Pang YP

General

Full name : Pang Yuan-Ping

First name : Yuan-Ping

Mail : Mayo Clinic\; 200 First Street SW\; Rochester\; MN 55905

Zip Code :

City :

Country : USA

Email : pang@mayo.edu

Phone : +15072847868

Fax : 507-284-9111

Website :

Directory :

References (51)

Title : How neocarcerand Octacid4 self-assembles with guests into irreversible noncovalent complexes and what accelerates the assembly - Pang_2022_Commun.Chem_5_9
Author(s) : Pang YP
Ref : Commun Chem , 5 :9 , 2022
Abstract : Cram's supramolecular capsule Octacid4 can irreversibly and noncovalently self-assemble with small-molecule guests at room temperature, but how they self-assemble and what accelerates their assembly remain poorly understood. This article reports 81 distinct Octacid4guest self-assembly pathways captured in unrestricted, unbiased molecular dynamics simulations. These pathways reveal that the self-assembly was initiated by the guest interaction with the cavity portal exterior of Octacid4 to increase the portal collisions that led to the portal expansion for guest ingress, and completed by the portal contraction caused by the guest docking inside the cavity to impede guest egress. The pathways also reveal that the self-assembly was accelerated by engaging populated host and guest conformations for the exterior interaction to increase the portal collision frequency. These revelations may help explain why the presence of an exterior binding site at the rim of the enzyme active site is a fundamental feature of fast enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase and why small molecules adopt local minimum conformations when binding to proteins. Further, these revelations suggest that irreversible noncovalent complexes with fast assembly rates could be developed-by engaging populated host and guest conformations for the exterior interactions-for materials technology, data storage and processing, molecular sensing and tagging, and drug therapy.
ESTHER : Pang_2022_Commun.Chem_5_9
PubMedSearch : Pang_2022_Commun.Chem_5_9
PubMedID: 36697791

Title : Tacrine-Hydrogen Sulfide Donor Hybrid Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in the Aluminum Chloride Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease - Cheng_2019_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_10_3500
Author(s) : Cheng XJ , Gu JX , Pang YP , Liu J , Xu T , Li XR , Hua YZ , Newell KA , Huang XF , Yu Y , Liu Y
Ref : ACS Chem Neurosci , 10 :3500 , 2019
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive function, and is associated with the deficiency of synaptic acetylcholine, as well as chronic neuroinflmmation. Tacrine, a potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, was previously a prescribed clinical therapeutic agent for AD, but it was recently withdrawn because it caused widespread hepatotoxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we synthesized a new compound, a tacrine-H2S donor hybrid (THS) by introducing H2S-releasing moieties (ACS81) to tacrine. Subsequently, pharmacological and biological evaluations of THS were conducted in the aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)-induced AD mice model. We found that THS (15 mmol/kg) improved cognitive and locomotor activity in AD mice in the step-through test and open field test, respectively. THS showed strong AChE inhibitory activity in the serum and hippocampus of AD mice and induced increased hippocampal H2S levels. Furthermore, THS reduced mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta and increased synapse-associated proteins (synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95) in the hippocampus of AD mice. Importantly, THS, unlike tacrine, did not increase liver transaminases (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) or proinflammatory cytokines, indicating THS is much safer than tacrine. Therefore, the multifunctional effects of this new hybrid compound of tacrine and H2S indicate it is a promising compound for further research into the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Cheng_2019_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_10_3500
PubMedSearch : Cheng_2019_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_10_3500
PubMedID: 31244052

Title : On the use of the experimentally determined enzyme inhibition constant as a measure of absolute binding affinity - Darras_2017_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_489_451
Author(s) : Darras FH , Pang YP
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 489 :451 , 2017
Abstract : Defined as a state function representing an inhibitor's absolute affinity for its target enzyme, the experimentally determined enzyme inhibition constant (Ki) is widely used to rank order binding affinities of different inhibitors for a common enzyme or different enzymes for a common inhibitor and to benchmark computational approaches to predicting binding affinity. Herein, we report that adsorption of bis(7)-tacrine to the glass container surface increased its Ki against Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase (eeAChE) to 3.2 +/- 0.1 nM (n = 5) compared to 2.9 +/- 0.4 pM (n = 5) that was determined using plastic containers with other assay conditions kept the same. We also report that, due to binding or "adsorption" of bis(7)-tacrine to the inactive eeAChE, the bis(7)-tacrine Ki increased from 2.9 +/- 0.4 pM (n = 5) to 734 +/- 70 pM (n = 5) as the specific eeAChE activity decreased from 342 U/mg to 26 U/mg while other assay conditions were kept the same. These results caution against using Kis to rank order binding potencies, define selectivity, or benchmark computational methods without knowing detailed assay conditions.
ESTHER : Darras_2017_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_489_451
PubMedSearch : Darras_2017_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_489_451
PubMedID: 28571743

Title : Physiological Roles for Butyrylcholinesterase: A BChE-Ghrelin Axis - Brimijoin_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_271
Author(s) : Brimijoin S , Chen VP , Pang YP , Geng L , Gao Y
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 259 :271 , 2016
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has long been regarded as an "orphan enzyme" with no specific physiological role other than to metabolize exogenous bioactive esters in the diet or in medicines. Human beings with genetic mutations that eliminate all BChE activity appear completely normal, and BChE-knockout mice have been described as "lacking a phenotype" except for faster weight gain on high-fat diets. However, our recent studies with viral gene transfer of BChE in mice reveal that BChE hydrolyses the so-called "hunger hormone," ghrelin, at a rate which strongly affects the circulating levels of this peptide hormone. This action has important consequences for weight gain and fat metabolism. Surprisingly, it also impacts emotional behaviors such as aggression. Overexpression of BChE leads to low ghrelin levels in the blood stream and reduces aggression and social stress in mice. Under certain circumstances these combined effects contribute to increased life-span in group-housed animals. These findings may generalize to humans, as recent clinical studies by multiple investigators indicate that, among patients with severe cardiovascular disease, longevity correlates with increasing levels of plasma BChE activity.
ESTHER : Brimijoin_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_271
PubMedSearch : Brimijoin_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_271
PubMedID: 26915976

Title : Protection against beta-amyloid-induced synaptic and memory impairments via altering beta-amyloid assembly by bis(heptyl)-cognitin - Chang_2015_Sci.Rep_5_10256
Author(s) : Chang L , Cui W , Yang Y , Xu S , Zhou WH , Fu HJ , Hu SQ , Mak SH , Hu JW , Wang Q , Pui-Yan Ma V , Chung-Lit Choi T , Dik-Lung Ma E , Tao L , Pang YP , Rowan MJ , Anwyl R , Han YF
Ref : Sci Rep , 5 :10256 , 2015
Abstract : beta-amyloid (Abeta) oligomers have been closely implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found, for the first time, that bis(heptyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor derived from tacrine, prevented Abeta oligomers-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) at concentrations that did not interfere with normal LTP. Bis(heptyl)-cognitin also prevented Abeta oligomers-induced synaptotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons. In contrast, tacrine and donepezil, typical AChE inhibitors, could not prevent synaptic impairments in these models, indicating that the modification of Abeta oligomers toxicity by bis(heptyl)-cognitin might be attributed to a mechanism other than AChE inhibition. Studies by using dot blotting, immunoblotting, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have shown that bis(heptyl)-cognitin altered Abeta assembly via directly inhibiting Abeta oligomers formation and reducing the amount of preformed Abeta oligomers. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that bis(heptyl)-cognitin presumably interacted with the hydrophobic pockets of Abeta, which confers stabilizing powers and assembly alteration effects on Abeta. Most importantly, bis(heptyl)-cognitin significantly reduced cognitive impairments induced by intra-hippocampal infusion of Abeta oligomers in mice. These results clearly demonstrated how dimeric agents prevent Abeta oligomers-induced synaptic and memory impairments, and offered a strong support for the beneficial therapeutic effects of bis(heptyl)-cognitin in the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Chang_2015_Sci.Rep_5_10256
PubMedSearch : Chang_2015_Sci.Rep_5_10256
PubMedID: 26194093

Title : Plasma butyrylcholinesterase regulates ghrelin to control aggression - Chen_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_2251
Author(s) : Chen VP , Gao Y , Geng L , Parks RJ , Pang YP , Brimijoin S
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 112 :2251 , 2015
Abstract : Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels approximately 100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin's first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE's active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans.
ESTHER : Chen_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_2251
PubMedSearch : Chen_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_2251
PubMedID: 25646463

Title : Dimeric bis (heptyl)-Cognitin Blocks Alzheimer's beta-Amyloid Neurotoxicity Via the Inhibition of Abeta Fibrils Formation and Disaggregation of Preformed Fibrils - Hu_2015_CNS.Neurosci.Ther_21_953
Author(s) : Hu SQ , Wang R , Cui W , Mak SH , Li G , Hu YJ , Lee MY , Pang YP , Han YF
Ref : CNS Neurosci Ther , 21 :953 , 2015
Abstract : AIMS: Fibrillar aggregates of beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) are the main constituent of senile plaques and considered to be one of the causative events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compounds that could inhibit Abeta fibrils formation, disaggregate preformed Abeta fibrils as well as reduce their associated neurotoxicity might have therapeutic values for treating AD. In this study, the inhibitory effects of bis (heptyl)-cognitin (B7C), a multifunctional dimer derived from tacrine, on aggregation and neurotoxicity of Abeta1-40 were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Thioflavin T fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate Abeta aggregation, MTT and Hoechst-staining assays were performed to investigate Abeta-associated neurotoxicity. Fluorescent probe DCFH-DA was used to estimate the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen stress (ROS). Morris water maze was applied to determine learning and memory deficits induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of Abeta in rats.
RESULTS: B7C (0.1-10 muM), but not tacrine, effectively inhibited Abeta fibrils formation and disaggregated preformed Abeta fibrils following co-incubation of B7C and Abeta monomers or preformed fibrils, respectively. In addition, B7C markedly reduced Abeta fibrils-associated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell line, as evidenced by the increase in cell survival, the decrease in Hoechst-stained nuclei and in intracellular ROS. Most encouragingly, B7C (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), 10 times more potently than tacrine (1 and 2 mg/kg), inhibited memory impairments after intracerebroventricular infusion of Abeta in rats, as evidenced by the decrease in escape latency and the increase in the spatial bias in Morris water maze test along with upregulation of choline acetyltransferase activity and downregulation of acetylcholinesterase activity. CONCLUSION: These findings provide not only novel molecular insight into the potential application of B7C in treating AD, but also an effective approach for screening anti-AD agents.
ESTHER : Hu_2015_CNS.Neurosci.Ther_21_953
PubMedSearch : Hu_2015_CNS.Neurosci.Ther_21_953
PubMedID: 26507365

Title : Substantial Neuroprotection Against K(+) Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons by Novel Dimer Bis(propyl)-Cognitin Via the Activation of VEGFR-2 Signaling Pathway - Hu_2013_CNS.Neurosci.Ther_19_764
Author(s) : Hu SQ , Cui W , Xu DP , Mak SH , Tang J , Choi CL , Pang YP , Han YF
Ref : CNS Neurosci Ther , 19 :764 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Neuronal loss via apoptosis in CNS is the fundamental mechanism underlying various neurodegenerative diseases. Compounds with antiapoptotic property might have therapeutic effects for these diseases. In this study, bis(propyl)-cognitin (B3C), a novel dimer that possesses anti-AChE and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activities, was investigated for its neuroprotective effect on K(+) deprivation-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs).
METHODS: Cerebellar granule neurons were switched to K(+) deprived medium with or without B3C. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay, fluorescein diacetate (FDA)/propidium iodide (PI) staining, Hoechst staining, and DNA laddering assays were applied to detect cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Additionally, the expression of p-VEGFR-2, p-Akt, p-glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was examined in CGNs.
RESULTS: Switching CGNs to K(+) deprived medium resulted in remarkable apoptosis, which could be substantially blocked by B3C treatment (IC50 , 0.37 muM). Moreover, a rapid decrease in p-Tyr1054-VEGFR-2 was observed after the switch. B3C significantly reversed the inhibition of p-Tyr1054-VEGFR-2 as well as Akt and ERK pathways. VEGFR-2 inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584, as well as PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK inhibitor PD98059, each abolished the neuroprotective effect of B3C.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that B3C blocks K(+) deprivation-induced apoptosis in CGNs through regulating VEGFR-2/Akt/GSK3beta and VEGFR-2/ERK signaling pathways, providing a molecular insight into the therapeutic potential of B3C for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
ESTHER : Hu_2013_CNS.Neurosci.Ther_19_764
PubMedSearch : Hu_2013_CNS.Neurosci.Ther_19_764
PubMedID: 23826635

Title : Novel selective and irreversible mosquito acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases - Dou_2013_Sci.Rep_3_1068
Author(s) : Dou D , Park JG , Rana S , Madden BJ , Jiang H , Pang YP
Ref : Sci Rep , 3 :1068 , 2013
Abstract : We reported previously that insect acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) could be selectively and irreversibly inhibited by methanethiosulfonates presumably through conjugation to an insect-specific cysteine in these enzymes. However, no direct proof for the conjugation has been published to date, and doubts remain about whether such cysteine-targeting inhibitors have desirable kinetic properties for insecticide use. Here we report mass spectrometric proof of the conjugation and new chemicals that irreversibly inhibited African malaria mosquito AChE with bimolecular inhibition rate constants (k(inact)/K(I)) of 3,604-458,597 M(-1)sec(-1) but spared human AChE. In comparison, the insecticide paraoxon irreversibly inhibited mosquito and human AChEs with k(inact)/K(I) values of 1,915 and 1,507 M(-1)sec(-1), respectively, under the same assay conditions. These results further support our hypothesis that the insect-specific AChE cysteine is a unique and unexplored target to develop new insecticides with reduced insecticide resistance and low toxicity to mammals, fish, and birds for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.
ESTHER : Dou_2013_Sci.Rep_3_1068
PubMedSearch : Dou_2013_Sci.Rep_3_1068
PubMedID: 23323211

Title : Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides - Pang_2012_Curr.Drug.Targets_13_471
Author(s) : Pang YP , Brimijoin S , Ragsdale DW , Zhu KY , Suranyi R
Ref : Curr Drug Targets , 13 :471 , 2012
Abstract : Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market.
ESTHER : Pang_2012_Curr.Drug.Targets_13_471
PubMedSearch : Pang_2012_Curr.Drug.Targets_13_471
PubMedID: 22280344
Gene_locus related to this paper: aphgo-ACHE1

Title : Genome organization, phylogenies, expression patterns, and three-dimensional protein models of two acetylcholinesterase genes from the red flour beetle - Lu_2012_PLoS.One_7_e32288
Author(s) : Lu Y , Pang YP , Park Y , Gao X , Yao J , Zhang X , Zhu KY
Ref : PLoS ONE , 7 :e32288 , 2012
Abstract : Since the report of a paralogous acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC3.1.1.7) gene in the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) in 2002, two different AChE genes (Ace1 and Ace2) have been identified in each of at least 27 insect species. However, the gene models of Ace1 and Ace2, and their molecular properties have not yet been comprehensively analyzed in any insect species. In this study, we sequenced the full-length cDNAs, computationally predicted the corresponding three-dimensional protein models, and profiled developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns of two Ace genes from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum; TcAce1 and TcAce2), a globally distributed major pest of stored grain products and an emerging model organism. TcAce1 and TcAce2 encode 648 and 604 amino acid residues, respectively, and have conserved motifs including a choline-binding site, a catalytic triad, and an acyl pocket. Phylogenetic analysis show that both TcAce genes are grouped into two insect Ace clusters and TcAce1 is completely diverged from TcAce2, suggesting that these two genes evolve from their corresponding Ace gene lineages in insect species. In addition, TcAce1 is located on chromosome 5, whereas TcAce2 is located on chromosome 2. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicate that both genes are virtually transcribed in all the developmental stages and predominately expressed in the insect brain. Our computational analyses suggest that the TcAce1 protein is a robust acetylcholine (ACh) hydrolase and has susceptibility to sulfhydryl agents whereas the TcAce2 protein is not a catalytically efficient ACh hydrolase.
ESTHER : Lu_2012_PLoS.One_7_e32288
PubMedSearch : Lu_2012_PLoS.One_7_e32288
PubMedID: 22359679

Title : Cholinergic and non-cholinergic functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes revealed by gene-silencing in Tribolium castaneum - Lu_2012_Sci.Rep_2_288
Author(s) : Lu Y , Park Y , Gao X , Zhang X , Yao J , Pang YP , Jiang H , Zhu KY
Ref : Sci Rep , 2 :288 , 2012
Abstract : We compared biological functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes (TcAce1 and TcAce2) in Tribolium castaneum, a globally distributed major pest of stored grain products and an emerging model organism, by using RNA interference. Although both genes expressed at all developmental stages and mainly in the brain, the transcript level of TcAce1 was 1.2- to 8.7-fold higher than that of TcAce2, depending on developmental stages. Silencing TcAce1 in 20-day larvae led to 100% mortality within two weeks after eclosion and increased larval susceptibilities to anticholinesterase insecticides. In contrast, silencing TcAce2 did not show insect mortality and significantly affect insecticide susceptibility, but delayed insect development and reduced female egg-laying and egg hatching. These results demonstrate for the first time that TcAce1 plays a major role in cholinergic functions and is the target of anticholinesterase insecticides, whereas TcAce2 plays an important, non-cholinergic role in female reproduction, embryo development, and growth of offspring.
ESTHER : Lu_2012_Sci.Rep_2_288
PubMedSearch : Lu_2012_Sci.Rep_2_288
PubMedID: 22371826

Title : Crystal structures of oxime-bound fenamiphos-acetylcholinesterases: reactivation involving flipping of the His447 ring to form a reactive Glu334-His447-oxime triad - Hornberg_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_79_507
Author(s) : Hornberg A , Artursson E , Warme R , Pang YP , Ekstrom F
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 79 :507 , 2010
Abstract : Organophosphorus insecticides and nerve agents inhibit the vital enzyme acetylcholinesterase by covalently bonding to the catalytic serine residue of the enzyme. Oxime-based reactivators, such as [(E)-[1-[(4-carbamoylpyridin-1-ium-1-yl)methoxymethyl]pyridin-2-ylidene]methyl]-o xoazanium dichloride (HI-6) and 1,7-heptylene-bis-N,N'-2-pyridiniumaldoxime dichloride (Ortho-7), restore the organophosphate-inhibited enzymatic activity by cleaving the phosphorous conjugate. In this article, we report the intermolecular interactions between Mus musculus acetylcholinesterase inhibited by the insecticide fenamiphos (fep-mAChE) and HI-6 or Ortho-7 revealed by a combination of crystallography and kinetics. The crystal structures of the two oxime-bound fep-mAChE complexes show that both oximes interact with the peripheral anionic site involving different conformations of Trp286 and different peripheral-site residues (Tyr124 for HI-6 and Tyr72 for Ortho-7). Moreover, residues at catalytic site of the HI-6-bound fep-mAChE complex adopt conformations that are similar to those in the apo mAChE, whereas significant conformational changes are observed for the corresponding residues in the Ortho-7-bound fep-mAChE complex. Interestingly, flipping of the His447 imidazole ring allows the formation of a hydrogen bonding network among the Glu334-His447-Ortho-7 triad, which presumably deprotonates the Ortho-7 oxime hydroxyl group, increases the nucleophilicity of the oxime group, and leads to cleavage of the phosphorous conjugate. These results offer insights into a detailed reactivation mechanism for the oximes and development of improved reactivators.
ESTHER : Hornberg_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_79_507
PubMedSearch : Hornberg_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_79_507
PubMedID: 19732756
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle - Polsinelli_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_142
Author(s) : Polsinelli GA , Singh SK , Mishra RK , Suranyi R , Ragsdale DW , Pang YP , Brimijoin S
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 187 :142 , 2010
Abstract : Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish.
ESTHER : Polsinelli_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_142
PubMedSearch : Polsinelli_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_142
PubMedID: 20109441

Title : Kinetic analysis of interactions between alkylene-linked bis-pyridiniumaldoximes and human acetylcholinesterases inhibited by various organophosphorus compounds - Wille_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_80_941
Author(s) : Wille T , Ekstrom F , Lee JC , Pang YP , Thiermann H , Worek F
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 80 :941 , 2010
Abstract : The therapeutic approach of organophosphorus compound (OP) intoxications is to reactivate the inhibited enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Numerous studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard oxime-based reactivators against different nerve agents such as tabun and cyclosarin. This emphasizes research for more effective oximes. In the present study, reactivation kinetics of tabun-, sarin-, cyclosarin-, VX- or paraoxon-ethyl-inhibited human AChE (hAChE) with a homologous series of bis-ortho-pyridiniumaldoximes, Ortho-4 - Ortho-9, was investigated with a robot-assisted setting, allowing determination of second-order reactivation rate constants as well as model calculations. The reactivation constants of Ortho-4 - Ortho-9 resulted in marked differences of affinity and reactivity depending on the OP structure and the linker length of the oximes. In general, the K(D) values decreased with increasing linker length. Reactivity increased from Ortho-4 to Ortho-6 for PXE- and VX-inhibited hAChE and from Ortho-4 to Ortho-7 for GA-inhibited hAChE and decreased again with Ortho-8 and Ortho-9. In contrast, k(r) decreased with increasing linker length for sarin- and cyclosarin-inhibited hAChE. In view of the pronounced decrease of K(D) from Ortho-4 to Ortho-9, the k(r2) values increased with all tested OP. Hence, the ratios of K(I)/K(D) and of K(I)/k(r2) showed that in almost all cases the affinity of Ortho-N to the native hAChE was higher than to OP-inhibited enzyme. Model calculations indicated that Ortho-6 - Ortho-9 could be superior to obidoxime in reactivating tabun-inhibited hAChE. Finally, these data emphasize the need to develop oximes with a higher selective affinity towards OP-inhibited hAChE in order to minimize possible side effects.
ESTHER : Wille_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_80_941
PubMedSearch : Wille_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_80_941
PubMedID: 20510679

Title : Structure of HI-6*sarin-acetylcholinesterase determined by X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulation: reactivator mechanism and design - Ekstrom_2009_PLoS.One_4_e5957
Author(s) : Ekstrom F , Hornberg A , Artursson E , Hammarstrom LG , Schneider G , Pang YP
Ref : PLoS ONE , 4 :e5957 , 2009
Abstract : Organophosphonates such as isopropyl metylphosphonofluoridate (sarin) are extremely toxic as they phosphonylate the catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme essential to humans and other species. Design of effective AChE reactivators as antidotes to various organophosphonates requires information on how the reactivators interact with the phosphonylated AChEs. However, such information has not been available hitherto because of three main challenges. First, reactivators are generally flexible in order to change from the ground state to the transition state for reactivation; this flexibility discourages determination of crystal structures of AChE in complex with effective reactivators that are intrinsically disordered. Second, reactivation occurs upon binding of a reactivator to the phosphonylated AChE. Third, the phosphorous conjugate can develop resistance to reactivation. We have identified crystallographic conditions that led to the determination of a crystal structure of the sarin(nonaged)-conjugated mouse AChE in complex with [(E)-[1-[(4-carbamoylpyridin-1-ium-1-yl)methoxymethyl]pyridin-2-ylidene]methyl]-o xoazanium dichloride (HI-6) at a resolution of 2.2 A. In this structure, the carboxyamino-pyridinium ring of HI-6 is sandwiched by Tyr124 and Trp286, however, the oxime-pyridinium ring is disordered. By combining crystallography with microsecond molecular dynamics simulation, we determined the oxime-pyridinium ring structure, which shows that the oxime group of HI-6 can form a hydrogen-bond network to the sarin isopropyl ether oxygen, and a water molecule is able to form a hydrogen bond to the catalytic histidine residue and subsequently deprotonates the oxime for reactivation. These results offer insights into the reactivation mechanism of HI-6 and design of better reactivators.
ESTHER : Ekstrom_2009_PLoS.One_4_e5957
PubMedSearch : Ekstrom_2009_PLoS.One_4_e5957
PubMedID: 19536291
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : Selective and irreversible inhibitors of aphid acetylcholinesterases: steps toward human-safe insecticides - Pang_2009_PLoS.ONE_4_e4349
Author(s) : Pang YP , Singh SK , Gao Y , Lassiter TL , Mishra RK , Zhu KY , Brimijoin S
Ref : PLoS ONE , 4 :e4349 , 2009
Abstract : Aphids, among the most destructive insects to world agriculture, are mainly controlled by organophosphate insecticides that disable the catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Because these agents also affect vertebrate AChEs, they are toxic to non-target species including humans and birds. We previously reported that a cysteine residue (Cys), found at the AChE active site in aphids and other insects but not mammals, might serve as a target for insect-selective pesticides. However, aphids have two different AChEs (termed AP and AO), and only AP-AChE carries the unique Cys. The absence of the active-site Cys in AO-AChE might raise concerns about the utility of targeting that residue. Herein we report the development of a methanethiosulfonate-containing small molecule that, at 6.0 microM, irreversibly inhibits 99% of all AChE activity extracted from the greenbug aphid (Schizaphis graminum) without any measurable inhibition of the human AChE. Reactivation studies using beta-mercaptoethanol confirm that the irreversible inhibition resulted from the conjugation of the inhibitor to the unique Cys. These results suggest that AO-AChE does not contribute significantly to the overall AChE activity in aphids, thus offering new insight into the relative functional importance of the two insect AChEs. More importantly, by demonstrating that the Cys-targeting inhibitor can abolish AChE activity in aphids, we can conclude that the unique Cys may be a viable target for species-selective agents to control aphids without causing human toxicity and resistance problems.
ESTHER : Pang_2009_PLoS.ONE_4_e4349
PubMedSearch : Pang_2009_PLoS.ONE_4_e4349
PubMedID: 19194505

Title : Mechanism of bis(7)-tacrine inhibition of GABA-activated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons - Zhou_2009_Neuropharmacol_57_33
Author(s) : Zhou L , Liu YW , Peoples RW , Yang M , Tian X , Ai YX , Pang YP , Li ZW , Han YF , Li CY
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 57 :33 , 2009
Abstract : Bis(7)-tacrine is a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor derived from tacrine that shows promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We have previously reported that bis(7)-tacrine inhibits GABA(A) receptors. In the present study we investigated the mechanism of bis(7)-tacrine inhibition of GABA(A) receptor function using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Bis(7)-tacrine produced a gradual decline of GABA-activated current to a steady-state, but this was not an indication of use-dependence, as the gradually declining component could be eliminated by exposure to bis(7)-tacrine prior to GABA application. In addition, bis(7)-tacrine inhibition did not require the presence of agonist, and GABA-activated current recovered completely from inhibition by bis(7)-tacrine in the absence of agonist. The slow onset of inhibition by bis(7)-tacrine was not apparently due to an action at an intracellular site, as inclusion of 25 microM bis(7)-tacrine in the recording pipette did not alter inhibition by bis(7)-tacrine applied externally. Bis(7)-tacrine shifted the GABA concentration-response curve to the right in a parallel manner and the pA(2) value estimated from a Schild plot was 5.7. Bis(7)-tacrine increased the time constant of activation of GABA-gated ion channels without affecting the time constants of deactivation or desensitization. These results suggest that bis(7)-tacrine is a competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonist with slow onset and offset kinetics. The competitive inhibition of GABA receptors by bis(7)-tacrine could contribute to its ability to enhance memory.
ESTHER : Zhou_2009_Neuropharmacol_57_33
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2009_Neuropharmacol_57_33
PubMedID: 19393253

Title : Selective and irreversible inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases - Pang_2009_PLoS.One_4_e6851
Author(s) : Pang YP , Ekstrom F , Polsinelli GA , Gao Y , Rana S , Hua DH , Andersson B , Andersson PO , Peng L , Singh SK , Mishra RK , Zhu KY , Fallon AM , Ragsdale DW , Brimijoin S
Ref : PLoS ONE , 4 :e6851 , 2009
Abstract : New insecticides are urgently needed because resistance to current insecticides allows resurgence of disease-transmitting mosquitoes while concerns for human toxicity from current compounds are growing. We previously reported the finding of a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in some insects but not in mammals, birds, and fish. These insects have two AChE genes (AP and AO), and only AP-AChE carries the Cys residue. Most of these insects are disease vectors such as the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) or crop pests such as aphids. Recently we reported a Cys-targeting small molecule that irreversibly inhibited all AChE activity extracted from aphids while an identical exposure caused no effect on the human AChE. Full inhibition of AChE in aphids indicates that AP-AChE contributes most of the enzymatic activity and suggests that the Cys residue might serve as a target for developing better aphicides. It is therefore worth investigating whether the Cys-targeting strategy is applicable to mosquitocides. Herein, we report that, under conditions that spare the human AChE, a methanethiosulfonate-containing molecule at 6 microM irreversibly inhibited 95% of the AChE activity extracted from An. gambiae s. str. and >80% of the activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.) or the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens L.) that is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis. This type of inhibition is fast ( approximately 30 min) and due to conjugation of the inhibitor to the active-site Cys of mosquito AP-AChE, according to our observed reactivation of the methanethiosulfonate-inhibited AChE by 2-mercaptoethanol. We also note that our sulfhydryl agents partially and irreversibly inhibited the human AChE after prolonged exposure (>4 hr). This slow inhibition is due to partial enzyme denaturation by the inhibitor and/or micelles of the inhibitor, according to our studies using atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These results support our view that the mosquito-specific Cys is a viable target for developing new mosquitocides to control disease vectors and to alleviate resistance problems with reduced toxicity toward non-target species.
ESTHER : Pang_2009_PLoS.One_4_e6851
PubMedSearch : Pang_2009_PLoS.One_4_e6851
PubMedID: 19714254
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE , mouse-acnt1

Title : Inhibition of NMDA-gated ion channels by bis(7)-tacrine: whole-cell and single-channel studies - Liu_2008_Neuropharmacol_54_1086
Author(s) : Liu YW , Luo JL , Ren H , Peoples RW , Ai YX , Liu LJ , Pang YP , Li ZW , Han YF , Li CY
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 54 :1086 , 2008
Abstract : Bis(7)-tacrine is a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor derived from tacrine, and has been proposed as a promising agent to treat Alzheimer's disease. We have recently reported that bis(7)-tacrine prevents glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis by antagonizing NMDA receptors. The purpose of this study was to characterize bis(7)-tacrine inhibition of NMDA-activated current by using patch-clamp recording techniques. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, bis(7)-tacrine inhibited NMDA-activated whole-cell current in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 0.66+/-0.07 microM. Bis(7)-tacrine produced a gradual decline of NMDA-activated current to a steady-state, but this was not an indication of use-dependence. Also, the slow onset of inhibition by bis(7)-tacrine was not apparently due to an action at an intracellular site. Bis(7)-tacrine, 0.5 microM, decreased the maximal response to NMDA by 40% without changing its EC(50). Bis(7)-tacrine inhibition of NMDA-activated current was not voltage-dependent, and was independent of glycine concentration. Results of single-channel experiments obtained from cells expressing NR1 and NR2A subunits revealed that bis(7)-tacrine decreased the open probability and frequency of channel opening, but did not significantly alter the mean open time or introduce rapid closures. These results suggest that bis(7)-tacrine can inhibit NMDA receptor function in a manner that is slow in onset and offset and noncompetitive with respect to both NMDA and glycine. The noncompetitive inhibition of NMDA receptors by bis(7)-tacrine could contribute to its protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.
ESTHER : Liu_2008_Neuropharmacol_54_1086
PubMedSearch : Liu_2008_Neuropharmacol_54_1086
PubMedID: 18407299

Title : The physicochemical properties and the in vivo AChE inhibition of two potential anti-Alzheimer agents, bis(12)-hupyridone and bis(7)-tacrine - Yu_2008_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_46_75
Author(s) : Yu H , Li WM , Kan KK , Ho JM , Carlier PR , Pang YP , Gu ZM , Zhong Z , Chan K , Wang YT , Han YF
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 46 :75 , 2008
Abstract : The lipophilicity and solubility profiles of bis(12)-hupyridone (B12H) and bis(7)-tacrine (B7T), two novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors dimerized from huperzine A fragments and tacrine, respectively, were investigated over a broad pH range. Lipophilicity was assessed by both shake flask method with 1-octanol-water system and a reverse-phase HPLC system with methanol-water as mobile phase. The former method was used for determining the lipophilicities of the ionized forms (log D) of the dimers while the latter method was used for that of the neutral forms (log P). The log P values for B12H and B7T were found to be 5.4 and 8.2, respectively, indicating that the two dimers are highly lipophilic. The solubilities of both dimers were found to be affected by pH. The solubility of B12H was >1.41 mg/ml when the pH was <7, but <0.06 mg/ml when the pH was >8. The solubility of B7T was >0.26 mg/ml when the pH was <9, but <0.005 mg/ml when the pH was >12. The ionic strength of a solution could affect the solubilities considerably (11.16 mg/ml for B12H and 12.71 mg/ml for B7T in water; 2.07 mg/ml for B12H and 0.36 mg/ml for B7T in saline). The ionization constants (pK(a)) of the two dimers were determined by UV spectrophotometry. Both dimers were found to have two pK(a) values: 7.5+/-0.1 (pK(a1)) and 10.0+/-0.2 (pK(a2)) for B12H; and 8.7+/-0.1 (pK(a1)) and 10.7+/-0.4 (pK(a2)) for B7T. Furthermore, an in vivo pharmacological assay conducted in mice showed that a maximum AChE inhibition occurred 15 min after the single-dose and intraperitoneal administration of either dimer. This indicates that the two dimers may easily cross the blood-brain barrier. In summary, these physiochemical characteristics suggest that the two dimers may be promising candidates for the development of better drugs for Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Yu_2008_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_46_75
PubMedSearch : Yu_2008_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_46_75
PubMedID: 17931815

Title : Selective and sensitive determination of bis(7)-tacrine, a high erythrocyte binding acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Zhang_2008_Biomed.Chromatogr_22_414
Author(s) : Zhang L , Yu H , Li WM , Cheung MC , Pang YP , Lin G , Wang YT , Zuo Z , Han YF
Ref : Biomedical Chromatography , 22 :414 , 2008
Abstract : The current study aims to develop a specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of bis(7)-tacrine (B7T) in rat plasma. A 100 microL plasma sample was extracted with ethyl acetate. B7T and the internal standard (IS), pimozide, in the samples were then analyzed with LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray ionization condition. Chromatographic separation of B7T and IS was achieved in a C(18) reversed-phase HPLC column (150 x 2.1 mm i.d.) by isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed to measure the ion transitions: m/z 247 to 197 for B7T and m/z 462 to m/z 328 for IS, respectively. The method was linear over the studied ranges of 100-5000 and 10-100 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 6.8% with standard errors less than 9.0%. The detection limit of B7T in rat plasma was 1 ng/mL. The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of B7T after intravenous administration of 1 mg/kg B7T and further proved to be readily utilized for determination of B7T in rat plasma samples.
ESTHER : Zhang_2008_Biomed.Chromatogr_22_414
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2008_Biomed.Chromatogr_22_414
PubMedID: 18059054

Title : East meets West in the search for Alzheimer's therapeutics - novel dimeric inhibitors from tacrine and huperzine A - Li_2007_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_4_386
Author(s) : Li WM , Kan KK , Carlier PR , Pang YP , Han YF
Ref : Curr Alzheimer Res , 4 :386 , 2007
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to cholinergic deficiency and the overactivation of glutamate receptors. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition treatment approach has produced the most encouraging results in clinical practice, and memantine, a moderate antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has been approved for treating AD. However, AChE inhibitors have limited success as they only improve memory in mild dementia but cannot stop the process of neurodegeneration; while memantine possesses neuroprotective effects only with a little ability in memory enhancement. There has been a major rush among neuroscience research institutions and pharmaceutical firms worldwide to search for safer and more effective therapeutic agents for AD. The novel dimers, derived from tacrine and the fragment of huperzine A (HA'), have been demonstrated to be potent and selective reversible inhibitors of AChE. Bis(7)-tacrine, bis(12)-hupyridone (E12E) and HA'(10)-tacrine, are representatives of three series of novel dimers. According to the preclinical studies, these compounds have been shown to have low toxicity and high efficacy for improving cognitive deficits in several animal models. More interestingly, bis(7)-tacrine, similar to memantine, prevents glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by moderately blocking glutamate receptor NMDA subtype. Furthermore, bis(7)-tacrine, as well as E12E, possesses multiple neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Taking together, these dimeric AChE inhibitors, especially bis(7)-tacrine, E12E and HA'(10)-tacrine, may provide beneficial effects in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
ESTHER : Li_2007_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_4_386
PubMedSearch : Li_2007_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_4_386
PubMedID: 17908041

Title : Novel nerve-agent antidote design based on crystallographic and mass spectrometric analyses of tabun-conjugated acetylcholinesterase in complex with antidotes - Ekstrom_2007_Clin.Pharmacol.Ther_82_282
Author(s) : Ekstrom F , Astot C , Pang YP
Ref : Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics , 82 :282 , 2007
Abstract : Organophosphorus compound-based nerve agents inhibit the essential enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) causing acute toxicity and death. Clinical treatment of nerve-agent poisoning is to use oxime-based antidotes to reactivate the inhibited AChE. However, the nerve agent tabun is resistant to oximes. To design improved oximes, crystal structures of a tabun-conjugated AChE in complex with different oximes are needed to guide the structural modifications of known antidotes. However, this type of structure is extremely challenging to obtain because both deamidation of the tabun conjugate and reactivation of AChE occur during crystallographic experiments. Here we report, for the first time, the crystal structures of Ortho-7 and HLo-7 in complex with AChE that is conjugated to an intact tabun. These structures were determined by our new strategy of combining crystallographic and mass spectrometric analyses of AChE crystals. The results explain the relative reactivation potencies of the two oximes and offer insights into improving known medical antidotes.
ESTHER : Ekstrom_2007_Clin.Pharmacol.Ther_82_282
PubMedSearch : Ekstrom_2007_Clin.Pharmacol.Ther_82_282
PubMedID: 17443135
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : Novel acetylcholinesterase target site for malaria mosquito control - Pang_2006_PLoS.One_1_e58
Author(s) : Pang YP
Ref : PLoS ONE , 1 :e58 , 2006
Abstract : Current anticholinesterase pesticides were developed during World War II and are toxic to mammals because they target a catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) in insects and in mammals. A sequence analysis of AChEs from 73 species and a three-dimensional model of a malaria-carrying mosquito (Anopheles gambiae) AChE (AgAChE) reported here show that C286 and R339 of AgAChE are conserved at the opening of the active site of AChEs in 17 invertebrate and four insect species, respectively. Both residues are absent in the active site of AChEs of human, monkey, dog, cat, cattle, rabbit, rat, and mouse. The 17 invertebrates include house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, German cockroach, Florida lancelet, rice leaf beetle, African bollworm, beet armyworm, codling moth, diamondback moth, domestic silkworm, honey bee, oat or wheat aphid, the greenbug, melon or cotton aphid, green peach aphid, and English grain aphid. The four insects are house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, and German cockroach. The discovery of the two invertebrate-specific residues enables the development of effective and safer pesticides that target the residues present only in mosquito AChEs rather than the ubiquitous serine residue, thus potentially offering an effective control of mosquito-borne malaria. Anti-AgAChE pesticides can be designed to interact with R339 and subsequently covalently bond to C286. Such pesticides would be toxic to mosquitoes but not to mammals.
ESTHER : Pang_2006_PLoS.One_1_e58
PubMedSearch : Pang_2006_PLoS.One_1_e58
PubMedID: 17183688

Title : Complexes of alkylene-linked tacrine dimers with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase: Binding of Bis5-tacrine produces a dramatic rearrangement in the active-site gorge - Rydberg_2006_J.Med.Chem_49_5491
Author(s) : Rydberg EH , Brumshtein B , Greenblatt HM , Wong DM , Shaya D , Williams LD , Carlier PR , Pang YP , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 49 :5491 , 2006
Abstract : The X-ray crystal structures were solved for complexes with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase of two bivalent tacrine derivative compounds in which the two tacrine rings were separated by 5- and 7-carbon spacers. The derivative with the 7-carbon spacer spans the length of the active-site gorge, making sandwich interactions with aromatic residues both in the catalytic anionic site (Trp84 and Phe330) at the bottom of the gorge and at the peripheral anionic site near its mouth (Tyr70 and Trp279). The derivative with the 5-carbon spacer interacts in a similar manner at the bottom of the gorge, but the shorter tether precludes a sandwich interaction at the peripheral anionic site. Although the upper tacrine group does interact with Trp279, it displaces the phenyl residue of Phe331, thus causing a major rearrangement in the Trp279-Ser291 loop. The ability of this inhibitor to induce large-scale structural changes in the active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase has significant implications for structure-based drug design because such conformational changes in the target enzyme are difficult to predict and to model.
ESTHER : Rydberg_2006_J.Med.Chem_49_5491
PubMedSearch : Rydberg_2006_J.Med.Chem_49_5491
PubMedID: 16942022
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase in complex with HI-6, Ortho-7 and obidoxime: structural basis for differences in the ability to reactivate tabun conjugates - Ekstrom_2006_Biochem.Pharmacol_72_597
Author(s) : Ekstrom F , Pang YP , Boman M , Artursson E , Akfur C , Borjegren S
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 72 :597 , 2006
Abstract : Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphorus compounds (OPs) such as pesticides and nerve agents causes acute toxicity or death of the intoxicated individual. The inhibited AChE may be reactivated by certain oximes as antidotes for clinical treatment of OP-intoxications. Crystal structures of the oximes HI-6, Ortho-7 and obidoxime in complex with Mus musculus acetylcholinesterase (mAChE) reveal different roles of the peripheral anionic site (PAS) in the binding of the oximes. A limited structural change of the side chains of Trp286 and Asp74 facilitates the intercalation of the 4-carboxylamide pyridinium ring of HI-6 between the side chains of Tyr124 and Trp286. The 2-carboxyimino pyridinium ring of HI-6 is accommodated at the entrance of the catalytic site with the oximate forming a hydrogen bond to the main-chain nitrogen atom of Phe295. In contrast to HI-6, the coordination of Ortho-7 and obidoxime within the PAS is facilitated by an extended structural change of Trp286 that allows one of the carboxyimino pyridinium rings to form a cation-pi interaction with the aromatic groups of Tyr72 and Trp286. The central chain of Ortho-7 and obidoxime is loosely coordinated in the active-site gorge, whereas the second carboxyimino pyridinium ring is accommodated in the vicinity of the phenol ring of Tyr337. The structural data clearly show analogous coordination of Ortho-7 and obidoxime within the active-site gorge of AChE. Different ability to reactivate AChE inhibited by tabun is shown in end-point reactivation experiments where HI-6, Ortho-7 and obidoxime showed an efficiency of 1, 45 and 38%, respectively. The low efficiency of HI-6 and the significantly higher efficiency of Ortho-7 and obidoxime may be explained by the differential binding of the oximes in the PAS and active-site gorge of AChE.
ESTHER : Ekstrom_2006_Biochem.Pharmacol_72_597
PubMedSearch : Ekstrom_2006_Biochem.Pharmacol_72_597
PubMedID: 16876764
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : A potent and selective tacrine analog--biomembrane permeation and physicochemical characterization - Patani_2005_Pharm.Dev.Technol_10_525
Author(s) : Patani GA , Pang YP , Chien YW
Ref : Pharm Dev Technol , 10 :525 , 2005
Abstract : Cholinesterase inhibitors have been used for years in treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tacrine is the first acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for treating AD by the regulatory agencies around the world. Unfortunately, a number of studies have shown tacrine to be associated with some severe side effects, including hepatotoxicity. These adverse effects may be attributed to its poor selectivity for acetylcholinesterase and have thus necessitated the research and development of more selective cholinesterase inhibitors with a greater specificity and higher potency. The heptylene-linked bis-tacrine analog (bis-THA) of Tacrine is a second-generation inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which has a potency that is 1000 times more potent than Tacrine in inhibition of the rat brain acetylcholinesterase and 10,000 times more selective for acetylcholinesterase over butyrylcholinesterase. A series of investigations have thus been initiated to characterize the physicochemical properties (e.g., pKa, partition coefficient, and stability) of this bis-THA analog as compared to its parent molecule (Tacrine). For AD treatment, the cholinesterase inhibitors need to be taken daily for long periods of time. Use of controlled-release dosage forms to deliver drugs for chronic administration, by taking advantage of their rate-controlling drug delivery features, has gained increasing popularity in recent years. On the other hand, the nasal route, which has been used to deliver drugs for achieving a direct delivery to the brain (via the olfactory pathway), could offer the benefits of brain targeting to the delivery of Tacrine and bis-THA. To investigate this feasibility, the permeation of Tacrine and bis-THA across the nasal mucosa was evaluated (in comparison with other absorptive mucosae). Studies of their permeation kinetics across the various absorptive mucosae, which were freshly excised from the domestic pig, indicated that the nasal mucosa could present a viable pathway for the systemic delivery of bis-THA. Delipidization studies suggested that the lipophilic components in the absorptive mucosae could play an important role in the permeation of bis-THA. The bis-THA has a pKa of approximately 8 and its partition coefficient showed a sigmoidal pattern with solution pHs. It was found to be relatively stable at acidic pHs but subjected to a base-catalyzed degradation at the alkaline pHs (> or = 8) and at higher temperatures (> or = 50 degrees C).
ESTHER : Patani_2005_Pharm.Dev.Technol_10_525
PubMedSearch : Patani_2005_Pharm.Dev.Technol_10_525
PubMedID: 16370182

Title : Crystal packing mediates enantioselective ligand recognition at the peripheral site of acetylcholinesterase - Haviv_2005_J.Am.Chem.Soc_127_11029
Author(s) : Haviv H , Wong DM , Greenblatt HM , Carlier PR , Pang YP , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , 127 :11029 , 2005
Abstract : Recently, alkylene-linked heterodimers of tacrine (1) and 5-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolinone (2, hupyridone) were shown to exhibit higher acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition than either monomeric 1 or 2. Such inhibitors are potential drug candidates for ameliorating the cognitive decrements in early Alzheimer patients. In an attempt to understand the inhibition mechanism of one such dimer, (RS)-(+/-)-N-9-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridinyl)-N'-5-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2'(1'H)-qui nolinonyl]-1,10-diaminodecane [(RS)-(+/-)-3] bisoxalate, the racemate was soaked in trigonal Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) crystals, and the X-ray structure of the resulting complex was solved to 2.30 A resolution. Its structure revealed the 1 unit bound to the "anionic" subsite of the active site, near the bottom of the active-site gorge, as seen for the 1/TcAChE complex. Interestingly, only the (R)-enantiomer of the 2 unit was seen in the peripheral "anionic" site (PAS) at the top of the gorge, and was hydrogen-bonded to the side chains of residues belonging to an adjacent, symmetry-related AChE molecule covering the gorge entrance. When the same racemate was soaked in orthorhombic crystals of TcAChE, in which the entrance to the gorge is more exposed, the crystal structure of the corresponding complex revealed no substantial enantiomeric selectivity. This observation suggests that the apparent enantiomeric selectivity of trigonal crystals of TcAChE for (R)-3 is mainly due to crystal packing, resulting in preferential binding of one enantiomeric inhibitor both to its "host" enzyme and to its neighbor in the asymmetric unit, rather than to steric constraints imposed by the geometry of the active-site gorge.
ESTHER : Haviv_2005_J.Am.Chem.Soc_127_11029
PubMedSearch : Haviv_2005_J.Am.Chem.Soc_127_11029
PubMedID: 16076210
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Rational design of alkylene-linked bis-pyridiniumaldoximes as improved acetylcholinesterase reactivators - Pang_2003_Chem.Biol_10_491
Author(s) : Pang YP , Kollmeyer TM , Hong F , Lee JC , Hammond PI , Haugabouk SP , Brimijoin S
Ref : Chemical Biology , 10 :491 , 2003
Abstract : To improve the potency of 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM) for treating organophosphate poisoning, we dimerized 2-PAM and its analogs according to Wilson's pioneering work and the 3D structure of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) inactivated by isoflurophate. 1,7-Heptylene-bis-N,N'-syn-2-pyridiniumaldoxime, the most potent of the alkylene-linked dimeric reactivators, was readily synthesized using bistriflate and is 100 times more potent than 2-PAM in reactivating hAChE poisoned by isoflurophate. Experimental and computational studies confirm that 2-PAM in its biologically active form adopts the syn-I configuration. Further, they suggest that the improved performance of dimeric oximes is conferred by two-site binding with one oxime pointing toward the diisopropyl ester at the catalytic site of hAChE and the other anchored at the peripheral site. This type of binding may induce a conformational change in the acyl pocket loop which modulates the catalytic site via a domino effect.
ESTHER : Pang_2003_Chem.Biol_10_491
PubMedSearch : Pang_2003_Chem.Biol_10_491
PubMedID: 12837382

Title : Cholinesterase reactivation in vivo with a novel bis-oxime optimized by computer-aided design - Hammond_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_307_190
Author(s) : Hammond PI , Kern C , Hong F , Kollmeyer TM , Pang YP , Brimijoin S
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 307 :190 , 2003
Abstract : Recently, several bis-pyridiniumaldoximes linked by a variable-length alkylene chain were rationally designed in our laboratories as cholinesterase reactivators. Extensive in vitro tests of these oximes with acetylcholinesterase inhibited by two different organophosphate agents, echothiophate and diisopropylfluorophosphate, revealed one compound with particularly good reactivation kinetics and affinity for phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This compound, designated "ortho-7", with a heptylene chain bridging two aldoximes ortho to a pyridinium ring nitrogen, was chosen for detailed comparison with the classic reactivator pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM). In vitro, ortho-7 reactivated AChE selectively, without restoring activity of the related enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). For in vivo studies, rats were injected with ortho-7 or 2-PAM before or after organophosphate exposure, and the activities of AChE and BChE were determined at multiple intervals in blood and solid tissues. Ortho-7 behaved nearly as well in the animal as in vitro, reactivating AChE to the same extent as 2-PAM in all peripheral tissues studied (serum, red blood cell, and diaphragm), but at doses up to 100-fold smaller. Like other oxime reactivators, ortho-7 did not reactivate brain AChE after systemic administration. Nonetheless, this agent could be useful in combination therapy for organophosphate exposure, and it may provide a platform for development of additional, even more effective reactivators.
ESTHER : Hammond_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_307_190
PubMedSearch : Hammond_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_307_190
PubMedID: 12893843

Title : Acetylcholinesterase Complexed with Bivalent Ligands Related to Huperzine A: Experimental Evidence for Species-Dependent Protein-Ligand Complementarity - Wong_2003_J.Am.Chem.Soc_125_363
Author(s) : Wong DM , Greenblatt HM , Dvir H , Carlier PR , Han YF , Pang YP , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : J Am Chem Soc , 125 :363 , 2003
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors improve the cognitive abilities of Alzheimer patients. (-)-Huperzine A [(-)-HupA], an alkaloid isolated from the club moss, Huperzia serrata, is one such inhibitor, but the search for more potent and selective drugs continues. Recently, alkylene-linked dimers of 5-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolinone (hupyridone, 1a), a fragment of HupA, were shown to serve as more potent inhibitors of AChE than (-)-HupA and monomeric 1a. We soaked two such dimers, (S,S)-(-)-bis(10)-hupyridone [(S,S)-(-)-2a] and (S,S)-(-)-bis(12)-hupyridone [(S,S)-(-)-2b] containing, respectively, 10 and 12 methylenes in the spacer, into trigonal TcAChE crystals, and solved the X-ray structures of the resulting complexes using the difference Fourier technique, both to 2.15 A resolution. The structures revealed one HupA-like 1a unit bound to the "anionic" subsite of the active-site, near the bottom of the active-site gorge, adjacent to Trp84, as seen for the TcAChE/(-)-HupA complex, and the second 1a unit near Trp279 in the "peripheral" anionic site at the top of the gorge, both bivalent molecules thus spanning the active-site gorge. The results confirm that the increased affinity of the dimeric HupA analogues for AChE is conferred by binding to the two "anionic" sites of the enzyme. Inhibition data show that (-)-2a binds to TcAChE approximately 6-7- and > 170-fold more tightly than (-)-2b and (-)-HupA, respectively. In contrast, previous data for rat AChE show that (-)-2b binds approximately 3- and approximately 2-fold more tightly than (-)-2a and (-)-HupA, respectively. Structural comparison of TcAChE with rat AChE, as represented by the closely related mouse AChE structure (1maa.pdb), reveals a narrower gorge for rat AChE, a perpendicular alignment of the Tyr337 ring to the gorge axis, and its conformational rigidity, as a result of hydrogen bonding between its hydroxyl group and that of Tyr341, relative to TcAChE Phe330. These structural differences in the active-site gorge explain the switch in inhibitory potency of (-)-2a and 2b and the larger dimer/(-)-HupA potency ratios observed for TcAChE relative to rat AChE. The results offer new insights into factors affecting protein-ligand complementarity within the gorge and should assist the further development of improved AChE inhibitors.
ESTHER : Wong_2003_J.Am.Chem.Soc_125_363
PubMedSearch : Wong_2003_J.Am.Chem.Soc_125_363
PubMedID: 12517147
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Cocaine metabolism accelerated by a re-engineered human butyrylcholinesterase - Sun_2002_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_302_710
Author(s) : Sun H , Shen ML , Pang YP , Lockridge O , Brimijoin S
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 302 :710 , 2002
Abstract : Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is important in the metabolism of cocaine, but natural human BChE has limited therapeutic potential for detoxication because of low catalytic efficiency with cocaine. Here we report pharmacokinetics of cocaine in rats treated with A328W/Y332A BChE, an excellent cocaine hydrolase designed with the aid of molecular modeling. Compared with wild-type BChE, this enzyme hydrolyzes cocaine with 40-fold improved k(cat) (154 min(-1) versus 4.1 min(-1)) and only slightly increased K(M) (18 microM versus 4.5 microM). In rats given this hydrolase (3 mg/kg i.v.) 10 min before cocaine challenge (6.8 mg/kg i.v.), cocaine half-life was reduced from 52 min to 18 min. Mirroring the reductions of plasma cocaine were large increases in benzoic acid, a product of BChE-mediated cocaine hydrolysis. All other pharmacokinetic parameters confirmed a large, dose-dependent acceleration of cocaine removal by the injected cocaine hydrolase. These results show that A328W/Y332A, an efficient cocaine hydrolase in vivo as well as in vitro, might promote cocaine detoxication in a clinical setting.
ESTHER : Sun_2002_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_302_710
PubMedSearch : Sun_2002_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_302_710
PubMedID: 12130735
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Re-engineering butyrylcholinesterase as a cocaine hydrolase - Sun_2002_Mol.Pharmacol_62_220
Author(s) : Sun H , Pang YP , Lockridge O , Brimijoin S
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 62 :220 , 2002
Abstract : To address the problem of acute cocaine overdose, we undertook molecular engineering of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as a cocaine hydrolase so that modest doses could be used to accelerate metabolic clearance of this drug. Molecular modeling of BChE complexed with cocaine suggested that the inefficient hydrolysis (k(cat) = 4 min(-1)) involves a rotation toward the catalytic triad, hindered by Tyr332. To eliminate rotational hindrance and retain substrate affinity, we introduced two amino acid substitutions (Ala328Trp/Tyr332Ala). The resulting mutant BChE reduced cocaine burden in tissues, accelerated plasma clearance by 20-fold, and prevented cocaine-induced hyperactivity in mice. The enzyme's kinetic properties (k(cat) = 154 min(-1), K(M) = 18 microM) satisfy criteria suggested previously for treating cocaine overdose (k(cat) >120 min(-1), K(M) < 30 microM). This success demonstrates that computationally guided mutagenesis can generate functionally novel enzymes with clinical potential.
ESTHER : Sun_2002_Mol.Pharmacol_62_220
PubMedSearch : Sun_2002_Mol.Pharmacol_62_220
PubMedID: 12130672
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Effects of bis(7)-tacrine on spontaneous synaptic activity and on the nicotinic ACh receptor of Torpedo electric organ - Ros_2001_J.Neurophysiol_86_183
Author(s) : Ros E , Aleu J , Gomez de Aranda I , Canti C , Pang YP , Marsal J , Solsona C
Ref : Journal of Neurophysiology , 86 :183 , 2001
Abstract : Bis(7)-tacrine is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in which two tacrine molecules are linked by a heptylene chain. We tested the effects of bis(7)-tacrine on the spontaneous synaptic activity. Miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) were recorded extracellularly on slices of electric organ of Torpedo marmorata. Bis(7)-tacrine, at a concentration of 100 nM, increased the magnitudes that describe MEPPs: amplitude, area, rise time, rate of rise, and half-width. We also tested the effect of bis(7)-tacrine on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by analyzing the currents elicited by acetylcholine (100 microM) in Torpedo electric organ membranes transplanted in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Bis(7)-tacrine inhibited the acetylcholine-induced currents in a reversible manner (IC(50) = 162 nM). The inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was not voltage dependent, and bis(7)-tacrine increased the desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The Hill coefficient for bis(7)-tacrine was -0.72 +/- 0.02, indicating that bis(7)-tacrine binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a molecular ratio of 1:1, but does not affect the binding of alpha-bungarotoxin with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In conclusion, bis(7)-tacrine greatly increases the spontaneous quantal release from peripheral cholinergic terminals at a much lower concentration than tacrine. Bis(7)-tacrine also blocks acetylcholine-induced currents of Torpedo electric organ, although the mechanism is different from that of tacrine: bis(7)-tacrine enhances desensitization, whereas tacrine reduces it.
ESTHER : Ros_2001_J.Neurophysiol_86_183
PubMedSearch : Ros_2001_J.Neurophysiol_86_183
PubMedID: 11431500

Title : Predicted Michaelis-Menten complexes of cocaine-butyrylcholinesterase. Engineering effective butyrylcholinesterase mutants for cocaine detoxication. - Sun_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_9330
Author(s) : Sun H , El Yazal J , Lockridge O , Schopfer LM , Brimijoin S , Pang YP
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 276 :9330 , 2001
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is important in cocaine metabolism, but it hydrolyzes (-)-cocaine only one-two thousandth as fast as the unnatural (+)-stereoisomer. A starting point in engineering BChE mutants that rapidly clear cocaine from the bloodstream, for overdose treatment, is to elucidate structural factors underlying the stereochemical difference in catalysis. Here, we report two three-dimensional Michaelis-Menten complexes of BChE liganded with natural and unnatural cocaine molecules, respectively, that were derived from molecular modeling and supported by experimental studies. Such complexes revealed that the benzoic ester group of both cocaine stereoisomers must rotate toward the catalytic Ser(198) for hydrolysis. Rotation of (-)-cocaine appears to be hindered by interactions of its phenyl ring with Phe(329) and Trp(430). These interactions do not occur with (+)-cocaine. Because the rate of (-)-cocaine hydrolysis is predicted to be determined mainly by the re-orientation step, it should not be greatly influenced by pH. In fact, measured rates of this reaction were nearly constant over the pH range from 5.5 to 8.5, despite large rate changes in hydrolysis of (+)-cocaine. Our models can explain why BChE hydrolyzes (+)-cocaine faster than (-)-cocaine, and they suggest that mutations of certain residues in the catalytic site could greatly improve catalytic efficiency and the potential for detoxication.
ESTHER : Sun_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_9330
PubMedSearch : Sun_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_9330
PubMedID: 11104759

Title : Dimerization of an Inactive Fragment of Huperzine A Produces a Drug with Twice the Potency of the Natural Product -
Author(s) : Carlier PR , Du DM , Han YF , Liu J , Perola E , Williams ID , Pang YP
Ref : Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , 39 :1775 , 2000
PubMedID: 10934357

Title : Protection against ischemic injury in primary cultured mouse astrocytes by bis(7)-tacrine, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor [corrected] - Wu_2000_Neurosci.Lett_288_95
Author(s) : Wu DC , Xiao XQ , Ng AK , Chen PM , Chung W , Lee NT , Carlier PR , Pang YP , Yu AC , Han YF
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 288 :95 , 2000
Abstract : The effects of bis(7)-tacrine, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on ischemia-induced cell death and apoptosis were investigated in primary cerebral cortical astrocytes of mice. Following a 6 h in vitro ischemic incubation of the cultures, a marked decrease in the percentage of viable cells was observed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Furthermore, using bisbenzimide staining, we determined that approximately 65% of the cells underwent apoptosis. Treatment with bis(7)-tacrine (1-10 nM) during ischemic incubation effectively inhibited the ischemia-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by morphological and biochemical tests. Our results demonstrated that bis(7)-tacrine could protect astrocytes against ischemia-induced cell injury, indicating that the drug might be beneficial for the treatment of vascular dementia, in addition to Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Wu_2000_Neurosci.Lett_288_95
PubMedSearch : Wu_2000_Neurosci.Lett_288_95
PubMedID: 10876069

Title : Bis(7)-tacrine, a novel dimeric AChE inhibitor, is a potent GABA(A) receptor antagonist - Li_1999_Neuroreport_10_795
Author(s) : Li CY , Wang H , Xue H , Carlier PR , Hui KM , Pang YP , Li ZW , Han YF
Ref : Neuroreport , 10 :795 , 1999
Abstract : Heptylene-linked bis-(9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) (bis(7)-tacrine) is a potential palliative therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD), on the basis of its superior acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and memory-enhancing potency relative to tacrine. In this study we report that bis(7)-tacrine exhibits a potentially complementary central nervous system action, antagonism of GABA(A) receptor function. Bis(7)-tacrine displaced [3H]muscimol from rat brain membranes with an apparent Ki of 6.0 microM; tacrine and physostigmine were shown to be 18 and 170 times less potent, respectively. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, bis(7)-tacrine inhibited GABA-induced inward current with an IC50 of 5.6 microM, and shifted the GABA concentration-response curve to the right in a parallel manner. These results suggest that bis(7)-tacrine is a competitive antagonist of the GABA(A) receptor.
ESTHER : Li_1999_Neuroreport_10_795
PubMedSearch : Li_1999_Neuroreport_10_795
PubMedID: 10208550

Title : Effects of bis(7)-tacrine, a novel anti-Alzheimer's agent, on rat brain AChE - Wang_1999_Neuroreport_10_789
Author(s) : Wang H , Carlier PR , Ho WL , Wu DC , Lee NT , Li CP , Pang YP , Han YF
Ref : Neuroreport , 10 :789 , 1999
Abstract : The anticholinesterase effects of bis(7)-tacrine were compared with tacrine in vitro and in vivo. Based on IC50 ratios, the dimeric analog bis(7)-tacrine was, in a reversible manner, up to 150-fold more potent and 250-fold more selective than tacrine for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) over butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Following a single oral administration, both bis(7)-tacrine and tacrine produced dose-dependent inhibitions of AChE in rat brain, but bis(7)-tacrine exhibited higher efficacy and AChE/BChE selectivity than tacrine. The anti-AChE efficacy of bis(7)-tacrine was quite similar following an oral or i.p. administration, but tacrine showed much lower efficacy when administered orally than when given i.p. These findings suggest bis(7)-tacrine, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of AChE, can probably be used as an improved drug in the palliative treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Wang_1999_Neuroreport_10_789
PubMedSearch : Wang_1999_Neuroreport_10_789
PubMedID: 10208549

Title : Attenuation of scopolamine-induced deficits in navigational memory performance in rats by bis(7)-tacrine, a novel dimeric AChE inhibitor - Wang_1999_Zhongguo.Yao.Li.Xue.Bao_20_211
Author(s) : Wang H , Carlier PR , Ho WL , Lee NT , Pang YP , Han YF
Ref : Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao , 20 :211 , 1999
Abstract : AIM: To study the effects of 1,7-N-heptylene-bis-9,9'-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine [bis(7)-tacrine], a novel dimeric acetylcholine-sterase inhibitor (AChEI) derived from 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroaminoacridine (tacrine), on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment.
METHODS: The effects of bis(7)-tacrine were investigated on the 5-d performance of young adult rats in the Morris water maze. The latency to find the platform in the water maze was measured to evaluate performance. Tacrine was used as a reference drug.
RESULTS: Scopolamine (0.3 mg.kg-1, i.p.) resulted in an increase in latency period (> 100% increase) as compared with saline treated controls. Both bis(7)-tacrine and tacrine lessened the increased latency induced by scopolamine to the level of saline control group. The relative potency of bis(7)-tacrine (0.35 mumol.kg-1, i.g. or i.p.) to shorten the escape latency was 24 or 12 times of tacrine (8.52 mumol.kg-1 i.g., 4.26 mumol.kg-1 i.p.) following i.g. or i.p. administration, respectively. There appeared to be an inverse bell-shape dose-dependent effect for both compounds tested. CONCLUSION: Bis(7)-tacrine is a more potent and orally active AChEI than tacrine, and has potential for the palliative treatment of Alzheimer disease.
ESTHER : Wang_1999_Zhongguo.Yao.Li.Xue.Bao_20_211
PubMedSearch : Wang_1999_Zhongguo.Yao.Li.Xue.Bao_20_211
PubMedID: 10452094

Title : Potent, easily synthesized huperzine A-tacrine hybrid acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - Carlier_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_9_2335
Author(s) : Carlier PR , Du DM , Han Y , Liu J , Pang YP
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 9 :2335 , 1999
Abstract : Hybrid acetylcholinesterase inhibitors composed of a key fragment of huperzine A and an intact tacrine unit were prepared. The syntheses are quite direct, proceeding in a maximum of 4 linear steps from commercially available starting materials. The optimum hybrid inhibitor (+/-)-9g is 13-fold more potent than (-)-huperzine A, and 25-fold more potent than tacrine.
ESTHER : Carlier_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_9_2335
PubMedSearch : Carlier_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_9_2335
PubMedID: 10476864

Title : Heterodimeric tacrine-based acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: investigating ligand-peripheral site interactions - Carlier_1999_J.Med.Chem_42_4225
Author(s) : Carlier PR , Chow ES , Han Y , Liu J , El Yazal J , Pang YP
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 42 :4225 , 1999
Abstract : Dimeric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors containing a single 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (tacrine) unit were constructed in an effort to further delineate structural requirements for optimal binding to the AChE peripheral site. Basic amines of differing hydrophobicity were selected as peripheral site ligands, and in each case, improvements in inhibitory potency and selectivity were seen relative to tacrine itself. AChE IC(50) values of the optimum dimers decrease significantly as the peripheral site ligand was permuted in the series ammonia > dimethylamine > 4-aminopyridine > 4-aminoquinoline > tacrine. Calculated desolvation free energies of the optimum dimers match the trend in IC(50) values, suggesting the importance of ligand hydrophobicity for effective cation-pi interaction with the peripheral site.
ESTHER : Carlier_1999_J.Med.Chem_42_4225
PubMedSearch : Carlier_1999_J.Med.Chem_42_4225
PubMedID: 10514292

Title : Dual-site binding of bivalent 4-aminopyridine- and 4-aminoquinoline-based AChE inhibitors: contribution of the hydrophobic alkylene tether to monomer and dimer affinities - Han_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem_7_2569
Author(s) : Han YF , Li CP , Chow E , Wang H , Pang YP , Carlier PR
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 7 :2569 , 1999
Abstract : Three series of 4-aminopyridine-and 4-aminoquinoline based symmetrical bivalent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors were prepared and compared to previously synthesized dimers of 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (tacrine). In each case significant, tether length-dependent increases in AChE inhibition potency and selectivity (up to 3000-fold) were observed relative to the corresponding monomer, indicating dual-site binding of these inhibitors to AChE. Assay of the corresponding alkylated monomers revealed that the alkylene tether played at least two complementary roles in the dimer series. In addition to reducing the entropy loss that occurs on binding both monomeric units of the dimer, the alkylene tether can also significantly improve potency through hydrophobic effects.
ESTHER : Han_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem_7_2569
PubMedSearch : Han_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem_7_2569
PubMedID: 10632067

Title : Evaluation of short-tether bis-THA AChE inhibitors. A further test of the dual binding site hypothesis - Carlier_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem_7_351
Author(s) : Carlier PR , Han YF , Chow ES , Li CP , Wang H , Lieu TX , Wong HS , Pang YP
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 7 :351 , 1999
Abstract : To provide a further test of the dual binding site hypothesis proposed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor heptylene-linked bis-(9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) A7A, short-tether (ethylene hexylene) homologs A2A-A6A were prepared. En route to these compounds, convenient and scaleable syntheses of useful pharmaceutical intermediate 9-chloro-1.2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine 3 and A7A were developed. AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition assays of A2A-A10A confirm that a seven methylene tether (A7A) optimizes AChE inhibition potency and AChE/BChE selectivity. Finally, these studies indicate that simultaneous binding of alkylene-linked 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine dimers to the catalytic and peripheral sites of AChE is possible with a tether length as short as 5 methylenes
ESTHER : Carlier_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem_7_351
PubMedSearch : Carlier_1999_Bioorg.Med.Chem_7_351
PubMedID: 10218828

Title : Improved Acetylcholinesterase Reactivation with Bis-Oximes Modeled on Crystal Structure -
Author(s) : Hammond P , Kern C , Pang YP , Brimijoin S
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :252 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with the nootropic alkaloid, (-)-huperzine A - Raves_1997_Nat.Struct.Biol_4_57
Author(s) : Raves ML , Harel M , Pang YP , Silman I , Kozikowski AP , Sussman JL
Ref : Nat Struct Biol , 4 :57 , 1997
Abstract : (-)-Huperzine A (HupA) is found in an extract from a club moss that has been used for centuries in Chinese folk medicine. Its action has been attributed to its ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The crystal structure of the complex of AChE with optically pure HupA at 2.5 A resolution shows an unexpected orientation for the inhibitor with surprisingly few strong direct interactions with protein residues to explain its high affinity. This structure is compared to the native structure of AChE devoid of any inhibitor as determined to the same resolution. An analysis of the affinities of structural analogues of HupA, correlated with their interactions with the protein, shows the importance of individual hydrophobic interactions between HupA and aromatic residues in the active-site gorge of AChE.
ESTHER : Raves_1997_Nat.Struct.Biol_4_57
PubMedSearch : Raves_1997_Nat.Struct.Biol_4_57
PubMedID: 8989325
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Highly potent, selective, and low cost bis-tetrahydroaminacrine inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. Steps toward novel drugs for treating Alzheimer's disease - Pang_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_23646
Author(s) : Pang YP , Quiram P , Jelacic T , Hong F , Brimijoin S
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 271 :23646 , 1996
Abstract : We report highly potent, selective, and low cost bifunctional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors developed by our two-step prototype optimization strategy utilizing computer modeling of ligand docking with target proteins: 1) identify low affinity sites normally missed by x-ray crystallography; and 2) design bifunctional analogs capable of simultaneous binding at the computer-determined low affinity site and the x-ray-identified high affinity site. Applying this strategy to 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (THA), a drug for Alzheimer's disease, we obtained alkylene linked bis-THA analogs. These analogs were up to 10,000-fold more selective and 1,000-fold more potent than THA in inhibiting rat AChE and yet required one simple reaction to synthesize. Additionally, alkylene linked benzyl-THA analogs were developed to examine the specificity of the docking-derived low affinity THA peripheral site in AChE. The present work and our previous computational studies strongly suggest that a low affinity THA peripheral site exists in AChE. This peripheral site provides a structural basis for design of improved cholinesterase ligands for treating Alzheimer's disease and for other health-related purposes.
ESTHER : Pang_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_23646
PubMedSearch : Pang_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_23646
PubMedID: 8798583

Title : Prediction of the binding sites of huperzine A in acetylcholinesterase by docking studies - Pang_1994_J.Comput.Aided.Mol.Des_8_669
Author(s) : Pang YP , Kozikowski AP
Ref : J Comput Aided Mol Des , 8 :669 , 1994
Abstract : We have performed docking studies with the SYSDOC program on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to predict the binding sites in AChE of huperzine A (HA), which is a potent and selective, reversible inhibitor of AChE. The unique aspects of our docking studies include the following: (i) Molecular flexibility of the guest and the host is taken into account, which permits both to change their conformations upon binding. (ii) The binding energy is evaluated by a sum of energies of steric, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. In the energy calculation no grid approximation is used, and all hydrogen atoms of the system are treated explicitly. (iii) The energy of cation-pi interactions between the guest and the host, which is important in the binding of AChE, is included in the calculated binding energy. (iv) Docking is performed in all regions of the host's binding cavity. Based on our docking studies and the pharmacological results reported for HA and its analogs, we predict that HA binds to the bottom of the binding cavity of AChE (the gorge) with its ammonium group interacting with Trp84, Phe330, Glu199 and Asp72 (catalytic site) and to the opening of the gorge with its ammonium group partially interacting with Trp279 (peripheral site). At the catalytic site, three partially overlapping subsites of HA were identified which might provide a dynamic view of binding of HA to the catalytic site.
ESTHER : Pang_1994_J.Comput.Aided.Mol.Des_8_669
PubMedSearch : Pang_1994_J.Comput.Aided.Mol.Des_8_669
PubMedID: 7738603

Title : Prediction of the binding site of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanon-2-yl)methyl]piperidine in acetylcholinesterase by docking studies with the SYSDOC program - Pang_1994_J.Comput.Aided.Mol.Des_8_683
Author(s) : Pang YP , Kozikowski AP
Ref : J Comput Aided Mol Des , 8 :683 , 1994
Abstract : In the preceding paper we reported on a docking study with the SYSDOC program for predicting the binding sites of huperzine A in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) [Pang, Y.-P. and Kozikowski, A.P., J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Design, 8 (1994) 669]. Here we present a prediction of the binding sites of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanon-2-yl)methyl]piperidine (E2020) in AChE by the same method. E2020 is one of the most potent and selective reversible inhibitors of AChE, and this molecule has puzzled researchers, partly due to its flexible structure, in understanding how it binds to AChE. Based on the results of docking 1320 different conformers of E2020 into 69 different conformers of AChE and on the pharmacological data reported for E2020 and its analogs, we predict that both the R- and the S-isomer of E2020 span the whole binding cavity of AChE, with the ammonium group interacting mainly with Trp84, Phe330 and Asp72, the phenyl group interacting mainly with Trp84 and Phe330, and the indanone moiety interacting mainly with Tyr70 and Trp279. The topography of the calculated E2020 binding sites provides insights into understanding the high potency of E2020 in the inhibition of AChE and provides hints as to possible structural modifications for identifying improved AChE inhibitors as potential therapeutics for the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Pang_1994_J.Comput.Aided.Mol.Des_8_683
PubMedSearch : Pang_1994_J.Comput.Aided.Mol.Des_8_683
PubMedID: 7738604

Title : Identification of amino acid residues involved in the binding of Huperzine A to cholinesterases - Saxena_1994_Protein.Sci_3_1770
Author(s) : Saxena A , Qian N , Kovach IM , Kozikowski AP , Pang YP , Vellom DC , Radic Z , Quinn DM , Taylor P , Doctor BP
Ref : Protein Science , 3 :1770 , 1994
Abstract : Huperzine A, a potential agent for therapy in Alzheimer's disease and for prophylaxis of organophosphate toxicity, has recently been characterized as a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterases. To examine the specificity of this novel compound in more detail, we have examined the interaction of the 2 stereoisomers of Huperzine A with cholinesterases and site-specific mutants that detail the involvement of specific amino acid residues. Inhibition of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase by (-)-Huperzine A was 35-fold more potent than (+)-Huperzine A, with KI values of 6.2 nM and 210 nM, respectively. In addition, (-)-Huperzine A was 88-fold more potent in inhibiting Torpedo acetylcholinesterase than (+)-Huperzine A, with KI values of 0.25 microM and 22 microM, respectively. Far larger KI values that did not differ between the 2 stereoisomers were observed with horse and human serum butyrylcholinesterases. Mammalian acetylcholinesterase, Torpedo acetylcholinesterase, and mammalian butyrylcholinesterase can be distinguished by the amino acid Tyr, Phe, or Ala in the 330 position, respectively. Studies with mouse acetylcholinesterase mutants, Tyr 337 (330) Phe and Tyr 337 (330) Ala yielded a difference in reactivity that closely mimicked the native enzymes. In contrast, mutation of the conserved Glu 199 residue to Gln in Torpedo acetylcholinesterase produced only a 3-fold increase in KI value for the binding of Huperzine A.
ESTHER : Saxena_1994_Protein.Sci_3_1770
PubMedSearch : Saxena_1994_Protein.Sci_3_1770
PubMedID: 7849595