Carletti E


Full name : Carletti Eugenie

First name : Eugenie

Mail : CRSSA\; 24 av des Maquis du Gresivaudan\; 38700 La Tronche

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Country : France

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References (12)

Title : Crystal structures of human cholinesterases in complex with huprine W and tacrine: elements of specificity for anti-Alzheimer's drugs targeting acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase - Nachon_2013_Biochem.J_453_393
Author(s) : Nachon F , Carletti E , Ronco C , Trovaslet M , Nicolet Y , Jean L , Renard PY
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 453 :393 , 2013
Abstract : The multifunctional nature of Alzheimer's disease calls for MTDLs (multitarget-directed ligands) to act on different components of the pathology, like the cholinergic dysfunction and amyloid aggregation. Such MTDLs are usually on the basis of cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g. tacrine or huprine) coupled with another active molecule aimed at a different target. To aid in the design of these MTDLs, we report the crystal structures of hAChE (human acetylcholinesterase) in complex with FAS-2 (fasciculin 2) and a hydroxylated derivative of huprine (huprine W), and of hBChE (human butyrylcholinesterase) in complex with tacrine. Huprine W in hAChE and tacrine in hBChE reside in strikingly similar positions highlighting the conservation of key interactions, namely, pi-pi/cation-pi interactions with Trp86 (Trp82), and hydrogen bonding with the main chain carbonyl of the catalytic histidine residue. Huprine W forms additional interactions with hAChE, which explains its superior affinity: the isoquinoline moiety is associated with a group of aromatic residues (Tyr337, Phe338 and Phe295 not present in hBChE) in addition to Trp86; the hydroxyl group is hydrogen bonded to both the catalytic serine residue and residues in the oxyanion hole; and the chlorine substituent is nested in a hydrophobic pocket interacting strongly with Trp439. There is no pocket in hBChE that is able to accommodate the chlorine substituent.
ESTHER : Nachon_2013_Biochem.J_453_393
PubMedSearch : Nachon_2013_Biochem.J_453_393
PubMedID: 23679855
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE , human-BCHE

Title : Inhibition pathways of the potent organophosphate CBDP with cholinesterases revealed by X-ray crystallographic snapshots and mass spectrometry - Carletti_2013_Chem.Res.Toxicol_26_280
Author(s) : Carletti E , Colletier JP , Schopfer LM , Santoni G , Masson P , Lockridge O , Nachon F , Weik M
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 26 :280 , 2013
Abstract : Tri-o-cresyl-phosphate (TOCP) is a common additive in jet engine lubricants and hydraulic fluids suspected to have a role in aerotoxic syndrome in humans. TOCP is metabolized to cresyl saligenin phosphate (CBDP), a potent irreversible inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a natural bioscavenger present in the bloodstream, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the off-switch at cholinergic synapses. Mechanistic details of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition have, however, remained elusive. Also, the inhibition of AChE by CBDP is unexpected, from a structural standpoint, i.e., considering the narrowness of AChE active site and the bulkiness of CBDP. In the following, we report on kinetic X-ray crystallography experiments that provided 2.7-3.3 A snapshots of the reaction of CBDP with mouse AChE and human BChE. The series of crystallographic snapshots reveals that AChE and BChE react with the opposite enantiomers and that an induced-fit rearrangement of Phe297 enlarges the active site of AChE upon CBDP binding. Mass spectrometry analysis of aging in either H(2)(16)O or H(2)(18)O furthermore allowed us to identify the inhibition steps, in which water molecules are involved, thus providing insights into the mechanistic details of inhibition. X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry show the formation of an aged end product formed in both AChE and BChE that cannot be reactivated by current oxime-based therapeutics. Our study thus shows that only prophylactic and symptomatic treatments are viable to counter the inhibition of AChE and BChE by CBDP.
ESTHER : Carletti_2013_Chem.Res.Toxicol_26_280
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2013_Chem.Res.Toxicol_26_280
PubMedID: 23339663
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE , mouse-ACHE

Title : Huprine derivatives as sub-nanomolar human acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: from rational design to validation by X-ray crystallography - Ronco_2012_ChemMedChem_7_400
Author(s) : Ronco C , Carletti E , Colletier JP , Weik M , Nachon F , Jean L , Renard PY
Ref : ChemMedChem , 7 :400 , 2012
Abstract : This complete study - from rational design to validation by X-ray crystallography allowed us to discover two sub-nanomolar hAChE inhibitors (430 and 530 pM) grafted with an easily derivatized linker directed toward the AChE peripheral site. The crystal structure of mouse AChE in complex with compound 4 was solved and confirms the favorable position of the triazole in the active site gorge, paving the way for a new class of bifunctional ligands.
ESTHER : Ronco_2012_ChemMedChem_7_400
PubMedSearch : Ronco_2012_ChemMedChem_7_400
PubMedID: 22052791
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : Reactibodies generated by kinetic selection couple chemical reactivity with favorable protein dynamics - Smirnov_2011_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_108_15954
Author(s) : Smirnov IV , Carletti E , Kurkova I , Nachon F , Nicolet Y , Mitkevich VA , Debat H , Avalle B , Belogurov AA, Jr. , Kuznetsov N , Reshetnyak A , Masson P , Tonevitsky AG , Ponomarenko NA , Makarov AA , Friboulet A , Tramontano A , Gabibov AG
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 108 :15954 , 2011
Abstract : Igs offer a versatile template for combinatorial and rational design approaches to the de novo creation of catalytically active proteins. We have used a covalent capture selection strategy to identify biocatalysts from within a human semisynthetic antibody variable fragment library that uses a nucleophilic mechanism. Specific phosphonylation at a single tyrosine within the variable light-chain framework was confirmed in a recombinant IgG construct. High-resolution crystallographic structures of unmodified and phosphonylated Fabs display a 15-A-deep two-chamber cavity at the interface of variable light (V(L)) and variable heavy (V(H)) fragments having a nucleophilic tyrosine at the base of the site. The depth and structure of the pocket are atypical of antibodies in general but can be compared qualitatively with the catalytic site of cholinesterases. A structurally disordered heavy chain complementary determining region 3 loop, constituting a wall of the cleft, is stabilized after covalent modification by hydrogen bonding to the phosphonate tropinol moiety. These features and presteady state kinetics analysis indicate that an induced fit mechanism operates in this reaction. Mutations of residues located in this stabilized loop do not interfere with direct contacts to the organophosphate ligand but can interrogate second shell interactions, because the H3 loop has a conformation adjusted for binding. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters along with computational docking support the active site model, including plasticity and simple catalytic components. Although relatively uncomplicated, this catalytic machinery displays both stereo- and chemical selectivity. The organophosphate pesticide paraoxon is hydrolyzed by covalent catalysis with rate-limiting dephosphorylation. This reactibody is, therefore, a kinetically selected protein template that has enzyme-like catalytic attributes.
ESTHER : Smirnov_2011_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_108_15954
PubMedSearch : Smirnov_2011_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_108_15954
PubMedID: 21896761

Title : X-ray crystallographic snapshots of reaction intermediates in the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase, a nerve agent target engineered into a catalytic bioscavenger - Nachon_2011_Biochem.J_434_73
Author(s) : Nachon F , Carletti E , Wandhammer M , Nicolet Y , Schopfer LM , Masson P , Lockridge O
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 434 :73 , 2011
Abstract : OPs (organophosphylates) exert their acute toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, by phosphylation of the catalytic serine residue. Engineering of human butyrylcholinesterase, by substitution of a histidine residue for the glycine residue at position 117, led to the creation of OP hydrolase activity. However, the lack of structural information and poor understanding of the hydrolytic mechanism of the G117H mutant has hampered further improvements in the catalytic activity. We have solved the crystallographic structure of the G117H mutant with a variety of ligands in its active site. A sulfate anion bound to the active site suggested the positioning for an OP prior to phosphylation. A fluoride anion was found in the active site when NaF was added to the crystallization buffer. In the fluoride complex, the imidazole ring from the His117 residue was substantially shifted, adopting a relaxed conformation probably close to that of the unliganded mutant enzyme. Additional X-ray structures were obtained from the transient covalent adducts formed upon reaction of the G117H mutant with the OPs echothiophate and VX [ethyl ({2-[bis(propan-2-yl)amino]ethyl}sulfanyl](methyl)phosphinate]. The position of the His117 residue shifted in response to the introduction of these adducts, overlaying the phosphylserine residue. These structural data suggest that the dephosphylation mechanism involves either a substantial conformational change of the His117 residue or an adjacent nucleophilic substitution by water.
ESTHER : Nachon_2011_Biochem.J_434_73
PubMedSearch : Nachon_2011_Biochem.J_434_73
PubMedID: 21091433
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Reaction of cresyl saligenin phosphate, the organophosphorus agent implicated in aerotoxic syndrome, with human cholinesterases: mechanistic studies employing kinetics, mass spectrometry, and X-ray structure analysis - Carletti_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_797
Author(s) : Carletti E , Schopfer LM , Colletier JP , Froment MT , Nachon F , Weik M , Lockridge O , Masson P
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 24 :797 , 2011
Abstract : Aerotoxic syndrome is assumed to be caused by exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP), an antiwear additive in jet engine lubricants and hydraulic fluid. CBDP (2-(ortho-cresyl)-4H-1,2,3-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one) is the toxic metabolite of triortho-cresylphosphate, a component of TCP. Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC and human acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC are irreversibly inhibited by CBDP. The bimolecular rate constants of inhibition (k(i)), determined under pseudo-first-order conditions, displayed a biphasic time course of inhibition with k(i) of 1.6 x 10(8) M(-1) min(-1) and 2.7 x 10(7) M(-1) min(-1) for E and E' forms of BChE. The inhibition constants for AChE were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than those for BChE. CBDP-phosphorylated cholinesterases are nonreactivatable due to ultra fast aging. Mass spectrometry analysis showed an initial BChE adduct with an added mass of 170 Da from cresylphosphate, followed by dealkylation to a structure with an added mass of 80 Da. Mass spectrometry in (18)O-water showed that (18)O was incorporated only during the final aging step to form phospho-serine as the final aged BChE adduct. The crystal structure of CBDP-inhibited BChE confirmed that the phosphate adduct is the ultimate aging product. CBDP is the first organophosphorus agent that leads to a fully dealkylated phospho-serine BChE adduct.
ESTHER : Carletti_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_797
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_797
PubMedID: 21438623
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Structural study of the complex stereoselectivity of human butyrylcholinesterase for the neurotoxic V-agents - Wandhammer_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_16783
Author(s) : Wandhammer M , Carletti E , van der Schans M , Gillon E , Nicolet Y , Masson P , Goeldner M , Noort D , Nachon F
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 286 :16783 , 2011
Abstract : Nerve agents are chiral organophosphate compounds (OPs) that exert their acute toxicity by phosphorylating the catalytic serine of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The inhibited cholinesterases can be reactivated using oximes, but a spontaneous time-dependent process called aging alters the adduct, leading to resistance toward oxime reactivation. Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) functions as a bioscavenger, protecting the cholinergic system against OPs. The stereoselectivity of BChE is an important parameter for its efficiency at scavenging the most toxic OPs enantiomer for AChE. Crystals of BChE inhibited in solution or in cristallo with racemic V-agents (VX, Russian VX, and Chinese VX) systematically show the formation of the P(S) adduct. In this configuration, no catalysis of aging seems possible as confirmed by the three-dimensional structures of the three conjugates incubated over a period exceeding a week. Crystals of BChE soaked in optically pure VX(R)-(+) and VX(S)-(-) solutions lead to the formation of the P(S) and P(R) adduct, respectively. These structural data support an in-line phosphonylation mechanism. Additionally, they show that BChE reacts with VX(R)-(+) in the presence of racemic mixture of V-agents, at odds with earlier kinetic results showing a moderate higher inhibition rate for VX(S)-(-). These combined results suggest that the simultaneous presence of both enantiomers alters the enzyme stereoselectivity. In summary, the three-dimensional data show that BChE reacts preferentially with P(R) enantiomer of V-agents and does not age, in complete contrast to AChE, which is selectively inhibited by the P(S) enantiomer and ages.
ESTHER : Wandhammer_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_16783
PubMedSearch : Wandhammer_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_16783
PubMedID: 21454498
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Aging mechanism of butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by an N-methyl analogue of tabun: implications of the trigonal-bipyramidal transition state rearrangement for the phosphylation or reactivation of cholinesterases - Nachon_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_44
Author(s) : Nachon F , Carletti E , Worek F , Masson P
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 187 :44 , 2010
Abstract : Cholinesterases are the main target of organophosphorus nerve agents (OPs). Their inhibition results in cholinergic syndrome and death. The enzymes are inhibited by phosphylation of the catalytic serine enzyme, but can be reactivated by oximes to some extent. However, phosphylated cholinesterases undergo a side reaction that progressively prevents their reactivatability. This unimolecular reaction, termed "aging", has been investigated for decades. It was shown that most OP-ChE conjugates aged by O-dealkylation of an alkoxy substituent of the phosphorus atom, a mechanism involving the stabilization of a transient carbocation. In this paper we present structural data supporting a substitution-based mechanism for aging of the huBChE conjugate of an N-mono-methyl analogue of tabun. This mechanism involves an adjacent nucleophilic attack followed by Berry pseudorotation. A similar adjacent attack and subsequent rearrangement of the transition state have been recently proposed for tabun phosphylation of AChE. We suggest that a similar mechanism is also possible for oxime reactivation of phosphylated cholinesterases. This opens new perspectives in terms of reactivator design.
ESTHER : Nachon_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_44
PubMedSearch : Nachon_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_44
PubMedID: 20381476

Title : Structural evidence that human acetylcholinesterase inhibited by tabun ages through O-dealkylation - Carletti_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_4002
Author(s) : Carletti E , Colletier JP , Dupeux F , Trovaslet M , Masson P , Nachon F
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 53 :4002 , 2010
Abstract : Tabun is a warfare agent that inhibits human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) by rapid phosphylation of the catalytic serine. A time-dependent reaction occurs on the tabun adduct, leading to an "aged" enzyme, resistant to oxime reactivators. The aging reaction may proceed via either dealkylation or deamidation, depending on the stereochemistry of the phosphoramidyl adduct. We solved the X-ray structure of aged tabun-hAChE complexed with fasciculin II, and we show that aging proceeds through O-dealkylation, in agreement with the aging mechanism that we determined for tabun-inhibited human butyrylcholinesterase and mouse acetylcholinesterase. Noteworthy, aging and binding of fasciculin II lead to an improved thermostability, resulting from additional stabilizing interactions between the two subdomains that face each other across the active site gorge. This first structure of hAChE inhibited by a nerve agent provides structural insight into the inhibition and aging mechanisms and a structural template for the design of molecules capable of reactivating aged hAChE.
ESTHER : Carletti_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_4002
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_4002
PubMedID: 20408548
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE

Title : Structure, activities and biomedical applications of human butyrylcholinesterase - Masson_2009_Protein.Pept.Lett_16_1215
Author(s) : Masson P , Carletti E , Nachon F
Ref : Protein Pept Lett , 16 :1215 , 2009
Abstract : Human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is a serine enzyme present in most organs and plasma. No clear physiological function has yet been assigned to BuChE, but it is a pharmacologically and toxicologically important enzyme that plays a role in degradation of numerous ester-containing drugs and poisonous esters. Thus, BuChE-based bioscavengers are an alternative for prophylaxis and treatments of intoxications by these compounds. Also, BuChE has been integrated in biosensors for detection of organophosphorus compounds and other cholinesterase inhibitors.
ESTHER : Masson_2009_Protein.Pept.Lett_16_1215
PubMedSearch : Masson_2009_Protein.Pept.Lett_16_1215
PubMedID: 19508180

Title : Structure-activity analysis of aging and reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by analogues of tabun. - Carletti_2009_Biochem.J_421_97
Author(s) : Carletti E , Aurbek N , Gillon E , Loiodice M , Nicolet Y , Fontecilla-Camps JC , Masson P , Thiermann H , Nachon F , Worek F
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 421 :97 , 2009
Abstract : hBChE [human BChE (butyrylcholinesterase)] naturally scavenges OPs (organophosphates). This bioscavenger is currently in Clinical Phase I for pretreatment of OP intoxication. Phosphylated ChEs (cholinesterases) can undergo a spontaneous time-dependent process called 'aging' during which the conjugate is dealkylated, leading to creation of an enzyme that cannot be reactivated. hBChE inhibited by phosphoramidates such as tabun displays a peculiar resistance to oxime-mediated reactivation. We investigated the basis of oxime resistance of phosphoramidyl-BChE conjugates by determining the kinetics of inhibition, reactivation (obidoxime {1,1'-(oxybis-methylene) bis[4-(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium dichloride}, TMB-4(Trimedoxime) [1,3-trimethylene-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) dibromide], HL 7 {1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl) pyridinio]methoxy]methyl]-2,4-bis-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridinium dimethanesulfonate)}, HI-6 {1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl) pyridinio] methoxy] methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dichloride monohydrate} and aging, and the crystal structures of hBChE inhibited by different N-monoalkyl and N,N-dialkyl tabun analogues. The refined structures of aged hBChE conjugates show that aging proceeds through O-dealkylation of the P(R) enantiomer of N,N-diethyl and N-propyl analogues, with subsequent formation of a salt bridge preventing reactivation, similarly to a previous observation made on tabun-ChE conjugates. Interestingly, the N-methyl analogue projects its amino group towards the choline-binding pocket, so that aging proceeds through deamination. This orientation results from a preference of hBChE's acyl-binding pocket for larger than 2-atoms linear substituents. The correlation between the inhibitory potency and the N-monoalkyl chain length is related to increasingly optimized interactions with the acyl-binding pocket as shown by the X-ray structures. These kinetics and X-ray data lead to a structure-activity relationship that highlights steric and electronic effects of the amino substituent of phosphoramidate. This study provides the structural basis to design new oximes capable of reactivating phosphoramidyl-hBChE conjugates after intoxication, notably when hBChE is used as pretreatment, or to design BChE-based catalytic bioscavengers.
ESTHER : Carletti_2009_Biochem.J_421_97
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2009_Biochem.J_421_97
PubMedID: 19368529
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Aging of cholinesterases phosphylated by tabun proceeds through O-dealkylation - Carletti_2008_J.Am.Chem.Soc_130_16011
Author(s) : Carletti E , Li H , Li B , Ekstrom F , Nicolet Y , Loiodice M , Gillon E , Froment MT , Lockridge O , Schopfer LM , Masson P , Nachon F
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , 130 :16011 , 2008
Abstract : Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) hydrolyzes or scavenges a wide range of toxic esters, including heroin, cocaine, carbamate pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, and nerve agents. Organophosphates (OPs) exert their acute toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphorylation of the catalytic serine. Phosphylated cholinesterase (ChE) can undergo a spontaneous, time-dependent process called "aging", during which the OP-ChE conjugate is dealkylated. This leads to irreversible inhibition of the enzyme. The inhibition of ChEs by tabun and the subsequent aging reaction are of particular interest, because tabun-ChE conjugates display an extraordinary resistance toward most current oxime reactivators. We investigated the structural basis of oxime resistance for phosphoramidated ChE conjugates by determining the crystal structures of the non-aged and aged forms of hBChE inhibited by tabun, and by updating the refinement of non-aged and aged tabun-inhibited mouse AChE (mAChE). Structures for non-aged and aged tabun-hBChE were refined to 2.3 and 2.1 A, respectively. The refined structures of aged ChE conjugates clearly show that the aging reaction proceeds through O-dealkylation of the P(R) enantiomer of tabun. After dealkylation, the negatively charged oxygen forms a strong salt bridge with protonated His438N epsilon2 that prevents reactivation. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aged tabun-inhibited hBChE showed that both the dimethylamine and ethoxy side chains were missing from the phosphorus. Loss of the ethoxy is consistent with the crystallography results. Loss of the dimethylamine is consistent with acid-catalyzed deamidation during the preparation of the aged adduct for mass spectrometry. The reported 3D data will help in the design of new oximes capable of reactivating tabun-ChE conjugates.
ESTHER : Carletti_2008_J.Am.Chem.Soc_130_16011
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2008_J.Am.Chem.Soc_130_16011
PubMedID: 18975951
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE , mouse-ACHE