an understudied species. Additional assessment is required to evaluate the cytotoxicity of P. auriculata as well as its activity in ex vivo systems.
ESTHER : Kurt-Celep_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedSearch : Kurt-Celep_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedID: 35883868

Title : Towards the Pharmacological Validation and Phytochemical Profiling of the Decoction and Maceration of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.-A Traditionally Used Medicinal Halophyte - Bibi_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Bibi Sadeer N , Sinan KI , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Zengin G , Jeewon R , Abdallah HH , AlDhaheri Y , Eid AH , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : Decoctions (leaves and roots) of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. are traditionally used against diabetes in many countries, including Mauritius. This study endeavoured to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves, roots, twigs and fruits extracts (decoction and maceration) of B. gymnorhiza against key enzymes relevant to diabetes. Considering complications related to diabetes, other clinical enzymes, namely, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, elastase and pancreatic lipase, were used. Identification of compounds was carried out using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Antioxidant capacities were assessed using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum, metal chelating. The relationship between mode of extraction, plant parts and biological activities was determined using multivariate analysis. Macerated fruits, rich in phytochemicals (phenolic, flavanol, tannin, and triterpenoid), exhibited substantially high antioxidant capacities related to radical scavenging (DPPH: 547.75 +/- 10.99 and ABTS: 439.59 +/- 19.13 mg TE/g, respectively) and reducing potential (CUPRAC: 956.04 +/- 11.90 and FRAP: 577.26 +/- 4.55 mg TE/g, respectively). Additionally, the same extract significantly depressed AChE and BChE (3.75 +/- 0.03 and 2.19 +/- 0.13 mg GALAE/g, respectively), tyrosinase (147.01 +/- 0.78 mg KAE/g), elastase (3.14 +/- 0.08 mg OE/g) and amylase (1.22 +/- 0.01 mmol ACAE/g) enzymatic activities. Phytochemical results confirmed the presence of 119 compounds in all maceration and 163 compounds in all decoction samples. The screening also revealed important compounds in the extracts, namely, quinic acid, brugierol, bruguierol A, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, to name a few. Multivariate analysis reported that the plant parts of B. gymnorhiza greatly influenced the observed biological activities in contrast to the types of extraction methods employed. Docking calculations have supported the findings of the experimental part through the high binding affinity and strong interactions of some compounds against tyrosinase, AChE, BChE and elastase enzymes. The decocted root and leaf of B. gymnorhiza showed low to moderate antidiabetic activity, thereby partially supporting its traditional uses in the management of diabetes. However, the fruit, the most active organ, can be used as a diet supplement to reduce the risk of diabetes complications after evaluating its cytotoxic effects.
ESTHER : Bibi_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Bibi_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 35335362

Title : A Study on Chemical Characterization and Biological Abilities of Alstonia boonei Extracts Obtained by Different Techniques - Mollica_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
Author(s) : Mollica A , Zengin G , Sinan KI , Marletta M , Pieretti S , Stefanucci A , Etienne OK , Jek J , Cziky Z , Bahadori MB , Picot-Allain C , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : In the quest for novel therapeutic agents from plants, the choice of extraction solvent and technique plays a key role. In this study, the possible differences in the phytochemical profile and bioactivity (antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity) of the Alstonia boonei leaves and stem bark extracted using water, ethyl acetate and methanol, and different techniques, namely infusion, maceration and Soxhlet extraction, were investigated. Data collected showed that methanol extracts of both A. boonei leaves (48.34-53.08 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry extract) and stem bark (37.08-45.72 mg GAE/g dry extract) possessed higher phenolic content compared to the ethyl acetate extracts (leaves: 30.64-40.19 mg GAE/g; stem bark: 34.25-35.64 mg GAE/g). The methanol extracts of A. boonei leaves showed higher radical scavenging and reducing capacity, and these findings were in accordance with phenolic content results. In general, water extracts of A. boonei leaves and stem bark obtained by infusion were poor inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, -amylase, -glucosidase, and tyrosinase, except for butyrylcholinesterase. The chemical profiles of the extracts were determined by UHPLC-MS and the presence of several compounds, such as phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids, etc.), flavonoids (rutin and isoquercetin) and flavonolignans (Cinchonain isomers). Cell viability was tested using the human peripheral blood monocytic cell line (THP-1), and the extracts were safe up to 25 g/mL. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects were investigated with the releasing of IL-6 TNF- and IL-1. In particular, stem bark extracts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects. Data presented in this study highlight the key role of solvent choice in the extraction of bioactive secondary metabolites from plants. In addition, this study appraises the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory action of A. boonei leaves and stem bark, which are extensively used in traditional medicine.
ESTHER : Mollica_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedSearch : Mollica_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedID: 36358543

Title : New Biological and Chemical Evidences of Two Lamiaceae Species (Thymbra capitata and Thymus sipyleus subsp. rosulans): In Vitro, In Silico and Ex Vivo Approaches - Llorent-Martinez_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Llorent-Martinez EJ , Ruiz-Medina A , Zengin G , Ak G , Jugreet S , Mahomoodally MF , Emre G , Orlando G , Libero ML , Nilofar , Acquaviva A , Di Simone SC , Menghini L , Ferrante C , Brunetti L , Recinella L , Leone S , Shariati MA , Uba AI , Chiavaroli A
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : In this study, the methanolic and infusion extracts of two species, Thymbra capitata and Thymus sipyleus subsp. rosulans, were tested for their chemical composition and biological abilities (antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects). The extracts yielded total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the range of 83.43-127.52 mg GAE/g and 9.41-46.34 mg RE/g, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed rosmarinic acid to be a major component of the studied extracts (15.85-26.43%). The best ABTS radical scavenging ability was observed in the methanol extract of T. capitata with 379.11 mg TE/g, followed by in the methanol extract of T. sipylus (360.93 mg TE/g). In the CUPRAC assay, the highest reducing ability was also found in the methanol extract of T. capitata with 802.22 mg TE/g. The phosphomolybdenum ability ranged from 2.39 to 3.61 mmol TE/g. In terms of tyrosinase inhibitory effects, the tested methanol extracts (83.18-89.66 mg KAE/g) were higher than the tested water extracts (18.74-19.11 mg KAE/g). Regarding the BChE inhibitory effects, the methanol extracts were active on the enzyme while the water extracts showed no inhibitory effect on it. Overall, the methanolic extracts showed better enzyme inhibition compared to the infusion extracts. Molecular docking also showed the selected exhibited potential binding affinities with all enzymes, with a preference for cholinesterases. Additionally, the extracts were effective in attenuating the LPS-induced increase in COX-2 and IL-6 gene expression in isolated colon, thus indicating promising anti-inflammatory effects. The preliminary results of this study suggest that these species are good natural sources of antioxidants and also provide some scope as enzyme inhibitors, most likely due to their bioactive contents such as phenolic acids, and thus can be exploited for different applications related to health promotion and disease prevention.
ESTHER : Llorent-Martinez_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Llorent-Martinez_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 36558163

Title : Chemical Composition, Biological Activities and In Silico Analysis of Essential Oils of Three Endemic Prangos Species from Turkey - Zengin_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Yildiztugay E , Jugreet S , Khan SU , Dall'Acqua S , Mollica A , Bouyahya A , Montesano D
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : In this study, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from three endemic Prangos species from Turkey (P. heyniae, P. meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, and P. uechtritzii) were studied for their chemical composition and biological activities. beta-Bisabolenal (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.9%) were the principal components of P. heyniae EO, while P. meliocarpoides EO contained sabinene (16.7%) and p-cymene (13.2%), and P. uechtritzii EO contained p-cymene (24.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (19.6%), as the most abundant components. With regard to their antioxidant activity, all the EOs were found to possess free radical scavenging potential demonstrated in both DPPH and ABTS assays (0.43-1.74 mg TE/g and 24.18-92.99 mg TE/g, respectively). Additionally, while no inhibitory activity was displayed by P. meliocarpoides and P. uechtritzii EOs against both cholinesterases (acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterases). Moreover, all the EOs were found to act as inhibitors of tyrosinase (46.34-69.56 mg KAE/g). Molecular docking revealed elemol and alpha-bisabolol to have the most effective binding affinity with tyrosinase and amylase. Altogether, this study unveiled some interesting biological activities of these EOs, especially as natural antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors and hence offers stimulating prospects of them in the development of anti-hyperpigmentation topical formulations.
ESTHER : Zengin_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 35268777

Title : Untargeted Phenolic Profiling and Functional Insights of the Aerial Parts and Bulbs of Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn - Zhang_2022_Plants.(Basel)_11_
Author(s) : Zhang L , Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Yildiztugay E , Jugreet S , Simal-Gandara J , Rouphael Y , Pannico A , Lucini L
Ref : Plants (Basel) , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn (squill), belonging to the Asparagaceae family, is acknowledged as a medicinally valuable species from the Drimia genera. In this study, water, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of D. maritima aerial parts and bulbs were investigated for their polyphenols profile and evaluated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties. Phenolics were profiled through an untargeted metabolomics approach using an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatograph coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). This analysis revealed an enrichment of low molecular weight phenolics and flavonoids in the aerial parts of D. maritima, while lignans mainly characterized bulb extracts. Antioxidant capacity was investigated by different assays, including phosphomolybdenum assays, radical scavenging (DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), as well as reducing ability (CUPRAC: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity; FRAP: ferric reducing antioxidant power), and metal chelating. In radical scavenging and reducing power assays, the water extract of aerial parts exhibited the strongest ability (DPPH: 36.99 mg trolox equivalent (TE)/g; ABTS: 85.96 mg TE/g; CUPRAC: 87.37 mg TE/g; FRAP: 55.43 mg TE/g). In general, the ethyl acetate extracts from aerial parts and bulbs provided the weakest antioxidant capacity. Concerning enzyme inhibitory activities, the water extracts of the bulb were poorly active, while the ethyl acetate extracts from both plant portions displayed the best alpha-amylase inhibitory abilities. The best acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) abilities were recorded by ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts (2.36 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g) and bulbs (5.10 mg GALAE/g), respectively. Overall, these results support the medicinal aptitude of D. maritima and its possible use as a natural source of antioxidants and enzyme inhibitors with functional potential.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Plants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Plants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedID: 35270070

Title : Which Extraction Solvents and Methods Are More Effective in Terms of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Alceafasciculiflora from Turkey? - Ozturk_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Ozturk RB , Zengin G , Sinan KI , Montesano D , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Gevrenova R , Uba AI , Cakilcioglu U , Kaplan A , Jugreet S , Dall'Acqua S , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : The bioactive content, antioxidant properties, and enzyme inhibition properties of extracts of Alcea fasciculiflora from Turkey prepared with different solvents (water, methanol, ethyl acetate) and extraction methods (maceration, soxhlet, homogenizer assisted extraction, and ultrasound assisted extraction) were examined in this study. UHPLC-HRMS analysis detected or annotated a total of 50 compounds in A. fasciculiflora extracts, including 18 hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, 7 Hexaric acids, 7 Coumarins, 15 Flavonoids, and 3 hydroxycinnamic acid amides. The extracts had phenolic and flavonoid levels ranging from 14.25 to 24.87 mg GAE/g and 1.68 to 25.26 mg RE/g, respectively, in the analysis. Both DPPH and ABTS tests revealed radical scavenging capabilities (between 2.63 and 35.33 mg TE/g and between 13.46 and 76.27 mg TE/g, respectively). The extracts had reducing properties (CUPRAC: 40.38-78 TE/g and FRAP: 17.51-42.58 TE/g). The extracts showed metal chelating activity (18.28-46.71 mg EDTAE/g) as well as total antioxidant capacity (phosphomolybdenum test) (0.90-2.12 mmol TE/g). DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and metal chelating tests indicated the water extracts to be the best antioxidants, while the ethyl acetate extracts had the highest overall antioxidant capacity regardless of the extraction technique. Furthermore, anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was identified in all extracts (0.17-2.80 mg GALAE/g). The water extracts and the ultrasound-assisted ethyl acetate extract were inert against butyrylcholinesterase, but the other extracts showed anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity (1.17-5.80 mg GALAE/g). Tyrosine inhibitory action was identified in all extracts (1.79-58.93 mg KAE/g), with the most effective methanolic extracts. Only the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts produced by maceration and homogenizer aided extraction showed glucosidase inhibition (0.11-1.11 mmol ACAE/g). These findings showed the overall bioactivity of the different extracts of A. fasciculiflora and provided an overview of the combination of solvent type and extraction method that could yield bioactive profile and pharmacological properties of interest and hence, could be a useful reference for future studies on this species.
ESTHER : Ozturk_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Ozturk_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 35956963

Title : Phytochemical Insights into Ficus sur Extracts and Their Biological Activity - Sieniawska_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Sieniawska E , Swiatek L , Sinan KI , Zengin G , Boguszewska A , Polz-Dacewicz M , Bibi Sadeer N , Etienne OK , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterisation of Ficus sur Forssk. (F. sur) (Family: Moraceae). The methanolic and aqueous extracts' phytochemical profile, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory properties were investigated. The aqueous stem bark extract yielded the highest phenolic content (115.51 +/- 1.60 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract), while the methanolic leaves extract possessed the highest flavonoid content (27.47 +/- 0.28 mg Rutin equivalent/g extract). In total, 118 compounds were identified in the tested extracts. The methanolic stem bark extract exhibited the most potent radical scavenging potential against 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (475.79 +/- 6.83 and 804.31 +/- 4.52 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, respectively) and the highest reducing Cu(2+) capacity (937.86 +/- 14.44 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract). The methanolic stem bark extract substantially depressed tyrosinase (69.84 +/- 0.35 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract), alpha-amylase (0.77 +/- 0.01 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract), acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (2.91 +/- 0.07 and 6.56 +/- 0.34 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract, respectively) enzymes. F. sur extracts were tested for anticancer properties and antiviral activity towards human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1). Stem bark infusion and methanolic extract showed antineoplastic activity against cervical adenocarcinoma and colon cancer cell lines, whereas leaf methanolic extract exerted moderate antiviral activity towards HHV-1. This investigation yielded important scientific data on F. sur which might be used to generate innovative phytopharmaceuticals.
ESTHER : Sieniawska_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Sieniawska_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 35335228

Title : An Integrated NMR, LC-DAD-MS, LC-QTOF Metabolomic Characterization of Sartoria hedysaroides: Correlation of Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activity with Chemical Composition by Multivariate Data Analysis - Dall'Acqua_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
Author(s) : Dall'Acqua S , Sut S , Sinan KI , Zengin G , Ferrarese I , Peron G , Yildiztugay E , Picot-Allain C , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : Sartoria hedysaroides Boiss and Heldr. (Fabaceae) is an endemic plant of Turkey that has received little scientific consideration so far. In the present study, the chemical profiles of extracts from the aerial part and roots of S. hedysaroides obtained using solvents with different polarities were analyzed combining integrated NMR, LC-DAD-MS(n), and LC-QTOF methods. In vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities were evaluated, and the results were combined with chemical data using multivariate approaches. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, ellagitannins, and coumarins were identified and quantified in the extracts of aerial part and roots. Methanolic extract of S. hedysaroides aerial part showed the highest phenolic content and the highest antioxidant activity and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity. Dichloromethane extract of S. hedysaroides roots showed the highest inhibition of butyryl cholinesterase, while methanolic extract of S. hedysaroides aerial part was the most active tyrosinase inhibitor. Multivariate data analysis allowed us to observe a good correlation between phenolic compounds, especially caffeoylquinic derivatives and flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of extracts. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was correlated with the presence of caffeoylquinic acids and coumarins. Overall, the present study appraised the biological potential of understudied S. hedysaroides, and provided a comprehensive approach combining metabolomic characterization of plant material and multivariate data analysis for the correlation of chemical data with results from multi-target biological assays.
ESTHER : Dall'Acqua_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedSearch : Dall'Acqua_2022_Antioxidants.(Basel)_11_
PubMedID: 35052614

Title : LC-ESI-QTOF-MS\/MS Analysis, Cytotoxic, Antiviral, Antioxidant, and Enzyme Inhibitory Properties of Four Extracts of Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f.: A Good Gift from the Natural Treasure - Swiatek_2021_Int.J.Mol.Sci_22_
Author(s) : Swiatek L , Sieniawska E , Sinan KI , Maciejewska-Turska M , Boguszewska A , Polz-Dacewicz M , Senkardes I , Guler GO , Bibi Sadeer N , Mahomoodally MF , Zengin G
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 22 : , 2021
Abstract : This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterization of Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f. Different solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts) were prepared. The phytochemical profile, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activity were investigated. Cytotoxicity was assessed using VERO, FaDu, HeLa and RKO cells. The antiviral activity was carried out against HSV-1 (Herpes simplex virus 1) propagated in VERO cell line. The aqueous extract, possessing high phenolic content (170.50 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract), showed the highest reducing capacity (613.27 and 364.10 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, for cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power, respectively), radical scavenging potential (469.82 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), metal chelating ability (52.39 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent/g extract) and total antioxidant capacity (3.15 mmol Trolox equivalent/g extract). Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) alloved to tentatively identify a total of 56 compounds in the extracts, including ellagitannins, gallic acid and galloyl derivatives amongst others. The ethyl acetate extracts substantially depressed cholinesterase enzymes (4.49 and 12.26 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract against AChE and BChE, respectively) and alpha-amylase enzyme (1.04 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). On the other hand, the methanolic extract inhibited tyrosinase (121.42 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract) and alpha-glucosidase (2.39 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract) activities. The highest selectivity towards all cancer cell lines (SI 4.5-10.8) was observed with aqueous extract with the FaDu cells being the most sensitive (CC(50) 40.22 microg/mL). It can be concluded that the presence of certain bioactive antiviral molecules may be related to the high anti HSV-1 activity of the methanolic extract. This work has generated vital scientific data on this medicinal plant, which is a prospective candidate for the creation of innovative phyto-pharmaceuticals.
ESTHER : Swiatek_2021_Int.J.Mol.Sci_22_
PubMedSearch : Swiatek_2021_Int.J.Mol.Sci_22_
PubMedID: 34299238

Title : Hypericum triquetrifolium and H. neurocalycinum as Sources of Antioxidants and Multi-Target Bioactive Compounds: A Comprehensive Characterization Combining In Vitro Bioassays and Integrated NMR and LC-MS Characterization by Using a Multivariate Approach - Dall'Acqua_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_660735
Author(s) : Dall'Acqua S , Ak G , Sinan KI , Elbasan F , Ferrarese I , Sut S , Yildiztugay E , Peron G , Schievano E , Nancy Picot-Allain MC , Mahomoodally MF , Zengin G
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 12 :660735 , 2021
Abstract : Hypericum triquetrifolium and H. neurocalycinum were evaluated for their phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. NMR analyses were performed on the methanol extract of the aerial parts of H. triquetrifolium to establish the main classes of phytoconstituents. Then, LC-DAD-MS(n) analyses were performed in order to compare the composition of aerial parts and roots extracts of both Hypericum species, obtained using either methanol or water as solvents. Results, processed using multivariate data analysis, showed a significantly higher phenolic content of methanol extracts compared to water extracts, while minor qualitative differences were observed between the two. Distinctive flavonoid and PAC patterns were observed for H. triquetrifolium and H. neurocalycinum, and specific compounds were exclusively detected in one or the other species. Specifically, the phloroglucinols 7-epiclusianone, hyperfirin and hyperforin were present only in H. neurocalycinum, while hyperforin was detected only in H. triquetrifolium. Extracts were assayed using different in vitro tests to evaluate their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory activity against several enzymes, showing significant antioxidant and metal chelating activities. Furthermore, inhibitory properties against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and tyrosinase were observed. Multivariate approaches were used to correlate biological data with the phytochemical composition of the different extracts. The results, showing positive correlations between specific chemical constituents and the measured bioactivities, represent preliminary data that could guide future studies aimed at isolating bioactive constituents from H. neurocalycinum and H. triquetrifolium for further pharmacological evaluations.
ESTHER : Dall'Acqua_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_660735
PubMedSearch : Dall'Acqua_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_660735
PubMedID: 33841167

Title : Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Two Jatropha Species: Different Parts and Different Extraction Methods - Zengin_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_2
Author(s) : Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Sinan KI , Ak G , Etienne OK , Sharmeen JB , Brunetti L , Leone S , Di Simone SC , Recinella L , Chiavaroli A , Menghini L , Orlando G , Jek J , Cziaky Z , Ferrante C
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : Jatropha L. species, in particular, J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia, are well known medicinal plants used for treating various diseases. In the present study, leaf and stem bark extracts of J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia obtained by maceration or homogenizer assisted extraction, were investigated for their phytochemical contents and biological potential as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and neuromodulators. In this regard, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was carried out with the aim to unravel the putative mechanisms consistent with both metabolomic fingerprints and pharmacological effects. The leaf extracts of J. curcas showed higher total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) than the stem bark extracts (range: 5.79-48.95 mg GAE/g and 1.64-13.99 mg RE/g, respectively), while J. gossypiifolia possessed TPC and TFC in the range of 42.62-62.83 mg GAE/g and 6.97-17.63 mg RE/g, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the leaf extracts of both species obtained by homogenizer assisted extraction are richer in phytochemical compounds compared to the stem bark extracts obtained by the same extraction method. In vitro antioxidant potentials were also demonstrated in different assays (DPPH: 6.89-193.93 mg TE/g, ABTS: 20.20-255.39 mg TE/g, CUPRAC: 21.07-333.30 mg TE/g, FRAP: 14.02-168.93 mg TE/g, metal chelating activity: 3.21-17.51 mg EDTAE/g and phosphomolybdenum assay: 1.76-3.55 mmol TE/g). In particular, the leaf extract of J. curcas and the stem bark extract of J. gossypiifolia, both obtained by homogenizer assisted extraction, showed the most potent antioxidant capacity in terms of free radical scavenging and reducing activity, which could be related to their higher TPC and TFC. Furthermore, anti-neurodegenerative (acetylcholinesterase inhibition: 1.12-2.36 mg GALAE/g; butyrylcholinetserase inhibition: 0.50-3.68 mg GALAE/g), anti-hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase inhibition: 38.14-57.59 mg KAE/g) and antidiabetic (amylase inhibition: 0.28-0.62 mmol ACAE/g; glucosidase inhibition: 0.65-0.81 mmol ACAE/g) properties were displayed differentially by the different extracts. Additionally, the extracts were effective in reducing the gene expression of both TNFalpha and BDNF, which could be partially mediated by phenolic compounds such as naringenin, apigenin and quercetin. Indeed, the scientific data obtained from the present study complement the several other reports highlighting the pharmacological potentials of these two species, thus supporting their uses as therapeutically active plants.
ESTHER : Zengin_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_2
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_2
PubMedID: 34067702

Title : LC-MS\/HRMS Analysis, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Enzymatic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Boerhavia diffusa Extracts: A Potential Raw Material for Functional Applications - Sinan_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_2003
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Akpulat U , Aldahish AA , Celik Altunoglu Y , Baloglu MC , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Gevrenova R , Lobine D , Mahomoodally MF , Etienne OK , Zengin G , Mahmud S , Capasso R
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 10 :2003 , 2021
Abstract : Boerhavia diffusa is a great tropical plant and is widely used for various traditional purposes. In the present study, we examined the influence of solvents (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and infusion (water)) on chemical composition and biological capabilities of B. diffusa. An UHPLC-HRMS method was used to determine the chemical characterization. The biological ability was examined for antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and anti-cancer effects. To evaluate antioxidant effects, different chemical methods (ABTS, DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP, metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum) were applied. With regard to enzyme inhibitory properties, cholinesterases, amylase, glucosidase and tyrosinase were used. The MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line was chosen to determine anticancer activity. Based on the UHPLC-HRMS analysis, 37 specialized metabolites were dereplicated and identified in the studied extracts. Results revealed the presence of 15 hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, acylquinic acids, and their glycosides, one rotenoid, seven flavonoids, 12 fatty acids and two other glycosides. Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract showed a stronger antioxidant ability compared with other extracts. The methanol extract also showed the best inhibitory effects on tyrosinase and glucosidase. In the anti-cancer evaluation, the methanol extract showed stronger anticancer effects compared with water extract. In summary, our observations can contribute to the establishment of B. diffusa as a potential candidate for functional applications in the preparation.
ESTHER : Sinan_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_2003
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_2003
PubMedID: 34943106

Title : Investigation into the biological properties, secondary metabolites composition, and toxicity of aerial and root parts of Capparis spinosa L.: An important medicinal food plant - Saleem_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112404
Author(s) : Saleem H , Khurshid U , Sarfraz M , Ahmad I , Alamri A , Anwar S , Alamri AS , Locatelli M , Tartaglia A , Mahomoodally MF , Zainal Abidin SA , Ahemad N
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , :112404 , 2021
Abstract : Capparis spinose L. also known as Caper is of great significance as a traditional medicinal food plant. The present work was targeted on the determination of chemical composition, pharmacological properties, and in-vitro toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of different parts of C. spinosa. Chemical composition was established by determining total bioactive contents and via UHPLC-MS secondary metabolites profiling. For determination of biological activities, antioxidant capacity was determined through DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating assays while enzyme inhibition against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase were also tested. All the extracts were also tested for toxicity against two breast cell lines. The methanolic extracts were found to contain highest total phenolic and flavonoids which is correlated with their significant radical scavenging, cholinesterase, tyrosinase and glucosidase inhibition potential. Whereas DCM extracts showed significant activity for reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, metal chelation, tyrosinase, and alpha-amylase inhibition activities. The secondary metabolites profiling of both methanolic extracts exposed the presence of 21 different secondary metabolites belonging to glucosinolate, alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol, triterpene, and alkaloid derivatives. The present results tend to validate folklore uses of C. spinose and indicate this plant to be used as a potent source of designing novel bioactive compounds.
ESTHER : Saleem_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112404
PubMedSearch : Saleem_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112404
PubMedID: 34246708

Title : Conventional and Non-Conventional Targets of Natural Products in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Complications - Mahomoodally_2021_Curr.Med.Chem_28_4638
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Lobine D , Picot-Allain MCN , Sadeer N , Jugreet S , Zengin G
Ref : Curr Med Chem , 28 :4638 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a severe endocrine metabolic disease coupled with various long-term complications. A plethora of targets have been identified, however, with possible adverse effects. Therefore, researchers are in the perpetual quest for safe and more effective therapeutics. Natural products, particularly derived from plants, have proven to exert anti-diabetic effects via diverse mechanisms. METHODS: An overview of DM pathogenesis and its associated micro- and macro-vascular complications is presented. Possible underlying mechanisms of herbal remedies in DM management are provided, highlighting some key therapeutic targets. The review also appraises the recent progress of herbal products in treating DM through regulating inflammation and gut microbiota. Finally, currently available pharmacological treatments are discussed. RESULTS: The results show that numerous plants have proven to be promising sources of insulin secreting agents, alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors. Among the non- conventional targets, inhibition of key enzymes such as lipase, cholinesterases and angiotensin converting enzyme has been directly and/or indirectly linked to DM and DM complications. For instance, hypericin, pseudohypericin and I3,II8-biapigenin isolated from Hypericum perforatum L., and palmatine and columbamine isolated from Dichocarpum auriculatum (Franch.) W. T. Wang & P. K have been found to be powerful lipase and cholinesterase inhibitors, respectively. Moreover, a number of plant-derived compounds such as feruloylated oligosaccharides from maize bran, baicalein and berberine are reported to mediate anti-diabetic property via modulation of gut microbiota. CONCLUSION: The information amassed in this review is anticipated to provide useful scientific baseline information to support advanced research in natural antidiabetic drug development.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2021_Curr.Med.Chem_28_4638
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2021_Curr.Med.Chem_28_4638
PubMedID: 33138749

Title : Pharmacological Potential and Chemical Characterization of Bridelia ferruginea Benth.-A Native Tropical African Medicinal Plant - Mahomoodally_2021_Antibiotics.(Basel)_10_
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Jugreet S , Sinan KI , Zengin G , Ak G , Ceylan R , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Angelini P , Angeles Flores G , Venanzoni R , Di Simone SC , Menghini L , Orlando G , Ferrante C , Etienne OK , Tacchini M
Ref : Antibiotics (Basel) , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : To avail the possible pharmacological actions of Brideliaferruginea Benth., the present investigation was designed to quantitatively analyze the total flavonoid and phenolic contents and assess the various antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties of leaf and stem bark extracts (ethyl acetate, water and methanolic) of B. ferruginea. Anti-proliferative effect was also investigated against human colon cancer cells (HCT116) as well as the antimicrobial potential against multiple bacterial and fungal (yeasts and dermatophytes) strains. The methanolic and water extracts of the stem bark demonstrated the highest phenolic content (193.58 +/- 0.98 and 187.84 +/- 1.88 mg/g, respectively), while the leaf extracts showed comparatively higher flavonoid contents (24.37-42.31 mg/g). Overall, the methanolic extracts were found to possess the most significant antioxidant potency. Compared to the other extracts, methanolic extracts of the B. ferruginea were revealed to be most potent inhibitors of acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterases, tyrosinase alpha-amylase, except alpha-glucosidase. Only the ethyl acetate extracts were found to inhibit glucosidase. Additionally, the stem bark methanolic extract also showed potent inhibitory activity against E. coli and gram-positive bacteria (MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration): 2.48-62.99 microg/mL), as well as all the tested fungi (MIC: 4.96-62.99 microg/mL). In conclusion, B. ferruginea can be regarded as a promising source of bioactive compounds displaying multifunctional pharmacological activities and thus is a potential candidate for further investigations in the endeavor to develop botanical formulations for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2021_Antibiotics.(Basel)_10_
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2021_Antibiotics.(Basel)_10_
PubMedID: 33672329

Title : Metabolomic profiling and biological properties of six Limonium species: novel perspectives for nutraceutical purposes - Senizza_2021_Food.Funct_12_3443
Author(s) : Senizza B , Zhang L , Rocchetti G , Zengin G , Ak G , Yildiztugay E , Elbasan F , Jugreet S , Mahomoodally MF , Lucini L
Ref : Food Funct , 12 :3443 , 2021
Abstract : The genus Limonium includes important halophyte plants containing a variety of bioactive compounds of therapeutic interest. In the present work, the untargeted phytochemical profiles of both aerial part and root extracts from six Limonium species namely, L. bellidifolium, L. globuliferum, L. gmelinii, L. lilacinum, L. sinuatum and L. iconicum from Turkey were determined. Furthermore, several biological activities (in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects) were investigated. Overall, significant amounts of total phenolics (43.64-238.18 mg g-1) and flavonoids (1.61-129.69 mg g-1) were recorded. Particularly, the root extracts of L. gmelinii, L. iconicum and L. globuliferum showed the highest total phenolic content (204.13-238.18 mg g-1), whilst the highest total flavonoid content was recorded in the root extracts of L. gmelinii (129.69 mg g-1). Overall, the tested extracts demonstrated potent radical scavenging activities in both DPPH (2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (90.10-507.94 mg g-1 and 163.39-1175.34 mg g-1, respectively). However, the highest scavenging potential (p < 0.05) was displayed by the root extracts of L. iconicum. Conversely, the metal chelating ability assay revealed that L. lilacinum root extract showed the highest activity (21.03 mg g-1). Interestingly, all the extracts were found to be active inhibitors of cholinesterases (AChE (acetylcholinesterase): 4.20-5.11 mg GALAE (galantamine equivalent) per g; BChE (butyrylcholinesterase): 3.89-10.75 mg GALAE per g), amylase (0.52-1.09 mmol ACAE (acarbose equivalent) per g) and tyrosinase (119.41-155.67 mg KAE (kojic acid equivalent) per g), unlike for glucosidase (2.31-2.41 mmol ACAE per g). Taken together, these findings demonstrated a diverse chemical profiles and biological of the extracts, to be potentially considered as phytotherapeutic or functional ingredients due to their antioxidant properties and inhibition of key enzymes involved in several diseases.
ESTHER : Senizza_2021_Food.Funct_12_3443
PubMedSearch : Senizza_2021_Food.Funct_12_3443
PubMedID: 33900332

Title : Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Evaluation and of Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae) Extracts and Essential Oil by in Vitro and in Silico Approaches - Lobine_2021_Chem.Biodivers__
Author(s) : Lobine D , Pairyanen B , Zengin G , Yilmaz MA , Ouelbani R , Bensari S , Ak G , Abdallah HH , Imran M , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Chem Biodivers , : , 2021
Abstract : Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. is extensively used in traditional medicinal systems by various cultures. Despite its frequent use in traditional medicine, there is still a paucity of scientific information on T. asiatica growing on the tropical island of Mauritius. Therefore, the present study was designed to appraise the pharmacological and phytochemical profile of extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate and water) and essential oil obtained from aerial parts of T. asiatica. Biological investigation involved the evaluation of invitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potentials. The chemical profile of the EO was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, while for the extracts, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content were quantified as well as their individual phenolic compounds by LC/MS/MS. Quinic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, quercitrin and isoquercitrin were the main compounds in the extracts. Highest total phenolic (82.5+/-0.94mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (43.8+/-0.31mg rutin equivalent (RE/g)) content were observed for the methanol extract. The GC/MS analysis has shown the presence of 26 compounds with linalool (30.9 %), linalyl acetate (20.9 %) and beta-phellandrene (7.9 %) being most abundant components in the EO. The extracts and EO showed notable antioxidant properties, with the methanol extract proved to be superior source of antioxidant compounds. Noteworthy anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and anti-butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) effects were recorded for the tested samples, while only the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were active against tyrosinase. With respect to antidiabetic effects, the extracts and EO were potent inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase, while modest activity was recorded against alpha-amylase. Docking results showed that linalyl acetate has the highest affinity to interact with the active site of BChE with docking score of -6.25kcal/mol. The findings amassed herein act as a stimulus for further investigations of this plant as a potential source of bioactive compounds which can be exploited as phyto-therapeutics.
ESTHER : Lobine_2021_Chem.Biodivers__
PubMedSearch : Lobine_2021_Chem.Biodivers__
PubMedID: 33738900

Title : Evaluation of Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibition Properties of Croton hirtus L'Hr. Extracts Obtained with Different Solvents - Dall'Acqua_2021_Molecules_26_
Author(s) : Dall'Acqua S , Sinan KI , Sut S , Ferrarese I , Etienne OK , Mahomoodally MF , Lobine D , Zengin G
Ref : Molecules , 26 : , 2021
Abstract : Croton hirtus L'Her methanol extract was studied by NMR and two different LC-DAD-MS(n) using electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources to obtain a quali-quantitative fingerprint. Forty different phytochemicals were identified, and twenty of them were quantified, whereas the main constituents were dihydro alpha ionol-O-[arabinosil(1-6) glucoside] (133 mg/g), dihydro beta ionol-O-[arabinosil(1-6) glucoside] (80 mg/g), beta-sitosterol (49 mg/g), and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (26 mg/g). C. hirtus was extracted with different solvents-namely, water, methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate-and the extracts were assayed using different in vitro tests. The methanolic extracts presented the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. All the tested extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), with a higher activity observed for dichloromethane (AChE: 5.03 and BChE: 16.41 mgGALAE/g), while the methanolic extract showed highest impact against tyrosinase (49.83 mgKAE/g). Taken together, these findings suggest C. hirtus as a novel source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential for commercial development.
ESTHER : Dall'Acqua_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedSearch : Dall'Acqua_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedID: 33800622

Title : Chemical composition, biological properties and bioinformatics analysis of two Caesalpina species: A new light in the road from nature to pharmacy shelf - Zengin_2021_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_198_114018
Author(s) : Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Picot-Allain MCN , Sinan KI , Ak G , Etienne OK , Sieniawska E , Maciejewska-Turska M , Swiatek , Rajtar B , Polz-Dacewicz M
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 198 :114018 , 2021
Abstract : Caesalpinia bonduc and C. decapeleta var. japonica have great importance in traditional medicine systems but scientific information's are still lacking for their potentials. To explore their bioactivity, we assessed the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory abilities of the dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts prepared from the leaves and bark. The cytotoxicity and anticancer properties of the extracts were also assessed in vitro. The water extract of C. decapeleta leaves possessed highest phenolic content (108.16 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract), while the highest flavonoid content was recorded for the C. bonduc leaf methanolic extract (27.89 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g extract). In general, C. decapeleta extracts possessed higher radical scavenging potential compared to C. bonduc extracts. C. decapeleta DCM leaves extract (10.20 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g extract) showed highest inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase. The cytotoxicity of the most potent methanolic and aqueous extracts were assessed against four cell lines. The chemical profiles of both species appeared to be different. C. bonduc was abundant in organic and phenolic acids as well as their esters. Flavonoid glycosides, bonducellin and its derivatives and caesalminaxins were identified. Whereas, C. decalpetala possessed many galloylated compounds. The cytotoxicity of C. bonduc and C. decapetala extracts was tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) based assay on VERO (kidney of an adult African Green monkey cells), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma cells), RKO (human colon carcinoma cells), FaDu (human hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells) cell lines. C. bonduc bark water extract exhibited the highest cytotoxicity towards HeLa (50 % cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)): 28.5 microg/mL) cancer cell line, as compared to normal VERO cells (CC(50):35.87 microg/mL). For C. decapetala, the highest cytotoxicity was found for bark methanol extract on the HeLa cells with CC(50) of 46.08 microg/mL and selectivity index of 3.33. In the gene ontology analysis, prostate cancer, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) signaling, proteoglycans in cancer pathways might support the results of the cytotoxic assays. These results showed that the tested Caesalpinia species, showing potent inhibitory action against butyrylcholinesterase, might represent novel phytotherapeutic avenues for the management of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Zengin_2021_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_198_114018
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2021_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_198_114018
PubMedID: 33730614

Title : Untargeted Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Capacity and Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Cultivated and Wild Lupin Seeds from Tunisia - Ben Hassine_2021_Molecules_26_
Author(s) : Ben Hassine A , Rocchetti G , Zhang L , Senizza B , Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Ben-Attia M , Rouphael Y , Lucini L , El-Bok S
Ref : Molecules , 26 : , 2021
Abstract : Lupin seeds can represent a valuable source of phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile was performed on seeds from three Lupinus species, including one cultivar (Lupinus albus) and two wild accessions (Lupinus cossentinii and Lupinus luteus), collected from the northern region of Tunisia. Untargeted metabolomic profiling allowed to identify 249 compounds, with a great abundance of phenolics and alkaloids. In this regard, the species L. cossentinii showed the highest phenolic content, being 6.54 mg/g DW, followed by L. luteus (1.60 mg/g DW) and L. albus (1.14 mg/g DW). The in vitro antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS assay on seed extracts ranged from 4.67 to 17.58 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g, recording the highest values for L. albus and the lowest for L. luteus. The DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 0.39 to 3.50 mg TE/g. FRAP values varied between 4.11 and 5.75 mg TE/g. CUPRAC values for lupin seeds ranged from 7.20 to 8.95 mg TE/g, recording the highest for L. cossentinii. The results of phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelation showed similarity between the three species of Lupinus. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was detected in each methanolic extract analyzed with similar results. Regarding the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme, it was weakly inhibited by the Lupinus extracts; in particular, the highest activity values were recorded for L. albus (1.74 mg GALAE/g). Overall, our results showed that L. cossentinii was the most abundant source of polyphenols, consisting mainly in tyrosol equivalents (5.82 mg/g DW). Finally, significant correlations were outlined between the phenolic compounds and the in vitro biological activity measured, particularly when considering flavones, phenolic acids and lower-molecular-weight phenolics.
ESTHER : Ben Hassine_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedSearch : Ben Hassine_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedID: 34200152

Title : Tanacetum vulgare L. (Tansy) as an effective bioresource with promising pharmacological effects from natural arsenal - Ak_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol_153_112268
Author(s) : Ak G , Gevrenova R , Sinan KI , Zengin G , Zheleva D , Mahomoodally MF , Senkardes I , Brunetti L , Leone S , Di Simone SC , Recinella L , Chiavaroli A , Menghini L , Orlando G , Ferrante C
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , 153 :112268 , 2021
Abstract : The Tanacetum genus is a big treasure with the presence of biologically-active compounds and members of this genus are widely used for the treatment of several diseases in traditional medicine system. Considering this fact, we aimed to analyze the extracts from Tanacetum vulgare L. in case of chemical profiles and biological effects. Chemical characterization was performed by using UHPLC-HRMS technique and showed the presence of several phytochemical groups (107 compounds were identified, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Biological abilities were examined by using antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum assays) and enzyme inhibition (tyrosinase, amylase, glucosidase and cholinesterase) properties. Pharmaco-toxicological investigations were also performed with the aim to identify limits of biocompatibility, anti-oxidant and neuromodulatory effects, in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. A bioinformatic analysis was also carried to unravel the putative protein-targets for the observed biological effects. Generally, the tested hexane and hydroalcoholic extracts displayed stronger activities in antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays, when compared with water. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to understand the differences in both solvents and plant parts and we clearly observed the separation of these parameters. The extracts (10 microg/mL) also stimulated DAT and inhibited TNFalpha and BDNF gene expression, in HypoE22 cells. In parallel, the extracts were also able to stimulate norepinephrine release from this cell line. By contrast, in the concentration range 50-100 microg/mL, the extracts reduced the HypoE22 viability, thus demonstrating cytotoxicity at concentrations 5-10 fold higher compared to those effective as neuromodulatory. Our observations manifested that T. vulgare has several beneficial effects and it can be used as a potential natural raw material for designing further health-promoting applications in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical areas.
ESTHER : Ak_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol_153_112268
PubMedSearch : Ak_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol_153_112268
PubMedID: 34015423

Title : Comprehensive chemical characterization and biological evaluation of two Acacia species: A. nilotica and A. ataxacantha - Zheleva-Dimitrova_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112446
Author(s) : Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Sinan KI , Etienne OK , Ak G , Sharmeen JB , Dervisoglu G , Ozdemir FA , Mahomoodally MF , Zengin G
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , :112446 , 2021
Abstract : The genus Acacia (Family Leguminosae) is composed of several medicinal plants used for treating miscellaneous diseases. Amid the important members of this genus, A. nilotica and A. ataxacantha are widely employed for their tremendous healing properties. Hence, this present work aimed to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and investigate the antioxidant, antiproliferative, anti-enzyme and antimicrobial potentials of methanolic and water extracts of leaves and stem bark of A. nilotica and A. ataxacantha obtained by maceration and ultrasonication. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were obtained in the range of 33.35-116.60 mg GAE/g and 0.26-49.90 mg RE/g, respectively, with the methanolic leaf extracts of both species showing the highest contents. Moreover, the methanolic extracts were observed to display higher antioxidant potentials in almost all antioxidant assays performed compared to the water extracts (ABTS: 52.66-943.81 mg TE/g, DPPH: 8.51-493.90 mg TE/g, CUPRAC: 106.39-1193.75 mg TE/g; FRAP: 31.38-416.21 mg TE/g, and phosphomolybdenum: 0.90-4.17 mM TE/g). However, the water extracts were seen to be better metal chelators than the methanolic extracts (8.47-36.85 mg EDTAE/g). Additionally, all extracts were found to exhibit anti-tyrosinase (30.79-74.80 mg KAE/g) and anti-amylase (0.10-1.10 mM ACAE/g) properties. With the exception of a few extracts, glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitions (1.69-2.12 mg ACAE/g and 0.42-2.61 mg GALAE/g, respectively) were also demonstrated. While the methanolic extracts of both species showed antimicrobial potency against all the 18 tested microorganisms (gram positive, gram negative, and fungi), the water extracts were effective only against the gram positive bacteria. The extracts were also found to exhibit antiproliferative effects on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, with the methanolic extracts showing higher cytotoxic potential than the water extracts. Therefore, this study showed these species to be good sources of antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors, antimicrobials and antiproliferative agents, which could be of great interest for their applications as natural bioactive ingredients in the development of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.
ESTHER : Zheleva-Dimitrova_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112446
PubMedSearch : Zheleva-Dimitrova_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112446
PubMedID: 34339749

Title : The functional potential of nine Allium species related to their untargeted phytochemical characterization, antioxidant capacity and enzyme inhibitory ability - Rocchetti_2021_Food.Chem_368_130782
Author(s) : Rocchetti G , Zhang L , Bocchi S , Giuberti G , Ak G , Elbasan F , Yildiztugay E , Ceylan R , Picot-Allain MCN , Mahomoodally MF , Lucini L , Zengin G
Ref : Food Chem , 368 :130782 , 2021
Abstract : In this study, the aerial parts and bulbs of nine Allium species were investigated for their functional phytochemical profile, in vitro antioxidant activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Phenolics, alkaloids, glucosinolates and other sulfur-containing compounds were distinctively profiled in the different species. Maceration in methanol allowed recovering the highest cumulative phenolic content in A. scabrifolium (42.31 mg/g), followed by A. goekyigiti (33.15 mg/g) and A. atroviolaceum (28.35 mg/g). The aerial parts of all Allium species showed high in vitro antioxidant activity whereas methanolic extract of A. cappadocicum bulb showed the highest inhibition against AChE (2.44 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and the water extracts of A. isauricum aerial part were the best BChE inhibitors (4.31 mg galantamine equivalent/g). Bulbs were the richer source of oligosaccharides, and in vitro digestion determined an increase of oligosaccharides bioaccessibility. A promising nutraceutical potential could be highlighted in our understudied Allium species.
ESTHER : Rocchetti_2021_Food.Chem_368_130782
PubMedSearch : Rocchetti_2021_Food.Chem_368_130782
PubMedID: 34392121

Title : Exploring the Chemical Profiles and Biological Values of Two Spondias Species (S. dulcis and S. mombin): Valuable Sources of Bioactive Natural Products - Sinan_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_1771
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Zengin G , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Gevrenova R , Picot-Allain MCN , Dall'Acqua S , Behl T , Goh BH , Ying PTS , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 10 :1771 , 2021
Abstract : Spondias species have been used in traditional medicine for different human ailments. In this study, the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) and extraction methods (infusion, maceration, and Soxhlet extraction) on the enzyme inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and antioxidant properties of S. mombin and S. dulcis leaves and stem bark were evaluated. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) yield in the identification and/or annotation of 98 compounds showing that the main secondary metabolites of the plant are gallic and ellagic acids and their derivatives, ellagitannins, hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, acylquinic acids and flavonols, flavanones, and flavanonols. The leaves infusion of both Spondias species showed highest inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (10.10 and 10.45 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g, for S. dulcis and S. mombin, respectively). The ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark of S. mombin and S. dulcis actively inhibited alpha-glucosidase. Methanolic extracts of the leaves and stem bark exhibited highest tyrosinase inhibitory action. Antioxidant activity and higher levels of phenolics were observed for the methanolic extracts of Spondias. The results suggested that the Spondias species could be considered as natural phyto-therapeutic agents in medicinal and cosmeceutical applications.
ESTHER : Sinan_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_1771
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_1771
PubMedID: 34829642

Title : Chemical Profiling and Biological Evaluation of Nepeta baytopii Extracts and Essential Oil: An Endemic Plant from Turkey - Zengin_2021_Plants.(Basel)_10_
Author(s) : Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Aktumsek A , Jek J , Cziaky Z , Rodrigues MJ , Custodio L , Polat R , Cakilcioglu U , Ayna A , Gallo M , Montesano D , Picot-Allain C
Ref : Plants (Basel) , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : Nepeta baytopii is a poorly studied, endemic Nepeta species (Lamiaceae) of Turkey. For the first time, the biological activities (antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and cytotoxicity properties) of the hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, water/methanol, and water extracts and essential oil prepared from N. baytopii aerial parts were assessed. Hydro-methanol (41.25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) and water extracts (50.30 mg GAE/g), respectively showed the highest radical scavenging (94.40 and 129.22 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging assays) and reducing (229.37 and 129.55 mg TE/g, for ferric-reducing antioxidant power and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assays) capacities in vitro. An interestingly high inhibition was observed for ethyl acetate extract against butyrylcholinesterase (10.85 mg galantamine equivalent/g). The methanol extract showed high cytotoxicity (31.7%) against HepG2 cells. Caryophyllene oxide was identified in high concentrations in the essential oil (39.3%). Luteolin and apigenin and their derivatives were identified from the methanol and water extracts. The results obtained from this study highlighted that the abundance of highly bioactive compounds from Nepeta baytopii ensures the multiple biological activities of the tested extracts, and this suggests a potential use in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical fields, and therefore should be investigated further.
ESTHER : Zengin_2021_Plants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2021_Plants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedID: 34207852

Title : Comprehensive Biological and Chemical Evaluation of Two Seseli Species (S. gummiferum and S. transcaucasicum) - Zengin_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
Author(s) : Zengin G , Stojkovic D , Mahomoodally MF , Jugreet BS , Paksoy MY , Ivanov M , Gasic U , Gallo M , Montesano D
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : Seseli L. is one of the largest genera of the Apiaceae family widely known for their traditional uses as herbal remedies. In the present study, the methanolic and water extracts of two Seseli species, S. gummiferum and S. transcaucasicum were evaluated for their bioactive contents and biological activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extracts ranged from 19.09 to 24.33 mg GAE/g and from 0.45 to10.09 mg RE/g, respectively. Moreover, while narcissin was detected as the most abundant component in the methanolic extract of S. transcaucasicum (261.40 microg/g), chlorogenic acid was identified as the major component in all the other extracts, although a high amount was also present in the methanolic S. transcaucasicum extract (107.48-243.12 microg/g). The total antioxidant capacity was also determined by the phosphomolybdenum assay (0.66-1.18 mM TE/g). Other antioxidant assays such as the radical scavenging assays (DPPH: 5.51-11.45 mg TE/g; ABTS: 43.46-51.91 mg TE/g), reducing assays (CUPRAC: 41.67-53.20 mg TE/g; FRAP: 31.26-34.14 mg TE/g), as well as the metal chelating activity assay (14.38-38.57 mg EDTAE/g) were conducted. All the extracts showed inhibitory potential against the enzyme's amylase (0.12-0.78 mM ACAE/g), acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase (0.15-9.71 mg GALAE/g), while only the methanolic extracts acted as inhibitors of tyrosinase (107.15 and 109.37 mg KAE/g) and only the water extract of S. gummiferum displayed anti-glucosidase activity (0.13 mM ACAE/g). Interestingly, the methanolic extracts of both Seseli species showed lower cytotoxicity towards HaCaT cells (IC(50): >500 microg/mL), compared to the water extracts (IC(50): 267.8 and 321.41 microg/mL). Besides, only the methanolic extracts showed a slight wound healing effect (28.21 and 31.23%). All extracts showed antibacterial action against Staphylococcus lugdunensis (minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations: 0.025-2 mg/mL). S. gummiferum methanolic extract, which exhibited the highest antibacterial potency was found to inhibit adhesion and invasion of S. lugdunensis to HaCaT cells as well. Taken together, this study demonstrated the two Seseli species to harbour interesting bioactive components, in particular polyphenolics and to exhibit several biological properties that could be further investigated for their potential exploitation as healing agents as supported by various traditional medicinal uses.
ESTHER : Zengin_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedID: 34679647

Title : Innovative Biochemometric Approach to the Metabolite and Biological Profiling of the Balkan Thistle (Cirsium appendiculatum Griseb.), Asteraceae - Zheleva-Dimitrova_2021_Plants.(Basel)_10_
Author(s) : Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Zengin G , Ak G , Sinan KI , Mahomoodally MF , Gevrenova R , Balabanova V , Stefanova A , Nedialkov P , Voynikov Y
Ref : Plants (Basel) , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : The widespread genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae) is renowned in traditional medicine. In the present study, an innovative biochemometric-assisted metabolite profiling of the flower heads, aerial parts and roots of Cirsium appendiculatum Griseb. (Balkan thistle) in relation to their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential was developed. The workflow combines ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) with partial least-square analysis to discriminate the herbal extracts and identify the most prominent biological activities. The annotation and dereplication of 61 secondary metabolites were evidenced, including 15 carboxylic (including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic) acids and their glycosides, 11 acylquinic acids, 26 flavonoids and 9 fatty acids. All compounds were reported for the first time in the studied species. The root extract revealed the highest cupric and ferric reducing power (618.36 +/- 5.17 mg TE/g and 269.89 +/- 8.50 mg TE/g, respectively) and antioxidant potential in phosphomolybdenum (3.36 +/- 0.15 mmol TE/g) as well as the most prominent enzyme inhibitory potential on alpha-glucosidase (0.72 +/- 0.07 mmol ACAE/g), acetylcholinesterase (4.93 +/- 0.25 mg GALAE/g) and butyrylcholinesterase (3.80 +/- 0.26 mg GALAE/g). Nevertheless, the flower heads were differentiated by their higher metal chelating activity (32.53 +/- 3.51 mg EDTAE/g) and total flavonoid content (46.59 +/- 0.89 mgRE/g). The partial least-square discriminant and heat-map analysis highlighted the root extract as the most active and a promising source of bioactive compounds for the therapeutic industry.
ESTHER : Zheleva-Dimitrova_2021_Plants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedSearch : Zheleva-Dimitrova_2021_Plants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedID: 34685855

Title : Comprehensive evaluation of two Astragalus species (A. campylosema and A. hirsutus) based on biological, toxicological properties and chemical profiling - Kurt-Celep_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112330
Author(s) : Kurt-Celep I , Zengin G , Sinan KI , Ak G , Elbasan F , Yildiztugay E , Maggi F , Caprioli G , Angeloni S , Sharmeen JB , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , :112330 , 2021
Abstract : Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an important genus with numerous species having various traditional medicinal uses making them of interest for scientific investigations to ascertain their therapeutic benefits. In the present study, the quantitative polyphenolic profiles of methanolic extracts from different parts (leaves, flowers, and roots) of two endemic Astragalus species growing in Turkey, i.e. A. campylosema Boiss. and A. hirsutus Vahl were determined, along with their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties. A. campylosema and A. hirsutus extracts showed varying total phenolic (25.80-40.60 and18.59-29.46 mg GAE/g, respectively) and total flavonoid (11.21-105.91 and 16.06-131.91 mg RE/g, respectively) contents. HPLC-MS/MS revealed rutin to be the predominant phenolic compound in all the extracts of A. campylosema and leaf extract of A. hirsutus (133.53-752.42 microg g(-1)), while hyperoside was the major one in the flower and root extracts of A. hirsutus (2014.07 and 123.13 microg g(-1), respectively). In DPPH and ABTS assays, radical scavenging capacity was demonstrated by all extracts of A. campylosema (47.13-48.10 and 87.03-115.36 mg TE/g, respectively) and A. hirsutus (17.82-38.67 and 47.84-57.29 mg TE/g, respectively). Reducing activity was also displayed by the extracts in CUPRAC and FRAP assays (A. campylosema: 83.06-135.20 and 59.15-90.19 mg TE/g, respectively; A. hirsutus: 53.02-83.42 and 31.25-43.25 mg TE/g, respectively). All extracts were also found to act as metal chelators (12.32-21.45 mg EDTAE/g) and exhibited total antioxidant capacity ranging from 1.16 to 1.60 mmol TE/g, in phosphomolybdenum assay. Acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory effects were observed by all the extracts of the two species (1.56-4.99 mg GALAE/g). Anti-hyperpigmentation potential by inhibiting tyrosinase (54.55-67.35 mg KAE/g) was reported as well. Carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, amylase and glucosidase were also inhibited (0.22-1.03 mmol ACAE/g). Overall, A. campylosema extracts showed relatively better antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potentials compared to A. hirsutus extracts. Strikingly, A. hirsutus extracts was found to have higher AGE inhibition activity than A. campylosema. Although the cytotoxic effect of three different organs obtained from A. campylosema and A. hirsutus increased depending on the dose (from 10 to 200 microg/mL), it was found that both plant extracts did not show a genotoxic effect at the highest concentration of 200 microg/mL. Indeed, data amassed from this current scientific work showed the two selected Astragalus species to be rich in bioactive polyphenols that could be responsible for the various pharmacological activities and hence demands to be further explored for their possible applications as natural health promoting agents.
ESTHER : Kurt-Celep_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112330
PubMedSearch : Kurt-Celep_2021_Food.Chem.Toxicol__112330
PubMedID: 34116105

Title : Phytochemical profile, enzyme inhibition activity and molecular docking analysis of Feijoa sellowiana O. Berg - Saber_2021_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_36_618
Author(s) : Saber FR , Ashour RM , El-Halawany AM , Mahomoodally MF , Ak G , Zengin G , Mahrous EA
Ref : J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem , 36 :618 , 2021
Abstract : Feijoa sellowiana leaves and fruits have been investigated as a source of diverse bioactive metabolites. Extract and eight metabolites isolated from F. sellowiana leaves were evaluated for their enzymatic inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase, amylase, tyrosinase, acetylcholinestrerase and butyrylcholinesterase both in vitro and in silico. Feijoa leaves' extract showed strong antioxidant activity and variable levels of inhibitions against target enzymes with a strong anti-tyrosinase activity (115.85 mg Kojic acid equivalent/g). Additionally, alpha-tocopherol emerged as a potent inhibitor of AChE and BChE (5.40 & 10.38 mmol galantamine equivalent/g, respectively). Which was further investigated through molecular docking and found to develop key enzymatic interactions in AChE and BChE active sites. Also, primetin showed good anti BChE (11.70 mmol galantamine equivalent/g) and anti-tyrosinase inhibition (90.06 mmol Kojic acid equivalent/g) which was also investigated by molecular docking studies. Highlights Isolation of eight bioactive constituents from Feijoa sellowiana leaves. In vitro assays using different enzymatic drug targets were investigated. In silico study was performed to define compound interactions with target proteins. Feijoa leaf is an excellent source of anti-AChE and antityrosinase bioactives.
ESTHER : Saber_2021_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_36_618
PubMedSearch : Saber_2021_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_36_618
PubMedID: 33557639

Title : Deeper Insights on Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mll.Arg Extracts: Chemical Profiles, Biological Abilities, Network Analysis and Molecular Docking - Sinan_2021_Biomolecules_11_
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Ak G , Etienne OK , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Gupcso K , Joao Rodrigues M , Custodio L , Mahomoodally MF , Sharmeen JB , Brunetti L , Leone S , Recinella L , Chiavaroli A , Orlando G , Menghini L , Tacchini M , Ferrante C , Zengin G
Ref : Biomolecules , 11 : , 2021
Abstract : Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mll. Arg. is a well-known African medicinal plant traditionally used for various healing purposes. In the present study, methanolic, ethyl acetate and infusion extracts of A. cordifolia leaves were studied for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and screened for their chemical composition. Moreover, the enzyme (acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterases, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and tyrosinase) inhibitory and cytotoxicity activities on HepG2: human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, B16 4A5: murine melanoma cells, and S17: murine bone marrow (normal) cells of extracts were evaluated. Finally, components-targets and docking analyzes were conducted with the aim to unravel the putative mechanisms underlying the observed bio-pharmacological effects. Interestingly, the infusion and methanolic extracts showed significantly higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared with the ethyl acetate extract (TPC: 120.38-213.12 mg GAE/g and TFC: 9.66-57.18 mg RE/g). Besides, the methanolic extracts followed by the infusion extracts were revealed to contain a higher number of compounds (84 and 74 compounds, respectively), while only 64 compounds were observed for the ethyl acetate extract. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, shikimic acid, rutin, quercetin, myricetin, vitexin, quercitrin, kaempferol, and naringenin were among the compounds that were commonly identified in all the studied extracts. Additionally, the methanolic and infusion extracts displayed higher antioxidant capacity than ethyl acetate extract in all assays performed. In ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays, the methanol extract (500.38 mg TE/g for DPPH and 900.64 mg TE/g for ABTS) exhibited the best ability, followed by the water and ethyl acetate extracts. Furthermore, the extracts exhibited differential enzyme inhibitory profiles. In particular, the methanolic and infusion extracts showed better cytotoxic selectivity activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Overall, this study demonstrated A cordifolia to be a species worthy of further investigations, given its richness in bioactive phytochemicals and wide potentialities for antioxidants and pharmacological agents.
ESTHER : Sinan_2021_Biomolecules_11_
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2021_Biomolecules_11_
PubMedID: 33557215

Title : Biopotential of Bersama abyssinica Fresen Stem Bark Extracts: UHPLC Profiles, Antioxidant, Enzyme Inhibitory, and Antiproliferative Propensities - Sinan_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Chiavaroli A , Orlando G , Bene K , Zengin G , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Mahomoodally MF , Picot-Allain MCN , Menghini L , Recinella L , Brunetti L , Leone S , Ciferri MC , Simone SD , Ferrante C
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 9 : , 2020
Abstract : In this study, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Bersama abyssinica (Melianthaceae) stem bark were screened for enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties. The water extract possessed the highest concentration of phenols (230.83 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract), while the methanol extract was rich in flavonoids (75.82 mg rutin equivalent/g extract), and the ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest amount of saponins (97.37 mg quillaja equivalent/g). The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects against the human colon cancer HCT116 cell line challenged with serotonin (5-HT) as a stimulating-proliferation factor. The level of HCT116 cell-deriving pool of kynurenic acid (KA) was also assessed. The UHPLC results confirmed the presence of 58, 68, and 63 compounds in the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Mangiferin, vitexin and its isomer isovitexin were tentatively identified in all extracts and KA (m/z 190.05042 [M-H](+)) was also tentatively identified in the methanol and water extracts. The methanol extract (1464.08 mg Trolox equivalent [TE]/g extract) showed the highest activity in the CUPRAC assay, whereas the water extract (1063.70 mg TE/g extract) showed the highest activity with the FRAP technique. The ethyl acetate extract was the most active acetylcholinesterase (4.43 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract) and alpha-glucosidase (mmol acarbose equivalent /g extract) inhibitor. The water extract was able to inhibit 5-HT-stimulated viability of HCT116 cells, and blunt 5-HT-induced reduction of cell-deriving KA. The scientific data generated in this study provide baseline data regarding the biological properties of B. abyssinica stem bark, highlighting its potential use for the development of new pharmaceutic and cosmetic agents.
ESTHER : Sinan_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
PubMedID: 32079363

Title : Chromatographic Separation of Breynia retusa (Dennst.) Alston Bark, Fruit and Leaf Constituents from Bioactive Extracts - Dall'Acqua_2020_Molecules_25_
Author(s) : Dall'Acqua S , Sinan KI , Ferrarese I , Sut S , Bene K , Mahomoodally MF , Bibi Sadeer N , Ak G , Zengin G
Ref : Molecules , 25 : , 2020
Abstract : Breynia retusa (Dennst.) Alston (also known as Cup Saucer plant) is a food plant with wide applications in traditional medicine, particularly in Ayurveda. Extracts obtained with four solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, ethyl acetate and water), from three plant parts, (fruit, leaf and bark) were obtained. Extracts were tested for total phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activities using a battery of assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (phosphomolybdenum) and metal chelating. Enzyme inhibitory effects were investigated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as target enzymes. Results showed that the methanolic bark extract exhibited significant radical scavenging activity (DPPH: 202.09 +/- 0.15; ABTS: 490.12 +/- 0.18 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g), reducing potential (FRAP: 325.86 +/- 4.36: CUPRAC: 661.82 +/- 0.40 mg TE/g) and possessed the highest TAC (3.33 +/- 0.13 mmol TE/g). The methanolic extracts were subjected to LC-DAD-MS(n) and NMR analysis. A two-column LC method was developed to separate constituents, allowing to identify and quantify forty-four and fifteen constituents in bark and fruits, respectively. Main compound in bark was epicatechin-3-O-sulphate and isolation of compound was performed to confirm its identity. Bark extract contained catechins, procyanidins, gallic acid derivatives and the sulfur containing spiroketal named breynins. Aerial parts mostly contained flavonoid glycosides. Considering the bioassays, the methanolic bark extract resulted a potent tyrosinase (152.79 +/- 0.27 mg kojic acid equivalent/g), alpha-amylase (0.99 +/- 0.01 mmol acarbose equivalent ACAE/g) and alpha-glucosidase (2.16 +/- 0.01 mmol ACAE/g) inhibitor. In conclusion, methanol is able to extract the efficiently the phytoconstituents of B. retusa and the bark is the most valuable source of compounds.
ESTHER : Dall'Acqua_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedSearch : Dall'Acqua_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedID: 33255853

Title : Ricinodendronheudelotii(Baill.) Heckelstem barks and seed extracts, a native food plant from Africa: Characterization by NMR and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) - Sut_2020_Food.Res.Int_129_108877
Author(s) : Sut S , Dall'Acqua S , Bene K , di Marco SB , Sinan KI , Mahomoodally MF , Picot-Allain MCN , Zengin G
Ref : Food Res Int , 129 :108877 , 2020
Abstract : Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Heckle is used as food ingredient and in the African traditional medicine. In the present study inhibitory activity on alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase of ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of R. heudelotii seeds and stem bark were assessed. Stem bark extracts exhibited significant antioxidant properties. Ethyl acetate extract of seed had great inhibitory potential against alpha-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) analysis revealed the presence of catechin and gallic acid derivatives in bark while fatty acid in seeds. Multivariate analysis of obtained data was performed showing a clear separation between seed and stem bark. Obtained results indicate R. heudelotii stem bark as new starting materials for the development of novel pharmaceutical formulations.
ESTHER : Sut_2020_Food.Res.Int_129_108877
PubMedSearch : Sut_2020_Food.Res.Int_129_108877
PubMedID: 32036910

Title : In Vitro Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Secondary Metabolite Profiles and Multivariate Analysis of Five Seaweeds - Mahomoodally_2020_Mar.Drugs_18_
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Bibi Sadeer N , Zengin G , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Diuzheva A , Sinan KI , Palaniveloo K , Kim DH , Rengasamy KR
Ref : Mar Drugs , 18 : , 2020
Abstract : Seaweeds have been exploited as both food products and therapeutics to manage human ailments for centuries. This study investigated the metabolite profile of five seaweeds (Halimeda spp., Spyridia hypnoides (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Papenfuss, Valoniopsis pachynema (G. Martens) Borgesen, Gracilaria fergusonii J. Agardh and Amphiroa anceps (Lamarck) Decaisne using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Furthermore, these seaweeds were assessed for antioxidant and inhibitory effects against alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE), butyryl-cholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. Valoniopsis pachynema and A. anceps yielded the highest flavonoid (4.30 +/- 0.29 mg RE/g) and phenolic content (7.83 +/- 0.08 mg RE/g), respectively. Additionally, A. anceps exhibited significant antioxidant properties with all assays and significantly depressed BChE (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.83 mg/mL) and alpha-amylase activities (IC50 = 5.34 +/- 0.14 mg/mL). Interestingly, the five seaweeds revealed potent inhibitory effects against tyrosinase activity. In conclusion, A. anceps might be considered as a key source of phytoantioxidants and a potential candidate to develop nutritional supplements. Besides, the five tested seaweeds warrant further study and may be exploited as promising natural sources for managing hyperpigmentation.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2020_Mar.Drugs_18_
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2020_Mar.Drugs_18_
PubMedID: 32276531

Title : Identification of bioactive compounds from Rhaponticoides iconiensis extracts and their bioactivities: An endemic plant to Turkey flora - Zheleva-Dimitrova_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_190_113537
Author(s) : Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Zengin G , Sinan KI , Yildiztugay E , Mahomoodally MF , Ak G , Picot-Allain MCN , Gevrenova R
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 190 :113537 , 2020
Abstract : Rhaponticoides iconiensis (Hub.-Mor.) M.V.Agab. & Greuter. (Asteraceae) is an endemic species spread in several small populations in the province of Konya (Turkey). It is critically endangered with an extremely high risk of extinction. Recently, based on the molecular phylogenetic and eco geographical studies on Cardueae-Centaureinae, the genus Rhaponticoides Vaill. was separated from Centaurea L. Antioxidant properties and enzyme inhibition, as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents, of the methanol (Soxhlet extraction and maceration) and water (infusion) extracts of R. iconiensis leaves, roots, and flower heads were determined. The methanol extracts of R. iconiensis leaves contained the highest amount of phenolic (52.37 and 54.37 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and flavonoids (74.13 and 80.75 mg rutin equivalent/g). Accordingly, the leaves methanol extracts showed the highest antioxidant potential. Interestingly, the roots methanol extracts were the most potent acetylcholinesterase (4.75 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors (5.26 and 5.14 mg galantamine equivalent/g). The leaves and roots methanol extracts exhibited high alpha-glucosidase (2.48-3.08 mmol acarbose equivalent/g) and alpha-amylase (0.17-0.70 mmol acarbose equivalent/g) inhibition. The highest tyrosinase inhibition was recorded for leaves methanol extracts (138.79 and 140.34 mg kojic acid equivalent/g). 87 natural products (including hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic and acylquinic acids, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and anthocyanins) were unambiguously identified or tentatively annotated in the studied extracts. Findings presented in the present study appraise the bioactivity of R. iconiensis, an understudied species.
ESTHER : Zheleva-Dimitrova_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_190_113537
PubMedSearch : Zheleva-Dimitrova_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_190_113537
PubMedID: 32889505

Title : Impact of Natural Compounds on Neurodegenerative Disorders: From Preclinical to Pharmacotherapeutics - Sharifi-Rad_2020_J.Clin.Med_9_
Author(s) : Sharifi-Rad M , Lankatillake C , Dias DA , Docea AO , Mahomoodally MF , Lobine D , Chazot PL , Kurt B , Tumer TB , Moreira AC , Sharopov F , Martorell M , Martins N , Cho WC , Calina D , Sharifi-Rad J
Ref : J Clin Med , 9 : , 2020
Abstract : Among the major neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are a huge socioeconomic burden. Over many centuries, people have sought a cure for NDDs from the natural herbals. Many medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are reported with the ability to alleviate the symptoms of NDDs. The major mechanisms identified, through which phytochemicals exert their neuroprotective effects and potential maintenance of neurological health in ageing, include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiapoptotic, acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibition and neurotrophic activities. This article review the mechanisms of action of some of the major herbal products with potential in the treatment of NDDs according to their molecular targets, as well as their regional sources (Asia, America and Africa). A number of studies demonstrated the beneficial properties of plant extracts or their bioactive compounds against NDDs. Herbal products may potentially offer new treatment options for patients with NDDs, which is a cheaper and culturally suitable alternative to conventional therapies for millions of people in the world with age-related NDDs.
ESTHER : Sharifi-Rad_2020_J.Clin.Med_9_
PubMedSearch : Sharifi-Rad_2020_J.Clin.Med_9_
PubMedID: 32276438

Title : Chemical characterization, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and cytotoxic properties of two geophytes: Crocus pallasii and Cyclamen cilicium - Zengin_2020_Food.Res.Int_133_109129
Author(s) : Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Sinan KI , Picot-Allain MCN , Yildiztugay E , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Saleem H , Ahemad N
Ref : Food Res Int , 133 :109129 , 2020
Abstract : The Crocus and Cyclamen genus have been reported to possess diverse biological properties. In the present investigation, two geophytes from these genus, namely Crocus pallasi and Cyclamen cilicium have been studied. The in vitro antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects of the methanol extracts of Crocus pallasii and Cyclamen cilicium aerial and underground parts were investigated. Antioxidant abilities of the extracts were investigated via different antioxidant assays (metal chelating, radical quenching (ABTS and DPPH), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum). Cholinesterases, amylase, tyrosinase, and glucosidase were used as target enzymes for detecting enzyme inhibitory abilities of the samples. Regarding the cytotoxic abilities, breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7) and prostate cancer cell lines (DU-145) were used. The flowers extracts of Crocus pallasii and C. cilicium possessed the highest flavonoid content. The highest phenolic content was recorded from C. cilicium root extract (47.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract). Cyclamen cilicium root extract showed significantly (p < 0.05) high radical scavenging (94.28 and 139.60 mg trolox equivalent [TE]/g extract, against DPPH and ABTS radicals, respectively) and reducing potential (173.30 and 109.53 mg TE/g extract, against CUPRAC and FRAP, respectively). The best acetylcholinesterase, glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibition was observed in C. cilicium root (4.46 mg GALAE/g; 15.75 mmol ACAE/g; 136.99 mg KAE/g, respectively). Methanolic extracts of C. pallasii and C. cilicium showed toxicity against breast cancer cell lines. In light of the above findings, C. cilicium might be considered as an interesting candidate in the development of anti-cancer agent coupled with antioxidant properties.
ESTHER : Zengin_2020_Food.Res.Int_133_109129
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2020_Food.Res.Int_133_109129
PubMedID: 32466933

Title : Identification of Chemical Profiles and Biological Properties of Rhizophora racemosa G. Mey. Extracts Obtained by Different Methods and Solvents - Chiavaroli_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
Author(s) : Chiavaroli A , Sinan KI , Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Sadeer NB , Etienne OK , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Glamocilja J , Sokovic M , Recinella L , Brunetti L , Leone S , Abdullah HH , Angelini P , Flores GA , Venanzoni R , Menghini L , Orlando G , Ferrante C
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 9 : , 2020
Abstract : Mangrove forests exemplify a multifaceted ecosystem since they do not only play a crucial ecological role but also possess medicinal properties. Methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf and bark extracts were prepared using homogenizer-assisted extraction (HAE), infusion and maceration (with and without stirring). The different extracts were screened for phytochemical profiling and antioxidant capacities in terms of radical scavenging (DPPH, ABTS), reducing potential (CUPRAC, FRAP), total antioxidant capacity and chelating power. Additionally, R. racemosa was evaluated for its anti-diabetic (alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase), anti-tyrosinase and anti-cholinesterase (AChE, BChE) activities. Additionally, antimycotic and antibacterial effects were investigated against Eescherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ludwigii and Penicillium verrucosum. Finally, based on phytochemical fingerprint, in silico studies, including bioinformatics, network pharmacology and docking approaches were conducted to predict the putative targets, namely tyrosinase, lanosterol-14-alpha-demethylase and E. coli DNA gyrase, underlying the observed bio-pharmacological and microbiological effects. The methanolic leave and bark extracts (prepared by both HAE and maceration) abounded with phenolics, flavonoids, phenolic acids and flavonols. Results displayed that both methanolic leaf and bark extracts (prepared by HAE) exhibited the highest radical scavenging, reducing potential and total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, our findings showed that the highest enzymatic inhibitory activity recorded was with the tyrosinase enzyme. In this context, bioinformatics analysis predicted putative interactions between tyrosinase and multiple secondary metabolites including apigenin, luteolin, vitexin, isovitexin, procyanidin B, quercetin and methoxy-trihydroxyflavone. The same compounds were also docked against lanosterol-14alpha-demethylase and E. Coli DNA gyrase, yielding affinities in the submicromolar-micromolar range that further support the observed anti-microbial effects exerted by the extracts. In conclusion, extracts of R. racemosa may be considered as novel sources of phytoanti-oxidants and enzyme inhibitors that can be exploited as future first-line pharmacophores.
ESTHER : Chiavaroli_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
PubMedSearch : Chiavaroli_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
PubMedID: 32570898

Title : Novel insights into the fruit and seed extracts of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh: HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS profiling, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory propensities - Sinan_2020_J.Food.Biochem__e13169
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Llorent-Martinez EJ , Bene K , Mahomoodally MF , Lobine D , Aktumsek A , Zengin G
Ref : J Food Biochem , :e13169 , 2020
Abstract : In this study, we attempted for the first time to determine the phytochemical compositions and biopharmaceutical properties of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Morinda morindoides fruits and seeds. Antioxidant propensities of the extracts were determined via free radical-scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, metal chelating, and reducing power assays. Inhibitory activities against cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)), tyrosinase, alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase were assessed. Moreover, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined. High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) analysis was performed to establish the chemical profile of the investigated extracts. The tested extracts showed remarkable antioxidant abilities with aqueous fruit extract being most potent in all assays, except for ferrous ion chelating assay. Overall, the methanolic extracts were potent inhibitors of the tested enzymes. In conclusion, M. morindoides may be endorsed as promising sources of bioactive compounds and used for designing functional foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In recent years, new compounds from plant sources have attracted great interest to design functional foods. Thus, we aimed to detect biological and chemical properties of Morinda morindoides fruits and seeds, a widely used as food with medicinal properties in Africa. Based on our findings, fruits extracts exhibited stronger activity when compared to seed extracts. Also, chemical identification was performed for each extracts. The presented findings could provide valuable information into the pool of scientific knowledge and may be basis for the design of novel functional applications from M. morindoides.
ESTHER : Sinan_2020_J.Food.Biochem__e13169
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2020_J.Food.Biochem__e13169
PubMedID: 32163609

Title : HPLC-FRAP methodology and biological activities of different stem bark extracts of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp - Sinan_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_192_113678
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Mahomoodally MF , Eyupoglu OE , Etienne OK , Sadeer NB , Ak G , Behl T , Zengin G
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 192 :113678 , 2020
Abstract : Cajanus cajan. (L.) Millsp. (C. cajan) (Family: Fabaceae) also known as pigeon pea, is a famous food and cover/forage crop bearing a high amount of key amino acids (methionine, lysine and tryptophan). This study investigated into the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2 -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (phosphomolybdenum) and metal chelating] activities and enzyme [alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, tyrosinase, acetyl-(AChE), butyryl-(BChE) cholinesterase] inhibitory effects of four extracts (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous) prepared from C. cajan stem bark. Direct identification of antioxidants was also conducted using the high performance liquid chromatography-ferric reducing antioxidant power (HPLC-FRAP) system. The highest TPC and TFC were recorded with the methanolic (23.22 +/- 0.17 mg GAE/g) and ethyl acetate extracts (19.43 +/- 0.24 mg RE/g), respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited important antioxidant activity with DPPH (38.41 +/- 0.05 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g), ABTS (70.49 +/- 3.62 mg TE/g), CUPRAC (81.86 +/- 2.40 mg TE/g), FRAP (42.96 +/- 0.59 mg TE/g) and metal chelating (17.00 +/- 1.26 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent/g). p-coumaric and caffeic acid were the predominant antioxidants in the samples. Results from enzymatic assays showed the potential abilities of hexane extract in inhibiting the AChE, BChE, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that C. cajan can be considered as a promising source of antioxidants and key enzyme inhibitors that can be exploited for future bioproduct development.
ESTHER : Sinan_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_192_113678
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_192_113678
PubMedID: 33120308

Title : Chemical characterization, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of Mitracarpus hirtus extracts - Etienne_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal__113799
Author(s) : Etienne OK , Dall'Acqua S , Sinan KI , Ferrarese I , Sut S , Sadeer NB , Mahomoodally MF , Ak G , Zengin G
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , :113799 , 2020
Abstract : Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. (Family: Rubiaceae) is a tropical annual herb commonly found in America and Mexico. In the present study, the methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of the plant were tested for total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities were evaluated using a battery of assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (phosphomolybdenum) and metal chelating. Enzyme inhibitory effects were investigated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE), tyrosinase, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as target enzymes. The phytochemical profile was obtained using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS(n)) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Results showed that the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts yielded the highest TPC (29.10 +/- 0.07 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and TFC (38.14 +/- 0.91 mg rutin equivalent/g), respectively. Aqueous extract showed weak activity against tested enzymes but demonstrated the strongest ABTS scavenging activity (59.39 +/- 1.19 mg trolox equivalent/g) and is the strongest Fe(3+) reducer (59.42 +/- 0.59 mg trolox equivalent/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolics, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and triterpene acid. This is the first report gathering scientific data on antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory activities and phytochemical composition of M. hirtus and the obtained results can be used as starting point for further investigation on this traditional medicinal herb.
ESTHER : Etienne_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal__113799
PubMedSearch : Etienne_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal__113799
PubMedID: 33279299

Title : Chemical Characterization and Bioactive Properties of Different Extracts from Fibigia clypeata, an Unexplored Plant Food - Zengin_2020_Foods_9_705
Author(s) : Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Rocchetti G , Lucini L , Sieniawska E , Swiatek L , Rajtar B , Polz-Dacewicz M , Senkardes I , Aktumsek A , Picot-Allain MCN , Montesano D
Ref : Foods , 9 :705 , 2020
Abstract : Fibigia clypeata (L.) Medik. is a poorly studied plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family, and usually used as cress in the salads. The current investigation aimed at assessing the antioxidant potential and inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts of F. clypeata against key enzymes targeted in the management of type II diabetes (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase), Alzheimer's disease (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase), and skin hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase). Cytotoxicity of the extracts was also determined using normal VERO and cancer FaDu and SCC-25 cell lines. Besides, LC-MS was employed to investigate the detailed phytochemical profiles of the extracts. The methanol extract showed potent enzyme inhibitory activity (4.87 mg galantamine equivalent/g, 3.52 mg galantamine equivalent/g, 126.80 mg kojic acid equivalent/g, and 24.68 mg acarbose equivalent/g, for acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, and alpha-glucosidase, respectively) and antioxidant potential (96.52, 109.10, 154.02, and 104.85 mg trolox equivalent/g, for DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays, respectively). Interestingly, caffeic acid-O-hexoside derivative, caffeyl alcohol O-glucopyranoside, and ferulic acid derivative were identified in all extracts. F. clypeata extracts showed no cytotoxicity towards VERO cell line and a weak cytotoxic potential against FaDu and SCC-25 cell lines. Interesting scientific evidence gathered from the present study support further investigation on F. clypeata in the view of designing and developing a novel therapeutic agent for the management of Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes, skin hyperpigmentation problems, as well as cancer.
ESTHER : Zengin_2020_Foods_9_705
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2020_Foods_9_705
PubMedID: 32492817

Title : Metabolic fingerprinting, antioxidant characterization, and enzyme-inhibitory response of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC. extracts - Ali_2020_BMC.Complement.Med.Ther_20_313
Author(s) : Ali JS , Saleem H , Mannan A , Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF , Locatelli M , Abidin SAZ , Ahemad N , Zia M
Ref : BMC Complement Med Ther , 20 :313 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Ethnobotanical and plant-based products allow for the isolation of active constituents against a number of maladies. Monotheca buxifolia is used by local communities due to its digestive and laxative properties, as well as its ability to cure liver, kidney, and urinary diseases. There is a need to explore the biological activities and chemical constituents of this medicinal plant. METHODS: In this work, the biochemical potential of M. buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC was explored and linked with its biological activities. Methanol and chloroform extracts from leaves and stems were investigated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was used to determine secondary-metabolite composition, while high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) was used for polyphenolic quantification. In addition, we carried out in vitro assays to determine antioxidant potential and the enzyme-inhibitory response of M. buxifolia extracts. RESULTS: Phenolics (91 mg gallic-acid equivalent (GAE)/g) and flavonoids (48.86 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g) exhibited their highest concentration in the methanol extract of stems and the chloroform extract of leaves, respectively. UHPLC-MS analysis identified a number of important phytochemicals, belonging to the flavonoid, phenolic, alkaloid, and terpenoid classes of secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of leaves contained a diosgenin derivative and polygalacin D, while kaempferol and robinin were most abundant in the chloroform extract. The methanol extract of stems contained a greater peak area for diosgenin and kaempferol, whereas this was true for lucidumol A and 3-O-cis-coumaroyl maslinic acid in the chloroform extract. Rutin, epicatechin, and catechin were the main phenolics identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. The methanol extract of stems exhibited significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities (145.18 and 279.04 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, respectively). The maximum cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) (361.4 mg TE/g), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (247.19 mg TE/g), and total antioxidant potential (2.75 mmol TE/g) were depicted by the methanol extract of stems. The methanol extract of leaves exhibited stronger inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucosidase, while the chloroform extract of stems was most active against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (4.27 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g). Similarly, the highest tyrosinase (140 mg kojic-acid equivalent (KAE)/g) and amylase (0.67 mmol acarbose equivalent (ACAE)/g) inhibition was observed for the methanol extract of stems. CONCLUSIONS: UHPLC-MS analysis and HPLC-PDA quantification identified a number of bioactive secondary metabolites of M. buxifolia, which may be responsible for its antioxidant potential and enzyme-inhibitory response. M. buxifolia can be further explored for the isolation of its active components to be used as a drug.
ESTHER : Ali_2020_BMC.Complement.Med.Ther_20_313
PubMedSearch : Ali_2020_BMC.Complement.Med.Ther_20_313
PubMedID: 33066787

Title : Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Properties of Different Extracts Obtained from Spent Coffee Ground and Coffee Silverskin - Zengin_2020_Foods_9_713
Author(s) : Zengin G , Sinan KI , Mahomoodally MF , Angeloni S , Mustafa AM , Vittori S , Maggi F , Caprioli G
Ref : Foods , 9 :713 , 2020
Abstract : In a world where an eco-friendlier approach is becoming more and more necessary, it is essential to reduce waste production and to reuse residues of the company's supply chain. Coffee silverskin (CS) and spent coffee ground (SCG), two by-products of coffee production, are important sources of bioactive compounds and, for this, some authors have proposed their reuse in the nutraceutical, food, and cosmetic sector. However, their potential enzyme inhibitory properties have been poorly investigated. Hence, the objective of the current work was to study the enzymatic inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and tyrosinase of different extracts of CS and SCG. Before these in vitro bioassays, the phytochemical composition of each extract was investigated via colorimetric assays and HPLC-MS/MS analysis. In addition, the antioxidant activities were evaluated by different chemical approaches. SCG extracts contained a higher content of bioactive compounds, notably the SCG EtOH:H2O extract was the richest in caffeine and possessed the highest antioxidant activities. The hydroalcoholic and methanolic extracts were shown to be the most active against all tested enzymes, while the water extracts displayed lower activity. Our results showed a weak correlation between bioactive compounds and enzyme inhibitory effects, proving inhibitory activities likely due to non-phenolic molecules such as alkaloids and terpenoids. Obtained findings could be a starting point to develop novel nutraceuticals from CS and SCG.
ESTHER : Zengin_2020_Foods_9_713
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2020_Foods_9_713
PubMedID: 32498234

Title : Himalayan Nettle Girardinia diversifolia as a Candidate Ingredient for Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Applications-Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Bioassays - Sharan Shrestha_2020_Molecules_25_
Author(s) : Sharan Shrestha S , Sut S , Ferrarese I , Barbon Di Marco S , Zengin G , De Franco M , Pant DR , Mahomoodally MF , Ferri N , Biancorosso N , Maggi F , Dall Acqua S , Rajbhandary S
Ref : Molecules , 25 : , 2020
Abstract : Girardinia diversifolia, also known as Himalayan nettle, is a perennial herb used in Nepal to make fiber as well as in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. To date, phytochemical studies and biological assays on this plant are scarce. Thus, in the present work, the G. diversifolia extracts have been evaluated for their potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical uses. For this purpose, detailed phytochemical analyses were performed, evidencing the presence of phytosterols, fatty acids, carotenoids, polyphenols and saponins. The most abundant secondary metabolites were beta- and gamma-sitosterol (11 and 9% dw, respectively), and trans syringin (0.5 mg/g) was the most abundant phenolic. Fatty acids with an abundant portion of unsaturated derivatives (linoleic and linolenic acid at 22.0 and 9.7 mg/g respectively), vitamin C (2.9 mg/g) and vitamin B2 (0.12 mg/g) were also present. The antioxidant activity was moderate while a significant ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrilcholinesterase (BuChE), tyrosinase, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was observed. A cytotoxic effect was observed on human ovarian, pancreatic and hepatic cancer cell lines. The effect in hepatocarcinoma cells was associated to a downregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a pivotal regulator of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. These data show the potential usefulness of this species for possible applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmetics.
ESTHER : Sharan Shrestha_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedSearch : Sharan Shrestha_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedID: 32235298

Title : Phenolic compounds analysis of three Euphorbia species by LC-DAD-MS(n) and their biological properties - Mahomoodally_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_189_113477
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Dall'Acqua S , Sinan KI , Sut S , Ferrarese I , Etienne OK , Sadeer NB , Ak G , Zengin G
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 189 :113477 , 2020
Abstract : Members of the genus Euphorbia have attracted much interest as potential sources of bioactive compounds. In this study, the ethyl acetate, methanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of three Euphorbia species namely Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Euphorbia convolvuloides Hochst. ex Benth. were screened for their antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric antioxidant reducing capacity (CUPRAC), metal chelating, total antioxidant capacity (phosphomolybdenum)], and enzymatic properties [alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, tyrosinase, acetyl- (AChE), butyryl-cholinesterase (BChE)]. Total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and phytochemical profile were established via LC-DAD-MS(n). Results showed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the three plants yielded the highest TPC with values ranging from 35.84-141.90 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. E. hirta was the most potent DPPH scavenger and chelator reporting the highest equivalent [DPPH: 195.22 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, chelator: 30.73 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent (EDTAE)/g], while E. heterophylla demonstrated the most significant Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) reducing potential (FRAP: 194.28 mg TE/g; CUPRAC: 631.25 mg TE/g) and possessed the highest total antioxidant capacity (3.76 mmol TE/g). The AChE, BChE, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory effects of the three species were relatively the same. However, E. hirta exhibited the highest anti-tyrosinase activity (109.71 mg kojic acid equivalent /g). Euphorbia convolvuloides showed low antioxidant activities and enzymatic inhibitory effects compared to other. LC-DAD-MS(n) fingerprint of the phenolics of the three species showed the presence of different derivatives. Quantitative data revealed tannins and flavonoids (25 and 20 mg/g respectively) for E. hirta, high amount of tannins 63 and 21 mg/g of flavonoids for E. heterophylla, while high flavonoid contents for E. convolvuloides, 56 mg/g. Euphorbia hirta proved to the most promising among the three tested species and thus can be explored further by isolating and characterizing active bioactive agents that could be used to manage oxidative stress-related diseases and hyperpigmentation problems.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_189_113477
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_189_113477
PubMedID: 32693205

Title : Evaluation of Pharmacological and Phytochemical Profiles Piptadeniastrum africanum (Hook.f.) Brenan Stem Bark Extracts - Sinan_2020_Biomolecules_10_
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Chiavaroli A , Orlando G , Bene K , Zengin G , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Mahomoodally MF , Picot-Allain MCN , Menghini L , Recinella L , Brunetti L , Leone S , Ciferri MC , Di Simone S , Ferrante C
Ref : Biomolecules , 10 : , 2020
Abstract : The stem bark (SB) of Piptadeniastrum africanum (PA) has been extensively used in African traditional medicinal systems. However, there is a dearth of scientific information regarding its possible activity in the management of type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and skin hyperpigmentation disorders. This study therefore attempted to elucidate the in vitro inhibitory action of ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of P. africanum stem bark (PA-SB) on alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase. Cell viability, catecholamine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine levels of hypothalamic HypoE22 cells exposed to PA-SB extracts were also investigated. The phytochemical profiles of the extracts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and antioxidant properties were investigated. Saponin (867.42 mg quillaja equivalent/g) and tannin (33.81 mg catechin equivalent/g) contents were higher in the methanol extract. Multiple dihydroxy-trimethoxy(iso)flavone isomers, loliolide, eriodictyol, naringenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol, apigenin, and liquiritigenin, were characterized from PA-SB extracts using HPLC. The methanol extract of PA-SB showed highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (4.88 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g extract), butyrylcholinesterase (5.37 mg GALAE/g extract), and tyrosinase (154.86 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract) while alpha-glucosidase was effectively inhibited by the ethyl acetate extract (15.22 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). The methanol extract of PA-SB also showed potent antioxidant properties (493.87, 818.12, 953.07, and 732.19 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively). PA-SB extracts exhibited antioxidant activity and promising inhibition against key enzymes related to type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and skin hyperpigmentation disorders. Additionally, all extracts were able to contrast hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in HypoE22 cells, thus restoring basal catecholamine and 3-hydroxykinurenine levels, whereas only methanol and water extracts stimulated basal dopamine release. Overall, data from the present study contribute to the biological assessment of P. africanum that appears to be a promising source of natural compounds with protective and neuromodulatory effects.
ESTHER : Sinan_2020_Biomolecules_10_
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2020_Biomolecules_10_
PubMedID: 32231150

Title : Network analysis, chemical characterization, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of foxglove (Digitalis cariensis Boiss. ex Jaub. & Spach): A novel raw material for pharmaceutical applications - Zengin_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_191_113614
Author(s) : Zengin G , Ceylan R , Sinan KI , Ak G , Uysal S , Mahomoodally MF , Lobine D , Aktumsek A , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Behl T , Orlando G , Menghini L , Ferrante C
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 191 :113614 , 2020
Abstract : The present study outlines the phenolic composition and pharmacological properties of different extracts of Digitalis cariensis Boiss. ex Jaub. & Spach root and aerial parts. The metabolic profiles of the studied extracts were characterized by UHPLC-MS. The in vitro antioxidant and enzyme (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase) inhibitory potential of the extracts were determined. Bioinformatics and docking investigations were also conducted to support the enzyme inhibition test and predict putative targets for potential pharmacological applications. Overall, the methanolic extract followed by the water extract of the D. cariensis root were found to be superior source of antioxidant compounds except for metal chelating ability, in which the water extract of the root (26.34 +/- 1.54 mg EDTAE/g) and aerial parts (16.47 +/- 0.88 mg EDTAE/g) have showed the highest activity. The tested extracts were potent against AChE (9.11 +/- 0.27-9.79 +/- 0.28 mg GEs/g extract), alpha-amylase (0.12 +/- 0.01- 0.50 +/- 0.01 mmol ACEs/g extract) and alpha-glucosidase (0.28 +/- 0.01-17.29 +/- 0.24 mmol ACEs/ g extract). Notable activity against tyrosinase was displayed by the methanolic extracts (Root-MeOH: 123.71 +/- 2.70 and aerial parts - MeOH: 137.96 +/- 1.07 mg KAE/g extract), while none of the extracts were potent against BChE. According to docking investigations, the observed anti-tyrosinase effect could be related, at least partially, to the presence of luteolin, rosmarinic acid and kaempferol in the extracts. Results amassed herein is the first report on the biological attributes of D. cariensis, which validate the pharmacological uses of this plant.
ESTHER : Zengin_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_191_113614
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2020_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_191_113614
PubMedID: 32980793

Title : Therapeutic propensities, phytochemical composition, and toxicological evaluation of Anagallis arvensis (L.): A wild edible medicinal food plant - Saleem_2020_Food.Res.Int_137_109651
Author(s) : Saleem H , Zengin G , Ahmad I , Htar TT , Naidu R , Mahomoodally MF , Ahemad N
Ref : Food Res Int , 137 :109651 , 2020
Abstract : Anagallis arvensis (L.) is a wild edible food plant that has been used in folklore as a natural remedy for treating common ailments. This study aimed to explore the biochemical properties and toxicity of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of A. arvensis (aerial and root parts). Bioactive contents were assessed spectrophotometrically, and the secondary metabolites were identified by UHPLC-MS analysis. DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating assays were employed to assess antioxidant activity. Inhibitory potential against key enzymes (alpha-glucosidase, urease, lipoxygenase (LOX), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)) were also assessed. MTT assay was employed to test toxicity against SW-480, MDA-MB-231, CaSki, MCF-7, and DU-145 cancer cell lines. Methanolic extracts showed highest phenolic (aerial-MeOH: 27.5 mg GAE/g extract; root-MeOH: 21.17 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (aerial-MeOH: 26.15 mg QE/g extract; root-MeOH: 19.07 mg QE/g extract) contents, and potent antioxidant activities. The aerial-MeOH extract was most potent for DPPH (IC(50): 231 ug/mL), ABTS (131.12 mg TE/g extract), FRAP (82.97 mg TE/g extract), and CUPRAC (137.15 mg TE/g extract) antioxidant assays. All extracts were cytotoxic towards tested cancer cells with IC(50) values ranging from 12.57 to 294.5 microg/mL and conferred a comparatively strong inhibition against alpha-glucosidase (aerial-DCM extract showed the highest inhibition against alpha-glucosidase with IC(50) value of 20.97 microg /mL), while aerial extracts were also considerably active against BChE (aerial-MeOH IC(50): 224.63 microg /mL), LOX (aerial-DCM IC(50): 385.7 microg /mL). Likewise, aerial-MeOH extract was most active against urease enzyme (IC(50): 129.72 microg /mL). UHPLC-MS investigation of methanolic extracts showed the existence of important phenolics, flavonoids, and saponins, including methyl gallte, quercetin, lanceoletin, and balanitesin, amongst others. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted the correlation amongst bioactive contents and observed biological activities. A. arvensis extracts could be regarded as a natural source of bioactive antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and anticancer agents and can be further investigated as a lead source for food and pharmaceutical products. However, further studies to isolate, purify, and to characterize its bioactive phytochemicals are needed.
ESTHER : Saleem_2020_Food.Res.Int_137_109651
PubMedSearch : Saleem_2020_Food.Res.Int_137_109651
PubMedID: 33233230

Title : Bridelia speciosa Mull.Arg. Stem bark Extracts as a Potential Biomedicine: From Tropical Western Africa to the Pharmacy Shelf - Mahomoodally_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Sinan KI , Bene K , Zengin G , Orlando G , Menghini L , Veschi S , Chiavaroli A , Recinella L , Brunetti L , Leone S , Angelini P , Hubka V , Covino S , Venanzoni R , Picot-Allain MCN , Lellis L , Cama A , Cziaky Z , Jeko J , Ferrante C
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 9 : , 2020
Abstract : Bridelia species have been used in traditional African medicine for the management of diverse human ailments. In the current work, the detailed phytochemical profiles of the extracts of the stem bark of B. speciosa were evaluated and the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties of the extracts were assessed. The anti-bacterial and anti-mycotic effects of the extracts were evaluated against selected pathogen strains. Additionally, the anti-proliferative effects were studied on the liver cancer HepG2 cell line. Finally, the putative protective effects were assessed on isolated rat liver that was challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results revealed the presence of 36 compounds in the ethyl acetate extract, 44 in the methanol extract, and 38 in the water extract. Overall, the methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, particularly in LPS-stimulated rat liver. Additionally, this extract exerted the highest antimycotic effect on C. albicans, whereas the water extract showed a promising anti-proliferative effect on liver cancer HepG2 cells. The methanol extract was also the most active as enzyme inhibitor, against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. The current study appraises the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties of B. speciosa methanol extract and showed that this specie could be a promising source of biologically active phytochemicals, with potential health uses.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2020_Antioxidants.(Basel)_9_
PubMedID: 32024319

Title : Pharmacological, phytochemical and in-vivo toxicological perspectives of a xero-halophyte medicinal plant: Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey - Saleem_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol_131_110535
Author(s) : Saleem H , Zengin G , Locatelli M , Ahmad I , Khaliq S , Mahomoodally MF , Hussain R , Rengasamy KRR , Mollica A , Zainal Abidin SA , Ahemad N
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , 131 :110535 , 2019
Abstract : This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49mg QE/g) contents which correlate with its most significant radical scavenging, reducing potential and tyrosinase inhibition. The dichloromethane extract was most potent for phosphomolybdenum, ferrous chelation, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and cholinesterase inhibition assays. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract unveiled to identify 11 secondary metabolites belonging to five sub-groups, i.e., phenolic, alkaloid, carbohydrate, terpenoid, and fatty acid derivatives. Additionally, in vivo toxicity was conducted for 21 days and the methanol extract at different doses (150, 200, 250 and 300mg/kg) was administered in experimental chicks divided into five groups each containing five individuals. Different physical, haematological and biochemical parameters along with the absolute and relative weight of visceral body organs were studied. Overall, no toxic effect was noted for the extract at tested doses.
ESTHER : Saleem_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol_131_110535
PubMedSearch : Saleem_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol_131_110535
PubMedID: 31154083

Title : Qualitative Chemical Characterization and Multidirectional Biological Investigation of Leaves and Bark Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) - Orlando_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
Author(s) : Orlando G , Ferrante C , Zengin G , Sinan KI , Bene K , Diuzheva A , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Simone SD , Recinella L , Chiavaroli A , Leone S , Brunetti L , Picot-Allain CMN , Mahomoodally MF , Menghini L
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 8 : , 2019
Abstract : Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) has a long history of use by folk populations for the management of multiple human ailments. Based on the published literature, there has been no attempt to conduct a comparative assessment of the biological activity and the phytochemical profiles of the leaves and stem bark of A. leiocarpus extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate, and water. By high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) analysis, quinic, shikimic, gallic, and protocatechuic acids were tentatively identified from all the extracts, while chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and dodecanedioic acids were only characterised from the leaves extracts. Additionally, a pharmacological study was carried out to evaluate potential protective effects that are induced by the extracts in rat colon and colon cancer HCT116 cell line. In general, the methanol and water extracts of A. leiocarpus leaves and stem bark showed potent radical scavenging and reducing properties. It was noted that the stem bark extracts were more potent antioxidants as compared to the leaves extracts. The methanol extract of A. leiocarpus leaves showed the highest acetyl (4.68 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and butyryl (4.0 mg galantamine equivalent/g) cholinesterase inhibition. Among ethyl acetate extracts, the pharmacological investigation suggested stem bark ethyl acetate extracts to be the most promising. This extract revealed ability to protect rat colon from lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress, without exerting promoting effects on HCT116 cell line viability and migration. As a conclusion, A. leiocarpus represents a potential source of bioactive compounds in the development of novel therapeutic agents.
ESTHER : Orlando_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
PubMedSearch : Orlando_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
PubMedID: 31480498

Title : Chemical profiling and pharmaco-toxicological activity of Origanum sipyleum extracts: Exploring for novel sources for potential therapeutic agents - Zengin_2019_J.Food.Biochem__e13003
Author(s) : Zengin G , Ferrante C , Orlando G , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Gevrenova R , Recinella L , Chiavaroli A , Leone S , Brunetti L , Aumeeruddy MZ , Aktumsek A , Mahomoodally MF , Angelini P , Covino S , Venanzoni R , Tirillini B , Menghini L
Ref : J Food Biochem , :e13003 , 2019
Abstract : The phytochemical, antiradical, and enzyme inhibition profile of three solvent extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, water) of Origanum sipyleum were assessed. We also performed a pharmacological study in order to explore protective effects induced by extracts in inflamed colon. LC-MS analysis revealed that the extracts contained different classes of phenolics. The aqueous extract showed the highest antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were highest in aqueous and ethyl acetate extract, respectively. All extracts were effective in reducing colon pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory biomarkers. The extracts revealed also able to inhibit fungal and bacterial species involved in ulcerative colitis, including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus thyphimurium. Finally, we also showed the antiproliferative effects exerted by the EA extracts on human colon cancer HCT116 cell line. Concluding, our results indicated that O. sipyleum extracts displayed promising therapeutic properties which warrants further validation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The present phytochemical and biological studies, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobic assessments, showed significant protective effects exerted by O. sipyleum extracts in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis. The results are intriguing and suggest potential applications O. sipyleum extracts as sources of natural agents for the management of clinical symptoms related to ulcerative colitis, characterized by increased burden of oxidative stress and microbiome dysbiosis.
ESTHER : Zengin_2019_J.Food.Biochem__e13003
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2019_J.Food.Biochem__e13003
PubMedID: 31393014

Title : Chemical profiling of Centaurea bornmuelleri Hausskn. aerial parts by HPLC-MS\/MS and their pharmaceutical effects: From nature to novel perspectives - Zengin_2019_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_174_406
Author(s) : Zengin G , Llorent-Martinez EJ , Sinan KI , Yildiztugay E , Picot-Allain C , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 174 :406 , 2019
Abstract : Ethnobotanical evidences substantiate the use of several Centaurea species to treat and/or manage several human ailments. In the present study, the phytochemical profile of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts (prepared by infusion and decoction) of Centaurea bornmuelleri Hausskn. aerial parts was established. The enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties were also determined by in vitro bioassays. Methanol extract (38.58mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and ethyl acetate extract (38.83mg rutin equivalent/g extract) possessed the highest concentration of phenolics and flavonoids, respectively. Aqueous extract prepared following traditional infusion method showed potent DPPH (38.54mg TE/g extract) and ABTS (57.75mg TE/g extract) scavenging abilities. The methanol extract (101.46mg TE/g extract) of C. bornmuelleri exhibited potent reducing activity in the CUPRAC assay while the aqueous extract obtained by infusion was more active in the FRAP assay (69.81mg TE/g extract). Ethyl acetate extract of C. bornmuelleri inhibited both acetylcholinesterase (1.14mg galantamine equivalent [GALAE]/g extract), butyrylcholinesterase (0.63mg GALAE/g extract), tyrosinase (69.84mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract), amylase (19.90mg acarbose equivalent [ACAE]/g extract), and glucosidase (33.12mg ACAE/g extract). The phytochemical profile of C. bornmuelleri has been characterized and the main components quantified in order to provide scientific base to design innovative products including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutraceuticals although further investigation concerning the isolation of the main bioactive compounds would be required.
ESTHER : Zengin_2019_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_174_406
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2019_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_174_406
PubMedID: 31212141

Title : Comprehensive approaches on the chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of flowers and leaves of American basil (Ocimum americanum L) - Zengin_2019_Food.Res.Int_125_108610
Author(s) : Zengin G , Ferrante C , Gnapi DE , Sinan KI , Orlando G , Recinella L , Diuzheva A , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Chiavaroli A , Leone S , Brunetti L , Picot-Allain C , Mahomoodally MF , Angelini P , Covino S , Venanzoni R , Tirillini B , Menghini L
Ref : Food Res Int , 125 :108610 , 2019
Abstract : Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae) is a common food condiment and also used in traditional medicine in the management of several human diseases. Nonetheless, there has been no effort to delineate the biological and phytochemical profiles of leaves and flowers prepared by different extractive solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol (MeOH), and water). The pharmacological potential of O. americanum extracts on pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory mediators in rat colon specimens treated with lipopolysaccharide was investigated. In parallel, the inhibitory effects of the extracts on fungal and bacterial strains involved in ulcerative colitis were studied. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins. Water extracts of flowers and leaves showed strong reducing and radicals scavenging potential. Both MeOH and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves and flowers were able to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase. All the extracts inhibited the selected bacterial and fungal strains, while only ethyl acetate flower extract displayed antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects in rat colon. The water and MeOH extracts stimulated colon lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serotonin (5-HT) and induced spontaneous migration of HCT116 cells. Future investigations should focus on the biological activity of isolated phytochemicals from the leaves and flowers of O. americanum, in order to clarify the mechanism(s) of action substantiating the observed pharmacological properties.
ESTHER : Zengin_2019_Food.Res.Int_125_108610
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2019_Food.Res.Int_125_108610
PubMedID: 31554064

Title : Chemical profile, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory properties of two Scutellaria species: S. orientalis L. and S. salviifolia Benth - Zengin_2019_J.Pharm.Pharmacol_71_270
Author(s) : Zengin G , Llorent-Martinez EJ , Molina-Garcia L , Fernandez-de Cordova ML , Aktumsek A , Uysal S , Rengasamy KRR , Aumeeruddy MZ , Bahadori MB , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Pharm Pharmacol , 71 :270 , 2019
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: This study investigates into the biological effects of solvent extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) of Scutellaria orientalis L. and Scutellaria salviifolia Benth. based on its enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant ability together with the screening of bioactive compounds. METHODS: Total and individual bioactive components were determined using spectrophotometric and HPLC-ESI-MS methods. Six antioxidant assays were conducted and enzyme inhibition was tested against key enzymes linked to the pathology of common chronic disorders. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that the aqueous extracts of both plants exerted better 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The methanol extracts showed highest tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity in phosphomolybdenum assay while the less polar ethyl acetate extracts showed better acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and alpha-amylase inhibition. Phytochemical evaluation by HPLC-ESI-MS revealed the presence of high amounts of flavones. CONCLUSIONS: Scutellaria orientalis and S. salviifolia are important sources of bioactive agents that warrants further studies.
ESTHER : Zengin_2019_J.Pharm.Pharmacol_71_270
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2019_J.Pharm.Pharmacol_71_270
PubMedID: 30306560

Title : Innovative perspectives on Pulicaria dysenterica extracts: phyto-pharmaceutical properties, chemical characterization and multivariate analysis - de la Luz Cadiz-Gurrea_2019_J.Sci.Food.Agric_99_6001
Author(s) : de la Luz Cadiz-Gurrea M , Zengin G , Kayacik O , Lobine D , Mahomoodally MF , Leyva-Jimenez FJ , Segura-Carretero A
Ref : J Sci Food Agric , 99 :6001 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of different extraction procedures [decoction, homogenizer-assisted extraction (HAE), infusion, maceration, Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE)] on the chemical profiling and biological properties of methanol and water extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. The chemical profiles of the extracts were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS). The antioxidant properties and enzymes (lipase, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, tyrosinase and cholinesterases) inhibitory potential of the extracts were evaluated. RESULTS: The chemical profiles were dependent on the type of extraction methods as well as on the type of solvent. The methanolic extracts showed higher levels of total phenolic, flavonoid, and phenolic acid content, while the highest total flavonol content was observed in the HAE-water extract. Forty different compounds were identified from P. dysenterica. In relation to the potential in vitro anti-diabetic effects, the highest activity against the studied key enzymes was observed for the macerated extract (alpha-amylase: 0.58 +/- 0.03 and alpha- glucosidase: 1.65 +/- 0.03 mmol ACAE g(-1) ). The HAE-methanol extract was the most potent inhibitor of cholisterases, whereas the highest activities against tyrosinase were observed for UAE-methanol extract, followed by macerated and Soxhlet. The inhibitory activity of the studied extracts against lipase were in the order: soxhlet > macerated> HAE-methanol > UAE-methanol. CONCLUSION: This study has established scientific baseline data on the therapeutic properties of P. dysentrica, thereby advocating the need for further investigations in an endeavour to develop novel pharmaceuticals from this plant. (c) 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
ESTHER : de la Luz Cadiz-Gurrea_2019_J.Sci.Food.Agric_99_6001
PubMedSearch : de la Luz Cadiz-Gurrea_2019_J.Sci.Food.Agric_99_6001
PubMedID: 31225640

Title : Chemical fingerprint and bioactivity evaluation of Globularia orientalis L. and Globularia trichosantha Fisch. & C. A. Mey. using non-targeted HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS approach - Rodriguez-Perez_2019_Phytochem.Anal_30_237
Author(s) : Rodriguez-Perez C , Zengin G , Segura-Carretero A , Lobine D , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Phytochem Anal , 30 :237 , 2019
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: In the quest for new sources of biologically-active compounds, the chemical, and biological profiles of two Globularia species (G. trichosantha Fisch. & C. A. Mey and G. orientalis L.) were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Chemical profiles were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), as well as by their total phenolic, flavonoids, and phenolic acids contents. The antioxidant abilities of the investigated extracts were done using different assays including free radical scavenging [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS)], reducing power (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power), phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating. Inhibitory potential against key enzymes involved in neurodegenerative diseases (cholinesterases; AChE, and BChE), diabetes (alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase), hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) and obesity (pancreatic lipase) were evaluated. RESULTS: Globularia trichosantha and G. orientalis extracts showed remarkable antioxidant properties, with the water extracts being a better source of antioxidant compounds. Both species showed remarkable inhibitory effects against the target enzymes. However, for both species, only the acetyl acetate and methanolic extracts were potent against cholinesterases and lipase. CONCLUSION: HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis revealed the presence of 107 compounds from G. trichosantha and G. orientalis, among which, 43 compounds have been preliminarily characterised for the first time from the Globulariaceae family. To date, this study can be considered as the most comprehensive research focused on the characterisation of G. trichosantha and G. orientalis. Results amassed from this study tend to show that these plants represent a rich source of biologically active compounds which can be further explored and validated for their therapeutic potential.
ESTHER : Rodriguez-Perez_2019_Phytochem.Anal_30_237
PubMedSearch : Rodriguez-Perez_2019_Phytochem.Anal_30_237
PubMedID: 30511497

Title : Phytochemical Fingerprinting and In Vitro Bioassays of the Ethnomedicinal Fern Tectaria coadunata (J. Smith) C. Christensen from Central Nepal - Shrestha_2019_Molecules_24_
Author(s) : Shrestha SS , Sut S , Barbon Di Marco S , Zengin G , Gandin V , De Franco M , Pant DR , Mahomoodally MF , Dall'Acqua S , Rajbhandary S
Ref : Molecules , 24 : , 2019
Abstract : Tectaria coadunata, an ethnomedicinal fern used in Nepal to treat a large number of diseases, has been poorly studied with regard to its phytochemical composition and possible bioactivity. This study was performed with the aim of supporting traditional medicine as a new source of bioactive constituents. Phytochemical compositions of methanol extracts were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrophotometry (LC-DAD-MS), and liquid chromatography-fluorescence-mass spectrometry. Quali-quantitative data revealed large amount of procyanidins, mainly of the A-type, as well as eriodictyol-7-O-glucuronide and luteolin-7-O-glucoronide as main constituents. The antioxidant, cytotoxic, and inhibitory activity of five enzymes that are implicated in human diseases was evaluated for the extract and fractions. High free-radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays and inhibitory activities against cholinesterases and tyrosinase were observed. Furthermore, a moderate cytotoxic effect was observed on the 2008 and BxPC3 cell lines. Overall results showed potential usefulness of this fern as a source of phytochemicals for pharmaceutical uses.
ESTHER : Shrestha_2019_Molecules_24_
PubMedSearch : Shrestha_2019_Molecules_24_
PubMedID: 31817382

Title : A comparative study of the HPLC-MS profiles and biological efficiency of different solvent leaf extracts of two African plants: Bersama abyssinica and Scoparia dulcis - Sinan_2019_Int.J.Environ.Health.Res__1
Author(s) : Sinan KI , Bene K , Zengin G , Diuzheva A , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Picot-Allain CMN , Mollica A , Rengasamy KR , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Int J Environ Health Res , :1 , 2019
Abstract : In the present study, two medicinal plants from Africa, namely Bersama abyssinica Fresen. and Scoparia dulcis L., were extracted using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The antioxidant, enzyme (alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase, lipase, and tyrosinase) inhibitory action, and phytochemical profiles of extracts of Bersama abyssinica and Scoparia dulcis were determined. The aqueous (180.62 and 61.81 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, for B. abyssinica and S. dulcis respectively) and methanol (75.21 and 57.81 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, for B. abyssinica and S. dulcis, respectively) extracts contained high concentrations of phenolic and flavonoids, respectively. The ethyl acetate extracts of both plants were potent inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase and tyrosinase. Several phytochemical groups were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The study tend to suggest that B. abyssinica and S. dulcis are potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutical agents.
ESTHER : Sinan_2019_Int.J.Environ.Health.Res__1
PubMedSearch : Sinan_2019_Int.J.Environ.Health.Res__1
PubMedID: 31411055

Title : Multidirectional biological investigation and phytochemical profile of Rubus sanctus and Rubus ibericus - Zengin_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol_127_237
Author(s) : Zengin G , Ferrante C , Senkardes I , Gevrenova R , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Menghini L , Orlando G , Recinella L , Chiavaroli A , Leone S , Brunetti L , Picot-Allain CMN , Rengasamy KR , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , 127 :237 , 2019
Abstract : In the present study, the biological properties, including, the enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities, as well as, the phytochemical profile of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Rubus sanctus Schreb. and Rubus ibericus Juz. leaves were determined using in vitro bioassays. Wide range of phytochemicals, including, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, acylquinic acids, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoid saponins were determined using UHPLC-ESI/HRMS technique. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the studied Rubus species effectively inhibited acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase. On the other hand, R. sanctus water extract showed low inhibition against alpha-amylase and prominent inhibitory action against alpha-glucosidase. Data collected from this study reported the radical scavenging and reducing potential of the studied Rubus species. Investigation of the protective effects of the different extracts of R. sanctus and R. ibericus in experimental model of ulcerative colitis was performed. The extracts were also tested on spontaneous migration of human colon cancer cells (HCT116) in wound healing experimental paradigm. Only R. sanctus methanol extract inhibited spontaneous HCT116 migration in the wound healing test. Our results suggested that R. sanctus and R. ibericus may be potential candidates as sources of biologically-active compounds for the development of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and/or cosmetics.
ESTHER : Zengin_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol_127_237
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol_127_237
PubMedID: 30914354

Title : A comparative study of UHPLC\/Orbitrap MS metabolomics profiles and biological properties of Asphodeline taurica from Bulgaria and Turkey - Lazarova_2019_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_168_174
Author(s) : Lazarova I , Zengin G , Gevrenova R , Nedialkov P , Aneva I , Aumeeruddy MZ , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 168 :174 , 2019
Abstract : The present investigation attempts to compare the pharmacological properties and phytochemical profile of four extracts (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, methanol, and water) of Asphodeline taurica (Pall.) Endl. roots from Bulgaria and Turkey. The Bulgarian ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH, CUPRAC, and phosphomolybdenum assay, and strongest inhibition against alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The Turkish aqueous extract exhibited the strongest ABTS scavenging and ferric reducing power while its methanol extract was the most effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitor. On the other hand, the Turkish dichloromethane extract showed the highest lipase inhibition. UHPLC/Orbitrap MS analysis showed a wide array of individual phenolics; six free anthraquinones, two bianthraquinones, three bianthracenes, three anthraquinone glycosides and one bianthracen glycoside were identified. The present data suggest that A. taurica roots can be considered as a valuable source of biologically active phytocompounds with functional properties for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
ESTHER : Lazarova_2019_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_168_174
PubMedSearch : Lazarova_2019_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_168_174
PubMedID: 30807922

Title : Untargeted Metabolomic Profiling, Multivariate Analysis and Biological Evaluation of the True Mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata Lam.) - Sadeer_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
Author(s) : Sadeer NB , Rocchetti G , Senizza B , Montesano D , Zengin G , Uysal A , Jeewon R , Lucini L , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 8 : , 2019
Abstract : Currently, there is a renewed interest towards the development of plant-based pharmacophores. In this work, 16 extracts prepared from the leaves, twigs, roots and fruits of a hydro-halophyte, Rhizophora mucronata Lam. (Family: Rhizophoraceae), were studied for possible antioxidant activity and the phenolic profiles established. Thereafter, enzymatic inhibitory activities (alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, tyrosinase, acetyl- (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lipase, and elastase) were assessed. The total phenolic, flavonoid, phenolic acid, tannin, flavanol and triterpenoid content were estimated using standard assays. An untargeted metabolomics-based approach, based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) followed by multivariate statistics, was then used to comprehensively profile and describe the phenolics present. UHPLC-QTOF-MS allowed for putatively annotating 104 phenolic acids, 103 flavonols, 94 flavones, 71 anthocyanins, 66 tyrosols, 29 lignans, 15 alkylphenols and 10 stilbenes in the extracts. Nine strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella enteritidis, Sarcina lutea, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans) were then used to investigate the antimicrobial properties. The methanolic twig extract exhibited significant reducing potential towards Cu (II)/Cu (I) and Fe (III)/Fe (II) (1336.88 +/- 15.70 and 710.18 +/- 21.04 mg TE/g, respectively) and was the most potent DPPH radical scavenger (807.07 +/- 6.83 mg TE/g). Additionally, the methanolic twig extract showed significant inhibition against most targeted enzymes. Anti-microbial results showed that all extracts were active against MRSA. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the phenolic profile of ethyl acetate extracts and leaves were the two most discriminative parameters in terms of solvents and organs, respectively. The present findings indicated that R. mucronata may be further explored for the management/prevention of oxidative stress, neurodegenerative complications and hyperpigmentation.
ESTHER : Sadeer_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
PubMedSearch : Sadeer_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
PubMedID: 31623170

Title : Utilisation of Rhododendron luteum Sweet bioactive compounds as valuable source of enzymes inhibitors, antioxidant, and anticancer agents - Mahomoodally_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol__111052
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Sieniawska E , Sinan KI , Nancy Picot-Allain MC , Yerlikaya S , Cengiz Baloglu M , Altunoglu YC , Senkardes I , Rengasamy KR , Zengin G
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , :111052 , 2019
Abstract : Ethnobotanical evidences report the use of Rhododendron luteum Sweet (Ericaceae) in traditional medicinal systems. However, R. luteum has been associated to the occurrence of 'mad honey' poisoning. In the present study, the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of R. luteum were investigated for their in vitro antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and cytotoxic properties. The cytotoxicity of R. luteum extracts on A549 lung cancer cell line was evaluated using MTT cell viability assay. Besides, HPLC-ESI-MS(n) approach was employed to elucidate the secondary metabolite profiles of R. luteum in order to establish any structure-activity relationship. Methanol and water extracts of R. luteum possessed highest radical scavenging and reducing properties while the ethyl acetate extract showed highest metal chelating properties. In terms of enzyme inhibition, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of R. luteum, possessing epigallocatechin, were active inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes, alpha-glucosidase, and tyrosinase. Water extract caused growth inhibition of A549cells with 207.2mug/ml IC50 value. Though R. luteum has received little scientific attention due to the occurrence of grayanotoxins in the plant, however, data presented in this work shows promising biological activity of R. luteum and highlighted its role as a potential source of antioxidant and key enzyme inhibitors.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol__111052
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2019_Food.Chem.Toxicol__111052
PubMedID: 31837349

Title : New insights into the chemical profiling, cytotoxicity and bioactivity of four Bunium species - Zengin_2019_Food.Res.Int_123_414
Author(s) : Zengin G , Paksoy MY , Aumeeruddy MZ , Glamocilja J , Sokovic M , Diuzheva A , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Rodrigues MJ , Custodio L , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food Res Int , 123 :414 , 2019
Abstract : Bunium species have been reported to be used both as food and in traditional medicines. The scientific community has attempted to probe into the pharmacological and chemical profiles of this genus. Nonetheless, many species have not been investigated fully to date. In this study, we determined the phenolic components, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activities of aerial parts of four Bunium species (B. sayai, B. pinnatifolium, B. brachyactis and B. macrocarpum). Results showed that B. microcarpum and B. pinnatifolium were strong antioxidants as evidenced in the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays. B. brachyactis was the most effective metal chelator, and displayed high enzyme inhibition against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase, glucosidase, and lipase. The four species showed varied antimicrobial activity against each microorganism. Overall, they showed high activity against P. mirabilis and E. coli (MIC and MBC <1mg mL(-1)). B. brachyactis was more effective against Aspergillus versicolor compared to the standard drug ketoconazole. B. brachyactis was also more effective than both ketoconazole and bifonazole against Trichoderma viride. B. sayai was more effective than ketoconazole in inhibiting A. fumigatus. B. sayai was most non-toxic to HEK 293 (cellular viability=117%) and HepG2 (cellular viability=104%). The highest level of TPC was observed in B. pinnatifolium (35.94mg GAE g(-1)) while B. microcarpum possessed the highest TFC (39.21 mg RE g(-1)). Seventy four compounds were detected in B. microcarpum, 70 in B. brachyactis, 66 in B. sayai, and 51 in B. pinnatifolium. Quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, pantothenic acid, esculin, isoquercitrin, rutin, apigenin, and scopoletin were present in all the four species. This study showed that the four Bunium species are good sources of biologically active compounds with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential.
ESTHER : Zengin_2019_Food.Res.Int_123_414
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2019_Food.Res.Int_123_414
PubMedID: 31284993

Title : Chemical Profiling and Biological Properties of Extracts from Different Parts of Colchicum Szovitsii Subsp. Szovitsii - Rocchetti_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
Author(s) : Rocchetti G , Senizza B , Zengin G , Okur MA , Montesano D , Yildiztugay E , Lobine D , Mahomoodally MF , Lucini L
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 8 : , 2019
Abstract : Like other members of the Colchicum genus, C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii is also of medicinal importance in Turkish traditional medicine. However, its biological properties have not been fully investigated. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of flower, root and leaf extracts, obtained using different extraction methods. In addition, a comprehensive (poly)-phenolic and alkaloid profiling of the different extracts was undertaken. In this regard, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) allowed us to putatively annotate 195 polyphenols and 87 alkaloids. The most abundant polyphenols were flavonoids (83 compounds), whilst colchicine and 2-demethylcolchicine were some of the most widespread alkaloids in each extract analyzed. However, our findings showed that C. szovitsii leaf extracts were a superior source of both total polyphenols and total alkaloids (being, on average 24.00 and 2.50 mg/g, respectively). Overall, methanolic leaf extracts showed the highest (p < 0.05) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) reducing power (on average 109.52 mgTE/g) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (on average 90.98 mgTE/g). Interestingly, each C. szovitsii methanolic extract was more active than the water extracts when considering enzymatic inhibition such as against tyrosinase, glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Strong correlations (p < 0.01) were also observed between polyphenols/alkaloids and the biological activities determined. Multivariate statistics based on supervised orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) allowed for the detection of those compounds most affected by the different extraction methods. Therefore, this is the first detailed evidence showing that C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii might provide beneficial effects against oxidative stress and the associated chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms of action need to be further investigated.
ESTHER : Rocchetti_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
PubMedSearch : Rocchetti_2019_Antioxidants.(Basel)_8_
PubMedID: 31835669

Title : HPLC-MS\/MS chemical characterization and biological properties of Origanum onites extracts: a recent insight - Mahomoodally_2018_Int.J.Environ.Health.Res__1
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Zengin G , Aladag MO , Ozparlak H , Diuzheva A , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Aumeeruddy MZ
Ref : Int J Environ Health Res , :1 , 2018
Abstract : This study investigated into the phytochemical profile and biological properties of extracts (methanol and aqueous) of Origanum onites based on the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and antibacterial activities. The aqueous extract exhibited higher antioxidant activities in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating assays, compared to the methanol extract. In contrast, the methanol extract was the most effective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase. The methanol extract also showed higher antibacterial activity with highest inhibition against Escherichia coli (MIC = 6.25 mg/mL). The total phenolic content was higher in the aqueous extract while the methanol extract possessed higher total flavonoid content. A total of 28 and 18 compounds (belonging to polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and ester classes) were identified from the methanol and water extracts, respectively. These findings suggest that O. onites could be helpful in the management of oxidative stress-associated diseases including diabetes and neurodegenerative complications. Abbreviations: ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid; ACAE: acarbose equivalent; AChE: acetylcholinesterase; AD: Alzheimer's disease; BChE: butyrylcholinesterase; CUPRAC: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; EDTAE: EDTA equivalent; FRAP: ferric reducing antioxidant power; GAE: gallic acid equivalent; GALAE: galatamine equivalent; HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography; KAE: kojic acid equivalent; RE: rutin equivalents; TE: trolox equivalent; TPC: total phenolic content; TFC: total flavonoid content.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2018_Int.J.Environ.Health.Res__1
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2018_Int.J.Environ.Health.Res__1
PubMedID: 30569760

Title : A comprehensive appraisal on Crocus chrysanthus (Herb.) Herb. flower extracts with HPLC-MS\/MS profiles, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties - Zengin_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_164_581
Author(s) : Zengin G , Aumeeruddy MZ , Diuzheva A , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Yildiztugay A , Yildiztugay E , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 164 :581 , 2018
Abstract : In the quest for new drugs of herbal origin, the ethyl acetate (EAE), methanol (ME), and water (WE) extracts of Crocus chrysanthus (Herb.) Herb. flowers were analyzed for their polyphenolic composition, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory potential. WE showed the highest antioxidant activities in all assays including metal chelating, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP, CUPRAC, ABTS and DPPH. EAE was the most effective enzyme inhibitor, exhibiting the highest inhibition against some enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease (cholinesterases), diabetes mellitus (alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase) and hyperpigmentation problems (tyrosinase). The highest total phenolics (34.99 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids content (77.58 mg RE/g) were observed in WE and ME, respectively. Eight compounds were identified in EAE, 24 in ME, and 15 in WE. Kaempferol 3-O glucoside was found in all extracts. In conclusion, C. chrysanthus flowers can be suggested as a source of bioactive components with potential use against chronic disorders caused by oxidative stress. Future in-depth studies are recommended to determine the biological effects of isolated compounds from C. chrysanthus to identify the main compounds modulating the observed activities.
ESTHER : Zengin_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_164_581
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_164_581
PubMedID: 30466026

Title : Phenolic components and assessment of biological properties of Tchihatchewia isatidea Boiss. extracts: Docking and functional approaches for designing novel products - Zengin_2018_Food.Chem.Toxicol_111_423
Author(s) : Zengin G , Abdallah HH , Dogan A , Mollica A , Aumeeruddy-Elalfi Z , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , 111 :423 , 2018
Abstract : The potentiality of bioactive phenolic compounds may result in plant extracts having multiple biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate into the biological activities of the methanolic, ethyl acetate, and water extracts of Tchihatchewia isatidea Boiss, an endemic medicinal plant of Turkey. The phenolic compositions of the extracts were confirmed using RP-HPLC. Extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant through a panoply of assays; their anti-diabetic potential, and plausible inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase. Molecular modelling methods were also used to assess the docking properties of phenolic compounds on tyrosinase. The major and most abundant compounds were rosmarinic acid (570 +/- 14 mug/g extract in the methanolic extract), ferrulic acid (336 +/- 6 mug/g extract in the methanolic extract), (+)-catechin (340 +/- 4 mug/g extract in the water extract), apigenin (182 +/- 4 mug/g extract in the methanolic extract), and epicatechin (188 +/- 12 mug/g extract in the water extract). Radical scavenging, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activities were detected in the extracts, with preponderance activity observed in the methanolic extract. In conclusion, the potential clinical applications observed during this study may provide new insights into the molecular aspect particularly for neuroprotective and anti-diabetic mechanisms involving oxidative stress.
ESTHER : Zengin_2018_Food.Chem.Toxicol_111_423
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2018_Food.Chem.Toxicol_111_423
PubMedID: 29198858

Title : Paeonia arietina and Paeonia kesrounansis bioactive constituents: NMR, LC-DAD-MS fingerprinting and in vitro assays - Sut_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_165_1
Author(s) : Sut S , Zengin G , Dall'Acqua S , Gazdova M , Smejkal K , Bulut G , Dogan A , Haznedaroglu MZ , Aumeeruddy MZ , Maggi F , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 165 :1 , 2018
Abstract : Paeonia species have been valued for their ethnomedicinal uses in various countries and received much interest among the scientific community for their therapeutic properties, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects. The multiple phytotherapeutical applications of Paeonia species inspired us to establish the phytochemical fingerprint and to evaluate the biological properties of ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts from the roots and aerial parts of two Paeonia species (P. arietina G. Anderson and P. kesrounansis Thiebaut). Phytoconstituents of P. arietina and P. kesrounansis extracts were analyzed using 1D and 2D NMR and LC-DAD-ESI-MS. The total content of phenolics (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) in the extracts was also evaluated. The antioxidant activity was profiled using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelation assays. Enzyme inhibitory properties were evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase. Phytochemical analysis of P. arietina and P. kesrounansis extracts showed the presence of galloyl esters of sugars, galloyl monoterpenes, and glycosylated flavonoids. The three solvent extracts presented different behavior in the bioassays. The highest antioxidant activity, tyrosinase and AChE inhibition were observed for the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of P. kesrounansis. In addition, the ethyl acetate extracts of the aerial parts of both plants were the most effective inhibitors of alpha-amylase. The highest BChE inhibition was observed for root methanolic extract of P. kesrounansis while the root ethyl acetate extract of P. arietina exerted the strongest inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Methanol extract of P. kesrounansis aerial parts presented the highest TPC, while TFC was greatest in the corresponding extract of P. arietina. Our findings can be considered as a starting point for future studies to further validate the effectiveness and safety profiles of these plants in folk medicine.
ESTHER : Sut_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_165_1
PubMedSearch : Sut_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_165_1
PubMedID: 30481579

Title : Biological, chemical and in silico fingerprints of Dianthus calocephalus Boiss.: A novel source for rutin - Uysal_2018_Food.Chem.Toxicol_113_179
Author(s) : Uysal S , Aktumsek A , Picot-Allain CMN , Unuvar H , Mollica A , Georgiev MI , Zengin G , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , 113 :179 , 2018
Abstract : Extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) from Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. prepared by different extraction techniques (maceration, Soxhlet, and ultrasonication) were studied for possible inhibitory action against key enzymes (alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase, and tyrosinase). Antioxidant potential was established using a battery of assays and phenolic compounds profiled by RP-HPLC. Binding pose of tyrosinase with rutin was studied by means of molecular docking. Methanol extracts showed the highest phenolic (39.35-40.25 mgGAE/g) content and rich in rutin (61.38-72.07mg/g extract). Ethyl acetate extracts of D. calocephalus were potent inhibitors of acetyl (1.45-1.48 mgGALAE/g) and butyryl (2.44-2.74 mgGALAE/g) cholinesterases. Docking studies showed that rutin interacts with the side chains of the key amino acid residues and to the copper atom found at the active site of tyrosinase. Methanol extracts showed highest antioxidant capacity. D. calocephalus showed interesting biological properties that could be further studied to manage diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and hyperpigmentation.
ESTHER : Uysal_2018_Food.Chem.Toxicol_113_179
PubMedSearch : Uysal_2018_Food.Chem.Toxicol_113_179
PubMedID: 29407471

Title : Biologically-active compounds from two members of the Asteraceae family: Tragopogon dubius Scop. and Tussilago farfara L - Uysal_2018_J.Biomol.Struct.Dyn__1
Author(s) : Uysal S , Senkardes I , Mollica A , Zengin G , Bulut G , Dogan A , Glamoclija J , Sokovic M , Lobine D , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Biomol Struct Dyn , :1 , 2018
Abstract : Tragopogon dubius and Tussilago farfara are consumed as vegetables and used in folk medicine to manage common diseases. Herein, the chemical compositions and biological activities of different leaf extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) of T. dubius and T. farfara were evaluated. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant abilities of the extracts were tested using different assays including free radical scavenging, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating assays. Enzyme inhibitory potentials were evaluated against cholinesterases, tyrosinase, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. Complexes of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic and rosmarinic acid) were docked into the enzymatic cavity of alpha-glucosidase and subjected to molecular dynamic calculation, enzyme conformational stability, and flexibility analysis. T. dubius and T. farfara extracts showed remarkable antioxidant potentials. Ethyl acetate extracts of T. dubius and T. farfara were the most potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. T. dubius ethyl acetate extract and T. farfara methanolic extract showed noteworthy activity against alpha-glucosidase. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the abundance of some phenolic compounds including chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Ethyl acetate extract of T. dubius showed notable antifungal activity against all strains. Docking studies showed best pose for chlorogenic acid was stabilized by a network of hydrogen bonds with residues Asp1157, Asp1279, whereas rosmarinic acid showed several hydrogen bonds with Asp1157, Asp1420, Asp1526, Lys1460, and Trp1369. This study further validates the use of T. dubius and T. farfara in traditional medicine, as well as act as a stimulus for further studies for future biomedicine development.
ESTHER : Uysal_2018_J.Biomol.Struct.Dyn__1
PubMedSearch : Uysal_2018_J.Biomol.Struct.Dyn__1
PubMedID: 30058457

Title : Multifunctional approaches to provide potential pharmacophores for the pharmacy shelf: Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt - Uysal_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_78_64
Author(s) : Uysal A , Ozer OY , Zengin G , Stefanucci A , Mollica A , Picot-Allain CMN , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Comput Biol Chem , 78 :64 , 2018
Abstract : Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt. commonly known as "hogweed" is traditionally used to manage several human ailments. This investigation assessed, for the first time, the enzyme inhibitory properties, antioxidant activity, phytochemical profile, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial potential of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of H. sphondylium. We also established the possible interactions of identified phenolic compounds with cholinesterases, amylase, glucosidase, and tyrosinase using in silico docking studies. Chlorogenic acid was found in high amounts in the methanol extract of H. sphondylium. The methanol extract was an effective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (1.70 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g extract) while the ethyl acetate extract showed pronounced inhibitory action against butyrylcholinesterase (1.77 mg GALAE/g extract). The extracts exhibited low inhibition against amylase (0.12-0.84 mmol acarbose equivalent (ACAE)/g extract) and a more pronounced inhibition against glucosidase (2.29-3.65 mmol ACAE/g extract). In silico results showed that rutin and quercetin (-70.4 and -72.2 Kcal/mol, for rutin and quercetin respectively) docked to the enzymatic cavity of acetylcholinesterase but these phenolic compounds showed less affinity with butyrylcholinesterase (-15.0 and -5.2 Kcal/mol, for rutin and quercetin respectively). The extracts did not induce any mutations on the bacterial strains, while they have excellent antimutagenic capacity against well-known mutagens (inhibition values 98%, 97% and 96%). The methanol extract (0.78 mg/ml) showed moderate antifungal activity while the ethyl acetate extract (0.78-3.12 mg/ml) showed weak to moderate antimicrobial activity. This study provides valuable baseline data which might serve for the development of future pharmacophores for the management of human ailments.
ESTHER : Uysal_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_78_64
PubMedSearch : Uysal_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_78_64
PubMedID: 30500554

Title : In vitro and in silico perspectives on biological and phytochemical profile of three halophyte species-A source of innovative phytopharmaceuticals from nature - Zengin_2018_Phytomedicine_38_35
Author(s) : Zengin G , Aumeeruddy-Elalfi Z , Mollica A , Yilmaz MA , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Phytomedicine , 38 :35 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Halophytes are considered as valuable sources of traditional drugs in different countries. PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate biological and chemical fingerprints of three halophytes (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) C, Koch, Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen and Salicornia europaea L.). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant and enzymatic inhibitory potential (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and tyrosinase) were assessed. The total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and the chemical profiles were appraised using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Molecular docking was conducted to provide additional insights of molecular interactions of the enzymes/phytochemicals. RESULTS: Ethyl acetate extract was the most efficient extract, with A. macrostachyum being the most potent towards DPPH and ABTS radicals and phosphomolybdenum assay. Ethyl acetate extract of A. macrostachyum was also the best reducing agent (CUPRAC and FRAP assays). Methanol and ethyl acetate extract of A. macrostachyum, H. portulacoides, and S. europaea showed significant enzyme inhibition potential. Ethyl acetate extract of A. macrostachyum showed the highest total phenolic (29.54+/-0.78 mgGAEs/g extract) while the ethyl acetate extract of S. europaea was more abundant in flavonoids (18.26+/-0.11 mgREs/g extract). Phytochemical profiling allowed the identification of several components in the methanolic extracts (16 in A. macrostachyum, 14 in H. portulacoides, and 11 in S. europaea), with quinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rhamnetin being most abundant. Docking studies revealed that the above compounds showed scores for the enzymes tested. CONCLUSION: The three halophytes studies could be considered as potential sources of biologically-active compounds for novel phytopharmaceuticals development.
ESTHER : Zengin_2018_Phytomedicine_38_35
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2018_Phytomedicine_38_35
PubMedID: 29425653

Title : Characterization of phytochemical components of Ferula halophila extracts using HPLC-MS\/MS and their pharmacological potentials: a multi-functional insight - Zengin_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_160_374
Author(s) : Zengin G , Uysal A , Diuzheva A , Gunes E , Jeko J , Cziaky Z , Picot-Allain CMN , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 160 :374 , 2018
Abstract : The inhibitory action of F. halophila extracts (acetone, chloroform, and methanol) against key enzymes linked to diabetes (alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase), cognitive functions (acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), butyryl cholinesterase (BChE)), and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) was assessed. The mutagenic/antimutagenic activities were assessed and the phytochemical profile established by HPLC-MS/MS. The acetone extract showed the highest phenolic (55.22 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (34.52 mg RE/g extract) contents. The chloroform extract was a potent inhibitor of cholinesterases (4.86 and 6.13 mg GALAE/g extract, against AChE and BChE, respectively). Cinnamic acid derivatives (methyl cinnamate, ferulic acid, methoxycinnamic acid isomer) were identified in the chloroform extract. Methanol extract showed potent inhibitory action against tyrosinase (137.63 mg KAE/g extract) and glucosidase (43.02 mmol ACAE/g extract). The chloroform extract (32.07 mg EDTAE/g extract) showed potent metal chelating potential. The neuroprotective action of the chloroform extract might be attributed to the metal chelating action coupled by the cholinesterase inhibitory potential. F. halophila showed no mutagenic capacity. When combined with 2-aminoflouren and 2-aminoanthracene, the acetone and chloroform extracts revealed excellent antimutagenicity in the presence of metabolic activation enzymes for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The observed inhibitory effects of F. halophila against the studied enzyme suggest that this plant could be a promising source of bioactive phytochemicals for the management of clinical conditions.
ESTHER : Zengin_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_160_374
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_160_374
PubMedID: 30121555

Title : Multidirectional investigations on different parts of Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. rotundum (L.) Stearn: Phenolic components, in vitro biological, and in silico propensities - Mollica_2018_Food.Res.Int_108_641
Author(s) : Mollica A , Zengin G , Locatelli M , Picot-Allain CMN , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food Res Int , 108 :641 , 2018
Abstract : Allium species have been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. This study attempts for the first time to investigate into the enzyme inhibitory potential of different plant parts of Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. rotundum (L.) Stearn, also known as wild garlic or leek in Turkey. The antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential of the flower, stem, and bulb extracts of A. scorodoprasum were assessed using in vitro bio-assays. The phenolic composition of the different plant parts was also established. The flower extract, having high phenolic content (27.69mg GAEg extract), showed potent antioxidant activity as a metal chelating agent (22.27mgEDTAE/g extract), radical scavenger (34.83 and 66.02mg trolox equivalent (TE)/g extract, for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays, respectively) and reducing agent (90.53mgTE/g extract, for the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay). Besides, the flower extract was a potent inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (3.16mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g extract) and tyrosinase (55.21mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract). The flower extract was rich in rosmarinic acid. In silico studies revealed that rosmarinic acid established several hydrogen bonds and pi-pi interactions in the enzymatic cavity of butyrylcholinesterase. On the other hand, the stem extract of A. scorodoprasum showed inhibitory action against acetylcholinesterase (2.17mgGALAE/g extract) and alpha-amylase (0.55mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). Interestingly, we noted that the bulb extract of A. scorodoprasum, inferior in phenolic compounds, showed the least activity. These results suggest that the different plant parts of A. scorodoprasum possessed different biological activities and might be used as a medicinal food plants for specific therapeutic applications.
ESTHER : Mollica_2018_Food.Res.Int_108_641
PubMedSearch : Mollica_2018_Food.Res.Int_108_641
PubMedID: 29735100

Title : Chemical, biological and molecular modelling analyses to probe into the pharmacological potential of Antidesma madagascariense Lam.: A multifunctional agent for developing novel therapeutic formulations - Mahomoodally_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_161_425
Author(s) : Mahomoodally MF , Atalay A , Nancy Picot MC , Bender O , Celebi E , Mollica A , Zengin G
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 161 :425 , 2018
Abstract : Antidesma madagascariense Lam. (AM), an indigenous medicinal plant to the Mascarene Islands, is used for the treatment of several diseases. We endeavoured to validate its use via evaluating the kinetics of inhibition of crude aqueous extract (CAE) and crude methanol extract (CME) of AM against key metabolic enzymes (pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase [CEase], acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and urease). In vitro antiglycation, antioxidant, cytotoxicity using iCELLigence real time cell analysis system and WST-1 methods, were used. LC-ESI-MS/MS was employed to determine the phenolic composition of the extracts and interaction of selected compounds to the studied enzymes was determined using in silico docking. AChE was inhibited by the CME of AM and CEase by the CAE. Both extracts were active inhibitors of urease and pancreatic lipase. Hyperoside (271.97 mug/g extract), present in large amount in the CME, docked to the enzymatic pocket of urease and CEase. The extracts showed competitive and mixed inhibition of urease and pancreatic lipase, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the CME (6.61 mug GAE/mg crude extract) was higher compared to CAE (2.20 mug GAE/mg crude extract). AM extracts were significantly (p < 0.05) less potent than aminoguanidine in preventing advanced glycation end products formation. Toxicological screening revealed that both extracts were non-toxic on HEK-293 cells. AM crude extracts at concentrations ranging from 78 to 312 mug/ml did not cause a visible change in cell morphology compared to control. This study supports the safe use of AM as a biomedicine for the management and/or treatment of common non-communicable diseases.
ESTHER : Mahomoodally_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_161_425
PubMedSearch : Mahomoodally_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_161_425
PubMedID: 30216791

Title : New insights into the in vitro biological effects, in silico docking and chemical profile of clary sage - Salvia sclarea L - Zengin_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_75_111
Author(s) : Zengin G , Senkardes I , Mollica A , Picot-Allain CMN , Bulut G , Dogan A , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Comput Biol Chem , 75 :111 , 2018
Abstract : Salvia sclarea L. is traditionally used to manage common human ailments and is consumed as a food product. This study aimed to establish the phytochemical profile and antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Salvia sclarea. The inhibitory action of the extracts against alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase was also investigated. Methanol extract showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (81.78mg GAE/g extract and 40.59mg RE/g extract, respectively). Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector analysis revealed that S. sclarea was rich in rosmarinic acid. The water extract exhibited the lowest inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase but the upmost activity against alpha-glucosidase (0.19 and 18.24mmol ACAE/g extract, respectively). Experimental data showed that only the water extract (8.86mg KAE/g extract) significantly inhibited tyrosinase. Docking studies showed that quercetin binds to tyrosinase by two hydrogen and a pi-pi bonds. Salvia sclarea showed interesting biological activity against key enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of common ailments.
ESTHER : Zengin_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_75_111
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_75_111
PubMedID: 29772456

Title : HPLC-DAD profiles and pharmacological insights of Onobrychis argyrea subsp isaurica extracts - Guler_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_76_256
Author(s) : Guler GO , Zengin G , Karadag F , Mollica A , Picot CMN , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Comput Biol Chem , 76 :256 , 2018
Abstract : Onobrychis argyrea Boiss. subsp. Isaurica (Fabaceae), endemic to the eastern Mediterranean region, is a poorly studied medicinal plant. This study sets out to investigate into antioxidant and inhibitory activities of O. argyrea extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) against key enzymes linked to diabetes (alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase), Alzheimer's disease (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase), and skin hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase). Phytochemical composition was determined by HPLC-DAD and in silico approach used to provide additional insight of the possible interaction of the identified phenolic compounds with the studied enzymes. The methanol extract showed potent inhibitory action against acetylcholinesterase (1.55 mg GALAE/g extract), tyrosinase (61.61 mg KAE/g extract), and glucosidase (20.17 mmol ACAE/g extract). The methanol extract of O. argyrea exhibited potent radical scavenging potential (126.51 mg TE/g extract for DPPH scavenging assay) and reducing capacities (311.36 and 200.70 mg TE/g extract, for CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively). Quercetin, apigenin, and benzoic acid were identified in significant amounts in the methanol extract of O. argyrea. Quercetin interacted with the catalytic pocket of glucosidase by establishing hydrogen bonds with Ser157, Ser241, Asp307, and pi-pi interactions with His280 and Tyr158. The observed inhibitory effects of O. argyrea extracts on the studied enzyme suggest that this plant could be a promising source of naturally occurring chemical compounds for the management of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, skin hyperpigmentation disorders, as well as, oxidative stress-related complications.
ESTHER : Guler_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_76_256
PubMedSearch : Guler_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_76_256
PubMedID: 30081342

Title : A Comparative Assessment of Biological Effects and Chemical Profile of Italian Asphodeline lutea Extracts - Melucci_2018_Molecules_23_
Author(s) : Melucci D , Locatelli M , Locatelli C , Zappi A , De Laurentiis F , Carradori S , Campestre C , Leporini L , Zengin G , Picot CMN , Menghini L , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Molecules , 23 : , 2018
Abstract : The present study aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Asphodeline lutea (AL), a wild edible plant of the Mediterranean diet. Roots, aerial parts, and flowers of AL at two different phenological stages were collected from three locations in Italy. The inhibitory activities of extracts on strategic enzymes linked to human diseases were assessed. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro, using six standard bioassays. The phenolic and anthraquinone profiles were also established using HPLC-PDA. Zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper contents were also determined. All the samples inhibited acetylcholinesterase (from 1.51 to 2.20 mg GALAEs/g extract), tyrosinase (from 7.50 to 25.3 mg KAEs/g extract), and alpha-amylase (from 0.37 to 0.51 mmol ACAEs/g extract). Aloe-emodin and physcion were present in all parts, while rhein was not detected. The phenolic profile and the heavy metals composition of specimens gathered from three different regions of Italy were different. It can be argued that samples collected near the street can contain higher concentrations of heavy metals. The experimental data confirm that the A. lutea species could be considered as a potential source of bioactive metabolites, and its consumption could play a positive and safe role in human health maintenance.
ESTHER : Melucci_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedSearch : Melucci_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedID: 29463056

Title : In vitro and in silico evaluation of Centaurea saligna (K.Koch) Wagenitz-An endemic folk medicinal plant - Zengin_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_73_120
Author(s) : Zengin G , Bulut G , Mollica A , Nancy Picot-Allain CM , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Comput Biol Chem , 73 :120 , 2018
Abstract : Centaurea saligna (K.Koch) Wagenitz is an endemic plant used in Turkish folk medicine as antibacterial, tonic, astringent, choleretic, anti-rheumatic, diuretic, and antipyretic. This study attempts for the first time to assess the possible enzyme inhibitory potential, antioxidant activity, and determine the phytochemical profile of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of C. saligna. The water extract had the highest phenolic content (30.18mg GAE/g extract) and the most potent oxidant scavenging activity ((120.53, 111.90, 68.43, and 157.88mg TE/g extract, for CUPRAC [cupric reducing antioxidant capacity], FRAP [ferric reducing antioxidant power], DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] assays respectively)). The water extract (4.16mg KAE/g extract) also inhibited tyrosinase and contained high level of catechin (214mug/g extract). Ethyl acetate extract showed potent inhibitory capacity against cholinesterases (2.22 and 2.21mg GALAE/g extract for acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase, respectively) and alpha-glucosidase (23.80mmol ACAE/g extract). High concentration of apigenin (2472mug/g extract) was identified in the ethyl acetate extract. In silico studies showed that apigenin binds to the enzymatic pocket of alpha-glucosidase and is stabilised by a network of hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking. Data collected in the present study advocates the need for further investigation geared towards validation of C. saligna for the management of complications related to the target enzymes, such as diabetes type II, Alzheimer's disease, and epidermal hyperpigmentation.
ESTHER : Zengin_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_73_120
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2018_Comput.Biol.Chem_73_120
PubMedID: 29477093

Title : Multiple pharmacological approaches on Fibigia eriocarpa extracts by in vitro and computational assays - Zengin_2018_Fundam.Clin.Pharmacol_32_400
Author(s) : Zengin G , Lobine D , Mollica A , Locatelli M , Carradori S , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Fundamental & Clinical Toxicology , 32 :400 , 2018
Abstract : The ethyl acetate, methanolic, and water extracts of Fibigia eriocarpa were assessed for a panoply of bioactivities. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were quantified as well as individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD. The in vitro antioxidant and enzyme (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase) inhibitory potential of the extracts were evaluated. In silico molecular docking was used to investigate possible interaction between dominant compounds and selected enzymes. Vanillin (303 mug/g extract), apigenin (270 mug/g extract), and kaempferol (180 mug/g extract) were the main compounds in the ethyl acetate extract, while the methanolic extract was characterized by the presence of vanillin, rutin, and apigenin (616, 616 and 252 mug/g extract, respectively). (+)-catechin (1422 mug/g extract) was the main compound in the water extracts. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be a superior source of antioxidant compounds and enzyme inhibitors against above-mentioned enzymes. Docking studies revealed that p-hydroxybenzoic and (+)-catechin have the best scores for tyrosinase, while kaempferol and apigenin showed the best binding pose for alpha-glucosidase, AChE, and BChE. Results amassed herein are the first report on the phytochemical and biological attributes of F. eriocarpa, which tend to validate the pharmacological uses of this plant as an alternative medicine.
ESTHER : Zengin_2018_Fundam.Clin.Pharmacol_32_400
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2018_Fundam.Clin.Pharmacol_32_400
PubMedID: 29505673

Title : Selected essential oils inhibit key physiological enzymes and possess intracellular and extracellular antimelanogenic properties in vitro - Aumeeruddy-Elalfi_2018_J.Food.Drug.Anal_26_232
Author(s) : Aumeeruddy-Elalfi Z , Lall N , Fibrich B , Blom van Staden A , Hosenally M , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Food Drug Anal , 26 :232 , 2018
Abstract : Essential oils (EOs) extracted from six medicinal herbs and food plants [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ), Psiadia arguta (PA), Psiadia terebinthina (PT), Citrus grandis (CGp), Citrus hystrix (CH), and Citrus reticulata (CR)] were studied for any inhibitory potential against key physiological enzymes involved in diabetes (alpha-glucosidase), skin aging (collagenase and elastase), and neurodegenerative disorders (acetylcholinesterase). Kinetic studies of the active EOs on the aforementioned enzymes were determined using Lineweaver-Burk plots. The intracellular and extracellular antimelanogenic potential of the EOs were evaluated on B16F10 mouse melanocytes. CH and CR were found to significantly inhibit (2.476 +/- 0.13 mug/mL and 3.636 +/- 0.10 mug/mL, respectively) acetylcholinesterase, compared with galantamine (3.989 +/- 0.16 mug/mL). CH inhibited collagenase (50% inhibitory concentration 28.71 +/- 0.16 mug/mL) compared with the control (24.45 +/- 0.19 mug/mL). The percentage inhibition in the elastase assay of CH was 63.21% compared to the positive control (75.09%). In addition, CH, CR, CGp, CZ, and PT were found to significantly inhibit alpha-glucosidase (276.70 +/- 0.73 mug/mL, 169.90 +/- 0.58 mug/mL, 240.60 +/- 6.50 mug/mL, 64.52 +/- 0.69 mug/mL, and 313.0 +/- 5.0 mug/mL, respectively), compared to acarbose (448.80 +/- 0.81 mug/mL). Active EOs showed both uncompetitive and competitive types of inhibition. The EOs also inhibited intracellular (50% inhibitory concentration 15.92 +/- 1.06 mug/mL, 23.75 +/- 4.47 mug/mL, and 28.99 +/- 5.70 mug/mL for CH, CR, and CGp, respectively) and extracellular (< 15.625 mug/mL for CH, CR, CGp, and PT) melanin production when tested against B16F10 mouse melanocytes. Results from the present study tend to show that EOs extracted from these medicinal plants can inhibit key enzymes and may be potential candidates for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
ESTHER : Aumeeruddy-Elalfi_2018_J.Food.Drug.Anal_26_232
PubMedSearch : Aumeeruddy-Elalfi_2018_J.Food.Drug.Anal_26_232
PubMedID: 29389560

Title : Shedding light on the biological and chemical fingerprints of three Achillea species (A. biebersteinii, A. millefolium and A. teretifolia) - Zengin_2017_Food.Funct_8_1152
Author(s) : Zengin G , Aktumsek A , Ceylan R , Uysal S , Mocan A , Guler GO , Mahomoodally MF , Glamoclija J , Ciric A , Sokovic M
Ref : Food Funct , 8 :1152 , 2017
Abstract : Representatives of the Achillea genus are widely used as foods or nutraceuticals. Considering the increasing demand for herbal dietary supplements with health promoting effects, the objective of this research was to evaluate the biological and chemical profiles of different extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from three Achillea species (A. biebersteinii, A. millefolium and A. teretifolia). The antioxidant (free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP), metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum), enzyme inhibitory (anti-cholinesterase, anti-tyrosinase, anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase) and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) effects were assessed to investigate their biological profiles. Moreover, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined and LC-MS analysis was performed for the chemical profile of the investigated extracts. The LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of several caffeoylquinic acids in these extracts. Generally, the methanol and water extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant abilities, which correlated with the higher levels of phenolic compounds when compared to the ethyl acetate extracts. In addition, the best antimicrobial activities were obtained for the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts. However, the ethyl acetate extract had remarkable enzyme inhibitory potential. On the basis of our results, Achillea species may be promoted as promising sources of natural agents and used for the development of nutraceuticals or functional food ingredients.
ESTHER : Zengin_2017_Food.Funct_8_1152
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2017_Food.Funct_8_1152
PubMedID: 28174780

Title : Combining in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches to evaluate nutraceutical potentials and chemical fingerprints of Moltkia aurea and Moltkia coerulea - Zengin_2017_Food.Chem.Toxicol_107_540
Author(s) : Zengin G , Ceylan R , Katanic J , Mollica A , Aktumsek A , Boroja T , Matic S , Mihailovic V , Stanic S , Aumeeruddy-Elalfi Z , Yilmaz MA , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , 107 :540 , 2017
Abstract : Methanolic extracts of Moltkia aurea Boiss. (MA) and Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. (MC) were investigated for their antioxidant capacity and enzymatic inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and tyrosinase in vitro. MA and MC were also explored for their antimicrobial effect, as well as for their possible genotoxic/antigenotoxic potential on Drosophila melanogaster in vivo. The total bioactive components (phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC)) were determined and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) metabolite profiling of MA and MC appraised. The plausible docking poses of bioactive compounds to key enzymes were further studied using molecular modelling approach. MA proved to be a better antioxidant with higher TPC and TFC compared to MC. Protocatechuic acid, rutin, hesperidin and malic acid were the most abundant in these extracts. Both MA and MC exhibited antigenotoxic potential with a %R in DNA damage of 60.90 and 53.14% respectively. The docking studies revealed that rutin, hesperidin, and rosmarinic acid have the best scores for all the enzymes tested. MA and MC were found to be rich in phytochemicals with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antigenotoxic activities that can be further studied for the management of neurodegenerative complications, diabetes, and hyperpigmentation.
ESTHER : Zengin_2017_Food.Chem.Toxicol_107_540
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2017_Food.Chem.Toxicol_107_540
PubMedID: 28390858

Title : Novel in vitro and in silico insights of the multi-biological activities and chemical composition of Bidens tripartita L - Uysal_2017_Food.Chem.Toxicol_111_525
Author(s) : Uysal S , Ugurlu A , Zengin G , Baloglu MC , Altunoglu YC , Mollica A , Custodio L , Neng NR , Nogueira JMF , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Food & Chemical Toxicology , 111 :525 , 2017
Abstract : Bidens tripartita L. is a traditional phyto-remedy used in several countries, yet there is still a paucity of data on its biological potential. We aimed to provide new insights on the pharmacological potential of extracts prepared from B. tripartita via highlighting its antioxidant, key enzymes inhibitory potency, and DNA protecting effects. Phytochemical profile was established using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) and bioactive compound(s) docked against target enzymes using in silico methods. Cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines was assessed using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability test. The main compounds were luteolin-7-glucoside (cynaroside), chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin in the extracts. The methanol extract exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed strongest alpha-amylase inhibitory activity, while the best alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect recorded for the methanol extract. Molecular docking showed that cynaroside strongly interact to alpha-glucosidase cavity by establishing six hydrogen bonds. B. tripartita extracts were found to protect supercoiled form of pUC19 plasmid (>70%) and also showed anti-proliferative properties. Results amassed in the present study add on to a growing body of literature on the multi-pharmacological potency of B. tripartita which can be applied to bio-products development geared towards management of common diseases.
ESTHER : Uysal_2017_Food.Chem.Toxicol_111_525
PubMedSearch : Uysal_2017_Food.Chem.Toxicol_111_525
PubMedID: 29217268

Title : Multiple pharmacological targets, cytotoxicity, and phytochemical profile of Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn - Picot_2017_Biomed.Pharmacother_89_342
Author(s) : Picot MC , Bender O , Atalay A , Zengin G , Loffredo L , Hadji-Minaglou F , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 89 :342 , 2017
Abstract : Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn. (AT) is traditionally used in Sub-Saharan African countries including Mauritius as a biomedicine for the management of several diseases. However, there is a dearth of experimental studies to validate these claims. We endeavoured to evaluate the inhibitory effects of crude aqueous extract as traditionally used together with the crude methanol extracts of AT leaves on urease, angiotensin (I) converting enzyme (ACE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cholesterol esterase (CEase), glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa), and glycation in vitro. The crude extract showing potent activity against the studied enzymes was further partitioned using different solvents of increasing polarity. The enzyme inhibitory and antiglycation activities of each fraction was assessed. Kinetic of inhibition of the active crude extract/fractions on the aforementioned enzymes was consequently determined using Lineweaver-Burk plots. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-UV/MS) system was used to establish the phytochemical profile of AT. The real time cell analysis system (iCELLigence) was used to monitor any cellular cytotoxicity of AT. Crude methanolextract (CME) was a potent inhibitor of the studied enzymes, with IC50 ranging from 696.22 to 19.73mug/mL. CME (82.5%) significantly (p<0.05) inhibited glycation and was comparable to aminoguanidine (81.5%). Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of CME showed non-competitive, competitive, and uncompetitive mode of inhibition against ACE, CEase, and AChE respectively. Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside was present in CME, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions. Active extract/fractions were found to be non-cytotoxic (IC50>20mug/mL) according to the U.S National Cancer Institute plant screening program. This study has established baseline data that tend to justify the traditional use of AT and open new avenues for future biomedicine development.
ESTHER : Picot_2017_Biomed.Pharmacother_89_342
PubMedSearch : Picot_2017_Biomed.Pharmacother_89_342
PubMedID: 28242543

Title : In vitro and in silico Studies of Mangiferin from Aphloia theiformis on Key Enzymes Linked to Diabetes Type 2 and Associated Complications - Picot_2017_Med.Chem_13_633
Author(s) : Picot MCN , Zengin G , Mollica A , Stefanucci A , Carradori S , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Med Chem , 13 :633 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Mangiferin, was identified in the crude methanol extract, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions of Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the plausible binding modes of mangiferin to key enzymes linked to diabetes type 2 (DT2), obesity, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and urolithiasis using molecular docking. METHOD: Crystallographic structures of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, glycogen phosphorylase (GP), pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase (CEase), angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE), acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), and urease available on the Protein Databank database were docked to mangiferin using Gold 6.0 software. RESULTS: We showed that mangiferin bound to all enzymes by pi-pi and hydrogen bonds mostly. Mangiferin was docked to both allosteric and orthosteric sites of alpha-glucosidase by pi-pi interactions. However, several hydrogen bonds were observed at the orthosteric position, suggesting a preference for this site. The docking of mangiferin on AChE with the catalytic pocket occupied by paraoxon could be attributed to pi-pi stacking involving amino acid residues, Trp341 and Trp124. CONCLUSION: This study provided an insight of the molecular interaction of mangiferin with the studied enzymes and can be considered as a valuable tool for designing new drugs for better management of these diseases.
ESTHER : Picot_2017_Med.Chem_13_633
PubMedSearch : Picot_2017_Med.Chem_13_633
PubMedID: 28290249

Title : Identification of phenolic components via LC-MS analysis and biological activities of two Centaurea species: C. drabifolia subsp. drabifolia and C. lycopifolia - Zengin_2017_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_149_436
Author(s) : Zengin G , Zheleva-Dimitrova D , Gevrenova R , Nedialkov P , Mocan A , Ciric A , Glamoclija J , Sokovic M , Aktumsek A , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 149 :436 , 2017
Abstract : The Centaurea genus has great potential in traditional systems and has attracted much interest in the design of novel drug formulations. The present study was focused on the chemical fingerprints and biological properties of Centaurea drabifolia subsp. drabifolia and Centaurea lycopifolia extracts. Spectrophotometric and LC-MS techniques were used to establish the chemical profiles of the studied extracts. Enzyme inhibitory potential was assessed against key enzymes linked to global health problems, namely neurodegenerative diseases (acetylcholinesterase), pigmentation (tyrosinase), and diabetes (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase). The antimicrobial propensities of the extract were evaluated against 16 bacterial and fungal strains using the microdilution method. The antioxidant abilities were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, ferric, and cupric reducing powers, phosphomolybdenum, and ferrous metal chelation. The total phenolic compounds varied from 18.33 to 32.84mgGAE/g extract. Total flavonoid content of the extracts were in the range of 2.88-22.39mgRE/g extract. Methanol and water extracts showed stronger antioxidant abilities compared to the ethyl acetate extracts. However, the latter extracts were most efficient towards the target enzymes (except for tyrosinase). The water extracts also exerted considerable antimicrobial effects. Findings from the present work tend to support the idea that C. drabifolia subsp. drabifolia and C. lycopifolia may be utilized as effective bio-resources for designing novel health-promoting products or ingredients. It is anticipated that results amassed from this still will open new avenues for research and contribute towards establishing primary data on these species for designing novel phytopharmaceuticals.
ESTHER : Zengin_2017_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_149_436
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2017_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_149_436
PubMedID: 29169111

Title : Euphorbia denticulata Lam.: A promising source of phyto-pharmaceuticals for the development of novel functional formulations - Zengin_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_87_27
Author(s) : Zengin G , Uysal A , Aktumsek A , Mocan A , Mollica A , Locatelli M , Custodio L , Neng NR , Nogueira JM , Aumeeruddy-Elalfi Z , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 87 :27 , 2016
Abstract : In this study, Methanolic extracts of Euphorbia denticulata parts (flowers, leaf, stem, and mix of aerial parts) were assessed for a panoply of bioactivities. Inhibitory potential against key enzymes involved in diabetes (alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase), obesity (pancreatic lipase), neurodegenerative diseases (cholinesterases), and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) was evaluated. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties were also assessed. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and phytochemical profile were established using HPLC/DAD and molecular modelling studies on specific target compounds were performed in silico. The flower extract was found to be rich in phenolics and flavonoids, (60.11+/-1.40mgGAE/g and 42.04+/-0.16mgRE/g respectively), which tend to correlate with the high radical scavenging activity of this extract (120.34+/-3.33mgTE/g and 165.42+/-2.16mgTE/g for DPPH and ABTS respectively). Catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, p-OH-Benzoic acid, rosmarinic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate, found in significant abundance in the extracts were assessed using molecular modelling with the aim to study their docking properties on a set of six enzymes used in this study. The extracts were moderately effective with MIC values ranging between 1.56 to 6.25mg/ml, but potent growth inhibitors of MRSA strains. Results amassed herein can be used as a stimulus for further studies geared towards the development of novel phyto-pharmaceuticals.
ESTHER : Zengin_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_87_27
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_87_27
PubMedID: 28040595

Title : Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Profile of Three Medicinal Plants from Turkey - Zengin_2015_Adv.Pharmacol.Sci_2015_410675
Author(s) : Zengin G , Guler GO , Aktumsek A , Ceylan R , Picot CM , Mahomoodally MF
Ref : Advances in Pharmacology Sci , 2015 :410675 , 2015
Abstract : We aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of three medicinal plants (Hedysarum varium, Onobrychis hypargyrea, and Vicia truncatula) from Turkey against key enzymes involved in human pathologies, namely, diabetes (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase), neurodegenerative disorders (tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase), and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase). The antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid content of ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated using in vitro assays. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC), beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(*)), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal chelating activity on ferrous ions were used to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts on cholinesterase, tyrosinase, and alpha-amylase were significantly higher than the references, galantamine, kojic acid, and acarbose, respectively. The half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of the extracts on TAC, CUPRAC, and FRAP were significantly higher than trolox. The phenol and flavonoid contents of the plant extracts were in the range 20.90 +/- 0.190-83.25 +/- 0.914 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 1.45 +/- 0.200-39.71 +/- 0.092 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The plants were found to possess moderate antioxidant capacities and interesting inhibitory action against key enzymes.
ESTHER : Zengin_2015_Adv.Pharmacol.Sci_2015_410675
PubMedSearch : Zengin_2015_Adv.Pharmacol.Sci_2015_410675
PubMedID: 26798334