Colletier JP


Full name : Colletier Jacques-Philippe

First name : Jacques-Philippe

Mail : Institut de Biologie Structurale UMR 5075\; 41 rue Jules Horowitz\; 38027 Grenoble

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Country : France

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Phone : +33438789573

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References (33)

Title : Discovery of a Potent Dual Inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase with Antioxidant Activity that Alleviates Alzheimer-like Pathology in Old APP\/PS1 Mice - Viayna_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_812
Author(s) : Viayna E , Coquelle N , Cieslikiewicz-Bouet M , Cisternas P , Oliva CA , Sanchez-Lopez E , Ettcheto M , Bartolini M , De Simone A , Ricchini M , Rendina M , Pons M , Firuzi O , Perez B , Saso L , Andrisano V , Nachon F , Brazzolotto X , Garcia ML , Camins A , Silman I , Jean L , Inestrosa NC , Colletier JP , Renard PY , Munoz-Torrero D
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 64 :812 , 2021
Abstract : The combination of the scaffolds of the cholinesterase inhibitor huprine Y and the antioxidant capsaicin results in compounds with nanomolar potencies toward human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that retain or improve the antioxidant properties of capsaicin. Crystal structures of their complexes with AChE and BChE revealed the molecular basis for their high potency. Brain penetration was confirmed by biodistribution studies in C57BL6 mice, with one compound (5i) displaying better brain/plasma ratio than donepezil. Chronic treatment of 10 month-old APP/PS1 mice with 5i (2 mg/kg, i.p., 3 times per week, 4 weeks) rescued learning and memory impairments, as measured by three different behavioral tests, delayed the Alzheimer-like pathology progression, as suggested by a significantly reduced Abeta42/Abeta40 ratio in the hippocampus, improved basal synaptic efficacy, and significantly reduced hippocampal oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Compound 5i emerges as an interesting anti-Alzheimer lead with beneficial effects on cognitive symptoms and on some underlying disease mechanisms.
ESTHER : Viayna_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_812
PubMedSearch : Viayna_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_812
PubMedID: 33356266
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE

Title : Chiral Separation, X-ray Structure, and Biological Evaluation of a Potent and Reversible Dual Binding Site AChE Inhibitor - Catto_2020_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_11_869
Author(s) : Catto M , Pisani L , De la Mora E , Belviso BD , Mangiatordi GF , Pinto A , Palma A , Denora N , Caliandro R , Colletier JP , Silman I , Nicolotti O , Altomare CD
Ref : ACS Med Chem Lett , 11 :869 , 2020
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (AChEIs) still remain the leading therapeutic options for the symptomatic treatment of cognitive deficits associated with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. The search for new AChEIs benefits from well-established knowledge of the molecular interactions of selective AChEIs, such as donepezil and related dual binding site inhibitors. Starting from a previously disclosed coumarin-based inhibitor (+/-)-cis-1, active as racemate in the nanomolar range toward AChE, we proceeded on a double track by (i) achieving chiral resolution of the enantiomers of 1 by HPLC and (ii) preparing two close achiral analogues of 1, i.e., compounds 4 and 6. An eudismic ratio as high as 20 was observed for the (-) enantiomer of cis-1. The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between the (-)-cis-1 eutomer (coded as MC1420) and T. californica AChE was determined at 2.8 A, and docking calculation results suggested that the eutomer in (1R,3S) absolute configuration should be energetically more favored in binding the enzyme than the eutomer in (1S,3R) configuration. The achiral analogues 4 and 6 were less effective in inhibiting AChE compared to (+/-)-cis-1, but interestingly butylamide 4 emerged as a potent inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE).
ESTHER : Catto_2020_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_11_869
PubMedSearch : Catto_2020_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_11_869
PubMedID: 32435398

Title : Development of potent reversible selective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase as fluorescent probes - Pajk_2020_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_35_498
Author(s) : Pajk S , Knez D , Kosak U , Zorovic M , Brazzolotto X , Coquelle N , Nachon F , Colletier JP , Zivin M , Stojan J , Gobec S
Ref : J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem , 35 :498 , 2020
Abstract : Brain butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an attractive target for drugs designed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its advanced stages. It also potentially represents a biomarker for progression of this disease. Based on the crystal structure of previously described highly potent, reversible, and selective BChE inhibitors, we have developed the fluorescent probes that are selective towards human BChE. The most promising probes also maintain their inhibition of BChE in the low nanomolar range with high selectivity over acetylcholinesterase. Kinetic studies of probes reveal a reversible mixed inhibition mechanism, with binding of these fluorescent probes to both the free and acylated enzyme. Probes show environment-sensitive emission, and additionally, one of them also shows significant enhancement of fluorescence intensity upon binding to the active site of BChE. Finally, the crystal structures of probes in complex with human BChE are reported, which offer an excellent base for further development of this library of compounds.
ESTHER : Pajk_2020_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_35_498
PubMedSearch : Pajk_2020_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_35_498
PubMedID: 31914836
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Design, biological evaluation and X-ray crystallography of nanomolar multifunctional ligands targeting simultaneously acetylcholinesterase and glycogen synthase kinase-3 - Oukoloff_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_58
Author(s) : Oukoloff K , Coquelle N , Bartolini M , Naldi M , Le Guevel R , Bach S , Josselin B , Ruchaud S , Catto M , Pisani L , Denora N , Iacobazzi RM , Silman I , Sussman JL , Buron F , Colletier JP , Jean L , Routier S , Renard PY
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 168 :58 , 2019
Abstract : Both cholinesterases (AChE and BChE) and kinases, such as GSK-3alpha/beta, are associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Two scaffolds, targeting AChE (tacrine) and GSK-3alpha/beta (valmerin) simultaneously, were assembled, using copper(I)-catalysed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), to generate a new series of multifunctional ligands. A series of eight multi-target directed ligands (MTDLs) was synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in cell cultures. Molecular docking studies, together with the crystal structures of three MTDL/TcAChE complexes, with three tacrine-valmerin hybrids allowed designing an appropriate linker containing a 1,2,3-triazole moiety whose incorporation preserved, and even increased, the original inhibitory potencies of the two selected pharmacophores toward the two targets. Most of the new derivatives exhibited nanomolar affinity for both targets, and the most potent compound of the series displayed inhibitory potencies of 9.5nM for human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and 7nM for GSK-3alpha/beta. These novel dual MTDLs may serve as suitable leads for further development, since, in the micromolar range, they exhibited low cytotoxicity on a panel of representative human cell lines including the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Moreover, these tacrine-valmerin hybrids displayed a good ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) without interacting with efflux pumps such as P-gp.
ESTHER : Oukoloff_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_58
PubMedSearch : Oukoloff_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_58
PubMedID: 30798053
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Increasing Polarity in Tacrine and Huprine Derivatives: Potent Anticholinesterase Agents for the Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis - Galdeano_2018_Molecules_23_
Author(s) : Galdeano C , Coquelle N , Cieslikiewicz-Bouet M , Bartolini M , Perez B , Clos MV , Silman I , Jean L , Colletier JP , Renard PY , Munoz-Torrero D
Ref : Molecules , 23 : , 2018
Abstract : Symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis is based on the use of peripherally-acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that, in some cases, must be discontinued due to the occurrence of a number of side-effects. Thus, new AChE inhibitors are being developed and investigated for their potential use against this disease. Here, we have explored two alternative approaches to get access to peripherally-acting AChE inhibitors as new agents against myasthenia gravis, by structural modification of the brain permeable anti-Alzheimer AChE inhibitors tacrine, 6-chlorotacrine, and huprine Y. Both quaternization upon methylation of the quinoline nitrogen atom, and tethering of a triazole ring, with, in some cases, the additional incorporation of a polyphenol-like moiety, result in more polar compounds with higher inhibitory activity against human AChE (up to 190-fold) and butyrylcholinesterase (up to 40-fold) than pyridostigmine, the standard drug for symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis. The novel compounds are furthermore devoid of brain permeability, thereby emerging as interesting leads against myasthenia gravis.
ESTHER : Galdeano_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedSearch : Galdeano_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedID: 29534488
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Multi-target-directed ligands for treating Alzheimer's disease: Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors displaying antioxidant and neuroprotective activities - Knez_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_156_598
Author(s) : Knez D , Coquelle N , Pislar A , Zakelj S , Jukic M , Sova M , Mravljak J , Nachon F , Brazzolotto X , Kos J , Colletier JP , Gobec S
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 156 :598 , 2018
Abstract : The limited clinical efficacy of current symptomatic treatment and minute effect on progression of Alzheimer's disease has shifted the research focus from single targets towards multi-target-directed ligands. Here, a potent selective inhibitor of human butyrylcholinesterase was used as the starting point to develop a new series of multifunctional ligands. A focused library of derivatives was designed and synthesised that showed both butyrylcholinesterase inhibition and good antioxidant activity as determined by the DPPH assay. The crystal structure of compound 11 in complex with butyrylcholinesterase revealed the molecular basis for its low nanomolar inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (Ki=1.09+/-0.12nM). In addition, compounds 8 and 11 show metal-chelating properties, and reduce the redox activity of chelated Cu(2+) ions in a Cu-ascorbate redox system. Compounds 8 and 11 decrease intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, and are not substrates of the active efflux transport system, as determined in Caco2 cells. Compound 11 also protects neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from toxic Abeta1-42 species. These data indicate that compounds 8 and 11 are promising multifunctional lead ligands for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Knez_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_156_598
PubMedSearch : Knez_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_156_598
PubMedID: 30031971
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : The Magic of Crystal Structure-Based Inhibitor Optimization: Development of a Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitor with Picomolar Affinity and in Vivo Activity - Kosak_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_119
Author(s) : Kosak U , Brus B , Knez D , Zakelj S , Trontelj J , Pislar A , Sink R , Jukic M , Zivin M , Podkowa A , Nachon F , Brazzolotto X , Stojan J , Kos J , Coquelle N , Salat K , Colletier JP , Gobec S
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 61 :119 , 2018
Abstract : The enzymatic activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in the brain increases with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, thus classifying BChE as a promising drug target in advanced Alzheimer's disease. We used structure-based drug discovery approaches to develop potent, selective, and reversible human BChE inhibitors. The most potent, compound 3, had a picomolar inhibition constant versus BChE due to strong cation-pi interactions, as revealed by the solved crystal structure of its complex with human BChE. Additionally, compound 3 inhibits BChE ex vivo and is noncytotoxic. In vitro pharmacokinetic experiments show that compound 3 is highly protein bound, highly permeable, and metabolically stable. Finally, compound 3 crosses the blood-brain barrier, and it improves memory, cognitive functions, and learning abilities of mice in a scopolamine model of dementia. Compound 3 is thus a promising advanced lead compound for the development of drugs for alleviating symptoms of cholinergic hypofunction in patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Kosak_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_119
PubMedSearch : Kosak_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_119
PubMedID: 29227101
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : N-Propargylpiperidines with naphthalene-2-carboxamide or naphthalene-2-sulfonamide moieties: Potential multifunctional anti-Alzheimer's agents - Kosak_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_633
Author(s) : Kosak U , Knez D , Coquelle N , Brus B , Pislar A , Nachon F , Brazzolotto X , Kos J , Colletier JP , Gobec S
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 25 :633 , 2017
Abstract : In the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, the enzymatic activities of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) are increased. While BChE is a viable therapeutic target for alleviation of symptoms caused by cholinergic hypofunction, MAO-B is a potential therapeutic target for prevention of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Starting with piperidine-based selective human (h)BChE inhibitors and propargylamine-based MAO inhibitors, we have designed, synthesized and biochemically evaluated a series of N-propargylpiperidines. All of these compounds inhibited hBChE with good selectivity over the related enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, and crossed the blood-brain barrier in a parallel artificial membrane permeation assay. The crystal structure of one of the inhibitors (compound 3) in complex with hBChE revealed its binding mode. Three compounds (4, 5, 6) showed concomitant inhibition of MAO-B. Additionally, the most potent hBChE inhibitor 7 and dual BChE and MAO-B inhibitor 6 were non-cytotoxic and protected neuronal SH-SY5Y cells from toxic amyloid beta-peptide species.
ESTHER : Kosak_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_633
PubMedSearch : Kosak_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_633
PubMedID: 27908752
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Serial Femtosecond Crystallography and Ultrafast Absorption Spectroscopy of the Photoswitchable Fluorescent Protein IrisFP - Colletier_2016_J.Phys.Chem.Lett_7_882
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Sliwa M , Gallat FX , Sugahara M , Guillon V , Schiro G , Coquelle N , Woodhouse J , Roux L , Gotthard G , Royant A , Uriarte LM , Ruckebusch C , Joti Y , Byrdin M , Mizohata E , Nango E , Tanaka T , Tono K , Yabashi M , Adam V , Cammarata M , Schlichting I , Bourgeois D , Weik M
Ref : J Phys Chem Lett , 7 :882 , 2016
Abstract : Reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins find growing applications in cell biology, yet mechanistic details, in particular on the ultrafast photochemical time scale, remain unknown. We employed time-resolved pump-probe absorption spectroscopy on the reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein IrisFP in solution to study photoswitching from the nonfluorescent (off) to the fluorescent (on) state. Evidence is provided for the existence of several intermediate states on the pico- and microsecond time scales that are attributed to chromophore isomerization and proton transfer, respectively. Kinetic modeling favors a sequential mechanism with the existence of two excited state intermediates with lifetimes of 2 and 15 ps, the second of which controls the photoswitching quantum yield. In order to support that IrisFP is suited for time-resolved experiments aiming at a structural characterization of these ps intermediates, we used serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free electron laser and solved the structure of IrisFP in its on state. Sample consumption was minimized by embedding crystals in mineral grease, in which they remain photoswitchable. Our spectroscopic and structural results pave the way for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography aiming at characterizing the structure of ultrafast intermediates in reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins.
ESTHER : Colletier_2016_J.Phys.Chem.Lett_7_882
PubMedSearch : Colletier_2016_J.Phys.Chem.Lett_7_882
PubMedID: 26866390

Title : Development of an in-vivo active reversible butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor - Kosak_2016_Sci.Rep_6_39495
Author(s) : Kosak U , Brus B , Knez D , Sink R , Zakelj S , Trontelj J , Pislar A , Slenc J , Gobec M , Zivin M , Tratnjek L , Perse M , Salat K , Podkowa A , Filipek B , Nachon F , Brazzolotto X , Wieckowska A , Malawska B , Stojan J , Rascan IM , Kos J , Coquelle N , Colletier JP , Gobec S
Ref : Sci Rep , 6 :39495 , 2016
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by severe basal forebrain cholinergic deficit, which results in progressive and chronic deterioration of memory and cognitive functions. Similar to acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to the termination of cholinergic neurotransmission. Its enzymatic activity increases with the disease progression, thus classifying BChE as a viable therapeutic target in advanced AD. Potent, selective and reversible human BChE inhibitors were developed. The solved crystal structure of human BChE in complex with the most potent inhibitor reveals its binding mode and provides the molecular basis of its low nanomolar potency. Additionally, this compound is noncytotoxic and has neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, this inhibitor moderately crosses the blood-brain barrier and improves memory, cognitive functions and learning abilities of mice in a model of the cholinergic deficit that characterizes AD, without producing acute cholinergic adverse effects. Our study provides an advanced lead compound for developing drugs for alleviating symptoms caused by cholinergic hypofunction in advanced AD.
ESTHER : Kosak_2016_Sci.Rep_6_39495
PubMedSearch : Kosak_2016_Sci.Rep_6_39495
PubMedID: 28000737
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Structure-based development of nitroxoline derivatives as potential multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents - Knez_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_4442
Author(s) : Knez D , Brus B , Coquelle N , Sosic I , Sink R , Brazzolotto X , Mravljak J , Colletier JP , Gobec S
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 23 :4442 , 2015
Abstract : Tremendous efforts have been dedicated to the development of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease, which represents the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disease. Multifunctional agents are molecules designed to have simultaneous effects on different pathological processes. Such compounds represent an emerging strategy for the development of effective treatments against Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report on the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of nitroxoline-based analogs that were designed by merging the scaffold of 8-hydroxyquinoline with that of a known selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor that has promising anti-Alzheimer properties. Most strikingly, compound 8g inhibits self-induced aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta1-42), inhibits with sub-micromolar potency butyrylcholinesterase (IC50=215 nM), and also selectively complexes Cu(2+). Our study thus designates this compound as a promising multifunctional agent for therapeutic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The crystal structure of human butyrylcholinesterase in complex with compound 8g is also solved, which suggests ways to further optimize compounds featuring the 8-hydroxyquinoline scaffold.
ESTHER : Knez_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_4442
PubMedSearch : Knez_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_4442
PubMedID: 26116179
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Poster: Multi-target directed ligands: Electrophysiological characterization of an anticholinesterase inhibitor coupled to an agonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor -
Author(s) : Araoz R , Bouet m , Bartolini M , Coquelle N , Colletier JP , Servent D , Molgo J , Jean L , Renard PY
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 97 :621 , 2015

Title : Discovery, biological evaluation, and crystal structure of a novel nanomolar selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor - Brus_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_8167
Author(s) : Brus B , Kosak U , Turk S , Pislar A , Coquelle N , Kos J , Stojan J , Colletier JP , Gobec S
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 57 :8167 , 2014
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is regarded as a promising drug target as its levels and activity significantly increase in the late stages of Alzheimer's disease. To discover novel BChE inhibitors, we used a hierarchical virtual screening protocol followed by biochemical evaluation of 40 highest scoring hit compounds. Three of the compounds identified showed significant inhibitory activities against BChE. The most potent, compound 1 (IC50 = 21.3 nM), was resynthesized and resolved into its pure enantiomers. A high degree of stereoselective activity was revealed, and a dissociation constant of 2.7 nM was determined for the most potent stereoisomer (+)-1. The crystal structure of human BChE in complex with compound (+)-1 was solved, revealing the binding mode and providing clues for potential optimization. Additionally, compound 1 inhibited amyloid beta1-42 peptide self-induced aggregation into fibrils (by 61.7% at 10 muM) and protected cultured SH-SY5Y cells against amyloid-beta-induced toxicity. These data suggest that compound 1 represents a promising candidate for hit-to-lead follow-up in the drug-discovery process against Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Brus_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_8167
PubMedSearch : Brus_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_8167
PubMedID: 25226236
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel tetrahydroacridine pyridine- aldoxime and -amidoxime hybrids as efficient uncharged reactivators of nerve agent-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase - Kliachyna_2014_Eur.J.Med.Chem_78C_455
Author(s) : Kliachyna M , Santoni G , Nussbaum V , Renou J , Sanson B , Colletier JP , Arboleas M , Loiodice M , Weik M , Jean L , Renard PY , Nachon F , Baati R
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 78C :455 , 2014
Abstract : A series of new uncharged functional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators including heterodimers of tetrahydroacridine with 3-hydroxy-2-pyridine aldoximes and amidoximes has been synthesized. These novel molecules display in vitro reactivation potencies towards VX-, tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited human AChE that are superior to those of the mono- and bis-pyridinium aldoximes currently used against nerve agent and pesticide poisoning. Furthermore, these uncharged compounds exhibit a broader reactivity spectrum compared to currently approved remediation drugs.
ESTHER : Kliachyna_2014_Eur.J.Med.Chem_78C_455
PubMedSearch : Kliachyna_2014_Eur.J.Med.Chem_78C_455
PubMedID: 24704618

Title : Inhibition pathways of the potent organophosphate CBDP with cholinesterases revealed by X-ray crystallographic snapshots and mass spectrometry - Carletti_2013_Chem.Res.Toxicol_26_280
Author(s) : Carletti E , Colletier JP , Schopfer LM , Santoni G , Masson P , Lockridge O , Nachon F , Weik M
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 26 :280 , 2013
Abstract : Tri-o-cresyl-phosphate (TOCP) is a common additive in jet engine lubricants and hydraulic fluids suspected to have a role in aerotoxic syndrome in humans. TOCP is metabolized to cresyl saligenin phosphate (CBDP), a potent irreversible inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a natural bioscavenger present in the bloodstream, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the off-switch at cholinergic synapses. Mechanistic details of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition have, however, remained elusive. Also, the inhibition of AChE by CBDP is unexpected, from a structural standpoint, i.e., considering the narrowness of AChE active site and the bulkiness of CBDP. In the following, we report on kinetic X-ray crystallography experiments that provided 2.7-3.3 A snapshots of the reaction of CBDP with mouse AChE and human BChE. The series of crystallographic snapshots reveals that AChE and BChE react with the opposite enantiomers and that an induced-fit rearrangement of Phe297 enlarges the active site of AChE upon CBDP binding. Mass spectrometry analysis of aging in either H(2)(16)O or H(2)(18)O furthermore allowed us to identify the inhibition steps, in which water molecules are involved, thus providing insights into the mechanistic details of inhibition. X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry show the formation of an aged end product formed in both AChE and BChE that cannot be reactivated by current oxime-based therapeutics. Our study thus shows that only prophylactic and symptomatic treatments are viable to counter the inhibition of AChE and BChE by CBDP.
ESTHER : Carletti_2013_Chem.Res.Toxicol_26_280
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2013_Chem.Res.Toxicol_26_280
PubMedID: 23339663
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE , mouse-ACHE

Title : Huprine derivatives as sub-nanomolar human acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: from rational design to validation by X-ray crystallography - Ronco_2012_ChemMedChem_7_400
Author(s) : Ronco C , Carletti E , Colletier JP , Weik M , Nachon F , Jean L , Renard PY
Ref : ChemMedChem , 7 :400 , 2012
Abstract : This complete study - from rational design to validation by X-ray crystallography allowed us to discover two sub-nanomolar hAChE inhibitors (430 and 530 pM) grafted with an easily derivatized linker directed toward the AChE peripheral site. The crystal structure of mouse AChE in complex with compound 4 was solved and confirms the favorable position of the triazole in the active site gorge, paving the way for a new class of bifunctional ligands.
ESTHER : Ronco_2012_ChemMedChem_7_400
PubMedSearch : Ronco_2012_ChemMedChem_7_400
PubMedID: 22052791
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : Backdoor opening mechanism in acetylcholinesterase based on X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations - Sanson_2011_Protein.Sci_20_1114
Author(s) : Sanson B , Colletier JP , Xu Y , Lang PT , Jiang H , Silman I , Sussman JL , Weik M
Ref : Protein Science , 20 :1114 , 2011
Abstract : The transient opening of a backdoor in the active-site wall of acetylcholinesterase, one of nature's most rapid enzymes, has been suggested to contribute to the efficient traffic of substrates and products. A crystal structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase in complex with the peripheral-site inhibitor aflatoxin is now presented, in which a tyrosine at the bottom of the active-site gorge rotates to create a 3.4-A wide exit channel. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the opening can be further enlarged by movement of Trp84. The crystallographic and molecular dynamics simulation data thus point to the interface between Tyr442 and Trp84 as the key element of a backdoor, whose opening permits rapid clearance of catalysis products from the active site. Furthermore, the crystal structure presented provides a novel template for rational design of inhibitors and reactivators, including anti-Alzheimer drugs and antidotes against organophosphate poisoning.
ESTHER : Sanson_2011_Protein.Sci_20_1114
PubMedSearch : Sanson_2011_Protein.Sci_20_1114
PubMedID: 21594947
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Reaction of cresyl saligenin phosphate, the organophosphorus agent implicated in aerotoxic syndrome, with human cholinesterases: mechanistic studies employing kinetics, mass spectrometry, and X-ray structure analysis - Carletti_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_797
Author(s) : Carletti E , Schopfer LM , Colletier JP , Froment MT , Nachon F , Weik M , Lockridge O , Masson P
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 24 :797 , 2011
Abstract : Aerotoxic syndrome is assumed to be caused by exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP), an antiwear additive in jet engine lubricants and hydraulic fluid. CBDP (2-(ortho-cresyl)-4H-1,2,3-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one) is the toxic metabolite of triortho-cresylphosphate, a component of TCP. Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC and human acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC are irreversibly inhibited by CBDP. The bimolecular rate constants of inhibition (k(i)), determined under pseudo-first-order conditions, displayed a biphasic time course of inhibition with k(i) of 1.6 x 10(8) M(-1) min(-1) and 2.7 x 10(7) M(-1) min(-1) for E and E' forms of BChE. The inhibition constants for AChE were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than those for BChE. CBDP-phosphorylated cholinesterases are nonreactivatable due to ultra fast aging. Mass spectrometry analysis showed an initial BChE adduct with an added mass of 170 Da from cresylphosphate, followed by dealkylation to a structure with an added mass of 80 Da. Mass spectrometry in (18)O-water showed that (18)O was incorporated only during the final aging step to form phospho-serine as the final aged BChE adduct. The crystal structure of CBDP-inhibited BChE confirmed that the phosphate adduct is the ultimate aging product. CBDP is the first organophosphorus agent that leads to a fully dealkylated phospho-serine BChE adduct.
ESTHER : Carletti_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_797
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_797
PubMedID: 21438623
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Structural evidence that human acetylcholinesterase inhibited by tabun ages through O-dealkylation - Carletti_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_4002
Author(s) : Carletti E , Colletier JP , Dupeux F , Trovaslet M , Masson P , Nachon F
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 53 :4002 , 2010
Abstract : Tabun is a warfare agent that inhibits human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) by rapid phosphylation of the catalytic serine. A time-dependent reaction occurs on the tabun adduct, leading to an "aged" enzyme, resistant to oxime reactivators. The aging reaction may proceed via either dealkylation or deamidation, depending on the stereochemistry of the phosphoramidyl adduct. We solved the X-ray structure of aged tabun-hAChE complexed with fasciculin II, and we show that aging proceeds through O-dealkylation, in agreement with the aging mechanism that we determined for tabun-inhibited human butyrylcholinesterase and mouse acetylcholinesterase. Noteworthy, aging and binding of fasciculin II lead to an improved thermostability, resulting from additional stabilizing interactions between the two subdomains that face each other across the active site gorge. This first structure of hAChE inhibited by a nerve agent provides structural insight into the inhibition and aging mechanisms and a structural template for the design of molecules capable of reactivating aged hAChE.
ESTHER : Carletti_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_4002
PubMedSearch : Carletti_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_4002
PubMedID: 20408548
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE

Title : Long route or shortcut? A molecular dynamics study of traffic of thiocholine within the active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase - Xu_2010_Biophys.J_99_4003
Author(s) : Xu Y , Colletier JP , Weik M , Qin G , Jiang H , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : Biophysical Journal , 99 :4003 , 2010
Abstract : The principal role of acetylcholinesterase is termination of nerve impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses, by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to acetate and choline. Its active site is buried at the bottom of a deep and narrow gorge, at the rim of which is found a second anionic site, the peripheral anionic site. The fact that the active site is so deeply buried has raised cogent questions as to how rapid traffic of substrate and products occurs in such a confined environment. Various theoretical and experimental approaches have been used to solve this problem. Here, multiple conventional molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the clearance of the product, thiocholine, from the active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase. Our results indicate that thiocholine is released from the peripheral anionic site via random pathways, while three exit routes appear to be favored for its release from the active site, namely, along the axis of the active-site gorge, and through putative back- and side-doors. The back-door pathway is that via which thiocholine exits most frequently. Our results are in good agreement with kinetic and kinetic-crystallography studies. We propose the use of multiple molecular dynamics simulations as a fast yet accurate complementary tool in structural studies of enzymatic trafficking.
ESTHER : Xu_2010_Biophys.J_99_4003
PubMedSearch : Xu_2010_Biophys.J_99_4003
PubMedID: 21156143

Title : Crystallographic snapshots of nonaged and aged conjugates of soman with acetylcholinesterase, and of a ternary complex of the aged conjugate with pralidoxime - Sanson_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_7593
Author(s) : Sanson B , Nachon F , Colletier JP , Froment MT , Toker L , Greenblatt HM , Sussman JL , Ashani Y , Masson P , Silman I , Weik M
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 52 :7593 , 2009
Abstract : Organophosphate compounds (OP) are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) and can cause lethal poisoning in humans. Inhibition of AChEs by the OP soman involves phosphonylation of the catalytic serine, and subsequent dealkylation produces a form known as the "aged" enzyme. The nonaged form can be reactivated to a certain extent by nucleophiles, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), whereas aged forms of OP-inhibited AChEs are totally resistant to reactivation. Here, we solved the X-ray crystal structures of AChE from Torpedo californica (TcAChE) conjugated with soman before and after aging. The absolute configuration of the soman stereoisomer adduct in the nonaged conjugate is P(S)C(R). A structural reorientation of the catalytic His440 side chain was observed during the aging process. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the ternary complex of the aged conjugate with 2-PAM revealed that the orientation of the oxime function does not permit nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom, thus providing a plausible explanation for its failure to reactivate the aged soman/AChE conjugate. Together, these three crystal structures provide an experimental basis for the design of new reactivators.
ESTHER : Sanson_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_7593
PubMedSearch : Sanson_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_7593
PubMedID: 19642642
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Shoot-and-Trap: use of specific x-ray damage to study structural protein dynamics by temperature-controlled cryo-crystallography - Colletier_2008_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_105_11742
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Bourgeois D , Sanson B , Fournier D , Sussman JL , Silman I , Weik M
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 105 :11742 , 2008
Abstract : Although x-ray crystallography is the most widely used method for macromolecular structure determination, it does not provide dynamical information, and either experimental tricks or complementary experiments must be used to overcome the inherently static nature of crystallographic structures. Here we used specific x-ray damage during temperature-controlled crystallographic experiments at a third-generation synchrotron source to trigger and monitor (Shoot-and-Trap) structural changes putatively involved in an enzymatic reaction. In particular, a nonhydrolyzable substrate analogue of acetylcholinesterase, the "off-switch" at cholinergic synapses, was radiocleaved within the buried enzymatic active site. Subsequent product clearance, observed at 150 K but not at 100 K, indicated exit from the active site possibly via a "backdoor." The simple strategy described here is, in principle, applicable to any enzyme whose structure in complex with a substrate analogue is available and, therefore, could serve as a standard procedure in kinetic crystallography studies.
ESTHER : Colletier_2008_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_105_11742
PubMedSearch : Colletier_2008_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_105_11742
PubMedID: 18701720
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Induced-fit or preexisting equilibrium dynamics? Lessons from protein crystallography and MD simulations on acetylcholinesterase and implications for structure-based drug design - Xu_2008_Protein.Sci_17_601
Author(s) : Xu Y , Colletier JP , Jiang H , Silman I , Sussman JL , Weik M
Ref : Protein Science , 17 :601 , 2008
Abstract : Crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase complexed with ligands are compared with side-chain conformations accessed by native acetylcholinesterase in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Several crystallographic conformations of a key residue in a specific binding site are accessed in a simulation of native acetylcholinesterase, although not seen in rotomer plots. Conformational changes upon ligand binding thus involve preexisting equilibrium dynamics. Consequently, rational drug design could benefit significantly from conformations monitored by MD simulations of native targets.
ESTHER : Xu_2008_Protein.Sci_17_601
PubMedSearch : Xu_2008_Protein.Sci_17_601
PubMedID: 18359854

Title : Flexibility of aromatic residues in the active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase: X-ray versus molecular dynamics - Xu_2008_Biophys.J_95_2500
Author(s) : Xu Y , Colletier JP , Weik M , Jiang H , Moult J , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : Biophysical Journal , 95 :2500 , 2008
Abstract : The high aromatic content of the deep and narrow active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a remarkable feature of this enzyme. Here, we analyze conformational flexibility of the side chains of the 14 conserved aromatic residues in the active-site gorge of Torpedo californica AChE based on the 47 three-dimensional crystal structures available for the native enzyme, and for its complexes and conjugates, and on a 20-ns molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory of the native enzyme. The degree of flexibility of these 14 aromatic side chains is diverse. Although the side-chain conformations of F330 and W279 are both very flexible, the side-chain conformations of F120, W233, W432, Y70, Y121, F288, F290 and F331 appear to be fixed. Residues located on, or adjacent to, the Omega-loop (C67-C94), namely W84, Y130, Y442, and Y334, display different flexibilities in the MD simulations and in the crystal structures. An important outcome of our study is that the majority of the side-chain conformations observed in the 47 Torpedo californica AChE crystal structures are faithfully reproduced by the MD simulation on the native enzyme. Thus, the protein can assume these conformations even in the absence of the ligand that permitted their experimental detection. These observations are pertinent to structure-based drug design.
ESTHER : Xu_2008_Biophys.J_95_2500
PubMedSearch : Xu_2008_Biophys.J_95_2500
PubMedID: 18502801

Title : Mechanisms of cholinesterase inhibition by inorganic mercury - Frasco_2007_FEBS.J_274_1849
Author(s) : Frasco MF , Colletier JP , Weik M , Carvalho F , Guilhermino L , Stojan J , Fournier D
Ref : Febs J , 274 :1849 , 2007
Abstract : The poorly known mechanism of inhibition of cholinesterases by inorganic mercury (HgCl2) has been studied with a view to using these enzymes as biomarkers or as biological components of biosensors to survey polluted areas. The inhibition of a variety of cholinesterases by HgCl2 was investigated by kinetic studies, X-ray crystallography, and dynamic light scattering. Our results show that when a free sensitive sulfhydryl group is present in the enzyme, as in Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase, inhibition is irreversible and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics that are completed within 1 h in the micromolar range. When the free sulfhydryl group is not sensitive to mercury (Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase and human butyrylcholinesterase) or is otherwise absent (Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase), then inhibition occurs in the millimolar range. Inhibition follows a slow binding model, with successive binding of two mercury ions to the enzyme surface. Binding of mercury ions has several consequences: reversible inhibition, enzyme denaturation, and protein aggregation, protecting the enzyme from denaturation. Mercury-induced inactivation of cholinesterases is thus a rather complex process. Our results indicate that among the various cholinesterases that we have studied, only Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase is suitable for mercury detection using biosensors, and that a careful study of cholinesterase inhibition in a species is a prerequisite before using it as a biomarker to survey mercury in the environment.
ESTHER : Frasco_2007_FEBS.J_274_1849
PubMedSearch : Frasco_2007_FEBS.J_274_1849
PubMedID: 17355286
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Use of a 'caged' analogue to study the traffic of choline within acetylcholinesterase by kinetic crystallography - Colletier_2007_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Biol.Crystallogr_63_1115
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Royant A , Specht A , Sanson B , Nachon F , Masson P , Zaccai G , Sussman JL , Goeldner M , Silman I , Bourgeois D , Weik M
Ref : Acta Crystallographica D Biol Crystallogr , 63 :1115 , 2007
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase plays a crucial role in nerve-impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses. The apparent paradox that it displays high turnover despite its active site being buried raises cogent questions as to how the traffic of substrates and products to and from the active site can occur so rapidly in such circumstances. Here, a kinetic crystallography strategy aimed at structurally addressing the issue of product traffic in acetylcholinesterase is presented, in which UV-laser-induced cleavage of a photolabile precursor of the enzymatic product analogue arsenocholine, 'caged' arsenocholine, is performed in a temperature-controlled X-ray crystallography regime. The 'caged' arsenocholine was shown to bind at both the active and peripheral sites of acetylcholinesterase. UV irradiation of a complex with acetylcholinesterase during a brief temperature excursion from 100 K to room temperature is most likely to have resulted in a decrease in occupancy by the caged compound. Microspectrophotometric experiments showed that the caged compound had indeed been photocleaved. It is proposed that a fraction of the arsenocholine molecules released within the crystal had been expelled from both the active and the peripheral sites. Partial q-weighted difference refinement revealed a relative movement of the two domains in acetylcholinesterase after photolysis and the room-temperature excursion, resulting in an increase in the active-site gorge volume of 30% and 35% in monomers A and B of the asymmetric unit, respectively. Moreover, an alternative route to the active-site gorge of the enzyme appeared to open. This structural characterization of acetylcholinesterase 'at work' is consistent with the idea that choline exits from the enzyme after catalysis either via the gorge or via an alternative 'backdoor' trajectory.
ESTHER : Colletier_2007_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Biol.Crystallogr_63_1115
PubMedSearch : Colletier_2007_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Biol.Crystallogr_63_1115
PubMedID: 18007027
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : [Exploring the conformational energy landscape of acetylcholinesterase by kinetic crystallography] - Colletier_2007_Ann.Pharm.Fr_65_108
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Weik M
Ref : Ann Pharm Fr , 65 :108 , 2007
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase is a very rapid enzyme, essential in the process of nerve impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses. It is the target of all currently approved anti-Alzheimer drugs and further progress in the modulation of its activity requires structural as well as dynamical information. Exploration of the conformational energy landscape of a protein by means of X-ray crystallography requires the use of experimental tricks, to overcome the inherently static nature of crystallographic structures. Here we report three experimental approaches that allowed to gain structural insight into the dynamics of acetylcholinesterase, which is relevant for structure-based drug design.
ESTHER : Colletier_2007_Ann.Pharm.Fr_65_108
PubMedSearch : Colletier_2007_Ann.Pharm.Fr_65_108
PubMedID: 17404544

Title : Conformational flexibility in the peripheral site of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase revealed by the complex structure with a bifunctional inhibitor - Colletier_2006_J.Am.Chem.Soc_128_4526
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Sanson B , Nachon F , Gabellieri E , Fattorusso C , Campiani G , Weik M
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , 128 :4526 , 2006
Abstract : The X-ray crystallographic structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) in complex with the bifunctional inhibitor NF595, a potentially new anti-Alzheimer drug, has been solved. For the first time in TcAChE, a major conformational change in the peripheral-site tryptophan residue is observed upon complexation. The observed conformational flexibility highlights the dynamic nature of protein structures and is of importance for structure-based drug design.
ESTHER : Colletier_2006_J.Am.Chem.Soc_128_4526
PubMedSearch : Colletier_2006_J.Am.Chem.Soc_128_4526
PubMedID: 16594661
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Structural insights into substrate traffic and inhibition in acetylcholinesterase - Colletier_2006_EMBO.J_25_2746
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Fournier D , Greenblatt HM , Stojan J , Sussman JL , Zaccai G , Silman I , Weik M
Ref : EMBO Journal , 25 :2746 , 2006
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates nerve-impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Substrate traffic in AChE involves at least two binding sites, the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites, which have been suggested to be allosterically related and involved in substrate inhibition. Here, we present the crystal structures of Torpedo californica AChE complexed with the substrate acetylthiocholine, the product thiocholine and a nonhydrolysable substrate analogue. These structures provide a series of static snapshots of the substrate en route to the active site and identify, for the first time, binding of substrate and product at both the peripheral and active sites. Furthermore, they provide structural insight into substrate inhibition in AChE at two different substrate concentrations. Our structural data indicate that substrate inhibition at moderate substrate concentration is due to choline exit being hindered by a substrate molecule bound at the peripheral site. At the higher concentration, substrate inhibition arises from prevention of exit of acetate due to binding of two substrate molecules within the active-site gorge.
ESTHER : Colletier_2006_EMBO.J_25_2746
PubMedSearch : Colletier_2006_EMBO.J_25_2746
PubMedID: 16763558
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Encapsulation of enzymes in liposomes: high encapsulation efficiency and control of substrate permeability - Chaize_2004_Artif.Cells.Blood.Substit.Immobil.Biotechnol_32_67
Author(s) : Chaize B , Colletier JP , Winterhalter M , Fournier D
Ref : Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol , 32 :67 , 2004
Abstract : Enzyme encapsulation into liposomes is a promising technique to stabilize and prevent them from denaturation and proteolysis. We demonstrate this using acetylcholinesterase which is the main target for pesticides. In order to achieve a reasonable encapsulation yield, we analyzed the parameters involved in each step of various encapsulation procedures. The only encapsulation method which did not denature the protein was the lipid film hydration technique, however the encapsulation efficiency was usually low. The efficiency could be increased up to more than 40% by induction of a specific interaction between the enzyme and the lipid surface. Once encapsulated, the enzyme encountered another problem: the permeability barrier of the lipid membrane drastically diminished the activity of the enzyme entrapped in the liposome by reducing the entrance rate of the substrate molecules and then reducing the substrate concentration inside the liposome. To solve this problem, we controlled the permeability of the liposome wall by reconstituting a porin from Escherichia coli. We succeeded to recover the full functionality of the enzyme, while retaining the protection against denaturation and proteolytic enzymes.
ESTHER : Chaize_2004_Artif.Cells.Blood.Substit.Immobil.Biotechnol_32_67
PubMedSearch : Chaize_2004_Artif.Cells.Blood.Substit.Immobil.Biotechnol_32_67
PubMedID: 15027802

Title : Poster (74) Structural studies on torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase in complex with a substrate analogue -
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Fournier D , Greenblatt HM , Sussman JL , Zaccai G , Silman I , Weik M
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :359 , 2004

Title : Inhibition of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase by high concentrations of substrate - Stojan_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_1364
Author(s) : Stojan J , Brochier L , Alies C , Colletier JP , Fournier D
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 271 :1364 , 2004
Abstract : Acetylcholine hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase is inhibited at high substrate concentrations. To determine the residues involved in this phenomenon, we have mutated most of the residues lining the active-site gorge but mutating these did not completely eliminate hydrolysis. Thus, we analyzed the effect of a nonhydrolysable substrate analogue on substrate hydrolysis and on reactivation of an analogue of the acetylenzyme. Analyses of various models led us to propose the following sequence of events: the substrate initially binds at the rim of the active-site gorge and then slides down to the bottom of the gorge where it is hydrolyzed. Another substrate molecule can bind to the peripheral site: (a) when the choline is still inside the gorge - it will thereby hinder its exit; (b) after choline has dissociated but before deacetylation occurs - binding at the peripheral site increases deacetylation rate but (c) if a substrate molecule bound to the peripheral site slides down to the bottom of the active-site before the catalytic serine is deacetylated, its new position will prevent the approach of water, thus blocking deacetylation.
ESTHER : Stojan_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_1364
PubMedSearch : Stojan_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_1364
PubMedID: 15030487

Title : Protein encapsulation in liposomes: efficiency depends on interactions between protein and phospholipid bilayer - Colletier_2002_BMC.Biotechnol_2_9
Author(s) : Colletier JP , Chaize B , Winterhalter M , Fournier D
Ref : BMC Biotechnol , 2 :9 , 2002
Abstract : BACKGROUND: We investigated the encapsulation mechanism of enzymes into liposomes. The existing protocols to achieve high encapsulation efficiencies are basically optimized for chemically stable molecules. Enzymes, however, are fragile and encapsulation requires in addition the preservation of their functionality. Using acetylcholinesterase as a model, we found that most protocols lead to a rapid denaturation of the enzyme with loss in the functionality and therefore inappropriate for such an application. The most appropriate method is based on lipid film hydration but had a very low efficiency.
RESULTS: To improve it and to propose a standard procedure for enzyme encapsulation, we separate each step and we studied the effect of each parameter on encapsulation: lipid and buffer composition and effect of the different physical treatment as freeze-thaw cycle or liposomes extrusion. We found that by increasing the lipid concentration, increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles and enhancing the interactions of the enzyme with the liposome lipid surface more than 40% of the initial total activity can be encapsulated. CONCLUSION: We propose here an optimized procedure to encapsulate fragile enzymes into liposomes. Optimal encapsulation is achieved by induction of a specific interaction between the enzyme and the lipid surface.
ESTHER : Colletier_2002_BMC.Biotechnol_2_9
PubMedSearch : Colletier_2002_BMC.Biotechnol_2_9
PubMedID: 12003642