Cohen S


Full name : Cohen Sara

First name : Sara

Mail : Dept. of Biochemistry, Israel Inst. for BioI. Res., P.O.B. 19, 70450 Ness-Ziona

Zip Code :

City :

Country : Israel

Email :

Phone : {972} 8 381438

Fax : {972} 8 401094

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References (29)

Title : Deciphering the Role of Lipid Droplets in Cardiovascular Disease: A Report From the 2017 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop - Goldberg_2018_Circulation_138_305
Author(s) : Goldberg IJ , Reue K , Abumrad NA , Bickel PE , Cohen S , Fisher EA , Galis ZS , Granneman JG , Lewandowski ED , Murphy R , Olive M , Schaffer JE , Schwartz-Longacre L , Shulman GI , Walther TC , Chen J
Ref : Circulation , 138 :305 , 2018
Abstract : Lipid droplets (LDs) are distinct and dynamic organelles that affect the health of cells and organs. Much progress has been made in understanding how these structures are formed, how they interact with other cellular organelles, how they are used for storage of triacylglycerol in adipose tissue, and how they regulate lipolysis. Our understanding of the biology of LDs in the heart and vascular tissue is relatively primitive in comparison with LDs in adipose tissue and liver. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group to discuss how LDs affect cardiovascular diseases. The goal of the working group was to examine the current state of knowledge on the cell biology of LDs, including current methods to study them in cells and organs and reflect on how LDs influence the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the working group discussion and recommendations on research areas ripe for future investigation that will likely improve our understanding of atherosclerosis and heart function.
ESTHER : Goldberg_2018_Circulation_138_305
PubMedSearch : Goldberg_2018_Circulation_138_305
PubMedID: 30012703

Title : Alginate-coated magnetic nanoparticles for noninvasive MRI of extracellular calcium - Bar-Shir_2014_NMR.Biomed_27_774
Author(s) : Bar-Shir A , Avram L , Yariv-Shoushan S , Anaby D , Cohen S , Segev-Amzaleg N , Frenkel D , Sadan O , Offen D , Cohen Y
Ref : NMR Biomed , 27 :774 , 2014
Abstract : Nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential to increase the diagnostic capacity of many imaging modalities. MRI is currently regarded as the method of choice for the imaging of deep tissues, and metal ions, such as calcium ions (Ca(2+)), are essential ingredients for life. Despite the tremendous importance of Ca(2+) for the well-being of living systems, the noninvasive determination of the changes in Ca(2+) levels in general, and extracellular Ca(2+) levels in particular, in deep tissues remains a challenge. Here, we describe the preparation and contrast mechanism of a flexible easy to prepare and selective superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) NPs for the noninvasive determination of changes in extracellular Ca(2+) levels using conventional MRI. We show that SPIO NPs coated with monodisperse and purified alginate, having a specific molecular weight, provide a tool to selectively determine Ca(2+) concentrations in the range of 250 microm to 2.5 mm, even in the presence of competitive ions. The alginate-coated magnetic NPs (MNPs) aggregate in the presence of Ca(2+) , which, in turn, affects the T2 relaxation of the water protons in their vicinity. The new alginate-coated SPIO NP formulations, which have no effect on cell viability for 24 h, allow the detection of Ca(2+) levels secreted from ischemic cell cultures and the qualitative examination of the change in extracellular Ca(2+) levels in vivo. These results demonstrate that alginate-coated MNPs can be used, at least qualitatively, as a platform for the noninvasive MRI determination of extracellular Ca(2+) levels in myriad in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.
ESTHER : Bar-Shir_2014_NMR.Biomed_27_774
PubMedSearch : Bar-Shir_2014_NMR.Biomed_27_774
PubMedID: 24764262

Title : Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations - Diamant_2014_PLoS.One_9_e87089
Author(s) : Diamant E , Lachmi BE , Keren A , Barnea A , Marcus H , Cohen S , David AB , Zichel R
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e87089 , 2014
Abstract : Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc) of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.
ESTHER : Diamant_2014_PLoS.One_9_e87089
PubMedSearch : Diamant_2014_PLoS.One_9_e87089
PubMedID: 24475231

Title : Attenuated nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated recombinant Bacillus anthracis spore vaccines protect against anthrax - Cohen_2000_Infect.Immun_68_4549
Author(s) : Cohen S , Mendelson I , Altboum Z , Kobiler D , Elhanany E , Bino T , Leitner M , Inbar I , Rosenberg H , Gozes Y , Barak R , Fisher M , Kronman C , Velan B , Shafferman A
Ref : Infect Immun , 68 :4549 , 2000
Abstract : Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that the rPA retains the characteristics of native PA. A single immunization of guinea pigs with 5 x 10(7) spores of one of these recombinant strains, MASC-10, expressing high levels of rPA (>/=100 microgram/ml) from a constitutive heterologous promoter induced high titers of neutralizing anti-PA antibodies. This immune response was long lasting (at least 12 months) and provided protection against a lethal challenge of virulent (Vollum) anthrax spores. The recombinant B. anthracis spore vaccine appears to be more efficacious than the vegetative cell vaccine. Furthermore, while results clearly suggest a direct correlation between the level of expression of PA and the potency of the vaccine, they also suggest that some B. anthracis spore-associated antigen(s) may contribute in a significant manner to protective immunity.
ESTHER : Cohen_2000_Infect.Immun_68_4549
PubMedSearch : Cohen_2000_Infect.Immun_68_4549
PubMedID: 10899854

Title : Molecular Aspects of Catalysis and of Allosteric Regulation of Aceytlcholinesterases -
Author(s) : Shafferman A , Ordentlich A , Barak D , Kronman C , Ariel N , Leitner M , Segall Y , Bromberg A , Reuveny S , Marcus D , Bino T , Lazar A , Cohen S , Velan B
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :189 , 1995

Title : Dissection of the human acetylcholinesterase active center determinants of substrate specificity. Identification of residues constituting the anionic site, the hydrophobic site, and the acyl pocket - Ordentlich_1993_J.Biol.Chem_268_17083
Author(s) : Ordentlich A , Barak D , Kronman C , Flashner Y , Leitner M , Segall Y , Ariel N , Cohen S , Velan B , Shafferman A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 268 :17083 , 1993
Abstract : Substrate specificity determinants of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) were identified by combination of molecular modeling and kinetic studies with enzymes mutated in residues Trp-86, Trp-286, Phe-295, Phe-297, Tyr-337, and Phe-338. The substitution of Trp-86 by alanine resulted in a 660-fold decrease in affinity for acetythiocholine but had no effect on affinity for the isosteric uncharged substrate (3,3-dimethylbutylthioacetate). The results demonstrate that residue Trp-86 is the anionic site which binds, through cation-pi interactions, the quaternary ammonium of choline, and that of active center inhibitors such as edrophonium. The results also suggest that in the non-covalent complex, charged and uncharged substrates with a common acyl moiety (acetyl) bind to different molecular environments. The hydrophobic site for the alcoholic portion of the covalent adduct (tetrahedral intermediate) includes residues Trp-86, Tyr-337, and Phe-338, which operate through nonpolar and/or stacking interactions, depending on the substrate. Substrates containing choline but differing in the acyl moiety (acetyl, propyl, and butyryl) revealed that residues Phe-295 and Phe-297 determine substrate specificity of the acyl pocket for the covalent adducts. Phe-295 also determines substrate specificity in the non-covalent enzyme substrate complex and thus, the HuAChE F295A mutant exhibits over 130-fold increase in the apparent bimolecular rate constant for butyrylthiocholine compared with wild type enzyme. Reactivity toward specific butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors is similarly dependent on the nature of residues at positions 295 and 297. Amino acid Trp-286 at the rim of the active site "gorge" and Trp-86, in the active center, are essential elements in the mechanism of inhibition by propidium, a peripheral anionic site ligand. Molecular modeling and kinetic data suggest that a cross-talk between Trp-286 and Trp-86 can result in reorientation of Trp-86 which may then interfere with stabilization of substrate enzyme complexes. It is proposed that the conformational flexibility of aromatic residues generates a plasticity in the active center that contributes to the high efficiency of AChE and its ability to respond to external stimuli.
ESTHER : Ordentlich_1993_J.Biol.Chem_268_17083
PubMedSearch : Ordentlich_1993_J.Biol.Chem_268_17083
PubMedID: 8349597
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE , human-BCHE

Title : N-glycosylation of human acetylcholinesterase: effects on activity, stability and biosynthesis - Velan_1993_Biochem.J_296_649
Author(s) : Velan B , Kronman C , Ordentlich A , Flashner Y , Leitner M , Cohen S , Shafferman A
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 296 :649 , 1993
Abstract : The role of N-glycosylation in the function of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) was examined by site-directed mutagenesis (Asn to Gln substitution) of the three potential N-glycosylation sites Asn-265, Asn-350 and Asn-464. Analysis of HuAChE mutants, defective in a single or multiple N-glycosylation sites, by expression in transiently or stably transfected human embryonal 293 kidney cells suggests the following. (a) All three AChE glycosylation signals are utilized, but not all the secreted molecules are fully glycosylated. (b) Glycosylation at all sites is important for effective biosynthesis and secretion; extracellular AChE levels in mutants defective in one, two or all three sites amounted to 20-30%, 2-4% and about 0.5% of wild-type level respectively. (c) Some glycosylation mutants display impaired stability, as reflected by increased susceptibility to heat inactivation; substitution of Asn-464 has the most pronounced effect on thermostability. (d) Abrogation of N-glycosylation has no detectable effect on the enzyme activity of HuAChE; all glycosylation mutants, including the triple mutant, hydrolyse acetylthiocholine efficiently, displaying Km, kcat. and kcat./Km values similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. (e) In most mutants, inhibition profiles with edrophonium and bisquaternary ammonium ligands are identical with those of wild-type enzyme; the Asn-350 mutants, however, exhibit a slight decrease in their affinity towards these ligands. (f) Elimination of oligosaccharide side chains has no detectable effect on the surface-related 'peripheral-site' functions; like the wild-type enzyme, all mutants were inhibited by propidium and by increased concentrations of acetylthiocholine.
ESTHER : Velan_1993_Biochem.J_296_649
PubMedSearch : Velan_1993_Biochem.J_296_649
PubMedID: 8280063

Title : Substrate inhibition of acetylcholinesterase: residues affecting signal transduction from the surface to the catalytic center - Shafferman_1992_EMBO.J_11_3561
Author(s) : Shafferman A , Velan B , Ordentlich A , Kronman C , Grosfeld H , Leitner M , Flashner Y , Cohen S , Barak D , Ariel N
Ref : EMBO Journal , 11 :3561 , 1992
Abstract : Amino acids located within and around the 'active site gorge' of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were substituted. Replacement of W86 yielded inactive enzyme molecules, consistent with its proposed involvement in binding of the choline moiety in the active center. A decrease in affinity to propidium and a concomitant loss of substrate inhibition was observed in D74G, D74N, D74K and W286A mutants, supporting the idea that the site for substrate inhibition and the peripheral anionic site overlap. Mutations of amino acids neighboring the active center (E202, Y337 and F338) resulted in a decrease in the catalytic and the apparent bimolecular rate constants. A decrease in affinity to edrophonium was observed in D74, E202, Y337 and to a lesser extent in F338 and Y341 mutants. E202, Y337 and Y341 mutants were not inhibited efficiently by high substrate concentrations. We propose that binding of acetylcholine, on the surface of AChE, may trigger sequence of conformational changes extending from the peripheral anionic site through W286 to D74, at the entrance of the 'gorge', and down to the catalytic center (through Y341 to F338 and Y337). These changes, especially in Y337, could block the entrance/exit of the catalytic center and reduce the catalytic efficiency of AChE.
ESTHER : Shafferman_1992_EMBO.J_11_3561
PubMedSearch : Shafferman_1992_EMBO.J_11_3561
PubMedID: 1396557

Title : Mutagenesis of human acetylcholinesterase. Identification of residues involved in catalytic activity and in polypeptide folding - Shafferman_1992_J.Biol.Chem_267_17640
Author(s) : Shafferman A , Kronman C , Flashner Y , Leitner M , Grosfeld H , Ordentlich A , Gozes Y , Cohen S , Ariel N , Barak D , Harel M , Silman I , Sussman JL , Velan B
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 267 :17640 , 1992
Abstract : Evidence for the involvement of Ser-203, His-447, and Glu-334 in the catalytic triad of human acetylcholinesterase was provided by substitution of these amino acids by alanine residues. Of 20 amino acid positions mutated so far in human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), these three were unique in abolishing detectable enzymatic activity (less than 0.0003 of wild type), yet allowing proper production, folding, and secretion. This is the first biochemical evidence for the involvement of a glutamate in a hydrolase triad (Schrag, J.D., Li, Y., Wu, M., and Cygler, M. (1991) Nature 351, 761-764), supporting the x-ray crystal structure data of the Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (Sussman, J.L., Harel, M., Frolow, F., Oefner, C., Goldman, A., Toker, L. and Silman, I. (1991) Science 253, 872-879). Attempts to convert the AChE triad into a Cys-His-Glu or Ser-His-Asp configuration by site-directed mutagenesis did not yield effective AChE activity. Another type of substitution, that of Asp-74 by Gly or Asn, generated an active enzyme with increased resistance to succinylcholine and dibucaine; thus mimicking in an AChE molecule the phenotype of the atypical butyrylcholinesterase natural variant (D70G mutation). Mutations of other carboxylic residues Glu-84, Asp-95, Asp-333, and Asp-349, all conserved among cholinesterases, did not result in detectable alteration in the recombinant AChE, although polypeptide productivity of the D95N mutant was considerably lower. In contrast, complete absence of secreted human AChE polypeptide was observed when Asp-175 or Asp-404 were substituted by Asn. These two aspartates are conserved in the entire cholinesterase/thyroglobulin family and appear to play a role in generating and/or maintaining the folded state of the polypeptide. The x-ray structure of the Torpedo acetylcholinesterase supports this assumption by revealing the participation of these residues in salt bridges between neighboring secondary structure elements.
ESTHER : Shafferman_1992_J.Biol.Chem_267_17640
PubMedSearch : Shafferman_1992_J.Biol.Chem_267_17640
PubMedID: 1517212

Title : Differential long-term effect of AF64A on [3H]ACh synthesis and release in rat hippocampal synaptosomes - Pittel_1992_Brain.Res_586_148
Author(s) : Pittel Z , Cohen S , Fisher A , Heldman E
Ref : Brain Research , 586 :148 , 1992
Abstract : The activities of various presynaptic cholinergic parameters were determined in hippocampal synaptosomes of rats 29 weeks after intracerebroventricular injection of ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A) (3 nmol/2 microliters/side) or vehicle (saline). Synaptosomes were preloaded with [3H]choline ([3H]Ch), treated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate to inhibit cholinesterase activity and then were assayed for their content of [3H]Ch and [3H]acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) and for their ability to synthesize and release [3H]ACh. In synaptosomes from AF64A-treated rats compared with synaptosomes from vehicle-treated rats we observed that: (i) specific uptake of [3H]Ch was reduced to 60% of control; (ii) residing [3H]ACh levels were 43% of control while residing [3H]Ch levels were 72% of control; (iii) basal and K(+)-induced [3H]ACh release were 77% and 73% of control, respectively; (iv) high K(+)-induced synthesis of [3H]ACh was only 9% of control; (v) but, choline acetyltransferase activity remained relatively high, being 80% of control. These results suggest that AF64A-induced cholinergic hypofunction is expressed by both loss of some cholinergic neurons and impairment in the functioning of the spared neurons.
ESTHER : Pittel_1992_Brain.Res_586_148
PubMedSearch : Pittel_1992_Brain.Res_586_148
PubMedID: 1511344

Title : Inhibition of choline efflux results in enhanced acetylcholine synthesis and release in the guinea-pig corticocerebral synaptosomes - Pittel_1992_Neurochem.Int_20_219
Author(s) : Pittel Z , Heldman E , Rubinstein R , Cohen S
Ref : Neurochem Int , 20 :219 , 1992
Abstract : Synthesis and release of [3H]acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) were measured in synaptosomes from the guinea pig cerebral cortex after preloading with [3H]choline ([3H]Ch). We demonstrate here that inhibition of choline (Ch) efflux results in an increase in acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release. Our findings are as follows: (1) inhibition of [3H]Ch efflux by hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) (100 microM), increased the levels of both the released (116% of control) and the residing (115% of control) [3H]ACh. (2) The muscarinic agonist, McN-A-343 (100 microM), which was previously shown to inhibit Ch efflux, also increased the released (121% of control) and the residing (109% of control) [3H]ACh. (3) Omission of Na+ ions (which are required for Ch transport) from the incubation medium had similar effects to those observed with McN-A-343 and HC-3. These results suggest inverse relationships between Ch efflux on one hand, and ACh synthesis and release on the other hand. (4) Depolarization with 50 mM K+, or with the K+ channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (100 microM), also increased the total level of [3H]ACh (113 and 107% of nondepolarized synaptosomes, respectively). However, whereas conditions that inhibit Ch transport such as HC-3, McN-A-343 and "no sodium" increased both the residing and the released [3H]ACh depolarization with high K+ or 4-aminopyridine reduced the residing (79 and 87% of control, respectively) and increased only the released [3H]ACh (182 and 148% of control, respectively).
ESTHER : Pittel_1992_Neurochem.Int_20_219
PubMedSearch : Pittel_1992_Neurochem.Int_20_219
PubMedID: 1284802

Title : Production and secretion of high levels of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase in cultured cell lines: microheterogeneity of the catalytic subunit - Kronman_1992_Gene_121_295
Author(s) : Kronman C , Velan B , Gozes Y , Leitner M , Flashner Y , Lazar A , Marcus D , Sery T , Papier Y , Grosfeld H , Cohen S , Shafferman A
Ref : Gene , 121 :295 , 1992
Abstract : To allow for structural analysis of the human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) subunit, a series of eukaryotic vectors was designed for efficient expression. Several eukaryotic multicistronic expression vectors were tested in various mammalian cell lines. All expression vectors contained the selectable neo gene under control of a weak promoter, while the hAChE cDNA was under control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early or Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (RSV LTR) or simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoters. Optimal production and secretion of recombinant hAChE (rehAChE) was achieved in the embryonal kidney 293 cell line transfected either with the RSV-hAChE or with CMV-hAChE expression vectors. Clones expressing and secreting as much as 5-25 pg of enzyme per cell per 24 h were obtained without resorting to coamplification techniques or continuous maintenance of cells under selective pressure. The purified (specific activity of 6000 units per mg protein) homodimer and tetramer enzyme molecules displayed typical AChE biochemical properties: a Km value of 120 microM for acetylthiocholine; a kcat value of 3.9 x 10(5)/min, and selective by AChE-specific inhibitors. Catalytic subunit dimers (130 kDa) exhibit differential N-glycosylation patterns, and upon reduction resolve into 67- and 70-kDa monomeric subunits. These two forms appear as a single discrete 62-kDa band following deglycosylation by N-glycanase. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the purified mature enzyme suggests the existence of two alternative cleavage sites for the removal of the signal peptide, in which the 'mature' position 1 is either Ala31 or Gly33. Both of these positions conform with the consensus signal peptide recognition sequences and demonstrate bidirected processing of signal peptides on a native molecule.
ESTHER : Kronman_1992_Gene_121_295
PubMedSearch : Kronman_1992_Gene_121_295
PubMedID: 1446827

Title : The effect of elimination of intersubunit disulfide bonds on the activity, assembly, and secretion of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase. Expression of acetylcholinesterase Cys-580----Ala mutant - Velan_1991_J.Biol.Chem_266_23977
Author(s) : Velan B , Grosfeld H , Kronman C , Leitner M , Gozes Y , Lazar A , Flashner Y , Marcus D , Cohen S , Shafferman A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 266 :23977 , 1991
Abstract : Site-directed mutagenesis was used to study the cysteine residue involved in the assembly of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) catalytic subunits. Substitution of the cysteine at position 580 by alanine resulted in impairment of interchain disulfide bridge formation; the mutagenized enzyme (C580A) was secreted from recombinant cells in the monomeric form and failed to assemble into dimers. The mutant monomeric HuAChE did not differ from the native oligomeric enzyme neither in rate of catalysis nor in affinity to acetylthiocholine. Mutant monomers were also shown to retain the acetylcholinesterase characteristic sensitivity to high substrate concentrations. The mutation did not seem to affect the efficiencies of either synthesis or secretion of recombinant HuAChE polypeptides, as was demonstrated in cell lines derived from human embryonic kidney (293 cells) as well as from a human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH). Furthermore, the mutation did not lead to an increase in accumulation of intracellular HuAChE polypeptides, suggesting that export of acetylcholinesterase from cells may not be coupled to subunit assembly.
ESTHER : Velan_1991_J.Biol.Chem_266_23977
PubMedSearch : Velan_1991_J.Biol.Chem_266_23977
PubMedID: 1748670

Title : Recombinant human acetylcholinesterase is secreted from transiently transfected 293 cells as a soluble globular enzyme - Velan_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_143
Author(s) : Velan B , Kronman C , Grosfeld H , Leitner M , Gozes Y , Flashner Y , Sery T , Cohen S , Ben-Aziz R , Seidman S , Shafferman A , Soreq H
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 11 :143 , 1991
Abstract : 1. Coding sequences for the human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; EC hydrophilic subunit were subcloned in an expression plasmid vector under the control of cytomegalovirus IE gene enhancer-promoter. The human embryonic kidney cell line 293, transiently transfected with this vector, expressed catalytically active acetylcholinesterase. 2. The recombinant gene product exhibits biochemical traits similar to native "true" acetylcholinesterase as manifested by characteristic substrate inhibition, a Km of 117 microM toward acetylthiocholine, and a high sensitivity to the specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor BW284C51. 3. The transiently transfected 293 cells (100 mm dish) produce in 24 hr active enzyme capable of hydrolyzing 1500 nmol acetylthiocholine per min. Eighty percent of the enzymatic activity appears in the cell growth medium as soluble acetylcholinesterase; most of the cell associated activity is confined to the cytosolic fraction requiring neither detergent nor high salt for its solubilization. 4. The active secreted recombinant enzyme appears in the monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric globular hydrophilic molecular forms. 5. In conclusion, the catalytic subunit expressed from the hydrophilic AChE cDNA species has the inherent potential to be secreted in the soluble globular form and to generate polymorphism through self-association.
ESTHER : Velan_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_143
PubMedSearch : Velan_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_143
PubMedID: 1849451

Title : Distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially modulate acetylcholine release from corticocerebral synaptosomes - Pittel_1990_J.Neurochem_55_665
Author(s) : Pittel Z , Heldman E , Rubinstein R , Cohen S
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 55 :665 , 1990
Abstract : The effect of McN-A-343 and oxotremorine on acetylcholine (ACh) release and choline (Ch) transport was studied in corticocerebral synaptosomes of the guinea pig. The synaptosomes were preloaded with [3H]Ch after treatment with the irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and then tested for their ability to release isotope-labeled ACh and Ch in the presence and absence of these agents. The kinetics of release were determined at the resting state (basal release) and in the presence of 50 mM K+. Under either condition, McN-A-343 enhanced the release of isotope-labeled ACh, whereas oxotremorine inhibited the K(+)-evoked release but had no effect on the basal release. The enhancing effect of McN-A-343 on basal ACh release was fully blocked by the selective M1 muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine (100 nM). In contrast to its enhancing effect on ACh release, McN-A-343 potently inhibited Ch efflux as well as Ch influx. These effects were not blocked by atropine, a nonselective muscarinic antagonist. Oxotremorine had no effect on Ch transport. Binding studies showed that McN-A-343 was 3.6-fold more potent in displacing radiolabeled quinuclidinyl benzilate from cerebral cortex muscarinic receptors (mostly M1 subtype) than from cerebellar receptors (mostly M2 subtype), whereas oxotremorine was 2.6-fold more potent in the cerebellum. The displacements of radio-labeled pirenzepine and cis-dioxolane confirmed the M1 subtype preference of McN-A-343 and the M2 subtype preference of oxotremorine.
ESTHER : Pittel_1990_J.Neurochem_55_665
PubMedSearch : Pittel_1990_J.Neurochem_55_665
PubMedID: 1695243

Title : Vascular cholinesterases and choline uptake in isolated rat forebrain microvessels: a possible link - Shimon_1989_J.Neurochem_53_561
Author(s) : Shimon M , Egozi Y , Kloog Y , Sokolovsky M , Cohen S
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 53 :561 , 1989
Abstract : The two parameters of the active [methyl-3H]choline uptake into isolated rat forebrain microvessels, Km and Vmax, were determined for 1-, 3-, 10-, and 24-month-old Charles River male rats and compared with the activities of the enzymes choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) in these microvessels over the same time course. The value of Km remained constant over the entire period, but that of Vmax increased from 8.5 +/- 1.0 to 80.6 +/- 16.4 nmol g-1 (mean +/- SEM) over the first 3 months of life. Over the same period, the increase in ChAT activity, from an initial value of 7.1 +/- 1.6 to 10.2 +/- 0.3 nmol g-1 min-1, was not proportional to that of choline uptake. Levels of BCHE activity (0.9-1.3 mumol g-1 min-1) were almost unchanged throughout the entire 24-month period, but those of AChE showed a steady and significant increase from 1 to 24 months, remaining relatively high at senescence (4.7 mumol g-1 min-1), when choline uptake had decreased to one-third of its optimal value. Selective inhibition of AChE with 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammonium-phenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide (0.5 microM) in unruptured capillaries from 3-month-old rats resulted in a decrease in Vmax of choline uptake from approximately 81 to 59 nmol g-1 min-1 or with 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (10 microM) in capillaries from 2-month-old rats from approximately 30 to 15 nmol g-1 min-1. Selective inhibition of BCHE with tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide (100 microM) resulted in an increase in Vmax from approximately 81 to 96 nmol g-1 min-1. It is possible that the two vascular enzyme systems are coupled to a hypothetical endothelial choline transporter, but with an action opposite to each other.
ESTHER : Shimon_1989_J.Neurochem_53_561
PubMedSearch : Shimon_1989_J.Neurochem_53_561
PubMedID: 2746236

Title : Poster: Synaptosomal acetycholine release is modulated by M1 and M2 mACh receptors -
Author(s) : Pittel Z , Heldman E , Rubinstein R , Cohen S
Ref : Trends in Pharmacological Sciences , Suppl :105 , 1989

Title : Tacrine or arecoline mediates reversal of anoxia- or AF64A-induced behavioural disorders in the developing rat - Speiser_1989_Neuropharmacol_28_1325
Author(s) : Speiser Z , Reicher S , Gitter S , Cohen S
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 28 :1325 , 1989
Abstract : A 25 min anoxia, or an intracerebroventricular bilateral 2 nmol dose of ethylcholine aziridinium (AF-64A), administered postnatally to male rat pups, elicited on further development of these behavioural disorders, which are partly related to central cholinergic hypofunction. These included a hyperkinetic syndrome and inferior performance in the passive avoidance test. The anoxia-lesioned group but not the AF-64-A-lesioned one, showed an inferior performance in the active avoidance test. Administration of tacrine, an inhibitor of cholinesterase, or arecoline, a cholinergic agonist, in the drinking water to the nursing mothers, at an estimated daily dose of 15 and 10 mg/kg, then directly to the juvenile rats after weaning and until the age of 40 days, partly reversed the effects of anoxia or AF-64A, normalizing the level of locomotor activity and improving performance in passive avoidance, but not in active avoidance. These beneficial effects persisted long after discontinuation of administration of either drug, suggesting that stimulation of spared cholinoceptors in brain at development had prompted the recovery of cholinergic function.
ESTHER : Speiser_1989_Neuropharmacol_28_1325
PubMedSearch : Speiser_1989_Neuropharmacol_28_1325
PubMedID: 2615915

Title : A study of the contractile response to acetylcholine in human ileal and detrusor muscle: origin of the low efficacy of acetylcholine - Rubinstein_1986_Eur.J.Pharmacol_123_145
Author(s) : Rubinstein R , Nissenkorn I , Cohen S
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 123 :145 , 1986
Abstract : In Krebs solution (3.36 mM Ca2+), the maximal contractile response of human ileal and urinary bladder detrusor muscle to acetylcholine (ACh) was 40-60% that to carbachol (CCh). The maximum response to ACh was reached at a bath concentration of about 1 microM and was maintained throughout a range extending to 100 microM. In the presence of neostigmine (0.1 microM), the maximum response to ACh reached the level of that of CCh. However, bioassay of bath concentrations of ACh at various points of the maximal response in the absence of neostigmine revealed only slight to insignificant diminution of the applied concentration of ACh. Joint application of ACh and CCh generated a dose-response profile consistent with a model of competitive antagonism between a full agonist (CCh) and a partial one (ACh). Also, choline (100 microM) reduced the maximum response to ACh in the presence of neostigmine and that to CCh to 60-80% of control. These observations are consistent with a mechanism whereby intact cholinesterase together with its substrate ACh and possibly a breakdown product of ACh constitute a filter or diffusional barrier regulating the flow of agonist from the enzyme compartment to the receptor compartment.
ESTHER : Rubinstein_1986_Eur.J.Pharmacol_123_145
PubMedSearch : Rubinstein_1986_Eur.J.Pharmacol_123_145
PubMedID: 3709660

Title : Cloning, expression and biological activity of a new variant of human interferon alpha identified in virus induced lymphoblastoid cells - Cohen_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_111
Author(s) : Cohen S , Velan B , Grosfeld H , Shalita Z , Leitner M , Shafferman A
Ref : Developmental Biology Stand , 60 :111 , 1985
Abstract : A synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to a highly conserved sequence in the IFN-alpha gene family, was used to screen a Namalva cDNA library. Among the cDNA clones having typical IFN-alpha traits, one was distinct from previously characterized IFN-alpha cDNAs. E. coli cells carrying this recombinant cDNA plasmid express an alpha-interferon activity. The sequence of this IFN-cDNA is extremely homologous (99.5%) to that of the IFN-alpha J gene and is designated IFN-alpha J1. Several E. coli trp expression plasmids were constructed for efficient transcription and translation of the mature IFN-alpha J1. The maximal level of expression (5 X 10(3) molecules/cells) was obtained from plasmid pJ1-4. A synthetic consensus translation initiation sequence coupled to the trp p/o region (in pJ1-5) proved to be 10 times less effective in promoting metIFN production in bacteria, than the in-vitro mutated trpL initiation sequence carried on pJ1-4. The bacterial IFN-alpha J1 was purified (to over 90% purity) to a specific activity of 1.3 X 10(8) units/mg. The antiviral activity of the purified IFN-alpha J1 was compared with other highly purified IFN-alpha species (bacterial IFN alpha A and alpha C, leukocyte IFN-alpha 1, leukocyte IFN mixture and Namalva IFN preparation) on a large panel of mammalian cell cultures. IFN-alpha J1 exhibits a distinct antiviral activity.
ESTHER : Cohen_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_111
PubMedSearch : Cohen_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_111
PubMedID: 2995168

Title : Cloning of a bovine interferon-alpha gene subfamily and comparisons between genetically engineered and leukocyte bovine interferons - Velan_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_355
Author(s) : Velan B , Cohen S , Grosfeld H , Shalita Z , Shafferman A
Ref : Developmental Biology Stand , 60 :355 , 1985
Abstract : Bovine peripheral leukocytes were virally induced for interferon production, and an acid stable, SDS stable, antiviral activity was detected in the preparation. This bovine interferon (BoIFN) was tested for its ability to induce an antiviral state in various mammalian cells and was found to be specific to cells from bovine origin. The BoIFN cross reacts with antibodies against human IFN-alpha but these antibodies do not neutralize the bovine IFN activity. Leukocyte BoIFN exhibits polymorphism upon Affi-Gel Blue chromatography and SDS-PAGE (16k and 24K). The virally induced leukocytes produce a 13S mRNA which upon translation in oocytes yields an active IFN molecule. Bovine genomic library was constructed and screened for BoIFN-alpha sequences, using human IFN-alpha probes. From the clones isolated, five were found to represent distinct genes. Sequence analysis indicate that these genes are closely related (94% homology). One of these genes was expressed in E. coli under the control of trp promoter operator. The physicochemical and biological properties of the bacterial BoIFN-alpha product resemble those of a subpopulation of natural BoIFN.
ESTHER : Velan_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_355
PubMedSearch : Velan_1985_Dev.Biol.Stand_60_355
PubMedID: 3899795

Title : Mutations not altering the symmetrical sequences in the trp operator yield a constitutive phenotype - Grosfeld_1984_Mol.Gen.Genet_195_358
Author(s) : Grosfeld H , Cohen S , Velan B , Shalita Z , Shafferman A
Ref : Molecular & General Genetics , 195 :358 , 1984
Abstract : An E. coli trp promoter operator mutant was constructed, having two base pair alterations at position -4 and -1 relative to the transcription initiation site (+1). Expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene under this trp promoter operator suggests that it is almost fully constitutive. This trp Oc in vitro derived mutant differs from previously isolated Oc mutants in that its twofold symmetry sequence is identical to that of the wild type trp operator. The base substitution in the operator does not affect the functionality of the trp promoter. The trp Oc promoter DNA fragment is engineered so that it can be manipulated conveniently for efficient expression of various genes in E. coli.
ESTHER : Grosfeld_1984_Mol.Gen.Genet_195_358
PubMedSearch : Grosfeld_1984_Mol.Gen.Genet_195_358
PubMedID: 6092859

Title : Does rigidity in structure of muscarinic agonists and antagonists reflect drug specificity? - Fisher_1980_Monogr.Neural.Sci_7_41
Author(s) : Fisher A , Abraham S , Lachman C , Lass Y , Akselrod S , Akerman E , Cohen S
Ref : Monogr Neural Sci , 7 :41 , 1980
Abstract : The present work is an attempt to elucidate: (1) whether highly rigid structural analogs of acetylcholine are still capable of activating the muscarinic receptor; (2) whether such analogs, be they agonists or antagonists, discriminate among the various ACh-mediated functions, thereby providing a tool for the study of a possible receptor heterogeneity; (3) whether structural rigidity is a significant factor in the kinetics of drug-receptor interaction. To this end, we investigated some properties of drugs in the spiro-(1,3-dioxolane-4,3')-quinuclidine system (SDQ) which embodies the muscarinic pharmacophore in a framework of utmost rigidity. Wherever possible, these properties were compared with those of a closely related but more flexible analog. Variation in effect between members of a rigid-flexible pair or among drugs of varying rigidity is considered to reflect varying affinities towards various sites of action. 2-Methyl-spiro-(1,3-dioxolane-4,3')-quinuclidine (AF-30) is a weak but selective muscarinic agonist. It can be viewed as a highly rigid version of 3-acetoxyquinuclidine (3-AcQ) and it can be used as a probe for detection of heterogeneity among muscarinic receptors. AF-30 is equipotent with 3-AcQ in causing tremors (mice), but has 1/17th the activity of 3-AcQ in the guinea-pig ileum, 1/30th in lowering blood pressure (cats) and 1/10th in inducing analgesia (mice). 2-Diphenylmethyl-spiro(1,3-dioxolane-4',3)-quinuclidine (AF-41) and 2.2-diphenyl-spiro-(1,3-dioxolane-4,3')-quinuclidine (AF-32 are potent antagonists and possess KD values in the same range as those of the more flexible congener 3-diphenylacetoxy-quinuclidine (AF-43) and atropine (0.6--2 nM) but with koff = 0.1 msec-1 (AF-41) and koff = 1 msec-1 (AF-43) (carp atrium). Thus, duration of drug action of drug action at the receptor is a function of structural rigidity in the drug molecule, termination of action being fastest with the flexible molecules. Differences in rigidity among various antagonists also find expression in an unequal distribution of potencies in various tests; thus the rigid antagonists differentiate between two central effects in mice, viz., prevention of oxotremorine-induced tremors and fall from the rotating rod by a factor of 1:20 (especially AF-41 versus AF-43), whereas the more flexible antagonists (AF-43, atropine or even 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate) do not show such as a selectivity. The existence of heterogenous muscarinic receptors can be inferred from data presented. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ESTHER : Fisher_1980_Monogr.Neural.Sci_7_41
PubMedSearch : Fisher_1980_Monogr.Neural.Sci_7_41
PubMedID: 7231438

Title : Offset rate of action of muscarinic antagonists depends on their structural flexibility - Lass_1979_Experientia_35_650
Author(s) : Lass Y , Akselrod S , Gavish B , Cohen S , Fisher A
Ref : Experientia , 35 :650 , 1979
Abstract : Time course measurements of the action of muscarinic antagonists were performed in the spontaneously beating carp atrium. Several high affinity drugs, which embody the quinuclidine structure were examined. The structural flexibility of these molecules was reflected in the dissociation of the drugs from the muscarinic receptor. The dissociation of rigid drugs was very much prolonged as compared to flexible drugs of the same affinity.
ESTHER : Lass_1979_Experientia_35_650
PubMedSearch : Lass_1979_Experientia_35_650
PubMedID: 446670

Title : A study of muscarinic receptor heterogeneity with weak antagonists - Fisher_1976_Eur.J.Pharmacol_38_131
Author(s) : Fisher A , Grunfeld Y , Weinstock M , Gitter S , Cohen S
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 38 :131 , 1976
Abstract : A study of heterogeneity among muscarinic receptors was carried out with new rigid molecules, comprising structures in the fused quinuclidine-valerolactone, quinuclidine-cyclohexenone, quinuclidine-cyclohexanone and quinuclidine-cyclohexane derivatives. These are structurally related to the potent muscarinic agent, 3-acetoxyquinuclidine but substantially different from in it conformation. All proved to antagonize acetylcholine-like activity, but to a different extent in different systems. The equipotent molar ratio with respect to atropine (as 1) was: isolated guinea pig ileum, 10,000-1,000; salivary gland (mouse), 1,000-100; superior cervical ganglion (cat), 100-10; CNS (mouse), approximately 10. It is suggested that the rigid structure induces a three-point constrained fit in the receptor (onium group, hydrophobic moiety and carbonyl group), but that not all muscarinic receptors are capable of responding equally. In this case, receptor specificity of the drug is a direct consequence of its graded departure from the preferred conformation of acetycholine and, therefore, is necessarily associated with partial loss of potency.
ESTHER : Fisher_1976_Eur.J.Pharmacol_38_131
PubMedSearch : Fisher_1976_Eur.J.Pharmacol_38_131
PubMedID: 954822

Title : A theoretical and experimental study of the semirigid cholinergic agonist 3-acetoxyquinuclidine -
Author(s) : Weinstein H , Maayani S , Srebrenik S , Cohen S , Sokolovsky M
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 11 :671 , 1975
PubMedID: 1177874

Title : A kinetic study of the reaction between 1,1'-trimethylenebis (4-hydroximinomethylpyridinium) dibromide and diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate -
Author(s) : Ashani Y , Cohen S
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 11 :967 , 1968
PubMedID: 5697106

Title : Reactivators of inhibited acetylcholinesterase. II. The preparation and properties of some new 4-hydroxyin-nomethyl-l-(N-aminoalkyl)-pyridinium salts -
Author(s) : Ashani Y , Cohen S
Ref : Israel Journal of Chemistry , 5 :59 , 1967

Title : Reactivators of the inhibited acetylcholinesterase. 1. The preparation and properties of 4-hydroximino-methyl-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide -
Author(s) : Ashani Y , Ederey H , Zahavy J , Kunberg W , Cohen S
Ref : Israel Journal of Chemistry , 3 :133 , 1965