Ikeda M

References (29)

Title : Differences in the treatment needs of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and their caregivers and differences in their physicians' awareness of those treatment needs according to the clinical department visited by the patients: a subanalysis of an observational survey study - Ikeda_2024_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_16_59
Author(s) : Ikeda M , Toya S , Manabe Y , Yamakage H , Hashimoto M
Ref : Alzheimers Res Ther , 16 :59 , 2024
Abstract : BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the treatment needs of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and their caregivers, along with their attending physicians' perception of those treatment needs, differ according to the clinical department visited by the patients. METHODS: This was a subanalysis of a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational survey study. Data from the main study were classified according to the clinical department visited by the patient: psychiatric group (P-group), geriatric internal medicine group (G-group), and neurology group (N-group). The treatment needs of patients and caregivers were defined as "the symptom that causes them the most distress", and the frequency of each answer was tabulated. RESULTS: This subanalysis included 134, 65, and 49 patient-caregiver pairs in the P-, G-, and N-groups, respectively. Statistically significant differences in patient background characteristics such as patient age; initial symptom domains; use of cholinesterase inhibitors, levodopa, antipsychotics, and Yokukansan; and total scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12, and Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Parts II and III were shown among the three subgroups. While there were no differences in patients' treatment needs among the subgroups, residual analysis showed that in the N-group, parkinsonism was more of a problem than other symptom domains (p = 0.001). There were significant differences in caregivers' treatment needs among the three subgroups (p < 0.001). The patient-physician concordance rates for the symptom domains that caused patients the most distress were: P-group, 42.9% (kappa coefficient [kappa] = 0.264); G-group, 33.3% (kappa = 0.135), and N-group, 67.6% (kappa = 0.484). The caregiver-physician concordance rates for the symptom domains that caused the caregivers the most distress were: P-group, 54.8% (kappa = 0.351), G-group, 50.0% (kappa = 0.244), and N-group, 47.4% (kappa = 0.170). CONCLUSION: This subanalysis revealed differences in the treatment needs of patients with DLB and their caregivers according to the clinical department they attended. There might be a lack of awareness of those treatment needs by the attending physicians, regardless of their specialty. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000041844.
ESTHER : Ikeda_2024_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_16_59
PubMedSearch : Ikeda_2024_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_16_59
PubMedID: 38481342

Title : Donepezil for dementia with Lewy bodies: meta-analysis of multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II, III, and, IV studies - Mori_2024_Psychogeriatrics__
Author(s) : Mori E , Ikeda M , Iseki E , Katayama S , Nagahama Y , Ohdake M , Takase T
Ref : Psychogeriatrics , : , 2024
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Current evidence for the management of symptoms associated with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) using donepezil is limited. We conducted a meta-analysis of three randomised controlled trials of donepezil in patients with DLB to investigate the overall efficacy of donepezil on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change-plus Caregiver Input (CIBIC-plus). METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed using the data of 312 patients administered placebo or 10 mg donepezil. Overall mean score differences for MMSE, NPI-2, and NPI-10 from baseline to week 12 and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. For CIBIC-plus, which was transformed from a seven-point grade to a dichotomous outcome (improvements/no improvements), odds ratio (OR) and its 95% CI were estimated. Random-effects models were used, and heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochrane's Q test and I(2) statistic. RESULTS: Heterogeneity was suspected for NPI-2 (P < 0.05; I(2) = 87.2%) and NPI-10 (P < 0.05; I(2) = 67.7%) while it was not suspected for MMSE (P = 0.23; I(2) = 32.4%) and CIBIC-plus (P = 0.26; I(2) = 19.8%). The overall mean MMSE score difference (mean difference: 1.50; 95% CI, 0.67-2.34) and the overall odds of improving CIBIC-plus (OR: 2.20; 95% CI, 1.13-4.26) from baseline to week 12 were higher in the donepezil group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Results of our meta-analysis indicated overall efficacy of donepezil on cognitive impairment and global clinical status in patients with DLB.
ESTHER : Mori_2024_Psychogeriatrics__
PubMedSearch : Mori_2024_Psychogeriatrics__
PubMedID: 38439118 || 38439217

Title : Aphasic mild cognitive impairment in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies - Watanabe_2023_Front.Neurol_14_1128566
Author(s) : Watanabe H , Hikida S , Ikeda M , Mori E
Ref : Front Neurol , 14 :1128566 , 2023
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the characteristics of aphasic mild cognitive impairment (aphasic MCI), which is characterized by a progressive and relatively prominent language impairment compared with other cognitive impairments, in the prodromal phase of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: Of the 26 consecutive patients with aphasic MCI who had been prospectively recruited at our hospital, 8 patients were diagnosed with prodromal DLB and underwent language, neurological, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging (N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I] iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography; IMP-SPECT) testing. Three of these patients also underwent cholinesterase inhibitor therapy with donepezil. RESULTS: In our aphasic MCI cohort, the clinical diagnosis of probable prodromal DLB accounted for more than 30% of cases; therefore, the presence of language impairment in prodromal DLB was not very uncommon. Five patients were diagnosed with progressive anomic aphasia and three with logopenic progressive aphasia. Anomic aphasia was characterized by apparent anomia but relatively preserved repetition and comprehension ability and logopenic progressive aphasia by anomia, phonemic paraphasia, and impaired repetition. IMP-SPECT revealed hypoperfusion of the temporal and parietal lobes in the left hemisphere in all but one patient. All patients who underwent cholinesterase inhibitor therapy with donepezil showed improvement in general cognitive function, including language function. DISCUSSION: The clinical and imaging features of aphasic MCI in prodromal DLB are similar to those observed in Alzheimer's disease. Progressive fluent aphasia, such as progressive anomic aphasia and logopenic progressive aphasia, is one of the clinical presentations in prodromal state of DLB. Our findings provide further insight into the clinical spectrum of prodromal DLB and may contribute to the development of medication for progressive aphasia caused by cholinergic insufficiency.
ESTHER : Watanabe_2023_Front.Neurol_14_1128566
PubMedSearch : Watanabe_2023_Front.Neurol_14_1128566
PubMedID: 37077573

Title : Case report: Delusional infestation in dementia with Lewy bodies - Taomoto_2022_Front.Psychiatry_13_1051067
Author(s) : Taomoto D , Kanemoto H , Satake Y , Yoshiyama K , Iwase M , Hashimoto M , Ikeda M
Ref : Front Psychiatry , 13 :1051067 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Delusional infestation is characterized by delusions of being infested with parasites, vermin, or small insects and is frequently accompanied by tactile and visual hallucinations. Herein, we report two cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with delusional infestation. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was an 83-year-old man. At the age of 75, he began to show symptoms of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. At the age of 83, he began to complain of visual hallucinations of people and delusional infestation with tactile and visual hallucinations of insects, resulting in the use of insecticides for non-existent insects. He also complained of mild amnesia and was admitted to our psychiatric ward for evaluation and treatment. After admission, the delusional infestation disappeared without any new medication. Based on our examinations, he was diagnosed with probable DLB with delusional infestation. He was treated with 5 mg/day of donepezil hydrochloride; his visual and tactile hallucinations disappeared, and the delusional infestation had not recurred at the 1-year follow-up. Case 2 was a 69-year-old woman. At the age of 60, she underwent clipping for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). At the age of 65, she began to have visual hallucinations of people. At the age of 67, she began to complain of visual illusions in which she mistook lint for insects. At the age of 69, she developed delusional infestation and mild amnesia. She took various actions to get rid of these non-existent insects, including insecticide use, consulting an exterminator, and visiting several dermatologists. She eventually burnt her leg in an attempt to kill the non-existent insects. Based on our examinations, she was diagnosed with prodromal DLB in addition to SAH sequelae. We determined that her delusional infestation was caused by DLB rather than SAH sequelae based on the course of her symptoms. She was treated with a combination of 3 mg/day of donepezil hydrochloride and 12.5 mg/day of quetiapine. Thereafter, the delusional infestation partially improved, and she took no further action against non-existent insects. CONCLUSION: Delusional infestation may be caused by DLB. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) may be effective for delusional infestation in DLB, although antipsychotics may also be needed in severe cases.
ESTHER : Taomoto_2022_Front.Psychiatry_13_1051067
PubMedSearch : Taomoto_2022_Front.Psychiatry_13_1051067
PubMedID: 36440429

Title : Primary Progressive Aphasia as a Prodromal State of Dementia With Lewy Bodies: A Case Report - Watanabe_2020_Front.Neurol_11_49
Author(s) : Watanabe H , Ikeda M , Mori E
Ref : Front Neurol , 11 :49 , 2020
Abstract : Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of dementia in the elderly, and various clinical symptoms, including olfactory dysfunction, dysautonomia, depression, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders (RBD), occur in patients with the prodromal state of DLB. We herein describe a case of a 72-years-old right-handed woman who exhibited primary progressive aphasia (PPA) as a prodromal state of DLB and took cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil). At 4.5 years after aphasia onset, she exhibited all the core clinical features of DLB, including visual hallucinations, fluctuating cognition, RBD, and Parkinsonism, as well as progressive language impairment. She showed reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake (assessed by DAT single-photon emission computed tomography imaging) in the striatum and decreased cardiac uptake (determined by (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy), which are indicative biomarkers of DLB. Thus, this patient met all the criteria for probable DLB. Notably, the unique feature of this case was the presentation of PPA, which is seldom observed in typical DLB. Moreover, cholinergic enhancement (donepezil, 5 mg daily) improved her language function and global cognitive function, although mild aphasia remained. The findings provide valuable insights into the spectrum of the prodromal state of DLB and shed light on the development of the medication for PPA caused by cholinergic insufficiency.
ESTHER : Watanabe_2020_Front.Neurol_11_49
PubMedSearch : Watanabe_2020_Front.Neurol_11_49
PubMedID: 32132965

Title : Hemorrhoidectomy for elderly patients aged 75 years or more, before and after studies - Yamamoto_2020_Ann.Med.Surg.(Lond)_55_88
Author(s) : Yamamoto M , Ikeda M , Matsumoto T , Takemoto M , Sumimoto R , Kobayashi T , Ohdan H
Ref : Ann Med Surg (Lond) , 55 :88 , 2020
Abstract : Background: The incidence of hemorrhoids requiring hemorrhoidectomy among the elderly has been increasing. Old age is sometimes considered a contraindication for surgery. The relationship between age and complications of hemorrhoidectomy for elderly patients is not well established. This study aimed to compare the clinicopathological features and postoperative outcomes of hemorrhoidectomy in the elderly (>/=75 years old) and non-elderly patients (<75 years old). Methods: A total of 100 patients who underwent hemorrhoidectomy for hemorrhoids of Goligher classification grades 3 and 4 at our institution between 2014 and 2018 were enrolled. The clinical characteristics were compared between the elderly and non-elderly patients. Pain scores were measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery. The risk factors for postoperative complications were identified. Results: A total of 34 patients were classified as elderly patients. In the elderly group, aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher while the albumin levels and cholinesterase levels were lower and the platelet counts were significantly lower. The blood urea nitrogen levels were higher and estimated glomerular filtration rates and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in the elderly group. The pain scores significantly decreased at 48 h postoperatively compared to those recorded at 6 h postoperatively in both groups. Multivariate analysis identified Goligher classification grade 4 and high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio at the indicators of complications. Conclusions: Hemorrhoids due to impairment of liver function and kidney function were dominant in elderly patients. Aging itself was not a risk factor for postoperative complications.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2020_Ann.Med.Surg.(Lond)_55_88
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2020_Ann.Med.Surg.(Lond)_55_88
PubMedID: 32477502

Title : Evaluation of Teneligliptin Effects on Transcriptional Activity of PPARgamma in Cell-Based Assays - Takenaka_2018_J.Nippon.Med.Sch_85_95
Author(s) : Takenaka Y , Inoue I , Nakano T , Ikeda M , Kakinuma Y , Ikegami Y , Shimada A , Noda M
Ref : J Nippon Med Sch , 85 :95 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The antidiabetic drug teneligliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor with a thiazolidine-specific structure. This study aimed to investigate whether teneligliptin can activate PPARgamma directly and/or indirectly in cell-based assays. METHODS: Promoter assays using the reporter construct driven under the control of the SV40 promoter and the PPAR response element (PPRE) were performed. Luciferase activity was measured after a 3-day incubation of vector-transduced cells with various concentrations of teneligliptin. RESULTS: Treatment of the cells with 50 muM teneligliptin significantly transactivated a reporter gene. The presence of the PPARgamma antagonist, GW9662, did not affect the activation of PPRE-reporter expression by teneligliptin. CONCLUSION: We found that teneligliptin could increase PPARgamma activity in cell-based assays irrespective of the PPARgamma ligand-binding domain.
ESTHER : Takenaka_2018_J.Nippon.Med.Sch_85_95
PubMedSearch : Takenaka_2018_J.Nippon.Med.Sch_85_95
PubMedID: 29731503

Title : Characterization of low active ghrelin ratio in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer - Miura_2018_Support.Care.Cancer_26_3811
Author(s) : Miura T , Mitsunaga S , Ikeda M , Ohno I , Takahashi H , Suzuki H , Irisawa A , Kuwata T , Ochiai A
Ref : Support Care Cancer , 26 :3811 , 2018
Abstract : PURPOSE: Acyl ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide. Active ghrelin ratio, the ratio of acyl ghrelin to total ghrelin, has an important role in physiological functions and gastrointestinal symptoms. However, low active ghrelin ratio-related characteristics, gastrointestinal symptoms, and chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have not been previously evaluated. The goal of this study was to identify low active ghrelin ratio-related factors in treatment-naive advanced pancreatic cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with treatment-naive advanced pancreatic cancer were eligible for inclusion in this study. Active ghrelin ratio and clinical parameters of patients were prospectively recorded. Factors correlated with low active ghrelin ratio and survival were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 92 patients were analyzed. Low active ghrelin ratio-related factors were advanced age (P < 0.01), severe appetite loss (P < 0.01), and decreased cholinesterase (P < 0.01). The adverse events of grade 2 or higher anorexia tended to increase in patients with low active ghrelin ratio. However, no differences were found in survival and body composition between low and high active ghrelin ratio groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low active ghrelin ratio was related to lack of appetite and low cholinesterase and tended to be related to anorexia grade 2 or higher in patients with treatment-naive advanced pancreatic cancer.
ESTHER : Miura_2018_Support.Care.Cancer_26_3811
PubMedSearch : Miura_2018_Support.Care.Cancer_26_3811
PubMedID: 29777378

Title : Effects of donepezil on sleep disturbances in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies: An open-label study with actigraphy - Kazui_2017_Psychiatry.Res_251_312
Author(s) : Kazui H , Adachi H , Kanemoto H , Yoshiyama K , Wada T , Tokumasu Nomura K , Tanaka T , Ikeda M
Ref : Psychiatry Res , 251 :312 , 2017
Abstract : We investigated whether donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, can be used to treat sleep disturbances in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Sleep disturbances were evaluated with the sleep disturbances item of the Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and an actigraph in 16 DLB patients and 24 normal elderly control (NC) subjects. The presence/absence of nine kinds of sleep symptoms, such as dream enactment, were also evaluated in the DLB patients. The DLB patients were then given 5mg/day donepezil for 14 weeks and evaluated again. Eight of the 16 DLB patients had some sleep disturbances before taking donepezil. The actigraphy data indicated that average activity count per minute in sleep (AAC), which reflects body activity at night, was significantly higher and total sleep time was significantly longer in DLB patients than in NC subjects. The NPI sleep disturbances score significantly improved and the number of DLB patients who had sleep disturbances decreased after taking donepezil. The actigraphy results indicate that the sum of all wake epochs within the sleep period, which reflects the degree of fragmented sleep, and the AAC decreased in the DLB patients after donepezil treatment. These results indicate that donepezil treatment reduced sleep disturbances in DLB patients.
ESTHER : Kazui_2017_Psychiatry.Res_251_312
PubMedSearch : Kazui_2017_Psychiatry.Res_251_312
PubMedID: 28236784

Title : Donepezil for dementia with Lewy bodies: a randomized, placebo-controlled, confirmatory phase III trial - Ikeda_2015_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_7_4
Author(s) : Ikeda M , Mori E , Matsuo K , Nakagawa M , Kosaka K
Ref : Alzheimers Res Ther , 7 :4 , 2015
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of a cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) was investigated to confirm the superiority over placebo in the 12-week, double-blind phase of this phase III study.
METHODS: Patients with probable DLB (n = 142) were randomly assigned to placebo or to 5 mg or 10 mg of donepezil administered once daily for 12 weeks. The co-primary endpoints were changes in cognitive function assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-2: hallucinations and fluctuations). The superiority of each active group over placebo was determined with simultaneous statistical significance in both endpoints. Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs) and the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) part III.
RESULTS: The predefined superiority of donepezil to the placebo was not confirmed in either active group in the primary analysis. MMSE score significantly improved compared to placebo in the 10 mg group (10 mg: 2.2 +/- 0.4, placebo: 0.6 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- standard error); P = 0.016). The change in MMSE score in the 5 mg group was not significant (1.4 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- standard error); P = 0.232). Although NPI-2 improved compared to baseline in the active groups, the differences from placebo were not significant. Most AEs were mild or moderate. Although the incidence of parkinsonism was slightly higher in the 10 mg group, the change in the UPDRS score was minimal and without a significant difference from the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: The co-primary endpoints were not achieved in this trial. However, significant improvement in MMSE score was demonstrated with 10 mg, but not 5 mg, of donepezil. The evaluation of psychiatric symptoms might be affected by advanced education and instructions given to caregivers. Overall, donepezil was well tolerated in patients with DLB. With careful attention on gastrointestinal or parkinsonian symptoms, patients with DLB can safely benefit from treatment with donepezil. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01278407 (trial registration date: 14 January 2011).
ESTHER : Ikeda_2015_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_7_4
PubMedSearch : Ikeda_2015_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_7_4
PubMedID: 25713599

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase after cardiac arrest\/cardiopulmonary resuscitation induces a neuroprotective phenotype in activated microglia and improves neuronal survival - Wang_2013_J.Cereb.Blood.Flow.Metab_33_1574
Author(s) : Wang J , Fujiyoshi T , Kosaka Y , Raybuck JD , Lattal KM , Ikeda M , Herson PS , Koerner IP
Ref : Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism , 33 :1574 , 2013
Abstract : Cardiac arrest (CA) causes hippocampal neuronal death that frequently leads to severe loss of memory function in survivors. No specific treatment is available to reduce neuronal death and improve functional outcome. The brain's inflammatory response to ischemia can exacerbate injury and provides a potential treatment target. We hypothesized that microglia are activated by CA and contribute to neuronal loss. We used a mouse model to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of the proinflammatory microglial enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) after CA alters microglial activation and neuronal death. The sEH inhibitor 4-phenylchalcone oxide (4-PCO) was administered after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The 4-PCO treatment significantly reduced neuronal death and improved memory function after CA/CPR. We found early activation of microglia and increased expression of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta in the hippocampus after CA/CPR, which was unchanged after 4-PCO treatment, while expression of antiinflammatory IL-10 increased significantly. We conclude that sEH inhibition after CA/CPR can alter the transcription profile in activated microglia to selectively induce antiinflammatory and neuroprotective IL-10 and reduce subsequent neuronal death. Switching microglial gene expression toward a neuroprotective phenotype is a promising new therapeutic approach for ischemic brain injury.
ESTHER : Wang_2013_J.Cereb.Blood.Flow.Metab_33_1574
PubMedSearch : Wang_2013_J.Cereb.Blood.Flow.Metab_33_1574
PubMedID: 23820647

Title : No associations found between the genes situated at 6p22.1, HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1 in Japanese patients diagnosed with schizophrenia - Kitazawa_2012_Am.J.Med.Genet.B.Neuropsychiatr.Genet_159B_456
Author(s) : Kitazawa M , Ohnuma T , Takebayashi Y , Shibata N , Baba H , Ohi K , Yasuda Y , Nakamura Y , Aleksic B , Yoshimi A , Okochi T , Ikeda M , Naitoh H , Hashimoto R , Iwata N , Ozaki N , Takeda M , Arai H
Ref : American Journal of Medicine Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet , 159B :456 , 2012
Abstract : Recent GWAS demonstrated an association between candidate genes located at region 6p22.1 and schizophrenia. This region has been reported to house certain candidate SNPs, which may be associated with schizophrenia at HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1. These genes may presumably be associated with pathophysiology in schizophrenia, namely epigenetics and psychoneuroimmunology. A three-step study was undertaken to focus on these genes with the following aims: (1) whether these genes may be associated in Japanese patients with schizophrenia by performing a 1st stage case-control study (514 cases and 706 controls) using Japanese tagging SNPs; (2) if the genetic regions of interest for the disease from the 1st stage of analyses were found, re-sequencing was performed to search for new mutations; (3) finally, a replication study was undertaken to confirm positive findings from the 1st stage were reconfirmed using a larger number of subjects (2,583 cases and 2,903 controls) during a 2nd stage multicenter replication study in Japan. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan PCR method for the selected nine tagging SNPs. Although three SNPs situated at the 3' side of PGBD1; rs3800324, rs3800327, and rs2142730, and two-window haplotypes between rs3800327 and rs2142730 showed positive associations with schizophrenia, these associations did not have enough power to sustain significance during the 2nd stage replication study. In addition, re-sequencing for exons 5 and 6 situated at this region did not express any new mutations for schizophrenia. Taken together these results indicate that the genes HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1 were not associated with Japanese patients with schizophrenia.
ESTHER : Kitazawa_2012_Am.J.Med.Genet.B.Neuropsychiatr.Genet_159B_456
PubMedSearch : Kitazawa_2012_Am.J.Med.Genet.B.Neuropsychiatr.Genet_159B_456
PubMedID: 22488895
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PRSS16

Title : Donepezil for dementia with Lewy bodies: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Mori_2012_Ann.Neurol_72_41
Author(s) : Mori E , Ikeda M , Kosaka K
Ref : Annals of Neurology , 72 :41 , 2012
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Because cholinergic deficits are prominent in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we investigated the effects of a cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, in such patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory phase 2 trial. METHODS: One-hundred forty patients with DLB, recruited from 48 specialty centers in Japan, were randomly assigned to receive placebo or 3, 5, or 10 mg of donepezil hydrochloride daily for 12 weeks (n = 35, 35, 33, and 37, respectively). Effects on cognitive function were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and several domain-specific neuropsychological tests. Changes in behavior were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregiver burden using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and global function using the Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change-plus Caregiver Input (CIBIC-plus). Safety measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III. RESULTS: Donepezil at 5 and 10 mg/day was significantly superior to placebo on both the MMSE (5 mg: mean difference, 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-5.3; p < 0.001; 10 mg: mean difference, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.9-3.9; p = 0.001) and CIBIC-plus (p < 0.001 for each); 3 mg/day was significantly superior to placebo on CIBIC-plus (p < 0.001), but not on the MMSE (p = 0.017). Significant improvements were found also in behavioral measures (p < 0.001) at 5 and 10 mg/day and caregiver burden (p = 0.004) at 10 mg/day. The safety results were consistent with the known profile of donepezil and similar among groups. INTERPRETATION: Donepezil at 5 and 10mg/day produces significant cognitive, behavioral, and global improvements that last at least 12 weeks in DLB patients, reducing caregiver burden at the highest dose. Donepezil is safe and well tolerated.
ESTHER : Mori_2012_Ann.Neurol_72_41
PubMedSearch : Mori_2012_Ann.Neurol_72_41
PubMedID: 22829268

Title : Alpha4 and beta2 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes are not associated with methamphetamine-use disorder in the Japanese population - Kishi_2008_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_1139_70
Author(s) : Kishi T , Ikeda M , Kitajima T , Yamanouchi Y , Kinoshita Y , Kawashima K , Inada T , Harano M , Komiyama T , Hori T , Yamada M , Iyo M , Sora I , Sekine Y , Ozaki N , Ujike H , Iwata N
Ref : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 1139 :70 , 2008
Abstract : The mesolimbic system is thought to be involved in the reinforcing action of many addictive drugs and the release of dopamine modulated by neuronal nicotine cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). Several investigations suggested that nAChRs on dopaminergic terminals play an important role in the development of some long-lasting adaptations associated with drug abuse. A majority of high-affinity nicotine binding sites in the brain have been showed in heteropentameric alpha4 (alpha4) and beta2 subunit (beta2) of nAChRs. Therefore, we conducted a genetic association analysis of the alpha4 gene (CHRNA4) and beta2 gene (CHRNB2) with methamphetamine (METH)-use disorder (191 cases and 753 controls). We first evaluated the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure of these genes and selected 7 and 5 tagging SNPs (tag SNPs) on CHRNA4 and CHRNB2, respectively. Some tag SNPs were significantly associated with total METH-use disorder and METH-induced psychosis; however, these associations were no longer statistically significant after Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, our results suggest that neither CHRNA4 nor CHRNB2 plays a major role in Japanese METH-use disorder.
ESTHER : Kishi_2008_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_1139_70
PubMedSearch : Kishi_2008_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_1139_70
PubMedID: 18991851

Title : Genetic association analysis of tagging SNPs in alpha4 and beta2 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA4 and CHRNB2) with schizophrenia in the Japanese population - Kishi_2008_J.Neural.Transm_115_1457
Author(s) : Kishi T , Ikeda M , Kitajima T , Yamanouchi Y , Kinoshita Y , Kawashima K , Okochi T , Inada T , Ozaki N , Iwata N
Ref : J Neural Transm , 115 :1457 , 2008
Abstract : Several lines of evidence suggest that nicotinic cholinergic dysfunction may contribute to the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The majority of high affinity nicotine binding sites in the human brain have been implicated in heteropentameric alpha4 and beta2 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; therefore, these two neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors genes (CHRNA4 and CHRNB2) are considered to be attractive candidate genes for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To represent these two genes in a gene-wide manner, we first evaluated the linkage disequilibrium structure using our own control samples. Thirteen SNPs (7 SNPs for CHRNA4 and 5 SNPs for CHRNB2) were selected as tagging SNPs. Using these tagging SNPs, we then conducted genetic association analysis of case-control samples (738 schizophrenia and 753 controls) in the Japanese population. No significant association was detected in the allele/genotype-wise or haplotype-wise analysis. Our results suggest that CHRNA4 and CHRNB2 do not play a major role in Japanese schizophrenia.
ESTHER : Kishi_2008_J.Neural.Transm_115_1457
PubMedSearch : Kishi_2008_J.Neural.Transm_115_1457
PubMedID: 18762859

Title : Correlation of visual hallucinations with occipital rCBF changes by donepezil in DLB - Mori_2006_Neurology_66_935
Author(s) : Mori T , Ikeda M , Fukuhara R , Nestor PJ , Tanabe H
Ref : Neurology , 66 :935 , 2006
Abstract : The authors explored the neural substrate of visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) by investigating changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and psychiatric symptoms, before and after cholinesterase inhibitor treatment. Twenty subjects with DLB were treated with donepezil for a 12-week period. Hallucinations attenuated while receiving therapy, whereas occipital rCBF focally increased, suggesting that functional visual association cortex deficits may cause visual hallucinations in patients with DLB.
ESTHER : Mori_2006_Neurology_66_935
PubMedSearch : Mori_2006_Neurology_66_935
PubMedID: 16567718

Title : [New therapeutic strategies for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia] - Ikeda_2005_Rinsho.Shinkeigaku_45_861
Author(s) : Ikeda M
Ref : Rinsho Shinkeigaku , 45 :861 , 2005
Abstract : Interventional studies, with the aim of reducing the burden of care through drug or non-drug therapies of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), have been scarce. However, we are now able to do pharmacological management for BPSD with new drugs such as atypical neuroleptics, SSRIs, and cholinesterase inhibitors. Delusions of theft are one of the most frequently observed BPSD in patients with AD. In addition, the delusions and ensuing aggression and anxiety are major factors that increase the burden of caregivers. Delusions of theft in patients with AD were eliminated or reduced with low-dose atypical neuroleptics (risperidone). This significantly reduced the burden of care overall for caregivers. New therapeutic strategies such as cholinesterase inhibitors for visual hallucinations in DLB and SSRIs for overeating and stereotyped behavior in FTLD might also remarkably reduce the burden of care for these patients. For many dementia patients, there are still no drugs that offer a principal cure. It is, therefore, important to evaluate their BPSD correctly at the earliest possible time, so that the burden of caring can be reduced through appropriate drug treatment. This reduction is critical for the continuation of satisfactory at-home care and might contribute to the health economics.
ESTHER : Ikeda_2005_Rinsho.Shinkeigaku_45_861
PubMedSearch : Ikeda_2005_Rinsho.Shinkeigaku_45_861
PubMedID: 16447746

Title : Degradation of the Fungicide Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl in Soils - Ikeda_2005_J.Pestic.Sci_30_22
Author(s) : Ikeda M , Usami S , Mizutani H , Yagi A
Ref : Journal of Pesticide Science , 30 :22 , 2005
Abstract : The degradation of benthiavalicarb-isopropyl (BVI) in soils was studied in the laboratory using two 14C-compounds labeled at the benzene ring and the valine-moiety. The half-life of BVI in two kinds of soils (Ushiku soil and Kakegawa soil) was less than 11 days, under both upland and flooded conditions. Five major degradation products, in addition to 14CO2, were identified. It is presumed that the degradation begins initially with hydrolytic cleavage of the amide bond, followed by several processes resulting in the final production of 14CO2.
ESTHER : Ikeda_2005_J.Pestic.Sci_30_22
PubMedSearch : Ikeda_2005_J.Pestic.Sci_30_22

Title : Vasospastic angina and microvascular angina are differentially influenced by PON1 A632G polymorphism in the Japanese - Mashiba_2005_Circ.J_69_1466
Author(s) : Mashiba J , Koike G , Kamiunten H , Ikeda M , Sunagawa K
Ref : Circ J , 69 :1466 , 2005
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Ethnicity and smoking are well-known risk factors for the pathogenesis of coronary vasospasm. Oxidative stress induced by smoking plays a crucial role in coronary vasospasm, but is not enough to account for the pathogenesis of coronary vasospasm, indicating that genetic factors are strongly involved. METHODS AND
RESULTS: The study group comprised 162 vasospastic angina patients (VSAs), 61 microvascular angina patients (MVAs) and 61 non-responders (NRs) diagnosed by acetylcholine provocation test. Four polymorphisms of the oxidative stress related genes, cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide gene (CYBA) C242T and A640G, paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1) A632G, phospholipase A2 group VII gene (PLA2G7) G994T were genotyped. Allele frequency of PON1 632-G was significantly higher in both the VSA with dominant fashion and the MVA with recessive fashion compared with NR. This association was strongly influenced by gender in the MVA only. There were no significant associations between the other polymorphisms and coronary vasospasm. In addition, the allele frequency of PON1 632-G in the Japanese was higher than in Caucasians.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant association between PON1 A632G polymorphism and MVA as well as VSA, but the impact of this on VSA and MVA is different in the Japanese.
ESTHER : Mashiba_2005_Circ.J_69_1466
PubMedSearch : Mashiba_2005_Circ.J_69_1466
PubMedID: 16308493
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : Residue Analysis of the Fungicide Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl and Its Degradation Products in Upland Field Soil - Mizutani_2004_J.Pestic.Sci_29_177
Author(s) : Mizutani H , Suzuki J , Saito Y , Ikeda M , Yagi A
Ref : Journal of Pesticide Science , 29 :87 , 2004
Abstract : A method for residue analysis of benthiavalicarb-isopropyl, its diastereomer, and its four degradation products in soil by HPLC was established. The method of extraction under reflux with a mixture of acetone and ammonium chloride solution was optimal for most of the compounds. The limit of quantification in two soils was 0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg for the compounds, and the recovery rates of the compounds from the soils were 74 to 113%. But for the degradation product having an amino group, the rate of recovery from one soil only was good. The level of benthiavalicarb-isopropyl in two upland field soils decreased rapidly.
ESTHER : Mizutani_2004_J.Pestic.Sci_29_177
PubMedSearch : Mizutani_2004_J.Pestic.Sci_29_177

Title : Supplementation of antioxidants prevents oxidative stress during a deep saturation dive - Ikeda_2004_Tohoku.J.Exp.Med_203_353
Author(s) : Ikeda M , Nakabayashi K , Shinkai M , Hara Y , Kizaki T , Oh-ishi S , Ohno H
Ref : Tohoku J Exp Med , 203 :353 , 2004
Abstract : Conflicting views exist at the present regarding the influences of a deep saturation dive on liver function in divers. Therefore, we first reevaluated whether a deep saturation dive (400 msw) induces a hepatic disturbance. As the result, plasma activities of both transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) increased significantly, whereas cholinesterase (Ch-E) activity decreased markedly, being highly suggestive of liver dysfunction. Assuming that the liver dysfunction was attributable to oxidative stress, we next examined the effects of supplementation of antioxidants (600 mg of vitamin C, 150 mg of alpha-tocopherol, and 600 mg of tea catechins per day) on liver function in saturation divers. As was anticipated, the antioxidants taken appeared to prevent a hepatic disturbance, indicating that a deep saturation dive provokes liver dysfunction probably due to oxidative stress. Thus, we recommend that saturation divers should take supplements of antioxidants.
ESTHER : Ikeda_2004_Tohoku.J.Exp.Med_203_353
PubMedSearch : Ikeda_2004_Tohoku.J.Exp.Med_203_353
PubMedID: 15297742

Title : The Corynebacterium glutamicum genome: features and impacts on biotechnological processes - Ikeda_2003_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_62_99
Author(s) : Ikeda M , Nakagawa S
Ref : Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology , 62 :99 , 2003
Abstract : Corynebacterium glutamicum has played a principal role in the progress of the amino acid fermentation industry. The complete genome sequence of the representative wild-type strain of C. glutamicum, ATCC 13032, has been determined and analyzed to improve our understanding of the molecular biology and physiology of this organism, and to advance the development of more efficient production strains. Genome annotation has helped in elucidation of the gene repertoire defining a desired pathway, which is accelerating pathway engineering. Post genome technologies such as DNA arrays and proteomics are currently undergoing rapid development in C. glutamicum. Such progress has already exposed new regulatory networks and functions that had so far been unidentified in this microbe. The next goal of these studies is to integrate the fruits of genomics into strain development technology. A novel methodology that merges genomics with classical strain improvement has been developed and applied for the reconstruction of classically derived production strains. How can traditional fermentation benefit from the C. glutamicum genomic data? The path from genomics to biotechnological processes is presented.
ESTHER : Ikeda_2003_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_62_99
PubMedSearch : Ikeda_2003_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_62_99
PubMedID: 12743753
Gene_locus related to this paper: corgt-g6wsn6

Title : The genome sequence and structure of rice chromosome 1 - Sasaki_2002_Nature_420_312
Author(s) : Sasaki T , Matsumoto T , Yamamoto K , Sakata K , Baba T , Katayose Y , Wu J , Niimura Y , Cheng Z , Nagamura Y , Antonio BA , Kanamori H , Hosokawa S , Masukawa M , Arikawa K , Chiden Y , Hayashi M , Okamoto M , Ando T , Aoki H , Arita K , Hamada M , Harada C , Hijishita S , Honda M , Ichikawa Y , Idonuma A , Iijima M , Ikeda M , Ikeno M , Ito S , Ito T , Ito Y , Iwabuchi A , Kamiya K , Karasawa W , Katagiri S , Kikuta A , Kobayashi N , Kono I , Machita K , Maehara T , Mizuno H , Mizubayashi T , Mukai Y , Nagasaki H , Nakashima M , Nakama Y , Nakamichi Y , Nakamura M , Namiki N , Negishi M , Ohta I , Ono N , Saji S , Sakai K , Shibata M , Shimokawa T , Shomura A , Song J , Takazaki Y , Terasawa K , Tsuji K , Waki K , Yamagata H , Yamane H , Yoshiki S , Yoshihara R , Yukawa K , Zhong H , Iwama H , Endo T , Ito H , Hahn JH , Kim HI , Eun MY , Yano M , Jiang J , Gojobori T
Ref : Nature , 420 :312 , 2002
Abstract : The rice species Oryza sativa is considered to be a model plant because of its small genome size, extensive genetic map, relative ease of transformation and synteny with other cereal crops. Here we report the essentially complete sequence of chromosome 1, the longest chromosome in the rice genome. We summarize characteristics of the chromosome structure and the biological insight gained from the sequence. The analysis of 43.3 megabases (Mb) of non-overlapping sequence reveals 6,756 protein coding genes, of which 3,161 show homology to proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana, another model plant. About 30% (2,073) of the genes have been functionally categorized. Rice chromosome 1 is (G + C)-rich, especially in its coding regions, and is characterized by several gene families that are dispersed or arranged in tandem repeats. Comparison with a draft sequence indicates the importance of a high-quality finished sequence.
ESTHER : Sasaki_2002_Nature_420_312
PubMedSearch : Sasaki_2002_Nature_420_312
PubMedID: 12447438
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysa-Q9S7P1 , orysa-Q9FYP7 , orysa-Q5ZBH3 , orysa-Q5NA74 , orysa-Q5ZA26 , orysa-Q5JLP6 , orysa-Q94D81 , orysa-cbp , orysa-Q5VQE5 , orysa-Q8RZ95 , orysa-Q9AWW1 , orysa-Q9AS70 , orysa-Q0JK71 , orysa-Q8S1D9 , orysa-Q5N8V4 , orysa-Q943F9 , orysa-B9EWJ8 , orysa-Q5N8H1 , orysa-Q5NAI4 , orysa-Q94DP8 , orysa-Q658B2 , orysa-Q5JMQ8 , orysa-Q5QMD9 , orysa-Q5N7L1 , orysa-Q5N7J6 , orysa-Q8RYV9 , orysa-Q5SNH3 , orysa-Q94DD0 , orysa-Q8W0F0 , orysa-pir7a , orysa-pir7b , orysa-Q4VWY7 , orysa-q5jlm9 , orysa-q5na00 , orysa-q5nbu1 , orysa-Q5QLC0 , orysa-q5vnp5 , orysa-Q5VP27 , orysa-Q5ZAM8 , orysa-Q5ZBI5 , orysa-q5zc23 , orysa-Q5ZCR3 , orysa-Q8L562 , orysa-Q8L570 , orysa-Q8LQS5 , orysa-Q8RZ40 , orysa-Q8RZ79 , orysa-Q8S0U8 , orysa-Q8S0V0 , orysa-Q8S125 , orysa-Q9LHX5 , orysa-Q94E46 , orysa-Q656F2 , orysi-a2wn01 , orysi-b8a7e6 , orysi-b8a7e7 , orysj-b9eya5 , orysj-q5jl22 , orysj-q5jlw7 , orysj-q94d71

Title : Analysis of the butyrylcholinesterase gene and nearby chromosome 3 markers in alzheimer disease - Brindle_1998_Hum.Mol.Genet_7_933
Author(s) : Brindle N , Song Y , Rogaeva E , Premkumar S , Levesque G , Yu G , Ikeda M , Nishimura M , Paterson A , Sorbi S , Duara R , Farrer L , St George-Hyslop P
Ref : Hum Mol Genet , 7 :933 , 1998
Abstract : The K-variant of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE-K) recently has been reported to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) in carriers of the epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. We have re-examined the frequency of the BCHE-K allele in a large data set of both sporadic and familial cases of AD disease, and we have also examined the segregation of three genetic markers on chromosome 3 near BCHE . Our data neither support an association of BCHE-K with sporadic or familial AD, nor do they suggest the existence of another gene nearby on chromosome 3 as a common cause of familial AD.
ESTHER : Brindle_1998_Hum.Mol.Genet_7_933
PubMedSearch : Brindle_1998_Hum.Mol.Genet_7_933
PubMedID: 9536099

Title : Cholesterol-mediated changes of neutral cholesterol esterase activity in macrophages. Mechanism for mobilization of cholesteryl esters in lipid droplets by HDL - Miura_1997_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_17_3033
Author(s) : Miura S , Chiba T , Mochizuki N , Nagura H , Nemoto K , Tomita I , Ikeda M , Tomita T
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 17 :3033 , 1997
Abstract : Cholesteryl esters (CE) in lipid droplets undergo a continual cycle of hydrolysis and reesterification by neutral cholesterol esterase (N-CEase) and acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), respectively. The mechanism by which HDL mobilizes CE from lipid droplets in J774 A.1 cells was investigated, focusing on N-CEase activity. We asked whether HDL enhances the activity and, if so, what signals induce the change of the activity. An incubation of cells with HDL enhanced the decline of cholesteryl-[l-14C]-oleate in foam cells and increased N-CEase activity in the supernatant of cell homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas incubation with LDL decreased the activity. In addition, N-CEase activity was fivefold higher when cells were cultured in 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) medium (2 micrograms cholesterol/mL) than when cultured in 10% fetal calf serum medium (31 micrograms cholesterol/mL), suggesting that changes in N-CEase activity are mediated by cholesterol. An addition of cholesterol (0 to 30 micrograms/mL) in LPDS medium markedly inhibited N-CEase activity with a concomitant increase in cellular cholesterol concentration. This inhibitory effect of cholesterol was also observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro addition of cholesterol did not affect N-CEase activity. Treatment of cells with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors enhanced N-CEase activity, whereas ACAT inhibitor decreased the activity. Northern blot analysis of N-CEase mRNA showed that the expression was not altered by the presence of cholesterol in LPDS medium. These results suggest that cholesterol downregulates N-CEase activity, probably through cholesterol-dependent appearance of some factors.
ESTHER : Miura_1997_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_17_3033
PubMedSearch : Miura_1997_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_17_3033
PubMedID: 9409290

Title : Cloning of a gene bearing missense mutations in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. -
Author(s) : Sherrington R , Rogaev EI , Liang Y , Rogaeva EA , Levesque G , Ikeda M , Chi H , Lin C , Li G , Holman K , Tsuda T , Mar L , Foncin J-F , Bruni AC , Montesi MP , Sorbi S , Rainero I , Pinessi L , Nee L , Chumakov I , Pollen D , Brookes A , Sanseau P , Polinsky RJ , Wasco W , da Silva HAR , Haines JL , Pericak-Vance MA , Tanzi RE , Roses AD , Fraser PE , Rommens JM , St George-Hyslop PH
Ref : Nature , 375 :754 , 1995
PubMedID: 7596406
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACOT2

Title : The regulation of cholesteryl ester metabolism by 17 beta-estradiol in macrophages. Activation of neutral cholesterol esterase - Tomita_1995_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_748_637
Author(s) : Tomita T , Sawamura F , Uetsuka R , Ikeda M , Tomita I
Ref : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 748 :637 , 1995
Abstract : The mechanism for antiatherogenic effects of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) was investigated in J774 A.1 cells incubated with beta-VLDL. E2 at physiological concentrations (0.25 and 2.5 nM) inhibited an accumulation of cellular cholesteryl esters and enhanced their hydrolysis in foam cells. These phenomena were preceded by activation of neutral cholesterol esterase through an increase in cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity. 17 alpha-estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone lacked such stimulatory effects on neutral cholesteryl esterase.
ESTHER : Tomita_1995_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_748_637
PubMedSearch : Tomita_1995_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_748_637
PubMedID: 7695221

Title : Highly cooperative inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by pentachlorophenol in human erythrocytes - Igisu_1993_Biochem.Pharmacol_46_175
Author(s) : Igisu H , Hamasaki N , Ikeda M
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 46 :175 , 1993
Abstract : Pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity in human erythrocyte membranes with high cooperativity. The Hill coefficient for the inhibition was 4-5 in "untreated" membranes. Differences in the temperature (13, 25 and 37 degrees) or treatment with 1% Triton X-100 did not clearly affect the cooperativity which, however, increased after the erythrocyte membranes were treated with 2-mercaptoethanol and iodoacetatic acid, suggesting that higher cooperativity in the inhibition of AchE by PCP may reflect conformational changes of AchE. Thus, PCP may be useful for the study of AchE in human erythrocytes.
ESTHER : Igisu_1993_Biochem.Pharmacol_46_175
PubMedSearch : Igisu_1993_Biochem.Pharmacol_46_175
PubMedID: 8347128

Title : The molecular properties of the M1 muscarinic receptor and its regulation of cytosolic calcium in a eukaryotic gene expression system -
Author(s) : Lai J , Smith TL , Mei L , Ikeda M , Fujiwara Y , Gomez J , Halonen M , Roeske WR , Yamamura HI
Ref : Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology , 287 :313 , 1991
PubMedID: 1759615