Yamamoto K

References (42)

Title : Effects of Rikkunshi-To, a Japanese kampo medicine, on donepezil-induced gastrointestinal side effects in mice - Yamamoto_2022_J.Pharmacol.Sci_150_123
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Sato Y , Hagihara K , Kirikihira K , Jotaki A , Michihara A , Miyake Y
Ref : J Pharmacol Sci , 150 :123 , 2022
Abstract : Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia, which may affect adherence to continuous therapy. Since Rikkunshi-To, a Japanese herbal medicine, activates the ghrelin signaling pathway and promotes gastrointestinal function, it is administered to prevent gastrointestinal symptoms. We herein investigated whether donepezil-induced gastrointestinal side effects in mice are ameliorated by Rikkunshi-To and if its therapeutic efficacy is mediated by ghrelin. Since pica behavior, the ingestion of kaolin, correlates with nausea and vomiting in humans, donepezil was intraperitoneally administered with or without Rikkunshi-To daily to mice, and food and kaolin intakes were monitored. The effects of donepezil on intestinal motility and a ghrelin receptor antagonist on donepezil-induced pica behavior, anorexia, and changes in intestinal motility were examined in mice treated with Rikkunshi-To. Pica behavior and anorexia were significantly induced by donepezil and significantly inhibited by Rikkunshi-To. Intestinal motility was significantly suppressed by donepezil and promoted by Rikkunshi-To. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of Rikkunshi-To were antagonized by the ghrelin receptor antagonist. The present results support the therapeutic efficacy of Rikkunshi-To against donepezil-induced gastrointestinal side effects.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2022_J.Pharmacol.Sci_150_123
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2022_J.Pharmacol.Sci_150_123
PubMedID: 36055750

Title : Identification and molecular characterization of propionylcholinesterase, a novel pseudocholinesterase in rice - Yamamoto_2021_Plant.Signal.Behav__1961062
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Momonoki YS
Ref : Plant Signal Behav , :1961062 , 2021
Abstract : Cholinesterase is consisting of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and pseudocholinesterase in vertebrates and invertebrates. AChE gene has been identified in several plant species, while pseudocholinesterase gene has not yet been found in any plant species. In this study, we report that the AChE gene paralog encodes propionylcholinesterase (PChE), a pseudocholinesterase in rice. PChE was found to be located adjacent to AChE (Os07g0586200) on rice chromosome 7 and designated as Os07g0586100. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed a close relationship between rice AChE and PChE. PChE-overexpressing rice had higher hydrolytic activity toward propionylthiocholine than acetylthiocholine and showed extremely low activity against butyrylthiocholine. Therefore, the PChE gene product was characterized as a propionylcholinesterase, a pseudocholinesterase. The rice PChE displayed lower sensitivity to the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine bromide, than electric eel, maize, and rice AChEs. The recombinant PChE functions as a 171 kDa homotetramer. PChE was expressed during the later developmental stage, and it was found be localized in the extracellular spaces of the rice leaf tissue. These results suggest that the rice plant possesses PChE, which functions in the extracellular spaces at a later developmental stage. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first direct evidence and molecular characterization of PChE in plants.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2021_Plant.Signal.Behav__1961062
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2021_Plant.Signal.Behav__1961062
PubMedID: 34334124

Title : Is Postoperative Adjuvant Transcatheter Arterial Infusion Therapy Effective for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma who Underwent Hepatectomy? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial - Hirokawa_2020_Ann.Surg.Oncol_27_4143
Author(s) : Hirokawa F , Komeda K , Taniguchi K , Asakuma M , Shimizu T , Inoue Y , Kagota S , Tomioka A , Yamamoto K , Uchiyama K
Ref : Annals of Surgery Oncol , 27 :4143 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemo- or/and chemoembolization therapy after curative hepatectomy of initial hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate whether hepatectomy combined with adjuvant transcatheter arterial infusion therapy (TAI) for initial HCC has better long-term survival outcomes than hepatectomy alone. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2014, a prospective randomized controlled trial of patients with initial HCC was conducted. Then, 114 initial HCC patients were recruited to undergo hepatectomy with adjuvant TAI (TAI group, n=55) or hepatectomy alone (control group, n=59) at our institution. The TAI therapy was performed twice, at 3 and 6 months after curative hepatectomy (UMIN 000011900). RESULTS: The patients treated with TAI had no serious side effects, and operative outcomes did not differ between the two groups. No significant differences were found in the pattern of intrahepatic recurrence or time until recurrence between the two groups. Moreover, no significant differences were found in the relapse-free survival or overall survival. Low cholinesterase level (<200) had been identified as a risk factor affecting relapse-free survival. Furthermore, compared with surgery alone, adjuvant TAI with hepatectomy improved the overall survival for lower-cholinesterase patients. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant TAI is safe and feasible, but it cannot reduce the incidence of postoperative recurrence or prolong survival for patients who underwent curative hepatectomy for initial HCC.
ESTHER : Hirokawa_2020_Ann.Surg.Oncol_27_4143
PubMedSearch : Hirokawa_2020_Ann.Surg.Oncol_27_4143
PubMedID: 32500344

Title : Prognostic significance of serum cholinesterase in patients with acute decompensated heart failure: a prospective comparative study with other nutritional indices - Seo_2019_Am.J.Clin.Nutr_110_330
Author(s) : Seo M , Yamada T , Tamaki S , Morita T , Furukawa Y , Iwasaki Y , Kawasaki M , Kikuchi A , Kawai T , Abe M , Nakamura J , Yamamoto K , Kayama K , Kawahira M , Tanabe K , Kimura T , Ueda K , Sakamoto D , Sakata Y , Fukunami M
Ref : Am J Clin Nutr , 110 :330 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Nutritional status is associated with poor outcomes in patients with heart failure. Serum cholinesterase (CHE) concentration, a marker of malnutrition, was reported to be a prognostic factor in patients with chronic heart failure. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) are established objective nutritional indices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of CHE concentration and to compare it with other well-established objective nutritional indices in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 371 consecutive patients admitted for ADHF with survival discharge. Laboratory data including CHE and the objective nutritional indices were obtained at discharge. The primary endpoint of this study was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During a mean +/- SD follow-up period of 2.5 +/- 1.4 y, 112 patients died. CHE concentration was significantly associated with all-cause mortality independently of GNRI, CONUT score, or PNI, after adjustment for major confounders including other nutritional indices, such as age, sex, systolic blood pressure, BMI, left ventricular ejection fraction, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, prior heart failure hospitalization, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use, beta-blocker use, statin use, hemoglobin, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, C-reactive protein, and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations via multivariable Cox analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the risk of all-cause mortality significantly increased in accordance with CHE stratum [lowest tertile: 53%, adjusted HR: 6.92; 95% CI: 3.87, 12.36, compared with middle tertile: 28%, adjusted HR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.11, compared with highest tertile: 11%, adjusted HR: 1.0 (reference), P < 0.0001]. CHE showed the best area under the curve value (0.745) for the prediction of all-cause mortality compared with the other objective nutritional indices. Net reclassification improvement afforded by adding CHE to the fully adjusted multivariable model was statistically significant for all-cause mortality (0.330; 95% CI: 0.112, 0.549, P = 0.0030). CONCLUSION: CHE is a simple, strong prognostic marker for the prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with ADHF.
ESTHER : Seo_2019_Am.J.Clin.Nutr_110_330
PubMedSearch : Seo_2019_Am.J.Clin.Nutr_110_330
PubMedID: 31161211

Title : Cholinesterase levels predict exercise capacity in cardiac recipients early after transplantation - Kitagaki_2018_Clin.Transplant_32_
Author(s) : Kitagaki K , Nakanishi M , Ono R , Yamamoto K , Suzuki Y , Fukui N , Yanagi H , Konishi H , Yanase M , Fukushima N
Ref : Clin Transplant , 32 : , 2018
Abstract : PURPOSE: Although cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients early after heart transplantation (HTx), adequate exercise effect cannot always be obtained, partly because in patients with chronic heart failure, exercise capacity is reduced due to malnutrition while waiting for HTx. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between exercise capacity and clinical variables, including nutritional indicators, early after HTx. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-three HTx recipients were studied. The mean age at HTx was 38 +/- 14 years, and 86% were male. We assessed the relationships between peak oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and clinical variables, including plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), isometric knee extensor muscle strength (KEMS), and nutritional indicators within 1 week of their respective discharges. RESULTS: Peak VO2 correlated positively with isometric KEMS (r = .63, P < .0001) and negatively with BNP level (r = -.37, P = .015). Of the nutritional indicators, only cholinesterase levels had a significant relationship with peak VO2 (r = .34, P = .028), whereas the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and the Controlling Nutritional Status scores did not. In multiple linear regression analysis, cholinesterase levels and isometric KEMS were independent predictors of peak VO2 . CONCLUSION: Cholinesterase levels predicted exercise capacity early after HTx.
ESTHER : Kitagaki_2018_Clin.Transplant_32_
PubMedSearch : Kitagaki_2018_Clin.Transplant_32_
PubMedID: 29194762

Title : Effects of prenatal exposure to triclosan on the liver transcriptome in chicken embryos - Guo_2018_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_347_23
Author(s) : Guo J , Ito S , Nguyen HT , Yamamoto K , Tanoue R , Kunisue T , Iwata H
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 347 :23 , 2018
Abstract : Triclosan (TCS), a commonly used antimicrobial compound, has recently been detected in the eggs of wild avian species. Exposure to TCS in rodents is known to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH), disrupt immune responses and cause liver disease. However, no attempt has been made to clarify the effects of TCS in avian species. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the toxic effects of in ovo exposure to TCS and explore the molecular mechanism by transcriptome analysis in the embryonic liver of a model avian species, chicken (Gallus gallus). Embryos were treated with graded concentration of TCS (0.1, 1 and 10mug/g egg) at Hamburger Hamilton Stage (HHS) 1 (1st day), followed by 20days of incubation to HHS 46. At the administration of 10mug TCS/g egg, embryo mortality increased from 20% in control to 37% accompanied with 8% attenuation in tarsus length. While liver somatic index (LSI) in TCS treatments was enhanced, statistical difference was only observed at the treatment of 0.1mug TCS/g egg in females. The up-regulation of several crucial differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in transcriptome analysis suggested that TCS induced xenobiotic metabolism (e.g. CYP2C23a, CYP2C45 and CYP3A37 in males; CYP2C45 in females) and activated the thyroid hormone receptor (THR) - mediated downstream signaling (e.g. THRSPB and DIO2 in males; THRSPB in females). In females, TCS may further activate the lipogenesis signaling (e.g. ACSL5, ELOVL2) and repress the lipolysis signaling (e.g. ABHD5, ACAT2). A battery of enriched transcription factors in relation to these TCS-induced signaling and phenotypes were found, including activated SREBF1, PPARa, LXRa, and LXRb in males and activated GLI2 in females; COUP-TFII was predicted to be suppressed in both genders. Finally, we developed adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) that provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the alteration of phenotypes.
ESTHER : Guo_2018_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_347_23
PubMedSearch : Guo_2018_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_347_23
PubMedID: 29596926

Title : Early use of donepezil against psychosis and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled trial for 2 years - Sawada_2018_J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry_89_1332
Author(s) : Sawada H , Oeda T , Kohsaka M , Umemura A , Tomita S , Park K , Mizoguchi K , Matsuo H , Hasegawa K , Fujimura H , Sugiyama H , Nakamura M , Kikuchi S , Yamamoto K , Fukuda T , Ito S , Goto M , Kiyohara K , Kawamura T
Ref : Journal of Neurology Neurosurg Psychiatry , 89 :1332 , 2018
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: Brain acetylcholine is decreased even in patients with cognitively preserved Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated whether early and long-term use of donepezil prevents psychosis in non-demented PD patients. METHODS: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. A total of 145 non-demented PD patients were randomly assigned to receive 5 mg/day donepezil (n=72) or placebo (n=73) for 96 weeks. Medications for PD were not restricted, but antipsychotic drugs were not permitted throughout the study. The primary outcome measure was survival time to psychosis that was predefined by Parkinson's Psychosis Questionnaire (PPQ) B score >/=2 or C score >/=2. Secondary outcome measures included psychosis developing within 48 weeks, total PPQ score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and subgroup analysis by apolipoprotein epsilon4 genotyping. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier curves for psychosis development were very similar between the two groups, and the Cox proportional hazard model revealed an adjusted HR of 0.87 (95%CI 0.48 to 1.60). The changes in MMSE and WMS-1 (auditory memory) were significantly better with donepezil than in placebo. In the subgroup analysis, donepezil provided an HR of 0.31 (0.11-0.86) against psychosis in 48 weeks for apolipoprotein epsilon4 non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Although donepezil provided beneficial effects on PPQ, MMSE and auditory WMS score changes in 2 years, it had no prophylactic effect on development of psychosis in PD. Apolipoprotein epsilon4 may suppress the antipsychotic effect of donepezil. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000005403.
ESTHER : Sawada_2018_J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry_89_1332
PubMedSearch : Sawada_2018_J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry_89_1332
PubMedID: 30076270

Title : Genomic adaptation to polyphagy and insecticides in a major East Asian noctuid pest - Cheng_2017_Nat.Ecol.Evol_1_1747
Author(s) : Cheng T , Wu J , Wu Y , Chilukuri RV , Huang L , Yamamoto K , Feng L , Li W , Chen Z , Guo H , Liu J , Li S , Wang X , Peng L , Liu D , Guo Y , Fu B , Li Z , Liu C , Chen Y , Tomar A , Hilliou F , Montagne N , Jacquin-Joly E , d'Alencon E , Seth RK , Bhatnagar RK , Jouraku A , Shiotsuki T , Kadono-Okuda K , Promboon A , Smagghe G , Arunkumar KP , Kishino H , Goldsmith MR , Feng Q , Xia Q , Mita K
Ref : Nat Ecol Evol , 1 :1747 , 2017
Abstract : The tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is among the most widespread and destructive agricultural pests, feeding on over 100 crops throughout tropical and subtropical Asia. By genome sequencing, physical mapping and transcriptome analysis, we found that the gene families encoding receptors for bitter or toxic substances and detoxification enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, carboxylesterase and glutathione-S-transferase, were massively expanded in this polyphagous species, enabling its extraordinary ability to detect and detoxify many plant secondary compounds. Larval exposure to insecticidal toxins induced expression of detoxification genes, and knockdown of representative genes using short interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced larval survival, consistent with their contribution to the insect's natural pesticide tolerance. A population genetics study indicated that this species expanded throughout southeast Asia by migrating along a South India-South China-Japan axis, adapting to wide-ranging ecological conditions with diverse host plants and insecticides, surviving and adapting with the aid of its expanded detoxification systems. The findings of this study will enable the development of new pest management strategies for the control of major agricultural pests such as S. litura.
ESTHER : Cheng_2017_Nat.Ecol.Evol_1_1747
PubMedSearch : Cheng_2017_Nat.Ecol.Evol_1_1747
PubMedID: 28963452

Title : Characterization of a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) hydrolase from the aerobic mesophilic bacterium Bacillus pumilus - Muroi_2017_Polym.Degrad.Stab_137_11
Author(s) : Muroi F , Tachibana Y , Soulenthone P , Yamamoto K , Mizuno T , Sakurai T , Kobayashi Y , Kasuya KI
Ref : Polymer Degradation and Stability , 137 :11 , 2017
Abstract : The use of biodegradable plastic films made of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) to improve crop production has been proposed. Because the film after use is expected to be degraded on site, it is important to understand the biodegradation mechanism of PBAT in aerobic and mild temperature conditions. We therefore isolated three PBAT-degrading strains, NKCM3201, NKCM3202, and NKCM3101, from soil environments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strains are closely related to Bacillus pumilus. Strain NKCM3201, which degraded PBAT film at the fastest rate (12.2 mug/day/cm2) and grew well at 30 C to 40 C in aerobic conditions, was selected for further analysis. We cloned the 648-bp coding region of the PBAT hydrolase (PBATHBp) gene, which encodes a 215-amino acid protein containing a signal peptide of 34 residues. Mutation analyses revealed that PBATHBp belongs to the serine hydrolase superfamily, with a catalytic triad composed of Ser77, Asp133, and His156. Homology 3D modeling of PBATHBp using Bacillus subtilis 168 lipase as a template showed that the enzyme belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family, which lack a lid domain on its surface. PBATHBp hydrolyzed PBAT, poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA), poly(ethylene succinate) (PESu), and polycaprolactone (PCL) films at a degradation rate of 14.3, 3.3 x 10+2, 7.0 x 10+2, and 1.1x 10+2 mug/cm2/day, respectively. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of degradation products from PBAT revealed that PBATHBp hydrolyses ester bonds between butanediol and terephthalate (B-T bonds) at much slower rates than ester bonds between adipate and butanediol. This ester bond preference may explain the very slow PBAT degradation rate compared to PBSA, PESu, and PCL. This is the first report of a PBAT hydrolase from an aerobic mesophilic bacterium, and may contribute to our understanding of PBAT biodegradation under mild temperature conditions.
ESTHER : Muroi_2017_Polym.Degrad.Stab_137_11
PubMedSearch : Muroi_2017_Polym.Degrad.Stab_137_11
PubMedID:
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacpu-q6rsn0

Title : Altered expression of acetylcholinesterase gene in rice results in enhancement or suppression of shoot gravitropism - Yamamoto_2016_Plant.Signal.Behav__0
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Sakamoto H , Momonoki YS
Ref : Plant Signal Behav , :0 , 2016
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme, exists widely in plants, although its role in plant signal transduction is still unclear. We have hypothesized that the plant AChE regulates asymmetric distribution of hormones and substrates due to gravity stimulus, based on indirect pharmacological experiments using an AChE inhibitor. As a direct evidence for this hypothesis, our recent study has shown that AChE overexpression causes an enhanced gravitropic response in rice seedlings and suggested that the function of the rice AChE relates to the promotion of shoot gravitropism in the seedlings. Here, we report that AChE suppression inhibited shoot gravitropism in rice seedlings, as supportive evidence demonstrating the role of AChE as a positive regulator of shoot gravitropic response in plants.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2016_Plant.Signal.Behav__0
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2016_Plant.Signal.Behav__0
PubMedID: 26979939

Title : Discovery and molecular and biocatalytic properties of hydroxynitrile lyase from an invasive millipede, Chamberlinius hualienensis - Dadashipour_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_10605
Author(s) : Dadashipour M , Ishida Y , Yamamoto K , Asano Y
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 112 :10605 , 2015
Abstract : Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) catalyzes the degradation of cyanohydrins and causes the release of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogenesis). HNL can enantioselectively produce cyanohydrins, which are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and is used as an important biocatalyst in industrial biotechnology. Currently, HNLs are isolated from plants and bacteria. Because industrial biotechnology requires more efficient and stable enzymes for sustainable development, we must continuously explore other potential enzyme sources for the desired HNLs. Despite the abundance of cyanogenic millipedes in the world, there has been no precise study of the HNLs from these arthropods. Here we report the isolation of HNL from the cyanide-emitting invasive millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis, along with its molecular properties and application in biocatalysis. The purified enzyme displays a very high specific activity in the synthesis of mandelonitrile. It is a glycosylated homodimer protein and shows no apparent sequence identity or homology with proteins in the known databases. It shows biocatalytic activity for the condensation of various aromatic aldehydes with potassium cyanide to produce cyanohydrins and has high stability over a wide range of temperatures and pH values. It catalyzes the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile from benzaldehyde with a 99% enantiomeric excess, without using any organic solvents. Arthropod fauna comprise 80% of terrestrial animals. We propose that these animals can be valuable resources for exploring not only HNLs but also diverse, efficient, and stable biocatalysts in industrial biotechnology.
ESTHER : Dadashipour_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_10605
PubMedSearch : Dadashipour_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_10605
PubMedID: 26261304

Title : Overexpression of acetylcholinesterase gene in rice results in enhancement of shoot gravitropism - Yamamoto_2015_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_465_488
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Shida S , Honda Y , Shono M , Miyake H , Oguri S , Sakamoto H , Momonoki YS
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 465 :488 , 2015
Abstract : Acetylcholine (ACh), a known neurotransmitter in animals and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exists widely in plants, although its role in plant signal transduction is unclear. We previously reported AChE in Zea mays L. might be related to gravitropism based on pharmacological study using an AChE inhibitor. Here we clearly demonstrate plant AChE play an important role as a positive regulator in the gravity response of plants based on a genetic study. First, the gene encoding a second component of the ACh-mediated signal transduction system, AChE was cloned from rice, Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare. The rice AChE shared high homology with maize, siratro and Salicornia AChEs. Similar to animal and other plant AChEs, the rice AChE hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine and propionylthiocholine, but not butyrylthiocholine. Thus, the rice AChE might be characterized as an AChE (E.C.3.1.1.7). Similar to maize and siratro AChEs, the rice AChE exhibited low sensitivity to the AChE inhibitor, neostigmine bromide, compared with the electric eel AChE. Next, the functionality of rice AChE was proved by overexpression in rice plants. The rice AChE was localized in extracellular spaces of rice plants. Further, the rice AChE mRNA and its activity were mainly detected during early developmental stages (2 d-10 d after sowing). Finally, by comparing AChE up-regulated plants with wild-type, we found that AChE overexpression causes an enhanced gravitropic response. This result clearly suggests that the function of the rice AChE relate to positive regulation of gravitropic response in rice seedlings.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2015_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_465_488
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2015_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_465_488
PubMedID: 26277389

Title : Cloning and characterization of a microsomal epoxide hydrolase from Heliothis virescens - Kamita_2013_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_43_219
Author(s) : Kamita SG , Yamamoto K , Dadala MM , Pha K , Morisseau C , Escaich A , Hammock BD
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 43 :219 , 2013
Abstract : Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily enzymes that convert epoxides to 1,2-trans diols. In insects EHs play critical roles in the metabolism of toxic compounds and allelochemicals found in the diet and for the regulation of endogenous juvenile hormones (JHs). In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, hvmeh1, from the generalist feeder Heliothis virescens that encoded a highly active EH, Hv-mEH1. Of the 10 different EH substrates that were tested, Hv-mEH1 showed the highest specific activity (1180 nmol min(-1) mg(-1)) for a 1,2-disubstituted epoxide-containing fluorescent substrate. This specific activity was more than 25- and 3900-fold higher than that for the general EH substrates cis-stilbene oxide and trans-stilbene oxide, respectively. Although phylogenetic analysis placed Hv-mEH1 in a clade with some lepidopteran JH metabolizing EHs (JHEHs), JH III was a relatively poor substrate for Hv-mEH1. Hv-mEH1 showed a unique substrate selectivity profile for the substrates tested in comparison to those of MsJHEH, a well-characterized JHEH from Manduca sexta, and hmEH, a human microsomal EH. Hv-mEH1 also showed unique enzyme inhibition profiles to JH-like urea, JH-like secondary amide, JH-like primary amide, and non-JH-like primary amide compounds in comparison to MsJHEH and hmEH. Although Hv-mEH1 is capable of metabolizing JH III, our findings suggest that this enzymatic activity does not play a significant role in the metabolism of JH in the caterpillar. The ability of Hv-mEH1 to rapidly hydrolyze 1,2-disubstituted epoxides suggests that it may play roles in the metabolism of fatty acid epoxides such as those that are commonly found in the diet of Heliothis.
ESTHER : Kamita_2013_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_43_219
PubMedSearch : Kamita_2013_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_43_219
PubMedID: 23276675
Gene_locus related to this paper: helvi-l7r9x8

Title : Tissue localization of maize acetylcholinesterase associated with heat tolerance in plants - Yamamoto_2012_Plant.Signal.Behav_7_301
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Momonoki YS
Ref : Plant Signal Behav , 7 :301 , 2012
Abstract : Our recent study reported that maize acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the coleoptile node is enhanced through a post-translational modification response to heat stress and transgenic plants overexpressing maize AChE gene had an elevated heat tolerance, which strongly suggests that maize AChE plays a positive, important role in maize heat tolerance. Here we present (1) maize AChE activity in the mesocotyl also enhances during heat stress and (2) maize AChE mainly localizes in vascular bundles including endodermis and epidermis in coleoptile nodes and mesocotyls of maize seedlings.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2012_Plant.Signal.Behav_7_301
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2012_Plant.Signal.Behav_7_301
PubMedID: 22476469

Title : Maize acetylcholinesterase is a positive regulator of heat tolerance in plants - Yamamoto_2011_J.Plant.Physiol_168_1987
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Sakamoto H , Momonoki YS
Ref : J Plant Physiol , 168 :1987 , 2011
Abstract : We previously reported that native tropical zone plants showed high acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity during heat stress, and that AChE activity in endodermal cells of maize seedlings was increased by heat treatment. However, the physiological role of AChE in heat stressed plants is still unclear. Here we report (1) tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of maize AChE, (2) elevation of AChE activity and possible post-translational modifications of this enzyme under heat stress, and (3) involvement of AChE in plant heat stress tolerance. Maize AChE was mainly expressed in coleoptile nodes and seeds. Maize AChE fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was localized in extracellular spaces of transgenic rice plants. Therefore, in maize coleoptile nodes and seeds AChE mainly functions in the cell wall matrix. After heat treatment, enhanced maize AChE activity was observed by in vitro activity measurement and by in situ cytochemical staining; transcript and protein levels, however, were not changed. Protein gel blot analysis revealed two AChE isoforms (upper and lower); the upper-form gradually disappeared after heat treatment. Thus, maize AChE activity might be enhanced through a post-translational modification response to heat stress. Finally, we found that overexpression of maize AChE in transgenic tobacco plants enhanced heat tolerance relative to that of non-transgenic plants, suggesting AChE plays a positive role in maize heat tolerance.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2011_J.Plant.Physiol_168_1987
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2011_J.Plant.Physiol_168_1987
PubMedID: 21757255

Title : Molecular cloning of acetylcholinesterase gene from Salicornia europaea L -
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Oguri S , Chiba S , Momonoki YS
Ref : Plant Signal Behav , 4 :361 , 2009
PubMedID: 19816117

Title : The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori - Xia_2008_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_38_1036
Author(s) : Xia Q , Wang J , Zhou Z , Li R , Fan W , Cheng D , Cheng T , Qin J , Duana J , Xu H , Li Q , Li N , Wang M , Dai F , Liu C , Lin Y , Zhao P , Zhang H , Liu S , Zha X , Li C , Zhao A , Pan M , Pan G , Shen Y , Gao Z , Wang Z , Wang G , Wu Z , Hou Y , Chai C , Yu Q , He N , Zhang Z , Li S , Yang H , Lu C , Xiang Z , Mita K , Kasahara M , Nakatani Y , Yamamoto K , Abe H , Ahsan B , Daimoni T , Doi K , Fujii T , Fujiwara H , Fujiyama A , Futahashi R , Hashimotol S , Ishibashi J , Iwami M , Kadono-Okuda K , Kanamori H , Kataoka H , Katsuma S , Kawaoka S , Kawasaki H , Kohara Y , Kozaki T , Kuroshu RM , Kuwazaki S , Matsushima K , Minami H , Nagayasu Y , Nakagawa T , Narukawa J , Nohata J , Ohishi K , Ono Y , Osanai-Futahashi M , Ozaki K , Qu W , Roller L , Sasaki S , Sasaki T , Seino A , Shimomura M , Shin-I T , Shinoda T , Shiotsuki T , Suetsugu Y , Sugano S , Suwa M , Suzuki Y , Takiya S , Tamura T , Tanaka H , Tanaka Y , Touhara K , Yamada T , Yamakawa M , Yamanaka N , Yoshikawa H , Zhong YS , Shimada T , Morishita S
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 38 :1036 , 2008
Abstract : Bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, is a major insect model for research, and the first lepidopteran for which draft genome sequences became available in 2004. Two independent data sets from whole-genome shotgun sequencing were merged and assembled together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences. The remarkably improved new assembly is presented here. The 8.5-fold sequence coverage of an estimated 432 Mb genome was assembled into scaffolds with an N50 size of approximately 3.7 Mb; the largest scaffold was 14.5 million base pairs. With help of a high-density SNP linkage map, we anchored 87% of the scaffold sequences to all 28 chromosomes. A particular feature was the high repetitive sequence content estimated to be 43.6% and that consisted mainly of transposable elements. We predicted 14,623 gene models based on a GLEAN-based algorithm, a more accurate prediction than the previous gene models for this species. Over three thousand silkworm genes have no homologs in other insect or vertebrate genomes. Some insights into gene evolution and into characteristic biological processes are presented here and in other papers in this issue. The massive silk production correlates with the existence of specific tRNA clusters, and of several sericin genes assembled in a cluster. The silkworm's adaptation to feeding on mulberry leaves, which contain toxic alkaloids, is likely linked to the presence of new-type sucrase genes, apparently acquired from bacteria. The silkworm genome also revealed the cascade of genes involved in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway, and a large number of cuticular protein genes.
ESTHER : Xia_2008_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_38_1036
PubMedSearch : Xia_2008_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_38_1036
PubMedID: 19121390
Gene_locus related to this paper: bommo-a0mnw6 , bommo-a1yw85 , bommo-a9ls22 , bommo-ACHE1 , bommo-ACHE2 , bommo-b0fgv8 , bommo-b1q137 , bommo-b1q139 , bommo-b1q140 , bommo-b1q141 , bommo-b2zdz0 , bommo-b3gef6 , bommo-b3gef7 , bommo-b3gs55 , bommo-b3gs56 , bommo-d2ktu3 , bommo-d2ktu5 , bommo-d9ile0 , bommo-e1cga5 , bommo-e1cga6 , bommo-g8fpz6 , bommo-h9iu43 , bommo-h9iu46 , bommo-h9iu47.1 , bommo-h9iu47.2 , bommo-h9iue5 , bommo-h9ivg2 , bommo-h9iwj7 , bommo-h9iwj8 , bommo-h9ix58 , bommo-h9ixi1.1 , bommo-h9ixi1.2 , bommo-h9iy47 , bommo-h9izw1 , bommo-h9j0s4 , bommo-h9j1y0 , bommo-h9j3r0 , bommo-h9j3w6 , bommo-h9j3w7 , bommo-h9j5t0 , bommo-h9j8g3 , bommo-h9j9k9 , bommo-h9j066 , bommo-h9j067 , bommo-h9j593 , bommo-h9j594 , bommo-h9j990 , bommo-h9jde8 , bommo-h9jde9 , bommo-h9jdf0 , bommo-h9jds4 , bommo-h9jle7 , bommo-h9jn83 , bommo-h9jn85 , bommo-h9jrg2 , bommo-h9jyh9 , bommo-JHE , bommo-m1rmh6 , bommo-q1hq05 , bommo-q4tte1 , bommo-h9j592 , bommo-h9j604 , bommo-h9jpm8 , bommo-h9iss4 , bommo-h9j2c7

Title : Subcellular localization of overexpressed maize AChE gene in rice plant - Yamamoto_2008_Plant.Signal.Behav_3_576
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Momonoki YS
Ref : Plant Signal Behav , 3 :576 , 2008
Abstract : The ACh-mediated system consisting of acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is fundamental for nervous system function in animals and insects. Although plants lack a nervous system, both ACh and ACh-hydrolyzing activity have been widely recognized in the plant kingdom. The function of the plant ACh-mediated system is still unclear, despite more than 30 years of research. To understand ACh-mediated systems in plants, we previously purified maize AChE and cloned the corresponding gene from maize seedlings (Plant Physiology). In a recent paper in Planta, we also purified and cloned AChE from the legume plant siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum). In comparison with electric eel AChE, both plant AChEs showed enzymatic properties of both animal AChE and animal butyrylcholinesterase. On the other hand, based on Pfam protein family analysis, both plant AChEs contain a consensus sequence of the lipase GDSL family, while the animal AChEs possess a distinct alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily sequence, but no lipase GDSL sequence. Thus, neither plant AChE belongs to the well-known AChE family, which is distributed throughout the animal kingdom. To address the possible physiological roles of plant AChEs, we herein report our data from the immunological analysis of the overexpressed maize AChE gene in plants.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2008_Plant.Signal.Behav_3_576
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2008_Plant.Signal.Behav_3_576
PubMedID: 19704473

Title : Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of potent 4-fluoro-2-cyanopyrrolidine dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors - Fukushima_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem_16_4093
Author(s) : Fukushima H , Hiratate A , Takahashi M , Mikami A , Saito-Hori M , Munetomo E , Kitano K , Chonan S , Saito H , Suzuki A , Takaoka Y , Yamamoto K
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 16 :4093 , 2008
Abstract : Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are promising antidiabetic drugs, and several drugs are in the developmental stage. We previously reported that the introduction of fluorine to the 4-position of 2-cyanopyrrolidine enhanced the DPP-IV inhibitory effect. In the present report, we examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 2-cyano-4-fluoropyrrolidine with N-substituted glycine at the 1-position. We report the identification of a potent and stable DPP-IV inhibitor (TS-021) with a long-term persistent plasma drug concentration and a potent antihyperglycemic activity.
ESTHER : Fukushima_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem_16_4093
PubMedSearch : Fukushima_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem_16_4093
PubMedID: 18243000

Title : Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of potent 1-(2-substituted-aminoacetyl)-4-fluoro-2-cyanopyrrolidine dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors - Fukushima_2008_Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo)_56_1110
Author(s) : Fukushima H , Hiratate A , Takahashi M , Saito-Hori M , Munetomo E , Kitano K , Saito H , Takaoka Y , Yamamoto K
Ref : Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) , 56 :1110 , 2008
Abstract : Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors have attracted attention as potential drugs for use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they prevent the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and extend its duration of action. We previously reported that 2-cyano-4-fluoropyrrolidines act as potent DPP-IV inhibitors and have been modifying the 1-position of pyrrolidine to obtain more useful inhibitors. An L-tert-butylglycine derivative was found to be a stable and potent DPP-IV inhibitor that exhibits a glucose lowering effect in vivo. Here, we report the synthesis of and biological data on the aforementioned derivatives.
ESTHER : Fukushima_2008_Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo)_56_1110
PubMedSearch : Fukushima_2008_Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo)_56_1110
PubMedID: 18670111

Title : Characterization of trimeric acetylcholinesterase from a legume plant, Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb - Yamamoto_2008_Planta_227_809
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Oguri S , Momonoki YS
Ref : Planta , 227 :809 , 2008
Abstract : We recently identified plant acetylcholinesterases (E.C.3.1.1.7; AChEs) homologous to the AChE purified from a monocotyledon, maize, that are distinct from the animal AChE family. In this study, we purified, cloned and characterized an AChE from a dicotyledon, siratro. The full-length cDNA of siratro AChE is 1,441 nucleotides, encoding a 382-residue protein that includes a signal peptide. This AChE is a disulfide-linked 125-kDa homotrimer consisting of 41-42 kDa subunits, in contrast to the maize AChE, which exists as a mixture of disulfide and non-covalently linked 88-kDa homodimers. The plant AChEs apparently consist of various quaternary structures, depending on the plant species, similar to the animal AChEs. We compared the enzymatic properties of the dimeric maize and trimeric siratro AChEs. Similar to electric eel AChE, both plant AChEs hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine (or acetylcholine) and propionylthiocholine (or propionylcholine), but not butyrylthiocholine (or butyrylcholine), and their specificity constant was highest against acetylcholine. There was no significant difference between the enzymatic properties of trimeric and dimeric AChEs, although two plant AChEs had low substrate turnover numbers compared with electric eel AChE. The two plant AChE activities were not inhibited by excess substrate concentrations. Thus, similar to some plant AChEs, siratro and maize AChEs showed enzymatic properties of both animal AChE and animal BChE. On the other hand, both siratro and maize AChEs exhibited low sensitivity to the AChE-specific inhibitor neostigmine bromide, dissimilar to other plant AChEs. These differences in enzymatic properties of plant AChEs may reflect the phylogenetic evolution of AChEs.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2008_Planta_227_809
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2008_Planta_227_809
PubMedID: 18046576

Title : Decreased lipoprotein lipase as a risk factor for atypical neuroleptic-induced hypertriglyceridemia -
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Fukuda M , Nogawa A , Takahashi E , Miyaoka H
Ref : J Clin Psychiatry , 68 :802 , 2007
PubMedID: 17503998

Title : Urinary dysfunction and autonomic control in amyloid neuropathy - Ito_2006_Clin.Auton.Res_16_66
Author(s) : Ito T , Sakakibara R , Yamamoto T , Uchiyama T , Liu Z , Asahina M , Higashi M , Arai K , Ito S , Awa Y , Yamamoto K , Kinou M , Yamanishi T , Hattori T
Ref : Clin Auton Res , 16 :66 , 2006
Abstract : Uro-neurological assessment was performed in four patients with small-fiber neuropathy due to amyloidosis (2 transthyretin-type/2 immunoglobulin light-chain-type). Voiding difficulties were due to detrusor weakness and impaired bladder sensation. In two patients cholinesterase inhibition treatment caused urge incontinence, indicating detrusor denervation supersensitivity. The underlying mechanisms of urinary dysfunction seem to involve postganglionic cholinergic and afferent somatic nerves.
ESTHER : Ito_2006_Clin.Auton.Res_16_66
PubMedSearch : Ito_2006_Clin.Auton.Res_16_66
PubMedID: 16477499

Title : Pyridostigmine in autonomic failure: can we treat postural hypotension and bladder dysfunction with one drug? - Yamamoto_2006_Clin.Auton.Res_16_296
Author(s) : Yamamoto T , Sakakibara R , Yamanaka Y , Uchiyama T , Asahina M , Liu Z , Ito T , Koyama Y , Awa Y , Yamamoto K , Kinou M , Hattori T
Ref : Clin Auton Res , 16 :296 , 2006
Abstract : In a 66-year-old man with autonomic failure, pyridostigmine (180 mg/day orally) improved both postural hypotension and underactive detrusor bladder dysfunction. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition may be useful in the management of orthostatic hypotension and bladder dysfunction in autonomic failure patients.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2006_Clin.Auton.Res_16_296
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2006_Clin.Auton.Res_16_296
PubMedID: 16862395

Title : Synthesis and biological activity of sulphostin analogues, novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors - Abe_2005_Bioorg.Med.Chem_13_785
Author(s) : Abe M , Akiyama T , Umezawa Y , Yamamoto K , Nagai M , Yamazaki H , Ichikawa Y , Muraoka Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 13 :785 , 2005
Abstract : The structure of sulphostin (1), a novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, is consisted of three key functional groups, including a characteristic amino(sulfoamino)phosphinyl group, on a piperidine ring. To examine the relationship between its structure and the inhibitory activity against DPP-IV, various analogues were synthesized and their activities were investigated. These results indicated that all of the functional groups on the piperidine ring were crucial to the DPP-IV inhibitory activity of sulphostin, and that the sulfonic acid group, which constructed the amino(sulfoamino)phosphinyl group, contributed to the stability of the compound. Moreover, those functional groups should be adjoined on the piperidine ring for the inhibitory activity. The size of the nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring including piperidine appeared to scarcely affect the activity. In the present study, the sulfonic acid-deficient five-membered ring analogue 27a showed the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50=11 nM).
ESTHER : Abe_2005_Bioorg.Med.Chem_13_785
PubMedSearch : Abe_2005_Bioorg.Med.Chem_13_785
PubMedID: 15653346

Title : Molecular characterization of maize acetylcholinesterase: a novel enzyme family in the plant kingdom - Sagane_2005_Plant.Physiol_138_1359
Author(s) : Sagane Y , Nakagawa T , Yamamoto K , Michikawa S , Oguri S , Momonoki YS
Ref : Plant Physiol , 138 :1359 , 2005
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been increasingly recognized in plants by indirect evidence of its activity. Here, we report purification and cloning of AChE from maize (Zea mays), thus providing to our knowledge the first direct evidence of the AChE molecule in plants. AChE was identified as a mixture of disulfide- and noncovalently linked 88-kD homodimers consisting of 42- to 44-kD polypeptides. The AChE hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine and propyonylthiocholine, but not S-butyrylthiocholine, and the AChE-specific inhibitor neostigmine bromide competitively inhibited its activity, implying that maize AChE functions in a similar manner as the animal enzyme. However, kinetic analyses indicated that maize AChE showed a lower affinity to substrates and inhibitors than animal AChE. The full-length cDNA of maize AChE gene is 1,471 nucleotides, which encode a protein having 394 residues, including a signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited no apparent similarity with that of the animal enzyme, although the catalytic triad was the same as in the animal AChE. In silico screening indicated that maize AChE homologs are widely distributed in plants but not in animals. These findings lead us to propose that the AChE family, as found here, comprises a novel family of the enzymes that is specifically distributed in the plant kingdom.
ESTHER : Sagane_2005_Plant.Physiol_138_1359
PubMedSearch : Sagane_2005_Plant.Physiol_138_1359
PubMedID: 15980188

Title : Effects of diacylglycerol administration on serum triacylglycerol in a patient homozygous for complete lipoprotein lipase deletion - Yamamoto_2005_Metabolism_54_67
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Asakawa H , Tokunaga K , Meguro S , Watanabe H , Tokimitsu I , Yagi N
Ref : Metabolism , 54 :67 , 2005
Abstract : We investigated postprandial and long-term effects of dietary diacylglycerol (DAG) on serum triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in a 34-year-old man homozygous for complete lipoprotein lipase deletion (LPL deletion). In study 1, Three different oils (DAG, TAG, or medium-chain fatty acid TAG [MCT]) were ingested to examine differences in the postprandial serum TAG response. Postprandial serum TAG levels after DAG oil ingestion were lower than those after TAG oil ingestion and similar to those after MCT oil ingestion. In study 2, the patient was allowed to ingest ordinary cooking oil for 2 months and then DAG oil (containing 80% DAG; target, 20 g/d) for the next 3 months. During the test period, serum TAG levels were measured and dietary evaluations were performed every month. The patient was provided with dietary instruction and consultation at each clinical visit. Serum TAG levels were 1939 to 2525 mg/dL when he used ordinary cooking oil, 1926 to 1173 mg/dL when he used ordinary cooking oil together with DAG oil, and 749 mg/dL when he used DAG oil alone. The TAG intake decreased from 86.9 to 43.0 g and the DAG intake increased from 0.9 to 12.4 g during the study period. Subsequently, 45 g DAG oil (equivalent to 36 g DAG) per day was consumed, and the serum TAG level increased to 2195 mg/dL. Although there was a positive correlation between the TAG intake and serum TAG levels during the period of DAG oil use (P < .01, y = 33.7x - 583.1), there was no such correlation between DAG oil intake and serum TAG levels. These results suggested that substitution of 12.0 g/d DAG (equivalent to 15 g DAG oil) for TAG oil had the same effect as reducing TAG oil consumption for controlling the serum TAG levels in an LPL-depleted patient with hypertriglyceridemia. In conclusion, the results of study 1 and study 2 demonstrate that DAG oil might be replaced by MCT oil as cooking oil for those with LPL deletion.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_2005_Metabolism_54_67
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_2005_Metabolism_54_67
PubMedID: 15562382

Title : Efficacy of tacrolimus in treatment of polymyositis associated with myasthenia gravis - Shimojima_2004_Clin.Rheumatol_23_262
Author(s) : Shimojima Y , Gono T , Yamamoto K , Hoshi K , Matsuda M , Yoshida K , Ikeda S
Ref : Clin Rheumatol , 23 :262 , 2004
Abstract : We report a patient with polymyositis (PM) associated with myasthenia gravis (MG). Both disorders had been controlled for around 15 years by oral prednisolone and a cholinesterase inhibitor following surgical removal of invasive thymoma and radiotherapy, but muscular weakness due to myalgia and an increase in serum levels of myogenic enzymes, mainly ascribable to the recurrence of PM, reappeared immediately after cessation of these drugs, which was done because the patient had multiple bone fractures and severe osteoporosis due to the long-term corticosteroid therapy. Oral tacrolimus was therefore tried, and produced an improvement in muscular symptoms in association with normalization of myogenic enzymes. PM associated with MG as in this patient might be the best indication for tacrolimus, considering its efficacy in MG, but this drug should also be actively considered as a therapeutic option in refractory cases of PM alone, particularly when either corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents are not usable.
ESTHER : Shimojima_2004_Clin.Rheumatol_23_262
PubMedSearch : Shimojima_2004_Clin.Rheumatol_23_262
PubMedID: 15168159

Title : Biological evaluation of sphingomyelin analogues as inhibitors of sphingomyelinase - Taguchi_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_13_3681
Author(s) : Taguchi M , Goda K , Sugimoto K , Akama T , Yamamoto K , Suzuki T , Tomishima Y , Nishiguchi M , Arai K , Takahashi K , Kobori T
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 13 :3681 , 2003
Abstract : Seeking neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitors, we designed and synthesized hydrolytically stable analogues of sphingomyelin. These novel analogues replace the phosphodiester moiety of sphingomyelin with carbamate and urea moiety, resulting in inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase. Compound 1 prevented ceramide generation and apoptotic neuronal cell death in a model of ischemia based on organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.
ESTHER : Taguchi_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_13_3681
PubMedSearch : Taguchi_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_13_3681
PubMedID: 14552757

Title : Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA - Baba_2002_Lancet_359_1819
Author(s) : Baba T , Takeuchi F , Kuroda M , Yuzawa H , Aoki K , Oguchi A , Nagai Y , Iwama N , Asano K , Naimi T , Kuroda H , Cui L , Yamamoto K , Hiramatsu K
Ref : Lancet , 359 :1819 , 2002
Abstract : BACKGROUND: A new type of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), designated community-acquired MRSA, is becoming increasingly noticeable in the community, some strains of which cause fatal infections in otherwise healthy individuals. By contrast with hospital-acquired MRSA, community-acquired MRSA is more susceptible to non b-lactam antibiotics. We investigated the high virulence potential of certain strains of this bacterium.
METHODS: We ascertained the whole genome sequence of MW2, a strain of community-acquired MRSA, by shotgun cloning and sequencing. MW2 caused fatal septicaemia and septic arthritis in a 16-month-old girl in North Dakota, USA, in 1998. The genome of this strain was compared with those of hospital-acquired MRSA strains, including N315 and Mu50. FINDINGS: Meticillin resistance gene (mecA) in MW2 was carried by a novel allelic form (type IVa) of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), by contrast with type II in N315 and Mu50. Type IVa SCCmec did not carry any of the multiple antibiotic resistance genes reported in type II SCCmec. By contrast, 19 additional virulence genes were recorded in the MW2 genome. All but two of these virulence genes were noted in four of the seven genomic islands of MW2. INTERPRETATION: MW2 carried a range of virulence and resistance genes that was distinct from those displayed on the chromosomes of extant S aureus strains. Most genes were carried by specific allelic forms of genomic islands in the MW2 chromosome. The combination of allelic forms of genomic islands is the genetic basis that determines the pathogenicity of medically important phenotypes of S aureus, including those of community-acquired MRSA strains.
ESTHER : Baba_2002_Lancet_359_1819
PubMedSearch : Baba_2002_Lancet_359_1819
PubMedID: 12044378
Gene_locus related to this paper: staau-d2uin3 , staau-LIP , staau-lipas , staau-MW0741 , staau-MW2456 , staau-q6gfm6 , staau-SA0011 , staau-SA0569 , staau-SA0572 , staau-SA0897 , staau-SA1143 , staau-SA2240 , staau-SA2306 , staau-SA2367 , staau-SA2422 , staau-SAV0321 , staau-SAV0446 , staau-SAV0457 , staau-SAV0655 , staau-SAV1014 , staau-SAV1765 , staau-SAV1793 , staau-SAV2188 , staau-SAV2350

Title : The genome sequence and structure of rice chromosome 1 - Sasaki_2002_Nature_420_312
Author(s) : Sasaki T , Matsumoto T , Yamamoto K , Sakata K , Baba T , Katayose Y , Wu J , Niimura Y , Cheng Z , Nagamura Y , Antonio BA , Kanamori H , Hosokawa S , Masukawa M , Arikawa K , Chiden Y , Hayashi M , Okamoto M , Ando T , Aoki H , Arita K , Hamada M , Harada C , Hijishita S , Honda M , Ichikawa Y , Idonuma A , Iijima M , Ikeda M , Ikeno M , Ito S , Ito T , Ito Y , Iwabuchi A , Kamiya K , Karasawa W , Katagiri S , Kikuta A , Kobayashi N , Kono I , Machita K , Maehara T , Mizuno H , Mizubayashi T , Mukai Y , Nagasaki H , Nakashima M , Nakama Y , Nakamichi Y , Nakamura M , Namiki N , Negishi M , Ohta I , Ono N , Saji S , Sakai K , Shibata M , Shimokawa T , Shomura A , Song J , Takazaki Y , Terasawa K , Tsuji K , Waki K , Yamagata H , Yamane H , Yoshiki S , Yoshihara R , Yukawa K , Zhong H , Iwama H , Endo T , Ito H , Hahn JH , Kim HI , Eun MY , Yano M , Jiang J , Gojobori T
Ref : Nature , 420 :312 , 2002
Abstract : The rice species Oryza sativa is considered to be a model plant because of its small genome size, extensive genetic map, relative ease of transformation and synteny with other cereal crops. Here we report the essentially complete sequence of chromosome 1, the longest chromosome in the rice genome. We summarize characteristics of the chromosome structure and the biological insight gained from the sequence. The analysis of 43.3 megabases (Mb) of non-overlapping sequence reveals 6,756 protein coding genes, of which 3,161 show homology to proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana, another model plant. About 30% (2,073) of the genes have been functionally categorized. Rice chromosome 1 is (G + C)-rich, especially in its coding regions, and is characterized by several gene families that are dispersed or arranged in tandem repeats. Comparison with a draft sequence indicates the importance of a high-quality finished sequence.
ESTHER : Sasaki_2002_Nature_420_312
PubMedSearch : Sasaki_2002_Nature_420_312
PubMedID: 12447438
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysa-Q9S7P1 , orysa-Q9FYP7 , orysa-Q5ZBH3 , orysa-Q5NA74 , orysa-Q5ZA26 , orysa-Q5JLP6 , orysa-Q94D81 , orysa-cbp , orysa-Q5VQE5 , orysa-Q8RZ95 , orysa-Q9AWW1 , orysa-Q9AS70 , orysa-Q0JK71 , orysa-Q8S1D9 , orysa-Q5N8V4 , orysa-Q943F9 , orysa-B9EWJ8 , orysa-Q5N8H1 , orysa-Q5NAI4 , orysa-Q94DP8 , orysa-Q658B2 , orysa-Q5JMQ8 , orysa-Q5QMD9 , orysa-Q5N7L1 , orysa-Q5N7J6 , orysa-Q8RYV9 , orysa-Q5SNH3 , orysa-Q94DD0 , orysa-Q8W0F0 , orysa-pir7a , orysa-pir7b , orysa-Q4VWY7 , orysa-q5jlm9 , orysa-q5na00 , orysa-q5nbu1 , orysa-Q5QLC0 , orysa-q5vnp5 , orysa-Q5VP27 , orysa-Q5ZAM8 , orysa-Q5ZBI5 , orysa-q5zc23 , orysa-Q5ZCR3 , orysa-Q8L562 , orysa-Q8L570 , orysa-Q8LQS5 , orysa-Q8RZ40 , orysa-Q8RZ79 , orysa-Q8S0U8 , orysa-Q8S0V0 , orysa-Q8S125 , orysa-Q9LHX5 , orysa-Q94E46 , orysa-Q656F2 , orysi-a2wn01 , orysi-b8a7e6 , orysi-b8a7e7 , orysj-b9eya5 , orysj-q5jl22 , orysj-q5jlw7 , orysj-q94d71

Title : Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Qing Nao Yi Zhi Fang, on glutamate excitotoxicity in rat fetal cerebral neuronal cells in primary culture - Zhang_2000_Neurosci.Lett_290_21
Author(s) : Zhang J , Li L , Chen X , Zhang B , Wang Y , Yamamoto K
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 290 :21 , 2000
Abstract : Qing Nao Yi Zhi Fang (QNYZ), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been developed as a drug to be used for the prevention and treatment of vascular dementia. However, the mechanisms by which this drug affects vascular dementia remain unknown. We examined the effects of QNYZ serum on glutamate excitotoxicity in rat fetal cerebral neuronal cells in primary culture. Exposure of neuronal cells to glutamate leads to a decrease in the activities of cholinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and streptoavidin peroxidase, and an increase in lactate dehydrogenase release. These enzyme activities were restored to the levels in untreated cells by the addition of QNYZ serum. QNYZ serum suppressed the increased nitric oxide production induced by glutamate and prevented glutamate-mediated apoptosis. QNYZ serum also improved mitochondrial energy metabolism after glutamate exposure. These findings suggest that QNYZ has protective effects against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neuronal cells during ischemic brain injury.
ESTHER : Zhang_2000_Neurosci.Lett_290_21
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2000_Neurosci.Lett_290_21
PubMedID: 10925165

Title : Complete nucleotide sequences of 93-kb and 3.3-kb plasmids of an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 derived from Sakai outbreak - Makino_1998_DNA.Res_5_1
Author(s) : Makino K , Ishii K , Yasunaga T , Hattori M , Yokoyama K , Yutsudo CH , Kubota Y , Yamaichi Y , Iida T , Yamamoto K , Honda T , Han CG , Ohtsubo E , Kasamatsu M , Hayashi T , Kuhara S , Shinagawa H
Ref : DNA Research , 5 :1 , 1998
Abstract : Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan in 1996, possesses two kinds of plasmids: a 93-kb plasmid termed pO157, found in clinical EHEC isolates world-wide and a 3.3-kb plasmid termed pOSAK1, prevalent in EHEC strains isolated in Japan. Complete nucleotide sequences of both plasmids have been determined, and the putative functions of the encoded proteins and the cis-acting DNA sequences have been analyzed. pO157 shares strikingly similar genes and DNA sequences with F-factor and the transmissible drug-resistant plasmid R100 for DNA replication, copy number control, plasmid segregation, conjugative functions and stable maintenance in the host, although it is defective in DNA transfer by conjugation due to the truncation and deletion of the required genes and DNA sequences. In addition, it encodes several proteins implicated in EHEC pathogenicity such as an EHEC hemolysin (HlyA), a catalase-peroxidase (KatP), a serine protease (EspP) and type II secretion system. pOSAK1 possesses a ColE1-like replication system, and the DNA sequence is extremely similar to that of a drug-resistant plasmid, NTP16, derived from Salmonella typhimurium except that it lacks drug resistance transposons.
ESTHER : Makino_1998_DNA.Res_5_1
PubMedSearch : Makino_1998_DNA.Res_5_1
PubMedID: 9628576
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-ypt1

Title : Disposable, enzymatically modified printed film carbon electrodes for use in the high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrochemical detection of glucose or hydrogen peroxide from immobilized enzyme reactors - Osborne_1998_J.Chromatogr.B.Biomed.Sci.Appl_707_3
Author(s) : Osborne PG , Yamamoto K
Ref : Journal of Chromatography B Biomed Sci Appl , 707 :3 , 1998
Abstract : Disposable screen-printed, film carbon electrodes (PFCE) were modified with cast-coated Osmium-polyvinylpyrridine-wired horse radish peroxidase gel polymer (Os-gel-HRP) to enable the detection of the reduction at 0 mV of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) derived from a post-column immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) containing acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase. In another series of experiments PFCE were initially modified with cast-coated Os-gel-HRP and then treated with glucose oxidase in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to form a bi-layer glucose-Os-gel-HRP PFCE. This bi-layer glucose-Os-gel-HRP PFCE generated a reduction current at 0 mV to H2O2 derived from the reaction of glucose oxidase and glucose in solution. These enzyme-modified PFCE were housed in a radial flow cell and coupled with cation-exchange liquid chromatographic methods to temporally separate substrates in solution for the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) in the first experimental series, or glucose in the second experimental series. These two disposable enzyme-modified PFCE exhibited linear current vs. substrate relations, were durable, being usable for approximately 40 determinations, and were sufficiently sensitive to be employed in biological sampling. Both assays utilized the same HPLC equipment. The limit of detection for ACh was 16 fmol/10 microl and that for glucose was 12 micromol/7.5 microl. ACh and Ch were measured from a microdialysate from the frontal cortex of a rat. Glucose in human urine was determined using the bi-layer glucose oxidase-Os-gel-HRP PFCE.
ESTHER : Osborne_1998_J.Chromatogr.B.Biomed.Sci.Appl_707_3
PubMedSearch : Osborne_1998_J.Chromatogr.B.Biomed.Sci.Appl_707_3
PubMedID: 9613927

Title : Genetic analysis of the chromosomal region encoding lysophospholipase L2 of Vibrio cholerae O1 - Whayeb_1996_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1300_1
Author(s) : Whayeb SA , Yamamoto K , Tojo H , Honda T
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1300 :1 , 1996
Abstract : From the Tn5-inserted mutant library of Vibrio cholerae O1, we found a mutant, NF404, which lost the production of both hemolysin and cholera toxin (CT) even though the Tn5-insertion site was out side from the structural genes for hemolysin and CT. Cloning and sequencing analysis of the homologous region from the wild-type strain, revealed that the sequence spanning the coding region of an ORF1 nominated as lypA, encoding a 39.5 kDa protein. Deduced amino acid sequence of the lypA gene had 37.6% identity to the lysophospholipase L2 (EC 3.1.1.5) of Escherichia coli. In the downstream of lypA, a second open reading frame (ORF2) encoding an unknown protein with molecular weight of 19.9 kDa was found. Assaying the lysophospholipase L2 activity in the cell extract of E.coli harboring lypA in an expression vector showed clear increase in the enzymatic activity.
ESTHER : Whayeb_1996_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1300_1
PubMedSearch : Whayeb_1996_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1300_1
PubMedID: 8608155
Gene_locus related to this paper: vibch-VC0135

Title : cDNA cloning and expression of intracellular platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase II. Its homology with plasma PAF acetylhydrolase - Hattori_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_33032
Author(s) : Hattori K , Adachi H , Matsuzawa A , Yamamoto K , Tsujimoto M , Aoki J , Hattori M , Arai H , Inoue K
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 271 :33032 , 1996
Abstract : Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, which inactivates PAF by removing the acetyl group at the sn-2 position, is widely distributed in plasma and tissues. We previously demonstrated that tissue cytosol contains at least two types of PAF acetylhydrolase, isoforms Ib and II, and that isoform Ib is a heterotrimer comprising 45-, 30-, and 29-kDa subunits, whereas isoform II is a 40-kDa monomer. In this study, we isolated cDNA clones of bovine and human PAF acetylhydrolase isoform II. From the longest open reading frame of the cloned cDNAs, both bovine and human PAF acetylhydrolases II are predicted to contain 392 amino acid residues and to exhibit 88% identity with each other at the amino acid level. Both enzymes contain a Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly motif that is characteristic of lipases and serine esterases. Expression of isoform II cDNA in COS7 cells resulted in a marked increase in PAF acetylhydrolase activity. An immunoblot study using an established monoclonal antibody against the bovine enzyme revealed that the recombinant protein exists in the membranous fraction as well as the soluble fraction. Isoform II is expressed most abundantly in the liver and kidney in cattle, but low levels were also observed in other tissues. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA of isoform II had no homology with any subunit of isoform Ib. Interestingly, however, the amino acid sequence of isoform II showed 41% identity with that of plasma PAF acetylhydrolase. Combined with previous data demonstrating that isoform II shows similar substrate specificity to plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, these results indicate that tissue type isoform II and the plasma enzyme may share a common physiologic function.
ESTHER : Hattori_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_33032
PubMedSearch : Hattori_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_33032
PubMedID: 8955149
Gene_locus related to this paper: bovin-paf2 , human-PAFAH2

Title : Comparative pharmacokinetics of four cholinesterase inhibitors in rats - Yamamoto_1995_Biol.Pharm.Bull_18_1292
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Sawada Y , Iga T
Ref : Biol Pharm Bull , 18 :1292 , 1995
Abstract : Pharmacokinetics of a very short-acting, a short-acting and two long-acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors, edrophonium, neostigmine, pyridostigmine and ambenonium, respectively, were compared to elucidate the major determinant of their pharmacokinetics. No dose-dependency in pharmacokinetic behavior was observed within the range of 2-10 mumol/kg for edrophonium, 0.5-2 mumol/kg for pyridostigmine, 0.1-0.5 mumol/kg for neostigmine and 0.3-3 mumol/kg for ambenonium, respectively. Neostigmine has the shortest elimination half-life, and edrophonium, pyridostigmine and ambenonium follow in that. Four ChE inhibitors have similar Vdss values within the range of 0.3-0.7 l/kg, which is similar to the muscle/plasma concentration ratio of these drugs. The liver or kidney to plasma concentration ratio of all ChE inhibitors at 20min after i.v. administration ranged from 5 to 15. Small distribution volumes estimated from the plasma concentration profiles may reflect the distribution to muscle and to the extracellular space of other organs/tissues, while the rapid disappearance of ChE inhibitors from plasma may reflect the concentrative uptake to the liver and kidney.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_1995_Biol.Pharm.Bull_18_1292
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_1995_Biol.Pharm.Bull_18_1292
PubMedID: 8845827

Title : Longitudinal characteristic curve of liver disease - Kitazoe_1995_Comput.Biol.Med_25_39
Author(s) : Kitazoe Y , Kurihara Y , Okuhara Y , Onishi S , Tomita A , Yamamoto Y , Nishioka Y , Sasaki M , Yamamoto K , Nose Y
Ref : Computers in Biology & Medicine , 25 :39 , 1995
Abstract : A longitudinal characteristic curve of chronic liver disease (LCC-LD) is derived for the first time by a new method of time series data analysis, where a hospital information system is utilized as a clinical research application of the database. It describes a typical pattern of development of disease from the beginning of chronic hepatitis to the final stage of cirrhosis. The LCC-LD is obtained by effectively using patient data with various stages of developments of liver disease and the present method is applicable to derive the LCC of other diseases. The obtained LCC-LD may be useful for a clinical decision making support such as the prospective assessment (for example, the onset time of cirrhosis) of liver disease in individual patients, an evaluation of drug effect, etc.
ESTHER : Kitazoe_1995_Comput.Biol.Med_25_39
PubMedSearch : Kitazoe_1995_Comput.Biol.Med_25_39
PubMedID: 7600760

Title : Sensitive determination of ambenonium in plasma using inhibitory activity to acetylcholinesterase - Yamamoto_1993_Biol.Pharm.Bull_16_280
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Sawada Y , Iga T
Ref : Biol Pharm Bull , 16 :280 , 1993
Abstract : A sensitive analytical method for the determination of ambenonium, a selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, in plasma was developed. The procedure involves ultrafiltration to remove endogenous plasma cholinesterase, followed by colorimetric measurement of the inhibitory activity to acetylcholinesterase by the thiocholine method. Coefficient of variation of within-day triplicate analysis is less than 20% at the concentration of 5 nM. Detection limit of this method is 1 nM, which is twice lower than the most sensitive HPLC method reported previously. This assay procedure is applied to the pharmacokinetic study of ambenonium after intravenous administration of low dose (10-20 nmol/kg) to rat. This new method is rapid and simple and makes it possible to determine the ambenonium concentration in plasma with good accuracy.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_1993_Biol.Pharm.Bull_16_280
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_1993_Biol.Pharm.Bull_16_280
PubMedID: 8364473

Title : Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Chihara-Siomi_1992_Arch.Biochem.Biophys_296_505
Author(s) : Chihara-Siomi M , Yoshikawa K , Oshima-Hirayama N , Yamamoto K , Sogabe Y , Nakatani T , Nishioka T , Oda J
Ref : Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics , 296 :505 , 1992
Abstract : An extracellular lipase secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa TE3285 was purified. A genomic library of this strain was constructed in lambda EMBL3, and a DNA fragment 2.7 kb long containing the lipase gene, lipA, was isolated with an oligonucleotide probe synthesized on the basis of the partial amino acid sequence of a purified preparation of the enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame of 933 bases, and the deduced amino acid sequence agreed well with the molecular mass and partial amino acid sequences of mature lipase. The results of alignment of the amino acid sequences of five lipases from Pseudomonas species considered together with the published crystal structure studied with human pancreatic lipase showed that Ser82, His251, and Asp209 were catalytic residues and that a surface loop from residues 172 to 204 was responsible for the substrate specificity. About 50 bases downstream of lipA, there was another gene, lipB. The sequence of lipB was highly homologous to that of putative modulators of the production of active lipases in other Pseudomonas species. Expression plasmids encoding lipA followed by the complete or incomplete lipB gene downstream of the lac promoter of pUC18 were constructed. lipA was expressed in Escherichia coli 1100 only in the presence of the complete lipB gene.
ESTHER : Chihara-Siomi_1992_Arch.Biochem.Biophys_296_505
PubMedSearch : Chihara-Siomi_1992_Arch.Biochem.Biophys_296_505
PubMedID: 1632642
Gene_locus related to this paper: pseae-llipa

Title : Characterization of serum cholinesterase in familial hyper-cholinesterasemia associated with an isozyme variant band - Yamamoto_1987_Gastroenterol.Jpn_22_187
Author(s) : Yamamoto K , Morito F , Setoguchi Y , Fujii S , Kariya T , Sakai T
Ref : Gastroenterol Jpn , 22 :187 , 1987
Abstract : An investigation of the properties and kinetics of serum cholinesterase (chE) was conducted in familial cases of serum hyper-chE activity. An inhibition study with specific pseudo-chE inhibitor (ethopropazine), or with anti-human pseudo-chE sera, has produced evidence that this genetically variant chE is pseudo-chE. The Km or relative activity of the variant chE against enzyme protein turns out to be the same as that of the normal serum chE. However, the variant serum chE shows more basic pK in addition to the main pK of the normal pseudo-chE on isoelectrofocusing analysis. The serum chE isozyme analysis has revealed two different extrabands in the variant: one demonstrated as a sharp line between bands 3 and 4, which we described previously, and the other as slow migrating broad band in the cathodic region close to the origin. Both prove to be pseudo-chE. Although there have been some similar descriptions about the latter type of extraband, no reports are found about the former type. It is noteworthy that the use of heparin as an anti-coagulant caused the total disappearance of the first type of extraband. It should be remembered that only heparinized plasma was used in the earlier studies. Since the detection of the former type of band seems to be specific and is simple, our findings would probably help clinicians diagnose a familial case of hyper-chE.
ESTHER : Yamamoto_1987_Gastroenterol.Jpn_22_187
PubMedSearch : Yamamoto_1987_Gastroenterol.Jpn_22_187
PubMedID: 3596154

Title : Role of cholinergic mechanisms in states of wakefulness and sleep -
Author(s) : Domino EF , Yamamoto K , Dren AT
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 28 :113 , 1968
PubMedID: 5749010