Dvir H

General

Full name : Dvir Hay

First name : Hay

Mail : Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100

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Country : Israel

Email : hay.dvir@weizmann.ac.il

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References (11)

Title : Acetylcholinesterase: from 3D structure to function - Dvir_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_10
Author(s) : Dvir H , Silman I , Harel M , Rosenberry TL , Sussman JL
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 187 :10 , 2010
Abstract : By rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase terminates neurotransmission at cholinergic synapses. Acetylcholinesterase is a very fast enzyme, functioning at a rate approaching that of a diffusion-controlled reaction. The powerful toxicity of organophosphate poisons is attributed primarily to their potent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are utilized in the treatment of various neurological disorders, and are the principal drugs approved thus far by the FDA for management of Alzheimer's disease. Many organophosphates and carbamates serve as potent insecticides, by selectively inhibiting insect acetylcholinesterase. The determination of the crystal structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase permitted visualization, for the first time, at atomic resolution, of a binding pocket for acetylcholine. It also allowed identification of the active site of acetylcholinesterase, which, unexpectedly, is located at the bottom of a deep gorge lined largely by aromatic residues. The crystal structure of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase in its apo-state is similar in its overall features to that of the Torpedo enzyme; however, the unique crystal packing reveals a novel peptide sequence which blocks access to the active-site gorge.
ESTHER : Dvir_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_10
PubMedSearch : Dvir_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_10
PubMedID: 20138030
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE

Title : Structure and evolution of the serum paraoxonase family of detoxifying and anti-atherosclerotic enzymes - Harel_2004_Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol_11_412
Author(s) : Harel M , Aharoni A , Gaidukov L , Brumshtein B , Khersonsky O , Meged R , Dvir H , Ravelli RB , McCarthy A , Toker L , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS
Ref : Nat Struct Mol Biol , 11 :412 , 2004
Abstract : Members of the serum paraoxonase (PON) family have been identified in mammals and other vertebrates, and in invertebrates. PONs exhibit a wide range of physiologically important hydrolytic activities, including drug metabolism and detoxification of nerve agents. PON1 and PON3 reside on high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 'good cholesterol') and are involved in the prevention of atherosclerosis. We describe the first crystal structure of a PON family member, a variant of PON1 obtained by directed evolution, at a resolution of 2.2 A. PON1 is a six-bladed beta-propeller with a unique active site lid that is also involved in HDL binding. The three-dimensional structure and directed evolution studies permit a detailed description of PON1's active site and catalytic mechanism, which are reminiscent of secreted phospholipase A2, and of the routes by which PON family members diverged toward different substrate and reaction selectivities.
ESTHER : Harel_2004_Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol_11_412
PubMedSearch : Harel_2004_Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol_11_412
PubMedID: 15098021

Title : Poster (48) Crystal structure of the tetramerization domain of acetylcholinesterase reveals a model of the AChE tetramer -
Author(s) : Harel M , Dvir H , Bon S , Liu WQ , Garbay C , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :347 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : The synaptic acetylcholinesterase tetramer assembles around a polyproline II helix - Dvir_2004_EMBO.J_23_4394
Author(s) : Dvir H , Harel M , Bon S , Liu WQ , Vidal M , Garbay C , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : EMBO Journal , 23 :4394 , 2004
Abstract : Functional localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vertebrate muscle and brain depends on interaction of the tryptophan amphiphilic tetramerization (WAT) sequence, at the C-terminus of its major splice variant (T), with a proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD), of the anchoring proteins, collagenous (ColQ) and proline-rich membrane anchor. The crystal structure of the WAT/PRAD complex reveals a novel supercoil structure in which four parallel WAT chains form a left-handed superhelix around an antiparallel left-handed PRAD helix resembling polyproline II. The WAT coiled coils possess a WWW motif making repetitive hydrophobic stacking and hydrogen-bond interactions with the PRAD. The WAT chains are related by an approximately 4-fold screw axis around the PRAD. Each WAT makes similar but unique interactions, consistent with an asymmetric pattern of disulfide linkages between the AChE tetramer subunits and ColQ. The P59Q mutation in ColQ, which causes congenital endplate AChE deficiency, and is located within the PRAD, disrupts crucial WAT-WAT and WAT-PRAD interactions. A model is proposed for the synaptic AChE(T) tetramer.
ESTHER : Dvir_2004_EMBO.J_23_4394
PubMedSearch : Dvir_2004_EMBO.J_23_4394
PubMedID: 15526038
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Poster (79) X-ray structures of TcAChE complexed with (+)-huperzine a and (-)-huperzine b: structural evidence for an active-site rearrangement -
Author(s) : Dvir H , Jiang H , Wong DM , Harel M , Chetrit M , He XC , Jin GY , Yu GL , Tang XC , Silman I , Bai DL , Sussman JL
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :362 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Crystal structure of the tetramerization domain of acetylcholinesterase at 2. -
Author(s) : Harel M , Dvir H , Bon S , Liu WQ , Garbay C , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : Cholinergic Mechanisms, CRC Press :183 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Acetylcholinesterase Complexed with Bivalent Ligands Related to Huperzine A: Experimental Evidence for Species-Dependent Protein-Ligand Complementarity - Wong_2003_J.Am.Chem.Soc_125_363
Author(s) : Wong DM , Greenblatt HM , Dvir H , Carlier PR , Han YF , Pang YP , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : J Am Chem Soc , 125 :363 , 2003
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors improve the cognitive abilities of Alzheimer patients. (-)-Huperzine A [(-)-HupA], an alkaloid isolated from the club moss, Huperzia serrata, is one such inhibitor, but the search for more potent and selective drugs continues. Recently, alkylene-linked dimers of 5-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolinone (hupyridone, 1a), a fragment of HupA, were shown to serve as more potent inhibitors of AChE than (-)-HupA and monomeric 1a. We soaked two such dimers, (S,S)-(-)-bis(10)-hupyridone [(S,S)-(-)-2a] and (S,S)-(-)-bis(12)-hupyridone [(S,S)-(-)-2b] containing, respectively, 10 and 12 methylenes in the spacer, into trigonal TcAChE crystals, and solved the X-ray structures of the resulting complexes using the difference Fourier technique, both to 2.15 A resolution. The structures revealed one HupA-like 1a unit bound to the "anionic" subsite of the active-site, near the bottom of the active-site gorge, adjacent to Trp84, as seen for the TcAChE/(-)-HupA complex, and the second 1a unit near Trp279 in the "peripheral" anionic site at the top of the gorge, both bivalent molecules thus spanning the active-site gorge. The results confirm that the increased affinity of the dimeric HupA analogues for AChE is conferred by binding to the two "anionic" sites of the enzyme. Inhibition data show that (-)-2a binds to TcAChE approximately 6-7- and > 170-fold more tightly than (-)-2b and (-)-HupA, respectively. In contrast, previous data for rat AChE show that (-)-2b binds approximately 3- and approximately 2-fold more tightly than (-)-2a and (-)-HupA, respectively. Structural comparison of TcAChE with rat AChE, as represented by the closely related mouse AChE structure (1maa.pdb), reveals a narrower gorge for rat AChE, a perpendicular alignment of the Tyr337 ring to the gorge axis, and its conformational rigidity, as a result of hydrogen bonding between its hydroxyl group and that of Tyr341, relative to TcAChE Phe330. These structural differences in the active-site gorge explain the switch in inhibitory potency of (-)-2a and 2b and the larger dimer/(-)-HupA potency ratios observed for TcAChE relative to rat AChE. The results offer new insights into factors affecting protein-ligand complementarity within the gorge and should assist the further development of improved AChE inhibitors.
ESTHER : Wong_2003_J.Am.Chem.Soc_125_363
PubMedSearch : Wong_2003_J.Am.Chem.Soc_125_363
PubMedID: 12517147
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Acetylcholinesterase: a multifaceted target for structure-based drug design of anticholinesterase agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Greenblatt_2003_J.Mol.Neurosci_20_369
Author(s) : Greenblatt HM , Dvir H , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 20 :369 , 2003
Abstract : The structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase is examined in complex with several inhibitors that are either in use or under development for treating Alzheimer's disease. The noncovalent inhibitors vary greatly in their structures and bind to different sites of the enzyme, offering many different starting points for future drug design.
ESTHER : Greenblatt_2003_J.Mol.Neurosci_20_369
PubMedSearch : Greenblatt_2003_J.Mol.Neurosci_20_369
PubMedID: 14501022

Title : Kinetic and structural studies on the interaction of cholinesterases with the anti-Alzheimer drug rivastigmine - Bar-On_2002_Biochemistry_41_3555
Author(s) : Bar-On P , Millard CB , Harel M , Dvir H , Enz A , Sussman JL , Silman I
Ref : Biochemistry , 41 :3555 , 2002
Abstract : Rivastigmine, a carbamate inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, is already in use for treatment of Alzheimer's disease under the trade name of Exelon. Rivastigmine carbamylates Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase very slowly (k(i) = 2.0 M(-1) min(-1)), whereas the bimolecular rate constant for inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase is >1600-fold higher (k(i) = 3300 M(-1) min(-1)). For human butyrylcholinesterase and for Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase, carbamylation is even more rapid (k(i) = 9 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(5) M(-1) min(-1), respectively). Spontaneous reactivation of all four conjugates is very slow, with <10% reactivation being observed for the Torpedo enzyme after 48 h. The crystal structure of the conjugate of rivastigmine with Torpedo acetylcholinesterase was determined to 2.2 A resolution. It revealed that the carbamyl moiety is covalently linked to the active-site serine, with the leaving group, (-)-S-3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenol, being retained in the "anionic" site. A significant movement of the active-site histidine (H440) away from its normal hydrogen-bonded partner, E327, was observed, resulting in disruption of the catalytic triad. This movement may provide an explanation for the unusually slow kinetics of reactivation.
ESTHER : Bar-On_2002_Biochemistry_41_3555
PubMedSearch : Bar-On_2002_Biochemistry_41_3555
PubMedID: 11888271
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : 3D structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase complexed with huprine X at 2.1 A resolution: kinetic and molecular dynamic correlates - Dvir_2002_Biochemistry_41_2970
Author(s) : Dvir H , Wong DM , Harel M , Barril X , Orozco M , Luque FJ , Munoz-Torrero D , Camps P , Rosenberry TL , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : Biochemistry , 41 :2970 , 2002
Abstract : Huprine X is a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, with one of the highest affinities reported for a reversible inhibitor. It is a synthetic hybrid that contains the 4-aminoquinoline substructure of one anti-Alzheimer drug, tacrine, and a carbobicyclic moiety resembling that of another AChE inhibitor, (-)-huperzine A. Cocrystallization of huprine X with Torpedo californica AChE yielded crystals whose 3D structure was determined to 2.1 A resolution. The inhibitor binds to the anionic site and also hinders access to the esteratic site. Its aromatic portion occupies the same binding site as tacrine, stacking between the aromatic rings of Trp84 and Phe330, whereas the carbobicyclic unit occupies the same binding pocket as (-)-huperzine A. Its chlorine substituent was found to lie in a hydrophobic pocket interacting with rings of the aromatic residues Trp432 and Phe330 and with the methyl groups of Met436 and Ile439. Steady-state inhibition data show that huprine X binds to human AChE and Torpedo AChE 28- and 54-fold, respectively, more tightly than tacrine. This difference stems from the fact that the aminoquinoline moiety of huprine X makes interactions similar to those made by tacrine, but additional bonds to the enzyme are made by the huperzine-like substructure and the chlorine atom. Furthermore, both tacrine and huprine X bind more tightly to Torpedo than to human AChE, suggesting that their quinoline substructures interact better with Phe330 than with Tyr337, the corresponding residue in the human AChE structure. Both (-)-huperzine A and huprine X display slow binding properties, but only binding of the former causes a peptide flip of Gly117.
ESTHER : Dvir_2002_Biochemistry_41_2970
PubMedSearch : Dvir_2002_Biochemistry_41_2970
PubMedID: 11863435
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : X-ray Structures of Torpedo californica Acetylcholinesterase Complexed with (+)-Huperzine A and (-)-Huperzine B: Structural Evidence for an Active Site Rearrangement - Dvir_2002_Biochemistry_41_10810
Author(s) : Dvir H , Jiang H , Wong DM , Harel M , Chetrit M , He XC , Jin GY , Yu GL , Tang XC , Silman I , Bai DL , Sussman JL
Ref : Biochemistry , 41 :10810 , 2002
Abstract : Kinetic and structural data are presented on the interaction with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) of (+)-huperzine A, a synthetic enantiomer of the anti-Alzheimer drug, (-)-huperzine A, and of its natural homologue (-)-huperzine B. (+)-Huperzine A and (-)-huperzine B bind to the enzyme with dissociation constants of 4.30 and 0.33 microM, respectively, compared to 0.18 microM for (-)-huperzine A. The X-ray structures of the complexes of (+)-huperzine A and (-)-huperzine B with TcAChE were determined to 2.1 and 2.35 A resolution, respectively, and compared to the previously determined structure of the (-)-huperzine A complex. All three interact with the "anionic" subsite of the active site, primarily through pi-pi stacking and through van der Waals or C-H.pi interactions with Trp84 and Phe330. Since their alpha-pyridone moieties are responsible for their key interactions with the active site via hydrogen bonding, and possibly via C-H.pi interactions, all three maintain similar positions and orientations with respect to it. The carbonyl oxygens of all three appear to repel the carbonyl oxygen of Gly117, thus causing the peptide bond between Gly117 and Gly118 to undergo a peptide flip. As a consequence, the position of the main chain nitrogen of Gly118 in the "oxyanion" hole in the native enzyme becomes occupied by the carbonyl of Gly117. Furthermore, the flipped conformation is stabilized by hydrogen bonding of Gly117O to Gly119N and Ala201N, the other two functional elements of the three-pronged "oxyanion hole" characteristic of cholinesterases. All three inhibitors thus would be expected to abolish hydrolysis of all ester substrates, whether charged or neutral.
ESTHER : Dvir_2002_Biochemistry_41_10810
PubMedSearch : Dvir_2002_Biochemistry_41_10810
PubMedID: 12196020
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE