Massoulie J

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Full name : Massoulie Jean

First name : Jean

Mail : Neurobiologie\; CNRS UMR8544\; Ecole Normale Superieure\; 46 rue d'Ulm\; 75005 Paris

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Country : France

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Phone : +33144323891

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Website : \/\/science-winks.over-blog.com\/article-jean-massoulie-1938-2011-97622077.html

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References (175)

Title : Altered GPI modification of insect AChE improves tolerance to organophosphate insecticides. - Kakani_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_150
Author(s) : Kakani EG , Bon S , Massoulie J , Mathiopoulos KD
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 41 :150 , 2011
Abstract : The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the most destructive and intractable pest of olives. The management of B. oleae has been based on the use of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, a practice that induced resistance. OP-resistance in the olive fly was previously shown to be associated with two mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that, apparently, hinder the entrance of the OP into the active site. The search for additional mutations in the ace gene that encodes AChE revealed a short deletion of three glutamines (3Q) from a stretch of five glutamines, in the C-terminal peptide that is normally cleaved and substituted by a GPI anchor. We verified that AChEs from B. oleae and other Dipterans are actually GPI-anchored, although this is not predicted by the "big-PI" algorithm. The 3Q mutation shortens the unusually long hydrophilic spacer that follows the predicted GPI attachment site and may thus improve the efficiency of GPI anchor addition. We expressed the wild type B. oleae AChE, the natural mutant 3Q and a constructed mutant lacking all 5 consecutive glutamines (5Q) in COS cells and compared their kinetic properties. All constructs presented identical K(m) and k(cat) values, in agreement with the fact that the mutations did not affect the catalytic domain of the enzyme. In contrast, the mutants produced higher AChE activity, suggesting that a higher proportion of the precursor protein becomes GPI-anchored. An increase in the number of GPI-anchored molecules in the synaptic cleft may reduce the sensitivity to insecticides.
ESTHER : Kakani_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_150
PubMedSearch : Kakani_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_150
PubMedID: 21112395

Title : Targeting acetylcholinesterase to membrane rafts: a function mediated by the proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA) in neurons - Xie_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_11537
Author(s) : Xie HQ , Liang D , Leung KW , Chen VP , Zhu KY , Chan WK , Choi RC , Massoulie J , Tsim KWK
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 285 :11537 , 2010
Abstract : In the mammalian brain, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is anchored in cell membranes by a transmembrane protein PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor). We present evidence that at least part of the PRiMA-linked AChE is integrated in membrane microdomains called rafts. A significant proportion of PRiMA-linked AChE tetramers from rat brain was recovered in raft fractions; this proportion was markedly higher at low rather than at high concentrations of cold Triton X-100. The detergent-resistant fraction increased during brain development. In NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells transfected with cDNAs encoding AChE(T) and PRiMA, PRiMA-linked G(4) AChE was found in membrane rafts and showed the same sensitivity to cold Triton X-100 extraction as in the brain. The association of PRiMA-linked AChE with rafts was weaker than that of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored G(2) AChE or G(4) Q(N)-H(C)-linked AChE. It was found to depend on the presence of a cholesterol-binding motif, called CRAC (cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus), located at the junction of transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of both PRiMA I and II isoforms. The cytoplasmic domain of PRiMA, which differs between PRiMA I and PRiMA II, appeared to play some role in stabilizing the raft localization of G(4) AChE, because the Triton X-100-resistant fraction was smaller with the shorter PRiMA II isoform than that with the longer PRiMA I isoform.
ESTHER : Xie_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_11537
PubMedSearch : Xie_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_11537
PubMedID: 20147288

Title : The PRiMA-linked cholinesterase tetramers are assembled from homodimers: hybrid molecules composed of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase dimers are up-regulated during development of chicken brain - Chen_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_27265
Author(s) : Chen VP , Xie HQ , Chan WK , Leung KW , Chan GK , Choi RC , Bon S , Massoulie J , Tsim KWK
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 285 :27265 , 2010
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is anchored onto cell membranes by the transmembrane protein PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor) as a tetrameric globular form that is prominently expressed in vertebrate brain. In parallel, the PRiMA-linked tetrameric butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is also found in the brain. A single type of AChE-BChE hybrid tetramer was formed in cell cultures by co-transfection of cDNAs encoding AChE(T) and BChE(T) with proline-rich attachment domain-containing proteins, PRiMA I, PRiMA II, or a fragment of ColQ having a C-terminal GPI addition signal (Q(N-GPI)). Using AChE and BChE mutants, we showed that AChE-BChE hybrids linked with PRiMA or Q(N-GPI) always consist of AChE(T) and BChE(T) homodimers. The dimer formation of AChE(T) and BChE(T) depends on the catalytic domains, and the assembly of tetramers with a proline-rich attachment domain-containing protein requires the presence of C-terminal "t-peptides" in cholinesterase subunits. Our results indicate that PRiMA- or ColQ-linked cholinesterase tetramers are assembled from AChE(T) or BChE(T) homodimers. Moreover, the PRiMA-linked AChE-BChE hybrids occur naturally in chicken brain, and their expression increases during development, suggesting that they might play a role in cholinergic neurotransmission.
ESTHER : Chen_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_27265
PubMedSearch : Chen_2010_J.Biol.Chem_285_27265
PubMedID: 20566626

Title : Respective roles of the catalytic domains and C-terminal tail peptides in the oligomerization and secretory trafficking of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase - Liang_2009_FEBS.J_276_94
Author(s) : Liang D , Blouet JP , Borrega F , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Febs J , 276 :94 , 2009
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and the T splice variant of acetylcholinesterase that is predominant in mammalian brain and muscles (AChE(T)) possess a characteristic C-terminal tail (t) peptide. This t peptide allows their assembly into tetramers associated with the anchoring proteins ColQ and PRiMA. Although the t peptides of all vertebrate cholinesterases are remarkably similar and, in particular, contain seven strictly conserved aromatic residues, these enzymes differ in some of their oligomerization properties. To explore these differences, we studied human AChE (Aa) and BChE (Bb), and chimeras in which the t peptides (a and b) were exchanged (Ab and Ba). We found that secretion was increased by deletion of the t peptides, and that it was more efficient with a than with b. The patterns of oligomers were similar for Aa and Ab, as well as for Ba and Bb, indicating a predominant influence of the catalytic domains. However, addition of a cysteine within the aromatic-rich segment of the t peptides modified the oligomeric patterns: with a cysteine at position 19, the proportion of tetramers was markedly increased for Aa(S19C) and Ba(S19C), and to a lesser extent for Bb(N19C); the Ab(N19C) mutant produced all oligomeric forms, from monomers to hexamers. These results indicate that both the catalytic domains and the C-terminal t peptides contribute to the capacity of cholinesterases to form and secrete various oligomers. Sequence comparisons show that the differences between the t peptides of AChE and BChE are remarkably conserved among all vertebrates, suggesting that they reflect distinct functional adaptations.
ESTHER : Liang_2009_FEBS.J_276_94
PubMedSearch : Liang_2009_FEBS.J_276_94
PubMedID: 19019080

Title : Cholinesterases and the basal lamina at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions - Massoulie_2009_Curr.Opin.Pharmacol_9_316
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Millard CB
Ref : Curr Opin Pharmacol , 9 :316 , 2009
Abstract : Macromolecules of the cholinergic basal lamina are essential elements of the complex signaling processes governing development, function, and repair of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. One special form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is anchored within BL through a collagen tail (ColQ) that binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as perlecan, and the post-synaptic muscle specific kinase MuSK. New experimental approaches are probing the spatio-temporal dynamics of ColQ-AChE over days or weeks in vivo, thereby unraveling its interactions with other BL components, as well as pre-and post-synaptic elements. Concurrent advances in understanding of the biological effects of specific ColQ-AChE mutations prefigure improved diagnostics and clinical approaches for some congenital myasthenic syndromes.
ESTHER : Massoulie_2009_Curr.Opin.Pharmacol_9_316
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_2009_Curr.Opin.Pharmacol_9_316
PubMedID: 19423392

Title : Protein CutA undergoes an unusual transfer into the secretory pathway and affects the folding, oligomerization, and secretion of acetylcholinesterase - Liang_2009_J.Biol.Chem_284_5195
Author(s) : Liang D , Nunes-Tavares N , Xie HQ , Carvalho S , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 284 :5195 , 2009
Abstract : The mammalian protein CutA was first discovered in a search for the membrane anchor of mammalian brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It was co-purified with AChE, but it is distinct from the real transmembrane anchor protein, PRiMA. CutA is a ubiquitous trimeric protein, homologous to the bacterial CutA1 protein that belongs to an operon involved in resistance to divalent ions ("copper tolerance A"). The function of this protein in plants and animals is unknown, and several hypotheses concerning its subcellular localization have been proposed. We analyzed the expression and the subcellular localization of mouse CutA variants, starting at three in-frame ATG codons, in transfected COS cells. We show that CutA produces 20-kDa (H) and 15-kDa (L) components. The H component is transferred into the secretory pathway and secreted, without cleavage of a signal peptide, whereas the L component is mostly cytosolic. We show that expression of the longer CutA variant reduces the level of AChE, that this effect depends on the AChE C-terminal peptides, and probably results from misfolding. Surprisingly, CutA increased the secretion of a mutant possessing a KDEL motif at its C terminus; it also increased the formation of AChE homotetramers. We found no evidence for a direct interaction between CutA and AChE. The longer CutA variant seems to affect the processing and trafficking of secretory proteins, whereas the shorter one may have a distinct function in the cytoplasm.
ESTHER : Liang_2009_J.Biol.Chem_284_5195
PubMedSearch : Liang_2009_J.Biol.Chem_284_5195
PubMedID: 19049969

Title : Old and new questions about cholinesterases - Massoulie_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_30
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Perrier N , Noureddine H , Liang D , Bon S
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 175 :30 , 2008
Abstract : Cholinesterases have been intensively studied for a long time, but still offer many fascinating and fundamental questions regarding their evolution, activity, biosynthesis, folding, post-translational modifications, association with structural proteins (ColQ, PRiMA and maybe others), export or degradation. They constitute an excellent model to study these processes, particularly because of the sensitivity and specificity of enzymic assays. In addition, a number of provocative ideas concerning their proposed non-conventional, or non-catalytic functions deserve to be further documented.
ESTHER : Massoulie_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_30
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_30
PubMedID: 18541228

Title : Acetylcholinesterase associates differently with its anchoring proteins ColQ and PRiMA - Noureddine_2008_J.Biol.Chem_283_20722
Author(s) : Noureddine H , Carvalho S , Schmitt C , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 283 :20722 , 2008
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase tetramers are inserted in the basal lamina of neuromuscular junctions or anchored in cell membranes through the interaction of four C-terminal t peptides with proline-rich attachment domains (PRADs) of cholinesterase-associated collagen Q (ColQ) or of the transmembrane protein PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor). ColQ and PRiMA differ in the length of their proline-rich motifs (10 and 15 residues, respectively). ColQ has two cysteines upstream of the PRAD, which are disulfide-linked to two AChE(T) subunits ("heavy" dimer), and the other two subunits are disulfide-linked together ("light" dimer). In contrast, PRiMA has four cysteines upstream of the PRAD. We examined whether these cysteines could be linked to AChE(T) subunits in complexes formed with PRiMA in transfected COS cells and in the mammalian brain. For comparison, we studied complexes formed with N-terminal fragments of ColQ, N-terminal fragments of PRiMA, and chimeras in which the upstream regions containing the cysteines were exchanged. We also compared the effect of mutations in the t peptides on their association with the two PRADs. We report that the two PRADs differ in their interaction with AChE(T) subunits; in complexes formed with the PRAD of PRiMA, we observed light dimers, but very few heavy dimers, even though such dimers were formed with the PQ chimera in which the N-terminal region of PRiMA was associated with the PRAD of ColQ. Complexes with PQ or with PRiMA contained heavy components, which migrated abnormally in SDS-PAGE but probably resulted from disulfide bonding of four AChE(T) subunits with the four upstream cysteines of the associated protein.
ESTHER : Noureddine_2008_J.Biol.Chem_283_20722
PubMedSearch : Noureddine_2008_J.Biol.Chem_283_20722
PubMedID: 18511416

Title : Assembly of acetylcholinesterase tetramers by peptidic motifs from the proline-rich membrane anchor, PRiMA: competition between degradation and secretion pathways of heteromeric complexes - Noureddine_2007_J.Biol.Chem_282_3487
Author(s) : Noureddine H , Schmitt C , Liu W , Garbay C , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 282 :3487 , 2007
Abstract : The membrane-bound form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) constitutes the major component of this enzyme in the mammalian brain. These molecules are hetero-oligomers, composed of four AChE catalytic subunits of type T (AChE(T)), associated with a transmembrane protein of type 1, called PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor). PRiMA consists of a signal peptide, an extracellular domain that contains a proline-rich motif (14 prolines with an intervening leucine, P4LP10), a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. Expression of AChE(T) subunits in transfected COS cells with a truncated PRiMA, without its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains (P(stp54) mutant), produced secreted heteromeric complexes (T4-P(stp54)), instead of membrane-bound tetramers. In this study, we used a series of deletions and point mutations to analyze the interaction between the extracellular domain of PRiMA and AChE(T) subunits. We confirmed the importance of the polyproline stretches and defined a peptidic motif (RP4LP10RL), which induces the assembly and secretion of a heteromeric complex with four AChE(T) subunits, nearly as efficiently as the entire extracellular domain of PRiMA. It is noteworthy that deletion of the N-terminal segment preceding the prolines had little effect. Interestingly, short PRiMA mutants, truncated within the proline-rich motif, reduced both cellular and secreted AChE activity, suggesting that their interaction with AChE(T) subunits induces their intracellular degradation.
ESTHER : Noureddine_2007_J.Biol.Chem_282_3487
PubMedSearch : Noureddine_2007_J.Biol.Chem_282_3487
PubMedID: 17158452

Title : The C-terminal T peptide of cholinesterases: structure, interactions, and influence on protein folding and secretion - Massoulie_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_233
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 30 :233 , 2006
Abstract : Mammalian cholinergic tissues mostly express the T splice variant of acetylcholinesterase, in which the catalytic domain is associated with a C-terminal peptide of 40 residues, called the t peptide (Massoulie, 2002). Homologous t peptides exist in all vertebrate cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), and butyrylcholinesterases (BChEs): they contain a series of seven conserved aromatic residues, including three tryptophans, and a cysteine at position-4 of their C-terminus. The major AChE isozyme of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans also contains a similar peptide. Although the C-terminal t peptides do not seem to affect the catalytic activity of cholinesterases, they determine their physiological function, because they allow cholinesterase subunits of type T to form oligomers and to associate with structural anchoring proteins. When reduced to their catalytic domain, AChE subunits without a t peptide are active but remain monomeric and soluble.
ESTHER : Massoulie_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_233
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_233
PubMedID: 17192683

Title : Readthrough acetylcholinesterase expression remains minor after stress or exposure to inhibitors - Perrier_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_75
Author(s) : Perrier NA , Salani M , Falasca C , Bon S , Augusti-Tocco G , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 30 :75 , 2006
Abstract : The gene of mammalian acetylcholinesterase (AChE) generates multiple molecular forms, by alternative splicing of its transcripts and association of the tailed variant (AChET) with structural proteins. In the mammalian brain, the major AChE species consists of AChET tetramers anchored to the cell membrane of neurons by the PRiMA protein (Perrier et al., 2002). Stress and anticholinesterase inhibitors have been reported to induce rapid and long-lasting expression of the readthrough variant (AChER) in the mouse brain (Kaufer et al., 1998). In the readthrough transcript, there is no splicing after the last exon encoding the catalytic domain, so that the entire alternatively spliced 3' region is maintained. It encodes a C-terminal peptide with no specific interaction properties: COS cells transfected with AChER produce a soluble, nonamphiphilic monomeric form. We quantified AChER and total AChE expression in the mouse brain after an immobilization stress and after heat shock in neuroblastoma cells, and compared the observed effects with those induced by irreversible AChE inhibition (Perrier et al., 2005).
ESTHER : Perrier_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_75
PubMedSearch : Perrier_2006_J.Mol.Neurosci_30_75
PubMedID: 17192635

Title : Regulation of PRiMA: membrane anchor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in neuron and muscle -
Author(s) : Xie HQ , Siow NL , Peng HB , Massoulie J , Tsim KWK
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 157-158 :432 , 2005
PubMedID: 16429581

Title : Determinants of the t peptide involved in folding, degradation, and secretion of acetylcholinesterase - Falasca_2005_J.Biol.Chem_280_878
Author(s) : Falasca C , Perrier NA , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 280 :878 , 2005
Abstract : The C-terminal 40-residue t peptide of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) forms an amphiphilic alpha helix with a cluster of seven aromatic residues. It allows oligomerization and induces a partial degradation of AChE subunits through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. We show that the t peptide induces the misfolding of a fraction of AChE subunits, even when mutations disorganized the cluster of aromatic residues or when these residues were replaced by leucines, indicating that this effect is due to hydrophobic residues. Mutations in the aromatic-rich region affected the cellular fate of AChE in a similar manner, with or without mutations that prevented dimerization. Degradation was decreased and secretion was increased when aromatic residues were replaced by leucines, and the opposite occurred when the amphiphilic alpha helix was disorganized. The last two residues (Asp-Leu) somewhat resembled an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal and caused a partial retention but only in mutants possessing aromatic residues in their t peptide. Our results suggested that several "signals" in the catalytic domain and in the t peptide act cooperatively for AChE quality control.
ESTHER : Falasca_2005_J.Biol.Chem_280_878
PubMedSearch : Falasca_2005_J.Biol.Chem_280_878
PubMedID: 15452125

Title : The readthrough variant of acetylcholinesterase remains very minor after heat shock, organophosphate inhibition and stress, in cell culture and in vivo - Perrier_2005_J.Neurochem_94_629
Author(s) : Perrier NA , Salani M , Falasca C , Bon S , Augusti-Tocco G , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 94 :629 , 2005
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exists in various molecular forms, depending on alternative splicing of its transcripts and association with structural proteins. Tetramers of the 'tailed' variant (AChE(T)), which are anchored in the cell membrane of neurons by the PRiMA (Proline Rich Membrane Anchor) protein, constitute the main form of AChE in the mammalian brain. In the mouse brain, stress and anticholinesterase inhibitors have been reported to induce expression of the unspliced 'readthrough' variant (AChE(R)) mRNA which produces a monomeric form. To generalize this observation, we attempted to quantify AChE(R) and AChE(T) after organophosphate intoxication in the mouse brain and compared the observed effects with those of stress induced by swimming or immobilization; we also analyzed the effects of heat shock and AChE inhibition on neuroblastoma cells. Active AChE molecular forms were characterized by sedimentation and non-denaturing electrophoresis, and AChE transcripts were quantified by real-time PCR. We observed a moderate increase of the AChE(R) transcript in some cases, both in the mouse brain and in neuroblastoma cultures, but we did not detect any increase of the corresponding active enzyme.
ESTHER : Perrier_2005_J.Neurochem_94_629
PubMedSearch : Perrier_2005_J.Neurochem_94_629
PubMedID: 16001972

Title : The C-terminal peptides of acetylcholinesterase: cellular trafficking, oligomerization and functional anchoring - Massoulie_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_3
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S , Perrier N , Falasca C
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 157-158 :3 , 2005
Abstract : In vertebrates, the catalytic domain of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may be associated with several C-terminal peptides generated by alternative splicing in the 3' region of transcripts. The "readthrough" (R) variant results from a lack of splicing after the last exon encoding the catalytic domain. Such a variant has been observed in Torpedo and in mammals; its C-terminal r peptide, also called "AChE Related Peptide" (ARP), is poorly conserved between rodents and humans. In rodents, it is significantly expressed in embryonic tissues and at a very low level in the brain of adult mice; it may be increased under various stress conditions, but remains very low. The "hydrophobic" (H) variant generates glycolipid (GPI)-anchored dimers, which are expressed in muscles of Torpedo, and in blood cells of mammals; H variants exist in Torpedo and in mammals, but apparently not in other vertebrate classes, suggesting that they were lost during evolution of early vertebrates and re-appeared independently in mammals. The "tailed" (T) variant exists in all vertebrate cholinesterases and their C-terminal t peptides are strongly conserved; in mammals, AChE(T) subunits represent the major type of acetylcholinesterase in cholinergic tissues. They produce a wide variety of oligomeric forms, ranging from monomers to heteromeric assemblies containing the anchoring proteins ColQ (collagen-tailed forms) and PRiMA (membrane-bound tetramers), which constitute the major functional enzyme species in mammalian muscles and brain, respectively. The oligomerization of AChE(T) subunits depends largely on the properties of their C-terminal t peptide. These peptides contain seven conserved aromatic residues, including three tryptophans, and are organized in an amphiphilic alpha helix in which these residues form a hydrophobic cluster. The presence of a cysteine is required for dimerization, while aromatic residues are necessary for tetramerization. In the collagen-tailed molecules, four t peptides form a coiled coil around a proline-rich motif (PRAD) located in the N-terminal region of ColQ. The t peptide also strongly influences the folding and cellular trafficking of AChE(T) subunits: the presence of hydrophobic residues induces partial misfolding leading to inactive protein, while aromatic residues, organized or not in an amphiphilic helix, induce intracellular degradation through the "Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation" (ERAD) pathway, rather than secretion. It has been proposed that the r and t C-terminal peptides, or fragments of these peptides, may exert independent, non cholinergic biological functions: this interesting possibility still needs to be documented, especially in view of their various degrees of evolutionary conservation.
ESTHER : Massoulie_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_3
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_3
PubMedID: 16257397

Title : Elements of the C-terminal t peptide of acetylcholinesterase that determine amphiphilicity, homomeric and heteromeric associations, secretion and degradation - Belbeoc'h_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_1476
Author(s) : Belbeoc'h S , Falasca C , Leroy J , Ayon A , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 271 :1476 , 2004
Abstract : The C-terminal t peptide (40 residues) of vertebrate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) T subunits possesses a series of seven conserved aromatic residues and forms an amphiphilic alpha-helix; it allows the formation of homo-oligomers (monomers, dimers and tetramers) and heteromeric associations with the anchoring proteins, ColQ and PRiMA, which contain a proline-rich motif (PRAD). We analyzed the influence of mutations in the t peptide of Torpedo AChE(T) on oligomerization and secretion. Charged residues influenced the distribution of homo-oligomers but had little effect on the heteromeric association with Q(N), a PRAD-containing N-terminal fragment of ColQ. The formation of homo-tetramers and Q(N)-linked tetramers required a central core of four aromatic residues and a peptide segment extending to residue 31; the last nine residues (32-40) were not necessary, although the formation of disulfide bonds by cysteine C37 stabilized T(4) and T(4)-Q(N) tetramers. The last two residues of the t peptide (EL) induced a partial intracellular retention; replacement of the C-terminal CAEL tetrapeptide by KDEL did not prevent tetramerization and heteromeric association with Q(N), indicating that these associations take place in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations that disorganize the alpha-helical structure of the t peptide were found to enhance degradation. Co-expression with Q(N) generally increased secretion, mostly as T(4)-Q(N) complexes, but reduced it for some mutants. Thus, mutations in this small, autonomous interaction domain bring information on the features that determine oligomeric associations of AChE(T) subunits and the choice between secretion and degradation.
ESTHER : Belbeoc'h_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_1476
PubMedSearch : Belbeoc'h_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_1476
PubMedID: 15066173

Title : Transcriptional regulation of acetylcholinesterase-associated collagen ColQ: differential expression in fast and slow twitch muscle fibers is driven by distinct promoters - Lee_2004_J.Biol.Chem_279_27098
Author(s) : Lee HH , Choi RC , Ting AK , Siow NL , Jiang JX , Massoulie J , Tsim KWK
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 279 :27098 , 2004
Abstract : The presence of a collagenous protein (ColQ) characterizes the collagen-tailed forms of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions which is tethered in the synaptic basal lamina. ColQ subunits, differing mostly by their signal sequences, are encoded by transcripts ColQ-1 and ColQ-1a, which are differentially expressed in slow and fast twitch muscles in mammals. Two distinct promoters, pColQ-1 and pColQ-1a, were isolated from the upstream sequences of human COLQ gene; they showed muscle-specific expression and were activated by myogenic transcriptional elements in cultured myotubes. After in vivo DNA transfection, pColQ-1 showed strong activity in slow twitch muscle (e.g. soleus), whereas pColQ-1a was preferably expressed in fast twitch muscle (e.g. tibialis). Mutation analysis of the ColQ promoters suggested that the muscle fiber type-specific expression pattern of ColQ transcripts were regulated by a slow upsteam regulatory element (SURE) and a fast intronic regulatory element (FIRE). These regulatory elements were responsive to a calcium ionophore and to calcineurin inhibition by cyclosporine A. The slow fiber type-specific expression of ColQ-1 was abolished by the mutation of an NFAT element in pColQ-1. Moreover, both the ColQ promoters contained N-box element that was responsible for the synapse-specific expression of ColQ transcripts. These results explain the specific expression patterns of collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase in slow and fast muscle fibers.
ESTHER : Lee_2004_J.Biol.Chem_279_27098
PubMedSearch : Lee_2004_J.Biol.Chem_279_27098
PubMedID: 15102835

Title : Poster (48) Crystal structure of the tetramerization domain of acetylcholinesterase reveals a model of the AChE tetramer -
Author(s) : Harel M , Dvir H , Bon S , Liu WQ , Garbay C , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :347 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : The synaptic acetylcholinesterase tetramer assembles around a polyproline II helix - Dvir_2004_EMBO.J_23_4394
Author(s) : Dvir H , Harel M , Bon S , Liu WQ , Vidal M , Garbay C , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : EMBO Journal , 23 :4394 , 2004
Abstract : Functional localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vertebrate muscle and brain depends on interaction of the tryptophan amphiphilic tetramerization (WAT) sequence, at the C-terminus of its major splice variant (T), with a proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD), of the anchoring proteins, collagenous (ColQ) and proline-rich membrane anchor. The crystal structure of the WAT/PRAD complex reveals a novel supercoil structure in which four parallel WAT chains form a left-handed superhelix around an antiparallel left-handed PRAD helix resembling polyproline II. The WAT coiled coils possess a WWW motif making repetitive hydrophobic stacking and hydrogen-bond interactions with the PRAD. The WAT chains are related by an approximately 4-fold screw axis around the PRAD. Each WAT makes similar but unique interactions, consistent with an asymmetric pattern of disulfide linkages between the AChE tetramer subunits and ColQ. The P59Q mutation in ColQ, which causes congenital endplate AChE deficiency, and is located within the PRAD, disrupts crucial WAT-WAT and WAT-PRAD interactions. A model is proposed for the synaptic AChE(T) tetramer.
ESTHER : Dvir_2004_EMBO.J_23_4394
PubMedSearch : Dvir_2004_EMBO.J_23_4394
PubMedID: 15526038
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Poster (68) Oligomerization of acetylcholinesterase T blocks its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, by masking the c-terminal hydrophobic peptide. -
Author(s) : Belbeoc'h S , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :356 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : The C-terminal t peptide of acetylcholinesterase forms an alpha helix that supports homomeric and heteromeric interactions - Bon_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_33
Author(s) : Bon S , Dufourcq J , Leroy J , Cornut I , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 271 :33 , 2004
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase subunits of type T (AChET) possess an alternatively spliced C-terminal peptide (t peptide) which endows them with amphiphilic properties, the capacity to form various homo-oligomers and to associate, as a tetramer, with anchoring proteins containing a proline rich attachment domain (PRAD). The t peptide contains seven conserved aromatic residues. By spectroscopic analyses of the synthetic peptides covering part or all of the t peptide of Torpedo AChET, we show that the region containing the aromatic residues adopts an alpha helical structure, which is favored in the presence of lipids and detergent micelles: these residues therefore form a hydrophobic cluster in a sector of the helix. We also analyzed the formation of disulfide bonds between two different AChET subunits, and between AChET subunits and a PRAD-containing protein [the N-terminal fragment of the ColQ protein (QN)] possessing two cysteines upstream or downstream of the PRAD. This shows that, in the complex formed by four T subunits with QN (T4-QN), the t peptides are not folded on themselves as hairpins but instead are all oriented in the same direction, antiparallel to that of the PRAD. The formation of disulfide bonds between various pairs of cysteines, introduced by mutagenesis at various positions in the t peptides, indicates that this complex possesses a surprising flexibility.
ESTHER : Bon_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_33
PubMedSearch : Bon_2004_Eur.J.Biochem_271_33
PubMedID: 14686917

Title : Molecular organization and functional localization of acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Belbeoc'h S , Perrier NA , Bon S
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :1 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Poster (2) Molecular organization and functional localization of acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :321 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Poster (94) AChE and PRiMA mRNA expression in the mouse brain -
Author(s) : Perrier NA , Kherif S , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :370 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Crystal structure of the tetramerization domain of acetylcholinesterase at 2. -
Author(s) : Harel M , Dvir H , Bon S , Liu WQ , Garbay C , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : Cholinergic Mechanisms, CRC Press :183 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Processing and anchoring of cholinesterases in muscle and brain. -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Cholinergic Mechanisms, CRC Press :155 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Poster (106) Organization and properties of the C-terminal T (WAT) peptide of acetylcholinesterase C-terminal trimerisation domain (CDT) of collagen ColQ -
Author(s) : Bon S , Belbeoc'h S , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :376 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : New biosensors for improved detection of environmental and food contamination by anticholinesterase pesticides -
Author(s) : Toutant JP , Massoulie J , Fournier D , Marty JL , Schmid RD , Pfeiffer D , Selkirk ME , Sussman JL , Silman I , Talesa V , Wodak SJ , Stojan J , Magearu V
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :233 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Poster (24) New biosensors for improved detection of environmental contamination by anticholinesterase pesticides -
Author(s) : Toutant JP , Massoulie J , Fournier D , Schmid RD , Pfeiffer D , Selkirk ME , Sussman JL , Silman I , Talesa V , Wodak SJ
Ref : In: Cholinesterases in the Second Millennium: Biomolecular and Pathological Aspects , (Inestrosa NC, Campos EO) P. Universidad Catolica de Chile-FONDAP Biomedicina :333 , 2004
PubMedID:

Title : Expression of PRiMA in the mouse brain: membrane anchoring and accumulation of 'tailed' acetylcholinesterase - Perrier_2003_Eur.J.Neurosci_18_1837
Author(s) : Perrier NA , Kherif S , Perrier AL , Dumas S , Mallet J , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Neuroscience , 18 :1837 , 2003
Abstract : We analysed the expression of PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor), the membrane anchor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), by in situ hybridization in the mouse brain. We compared the pattern of PRiMA transcripts with that of AChE transcripts, as well as those of choline acetyltransferase and M1 muscarinic receptors which are considered pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic markers. We also analysed cholinesterase activity and its molecular forms in several brain structures. The results suggest that PRiMA expression is predominantly or exclusively related to the cholinergic system and that anchoring of cholinesterases to cell membranes by PRiMA represents a limiting factor for production of the AChE tailed splice variant (AChET)-PRiMA complex, which represents the major AChE component in the brain. This enzyme species is mostly associated with cholinergic neurons because the pattern of PRiMA mRNA expression largely coincides with that of ChAT. We also show that, in both mouse and human, PRiMA proteins exist as two alternative splice variants which differ in their cytoplasmic regions.
ESTHER : Perrier_2003_Eur.J.Neurosci_18_1837
PubMedSearch : Perrier_2003_Eur.J.Neurosci_18_1837
PubMedID: 14622217

Title : The C-terminal T peptide of acetylcholinesterase enhances degradation of unassembled active subunits through the ERAD pathway - Belbeoc'h_2003_EMBO.J_22_3536
Author(s) : Belbeoc'h S , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : EMBO Journal , 22 :3536 , 2003
Abstract : The catalytic domain of acetylcholinesterase AChE(T) subunits is followed by a C-terminal T peptide which mediates their association with the proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD) of anchoring proteins. Addition of the T peptide induced intracellular degradation and concomitantly reduced to variable degrees the secretion of AChE species differing in their oligomerization capacity and of human alkaline phosphatase. The T peptide forms an amphiphilic alpha-helix, containing a series of conserved aromatic residues. Replacement of two, four or five aromatic residues gradually suppressed degradation and increased secretion. Co-expression with a PRAD- containing protein induced the assembly of PRAD-linked tetramers in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and allowed partial secretion of a dimerization- defective mutant; by masking the aromatic side chains, hetero-oligomerization rescued this enzyme from degradation. Degradation was due to ERAD, since it was not blocked by brefeldin A but was sensitive to proteasome inhibitors. Kifunensine reduced degradation, suggesting a cooperativity between the glycosylated catalytic domain and the non-glycosylated T peptide. This system appears particularly well suited to analyze the mechanisms which determine the degradation of correctly folded multidomain proteins in the ER.
ESTHER : Belbeoc'h_2003_EMBO.J_22_3536
PubMedSearch : Belbeoc'h_2003_EMBO.J_22_3536
PubMedID: 12853469

Title : Trimerization domain of the collagen tail of acetylcholinesterase - Bon_2003_Neurochem.Res_28_523
Author(s) : Bon S , Ayon A , Leroy J , Massoulie J
Ref : Neurochem Res , 28 :523 , 2003
Abstract : In the collagen-tailed forms of cholinesterases, each subunit of a specific triple helical collagen, ColQ, may be attached through a proline-rich domain (PRAD) situated in its N-terminal noncollagenous region, to tetramers of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). This heteromeric assembly ensures the functional anchoring of AChE in extracellulare matrices, for example, at the neuromuscular junction. In this study, we analyzed the influence of deletions in the noncollagenous C-terminal region of ColQ on its capacity to form a triple helix. We show that an 80-residue segment located downstream of the collagenous regions contains the trimerization domain, that it can form trimers without the collagenous regions, and that a pair of cysteines located at the N-boundary of this domain facilitates oligomerization, although it is not absolutely required. We further show that AChE subunits can associate with nonhelical collagen ColQ monomers, forming ColQ-associated tetramers (G4-Q), which are secreted or are anchored at the cell surface when the C-terminal domain of ColQ is replaced by a GPI-addition signal.
ESTHER : Bon_2003_Neurochem.Res_28_523
PubMedSearch : Bon_2003_Neurochem.Res_28_523
PubMedID: 12675141

Title : The origin of the molecular diversity and functional anchoring of cholinesterases - Massoulie_2002_Neurosignals_11_130
Author(s) : Massoulie J
Ref : Neurosignals , 11 :130 , 2002
Abstract : Vertebrates possess two cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) which both hydrolyze acetylcholine, but differ in their specificity towards other substrates, and in their sensitivity to inhibitors. In mammals, the AChE gene produces three types of coding regions through the choice of 3' splice acceptor sites, generating proteins which possess the same catalytic domain, associated with distinct C-terminal peptides. AChE subunits of type R ('readthrough') produce soluble monomers; they are expressed during development and induced by stress in the mouse brain. AChE subunits of type H ('hydrophobic') produce GPI-anchored dimers, but also secreted molecules; they are mostly expressed in blood cells. Subunits of type T ('tailed') exist for both AChE and BChE. They represent the enzyme forms expressed in brain and muscle. These subunits generate a variety of quaternary structures, including homomeric oligomers (monomers, dimers, tetramers), as well as hetero-oligomeric assemblies with anchoring proteins, ColQ and PRiMA. Mutations in the four-helix bundle (FHB) zone of the catalytic domain indicate that subunits of type H and T use the same interaction for dimerization. On the other hand, the C-terminal T peptide is necessary for tetramerization. Four T peptides, organized as amphiphilic alpha helices, can assemble around proline-rich motifs of ColQ or PRiMA. The association of AChE(T) or BChE subunits with ColQ produces collagen-tailed molecules, which are inserted in the extracellular matrix, e.g. in the basal lamina of neuromuscular junctions. Their association with PRiMA produces membrane-bound tetramers which constitute the predominant form of cholinesterases in the mammalian brain; in muscles, the level of PRiMA-anchored tetramers is regulated by exercise, but their functional significance remains unknown. In brain and muscles, the hydrolysis of acetylcholine by cholinesterases, in different contexts, and their possible noncatalytic functions clearly depend on their localization by ColQ or PRiMA.
ESTHER : Massoulie_2002_Neurosignals_11_130
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_2002_Neurosignals_11_130
PubMedID: 12138250

Title : PRiMA. The Membrane Anchor of Acetylcholinesterase in the Brain - Perrier_2002_Neuron_33_275
Author(s) : Perrier AL , Massoulie J , Krejci E
Ref : Neuron , 33 :275 , 2002
Abstract : As a tetramer acetylcholinesterase AChE is anchored to the basal lamina of the neuromuscular junction and to the membrane of neuronal synapses We have previously shown that collagen Q ColQ anchors AChE at the neuromuscular junction We have now cloned the gene PRiMA proline-rich membrane anchor encoding the AChE anchor in mammalian brain We show that PRiMA is able to organize AChE into tetramers and to anchor them at the surface of transfected cells Furthermore we demonstrate that AChE is actually anchored in neural cell membranes through its interaction with PRiMA Finally we propose that only PRiMA anchors AChE in mammalian brain and muscle cell membranes
ESTHER : Perrier_2002_Neuron_33_275
PubMedSearch : Perrier_2002_Neuron_33_275
PubMedID: 11804574

Title : Non-antisense cellular responses to oligonucleotides - Anselmet_2002_FEBS.Lett_510_175
Author(s) : Anselmet A , Mayat E , Wietek S , Layer PG , Payrastre B , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 510 :175 , 2002
Abstract : Oligonucleotides induce various cellular responses which are not due to the blockade of protein synthesis by an antisense mechanism. Oligonucleotides presenting double-stranded or G-quartet structures (ribo- or deoxyribonucleotides, phosphodiester or phosphorothioated) induce retraction of neurites and aggregation of chicken retinal cells within 10-20 h. This effect is reversible, non-toxic; it appears to require internalization and can be mimicked by treatment of the cells with an RGDS peptide. The oligonucleotides appear to trigger a cascade of intracellular events, affecting the adhesive properties of integrins. In addition, a subset of oligonucleotides induced platelet aggregation, probably through their interaction with membrane receptors. Recognition of these effects is important for the design and interpretation of antisense experiments.
ESTHER : Anselmet_2002_FEBS.Lett_510_175
PubMedSearch : Anselmet_2002_FEBS.Lett_510_175
PubMedID: 11801249

Title : Addition of a glycophosphatidylinositol to acetylcholinesterase. processing, degradation, and secretion - Coussen_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_27881
Author(s) : Coussen F , Ayon A , Le Goff A , Leroy J , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 276 :27881 , 2001
Abstract : We introduced various mutations and modifications in the GPI anchoring signal of rat acetylcholinesterase (AChE). 1) The resulting mutants, expressed in transiently transfected COS cells, were initially produced at the same rate, in an active form, but the fraction of GPI-anchored AChE and the steady state level of AChE activity varied over a wide range. 2) Productive interaction with the GPI addition machinery led to GPI anchoring, secretion of uncleaved protein, and secretion of a cleaved protein, in variable proportions. Unproductive interaction led to degradation; poorly processed molecules were degraded rather than retained intracellularly or secreted. 3) An efficient glypiation appeared necessary but not sufficient for a high level of secretion; the cleaved, secreted protein was possibly generated as a by-product of transamidation. 4) Glypiation was influenced by a wider context than the triplet omega/omega + 1/omega + 2, particularly omega - 1. 5) Glypiation was not affected by the closeness of the omega site to the alpha(10) helix of the catalytic domain. 6) A cysteine could simultaneously form a disulfide bond and serve as an omega site; however, there was a mutual interference between glypiation and the formation of an intercatenary disulfide bond, at a short distance upstream of omega. 7) Glypiation was not affected by the presence of an N-glycosylation site at omega or in its vicinity or by the addition of a short hydrophilic, highly charged peptide (FLAG; DYKDDDDK) at the C terminus of the hydrophobic region.
ESTHER : Coussen_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_27881
PubMedSearch : Coussen_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_27881
PubMedID: 11337488

Title : Acetylcholinesterase H and T dimers are associated through the same contact\; mutations at this interface interfere with the C-terminal T peptide, inducing degradation rather than secretion - Morel_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_32379
Author(s) : Morel N , Leroy J , Ayon A , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 276 :32379 , 2001
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exists as AChE(H) and AChE(T) subunits, which differ by their C-terminal H or T peptides, generating glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored dimers and various oligomers, respectively. We introduced mutations in the four-helix bundle interface of glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored dimers, and analyzed their effect on the production and oligomerization of AChE(H), of AChE(T), and of truncated subunits, AChE(C) (without H or T peptide). Dimerization was reduced for all types of subunits, showing that they interact through the same contact zone; the formation of amphiphilic tetramers (Torpedo AChE(T)) and 13.5 S oligomers (rat AChE(T)) was also suppressed. Oligomerization appeared totally blocked by introduction of an N-linked glycan on the surface of helix alpha(7,8). Other point mutations did not affect the synthesis or the catalytic properties of AChE but reduced or blocked the secretion of AChE(T) subunits. Secretion of AChE(T) was partially restored by co-expression with Q(N), a secretable protein containing a proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD); Q(N) organized PRAD-linked tetramers, except for the N-glycosylated mutants. Thus, the simultaneous presence of an abnormal four-helix bundle zone and an exposed T peptide targeted the enzyme toward degradation, indicating a cross-talk between the catalytic and tetramerization domains.
ESTHER : Morel_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_32379
PubMedSearch : Morel_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_32379
PubMedID: 11443120

Title : Comparative expression of homologous proteins. A novel mode of transcriptional regulation by the coding sequence folding compatibility of chimeras - Morel_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_7304
Author(s) : Morel N , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 275 :7304 , 2000
Abstract : Recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) are produced at systematically different levels, depending on the enzyme species. To identify the cause of this difference, we designed expression vectors that differed only by the central region of the coding sequence, encoding Torpedo, rat, and Bungarus AChEs and two reciprocal rat/Bungarus and Bungarus/rat chimeras. We found that folding is a limiting factor in the case of Torpedo AChE and the chimeras, for which only a limited fraction of the synthesized polypeptides becomes active and is secreted. In contrast, the fact that rat AChE is less well produced than Bungarus AChE reflects the levels of their respective mRNAs, which seem to be controlled by their transcription rates. A similar difference was observed in the coding and noncoding orientations; it seems to depend on multiple cis-elements. Using CAT constructs, we found that a DNA fragment from the Bungarus AChE gene stimulates expression of the reporter protein, whereas a homologous fragment from the rat AChE gene had no influence. This stimulating effect appears different from that of classical enhancers, although its mechanism remains unknown. In any case, the present results demonstrate that the coding region contributes to control the level of gene expression.
ESTHER : Morel_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_7304
PubMedSearch : Morel_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_7304
PubMedID: 10702301

Title : Two distinct proteins are associated with tetrameric acetylcholinesterase on the cell surface - Perrier_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_34260
Author(s) : Perrier AL , Cousin X , Boschetti N , Haas R , Chatel JM , Bon S , Roberts WL , Pickett SR , Massoulie J , Rosenberry TL , Krejci E
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 275 :34260 , 2000
Abstract : In mammalian brain, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exists mostly as a tetramer of 70-kDa catalytic subunits that are linked through disulfide bonds to a hydrophobic subunit P of approximately 20 kDa. To characterize P, we reduced the disulfide bonds in purified bovine brain AChE and sequenced tryptic fragments from bands in the 20-kDa region. We obtained sequences belonging to at least two distinct proteins: the P protein and another protein that was not disulfide-linked to catalytic subunits. Both proteins were recognized in Western blots by antisera raised against specific peptides. We cloned cDNA encoding the second protein in a cDNA library from bovine substantia nigra and obtained rat and human homologs. We call this protein mCutA because of its homology to a bacterial protein (CutA). We could not demonstrate a direct interaction between mCutA and AChE in vitro in transfected cells. However, in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line that produced membrane-bound AChE as an amphiphilic tetramer, the expression of mCutA antisense mRNA eliminated cell surface AChE and decreased the level of amphiphilic tetramer in cell extracts. mCutA therefore appears necessary for the localization of AChE at the cell surface; it may be part of a multicomponent complex that anchors AChE in membranes, together with the hydrophobic P protein.
ESTHER : Perrier_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_34260
PubMedSearch : Perrier_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_34260
PubMedID: 10954708

Title : Differences in expression of acetylcholinesterase and collagen Q control the distribution and oligomerization of the collagen-tailed forms in fast and slow muscles - Krejci_1999_J.Neurosci_19_10672
Author(s) : Krejci E , Legay C , Thomine S , Sketelj J , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neuroscience , 19 :10672 , 1999
Abstract : The collagen-tailed forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are accumulated at mammalian neuromuscular junctions. The A(4), A(8), and A(12) forms are expressed differently in the rat fast and slow muscles; the sternomastoid muscle contains essentially the A(12) form at end plates, whereas the soleus muscle also contains extrajunctional A(4) and A(8) forms. We show that collagen Q (ColQ) transcripts become exclusively junctional in the adult sternomastoid but remain uniformly expressed in the soleus. By coinjecting Xenopus oocytes with AChE(T) and ColQ mRNAs, we reproduced the muscle patterns of collagen-tailed forms. The soleus contains transcripts ColQ1 and ColQ1a, whereas the sternomastoid only contains ColQ1a. Collagen-tailed AChE represents the first evidence that synaptic components involved in cholinergic transmission may be differently regulated in fast and slow muscles.
ESTHER : Krejci_1999_J.Neurosci_19_10672
PubMedSearch : Krejci_1999_J.Neurosci_19_10672
PubMedID: 10594051

Title : Genetic Analysis of Collagen Q: Roles in Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Assembly and in Synaptic Structure and Function - Feng_1999_J.Cell.Biol_144_1349
Author(s) : Feng G , Krejci E , Molgo J , Cunningham JM , Massoulie J , Sanes JR
Ref : Journal of Cell Biology , 144 :1349 , 1999
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) occurs in both asymmetric forms, covalently associated with a collagenous subunit called Q (ColQ), and globular forms that may be either soluble or membrane associated. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction, asymmetric AChE is anchored to the basal lamina of the synaptic cleft, where it hydrolyzes acetylcholine to terminate synaptic transmission. AChE has also been hypothesized to play developmental roles in the nervous system, and ColQ is also expressed in some AChE-poor tissues. To seek roles of ColQ and AChE at synapses and elsewhere, we generated ColQ-deficient mutant mice. ColQ-/- mice completely lacked asymmetric AChE in skeletal and cardiac muscles and brain; they also lacked asymmetric forms of the AChE homologue, butyrylcholinesterase. Thus, products of the ColQ gene are required for assembly of all detectable asymmetric AChE and butyrylcholinesterase. Surprisingly, globular AChE tetramers were also absent from neonatal ColQ-/- muscles, suggesting a role for the ColQ gene in assembly or stabilization of AChE forms that do not themselves contain a collagenous subunit. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, toxicological, and electrophysiological assays all indicated absence of AChE at ColQ-/- neuromuscular junctions. Nonetheless, neuromuscular function was initially robust, demonstrating that AChE and ColQ do not play obligatory roles in early phases of synaptogenesis. Moreover, because acute inhibition of synaptic AChE is fatal to normal animals, there must be compensatory mechanisms in the mutant that allow the synapse to function in the chronic absence of AChE. One structural mechanism appears to be a partial ensheathment of nerve terminals by Schwann cells. Compensation was incomplete, however, as animals lacking ColQ and synaptic AChE failed to thrive and most died before they reached maturity.
ESTHER : Feng_1999_J.Cell.Biol_144_1349
PubMedSearch : Feng_1999_J.Cell.Biol_144_1349
PubMedID: 10087275

Title : The binding sites of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies on acetylcholinesterase. Identification of a novel regulatory site at the putative back door - Simon_1999_J.Biol.Chem_274_27740
Author(s) : Simon S , Le Goff A , Frobert Y , Grassi J , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 274 :27740 , 1999
Abstract : We investigated the target sites of three inhibitory monoclonal antibodies on Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Previous studies showed that Elec-403 and Elec-410 are directed to overlapping but distinct epitopes in the peripheral site, at the entrance of the catalytic gorge, whereas Elec-408 binds to a different region. Using Electrophorus/rat AChE chimeras, we identified surface residues that differed between sensitive and insensitive AChEs: the replacement of a single Electrophorus residue by its rat homolog was able to abolish binding and inhibition, for each antibody. Reciprocally, binding and inhibition by Elec-403 and by Elec-410 could be conferred to rat AChE by the reverse mutation. Elec-410 appears to bind to one side of the active gorge, whereas Elec-403 covers its opening, explaining why the AChE-Elec-410 complex reacts faster than the AChE-Elec-403 or AChE-fasciculin complexes with two active site inhibitors, m-(N,N, N-trimethyltammonio)trifluoro-acetophenone and echothiophate. Elec-408 binds to the region of the putative "back door," distant from the peripheral site, and does not interfere with the access of inhibitors to the active site. The binding of an antibody to this novel regulatory site may inhibit the enzyme by blocking the back door or by inducing a conformational distortion within the active site.
ESTHER : Simon_1999_J.Biol.Chem_274_27740
PubMedSearch : Simon_1999_J.Biol.Chem_274_27740
PubMedID: 10488117

Title : Effect of mutations within the peripheral anionic site on the stability of acetylcholinesterase - Morel_1999_Mol.Pharmacol_55_982
Author(s) : Morel N , Bon S , Greenblatt HM , Van Belle D , Wodak SJ , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 55 :982 , 1999
Abstract : Torpedo acetylcholinesterase is irreversibly inactivated by modifying a buried free cysteine, Cys231, with sulfhydryl reagents. The stability of the enzyme, as monitored by measuring the rate of inactivation, was reduced by mutating a leucine, Leu282, to a smaller amino acid residue. Leu282 is located within the "peripheral" anionic site, at the entrance to the active-site gorge. Thus, loss of activity was due to the increased reactivity of Cys231. This was paralleled by an increased susceptibility to thermal denaturation, which was shown to be due to a large decrease in the activation enthalpy. Similar results were obtained when either of two other residues in contact with Leu282 in Torpedo acetylcholinesterase, Trp279 and Ser291, was replaced by an amino acid with a smaller side chain. We studied the effects of various ligands specific for either the active or peripheral sites on both thermal inactivation and on inactivation by 4,4'-dithiodipyridine. The wild-type and mutated enzymes could be either protected or sensitized. In some cases, opposite effects of the same ligand were observed for chemical modification and thermal denaturation. The mutated residues are within a conserved loop, W279-S291, at the top of the active-site gorge, that contributes to the peripheral anionic site. Theoretical analysis showed that Torpedo acetylcholinesterase consists of two structural domains, each comprising one contiguous polypeptide segment. The W279-S291 loop, located in the first domain, makes multiple contacts with the second domain across the active-site gorge. We postulate that the mutations to residues with smaller side chains destabilize the conserved loop, thus disrupting cross-gorge interactions and, ultimately, the entire structure.
ESTHER : Morel_1999_Mol.Pharmacol_55_982
PubMedSearch : Morel_1999_Mol.Pharmacol_55_982
PubMedID: 10347238

Title : Stability and secretion of acetylcholinesterase forms in skeletal muscle cells - Legay_1999_J.Neurosci_19_8252
Author(s) : Legay C , Mankal FA , Massoulie J , Jasmin BJ
Ref : Journal of Neuroscience , 19 :8252 , 1999
Abstract : Muscle cells express a distinct splice variant of acetylcholinesterase (AChE(T)), but the specific mechanisms governing this restricted expression remain unclear. In these cells, a fraction of AChE subunits is associated with a triple helical collagen, ColQ, each strand of which can recruit a tetramer of AChE(T). In the present study, we examined the expression of the various splice variants of AChE by transfection in the mouse C2C12 myogenic cells in vitro, as well as in vivo by injecting plasmid DNA directly into tibialis anterior muscles of mice and rats. Surprisingly, we found that transfection with an ACHE(H) cDNA, generating a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme species, produced much more activity than transfection with AChE(T) cDNA in both C2C12 cells and in vivo. This indicates that the exclusive expression of AChE(T) in mature muscle is governed by specific splicing. Interaction of AChE(T) subunits with the complete collagen tail ColQ increased enzyme activity in cultured cells, as well as in muscle fibers in vivo. Truncated ColQ subunits, presenting more or less extensive C-terminal deletions, also increased AChE activity and secretion in C2C12 cells, although the triple helix could not form in the case of the larger deletion. This suggests that heteromeric associations are stabilized compared with isolated AChE(T) subunits. Coinjections of AChE(T) and ColQ resulted in the production and secretion of asymmetric forms, indicating that assembly, processing, and externalization of these molecules can occur outside the junctional region of muscle fibers and hence does not require the specialized junctional Golgi apparatus.
ESTHER : Legay_1999_J.Neurosci_19_8252
PubMedSearch : Legay_1999_J.Neurosci_19_8252
PubMedID: 10493726

Title : The polymorphism of acetylcholinesterase: post-translational processing, quaternary associations and localization - Massoulie_1999_Chem.Biol.Interact_119-120_29
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Anselmet A , Bon S , Krejci E , Legay C , Morel N , Simon S
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 119-120 :29 , 1999
Abstract : The molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) correspond to various quaternary structures and modes of anchoring of the enzyme. In vertebrates, these molecules are generated from a single gene: the catalytic domain may be associated with several types of C-terminal peptides, that define distinct types of catalytic subunits (AChE(S), AChE(H), AChE(T)) and determine their post-translational maturation. AChE(S) generates soluble monomers, in the venom of Elapid snakes. AChE(H) generates GPI-anchored dimers, in Torpedo muscles and on mammalian blood cells. AChE(T) is the only type of catalytic subunit that exists in all vertebrate cholinesterases; it produces the major forms in adult brain and muscle. AChE(T) generates multiple structures, ranging from monomers and dimers to collagen-tailed and hydrophobic-tailed forms, in which catalytic tetramers are associated with anchoring proteins that attach them to the basal lamina or to cell membranes. In the collagen-tailed forms, AChE(T) subunits are associated with a specific collagen, ColQ, which is encoded by a single gene in mammals. ColQ contains a short peptidic motif, the proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD), that triggers the formation of AChE(T) tetramers, from monomers and dimers. The critical feature of this motif is the presence of a string of prolines, and in fact synthetic polyproline shows a similar capacity to organize AChE(T) tetramers. Although the COLQ gene produces multiple transcripts, it does not generate the hydrophobic tail. P, which anchors AChE in mammalian brain membranes. The coordinated expression of AChE(T) subunits and anchoring proteins determines the pattern of molecular forms and therefore the localization and functionality of the enzyme.
ESTHER : Massoulie_1999_Chem.Biol.Interact_119-120_29
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_1999_Chem.Biol.Interact_119-120_29
PubMedID: 10421436

Title : Identification of a novel type of alternatively spliced exon from the acetylcholinesterase gene of Bungarus fasciatus. Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in the snake liver and muscle - Cousin_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_9812
Author(s) : Cousin X , Bon S , Massoulie J , Bon C
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 273 :9812 , 1998
Abstract : The venom of the snake Bungarus fasciatus contains a hydrophilic, monomeric species of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), characterized by a C-terminal region that does not resemble the alternative T- or H-peptides. Here, we show that the snake contains a single gene for AChE, possessing a novel alternative exon (S) that encodes the C-terminal region of the venom enzyme, located downstream of the T exon. Alternative splicing generates S mRNA in the venom gland and S and T mRNAs in muscle and liver. We found no evidence for the presence of an H exon between the last common "catalytic" exon and the T exon, where H exons are located in Torpedo and in mammals. Moreover, COS cells that were transfected with AChE expression vectors containing the T exon with or without the preceding genomic region produced exclusively AChET subunits. In the snake tissues, we could not detect any glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored AChE form that would have derived from H subunits. In the liver, the cholinesterase activity comprises both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase components; butyrylcholinesterase corresponds essentially to nonamphiphilic tetramers and AChE to nonamphiphilic monomers (G1na). In muscle, AChE is largely predominant: it consists of globular forms (G1a and G4a) and trace amounts of asymmetric forms (A8 and A12), which derive from AChET subunits. Thus, the Bungarus AChE gene possesses alternatively spliced T and S exons but no H exon; the absence of an H exon may be a common feature of AChE genes in reptiles and birds.
ESTHER : Cousin_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_9812
PubMedSearch : Cousin_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_9812
PubMedID: 9545320

Title : Diversity and Processing of Acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Anselmet A , Bon S , Krejci E , Legay C , Mayat E
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :3 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Acetylcholinesterase: C-terminal domains, molecular forms and functional localization - Massoulie_1998_J.Physiol.Paris_92_183
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Anselmet A , Bon S , Krejci E , Legay C , Morel N , Simon S
Ref : Journal de Physiologie (Paris) , 92 :183 , 1998
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) possesses short C-terminal peptides that are not necessary for catalytic activity. These peptides belong to different classes (R, H, T, S) and define the post-translational processing and targeting of the enzyme. In vertebrates, subunits of type H (AChEH) and of type T (AChET) are the most important: AChEH subunits produce glycolipid (GPI)-anchored dimers and AChET subunits produce hetero-oligomeric forms such as membrane-bound tetramers in the mammalian brain (containing a 20 kDa hydrophobic protein) and asymmetric collagen-tailed forms in neuromuscular junctions (containing a specific collagen, ColQ). The T peptide allows the formation of tetrameric assemblies with a proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD) of collagen ColQ. These complex molecular structures condition the functional localization of the enzyme in the supramolecular architecture of cholinergic synapses.
ESTHER : Massoulie_1998_J.Physiol.Paris_92_183
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_1998_J.Physiol.Paris_92_183
PubMedID: 9789805

Title : A four-to-one association between peptide motifs: four C-terminal domains from cholinesterase assemble with one proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD) in the secretory pathway - Simon_1998_Embo.J_17_6178
Author(s) : Simon S , Krejci E , Massoulie J
Ref : EMBO Journal , 17 :6178 , 1998
Abstract : The major type of acetylcholinesterase in vertebrates (AChET) is characterized by the presence of a short C-terminal domain of 40 residues, the 'tryptophan amphiphilic tetramerization' (WAT) domain. The presence of this domain is not necessary for catalytic activity but is responsible for hydrophobic interactions and for the capacity of AChET subunits to form quaternary associations with anchoring proteins, thereby conditioning their functional localization. In the collagen tail of asymmetric forms, we characterized a small conserved region that is sufficient for binding an AChET tetramer, the proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD). We show that the WAT domain alone is sufficient for association with the PRAD, and that it can attach foreign proteins (alkaline phosphatase, GFP) to a PRAD-containing construct with a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI), and thus anchor them to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that isolated WAT domains, or proteins containing a WAT domain, can replace individual AChET subunits in PRAD-linked tetramers. This suggests that the four WAT domains interact with the PRAD in a similar manner. These quaternary interactions can form without intercatenary disulfide bonds. The common catalytic domains of AChE are not necessary for tetrameric assembly, although they may contribute to the stability of the tetramer.
ESTHER : Simon_1998_Embo.J_17_6178
PubMedSearch : Simon_1998_Embo.J_17_6178
PubMedID: 9799227

Title : Acetylcholinesterase in Elapid Snakes -
Author(s) : Cousin X , Bon S , Grassi J , Massoulie J , Bon C
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :99 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Development of the neuromuscular junction: genetic analysis in mice - Sanes_1998_J.Physiol.Paris_92_167
Author(s) : Sanes JR , Apel ED , Burgess RW , Emerson RB , Feng G , Gautam M , Glass D , Grady RM , Krejci E , Lichtman JW , Lu JT , Massoulie J , Miner JH , Moscoso LM , Nguyen Q , Nichol M , Noakes PG , Patton BL , Son YJ , Yancopoulos GD , Zhou H
Ref : Journal de Physiologie (Paris) , 92 :167 , 1998
Abstract : Formation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction is a multi-step process that requires communication between the nerve and muscle. Studies in many laboratories have led to identification of factors that seem likely to mediate these interactions. 'Knock-out' mice have now been generated with mutations in several genes that encode candidate transsynaptic messengers and components of their effector mechanisms. Using these mice, it is possible to test hypotheses about the control of synaptogenesis. Here, we review our studies on neuromuscular development in mutant mice lacking agrin alpha CGRP, rapsyn, MuSK, dystrophin, dystrobrevin, utrophin, laminin alpha 5, laminin beta 2, collagen alpha 3 (IV), the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit, the collagenous tail of acetylcholinesterase, fibroblast growth factor-5, the neural cell adhesion molecule, and tenascin-C.
ESTHER : Sanes_1998_J.Physiol.Paris_92_167
PubMedSearch : Sanes_1998_J.Physiol.Paris_92_167
PubMedID: 9789802

Title : Inhibition of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase by monoclonal antibodies -
Author(s) : Simon S , Le Goff A , Frobert Y , Grassi J , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal de Physiologie (Paris) , 92 :492 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Surface Residues Near the Peripheral Site Affect the Stability of Torpedo Acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Morel N , Bon S , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :435 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Assembly, Stability and Secretion of Acetylcholinesterase in Cultured Mouse Muscle Cells -
Author(s) : Mankal FA , Massoulie J , Jasmin BJ , Legay C
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :132 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Regulation of Acetylcholinesterase Oligomerization in the Muscles by Associated-Acetylcholinesterase Collagen, ColQ -
Author(s) : Krejci E , Legay C , Thomine S , Sketelj J , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :134 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Bon S , Coussen F , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :135 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : The Heparin-Binding Sites in the Collagenic Tail of Acetylcholinesterase - 2 -
Author(s) : Deprez P , Krejci E , Inestrosa NC , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :446 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Electrophorus Electricus Acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Simon S , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :144 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Dissection of the heparin-binding domains present in the collagenic tail of mammalian acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Deprez P , Krejci E , Massoulie J , Inestrosa NC
Ref : Journal de Physiologie (Paris) , 92 :425 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Mutation in the human acetylcholinesterase-associated collagen gene, COLQ, is responsible for congenital myasthenic syndrome with end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency (Type Ic) - Donger_1998_Am.J.Hum.Genet_63_967
Author(s) : Donger C , Krejci E , Serradell AP , Eymard B , Bon S , Nicole S , Chateau D , Gary F , Fardeau M , Massoulie J , Guicheney P
Ref : American Journal of Human Genetics , 63 :967 , 1998
Abstract : Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) with end-plate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease, recently classified as CMS type Ic (CMS-Ic). It is characterized by onset in childhood, generalized weakness increased by exertion, refractoriness to anticholinesterase drugs, and morphological abnormalities of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The collagen-tailed form of AChE, which is normally concentrated at NMJs, is composed of catalytic tetramers associated with a specific collagen, COLQ. In CMS-Ic patients, these collagen-tailed forms are often absent. We studied a large family comprising 11 siblings, 6 of whom are affected by a mild form of CMS-Ic. The muscles of the patients contained collagen-tailed AChE. We first excluded the ACHE gene (7q22) as potential culprit, by linkage analysis; then we mapped COLQ to chromosome 3p24.2. By analyzing 3p24.2 markers located close to the gene, we found that the six affected patients were homozygous for an interval of 14 cM between D3S1597 and D3S2338. We determined the COLQ coding sequence and found that the patients present a homozygous missense mutation, Y431S, in the conserved C-terminal domain of COLQ. This mutation is thought to disturb the attachment of collagen-tailed AChE to the NMJ, thus constituting the first genetic defect causing CMS-Ic.
ESTHER : Donger_1998_Am.J.Hum.Genet_63_967
PubMedSearch : Donger_1998_Am.J.Hum.Genet_63_967
PubMedID: 9758617

Title : The Role of Acetylcholinesterase in Neuronal Differentiation -
Author(s) : Anselmet A , Mayat E , Wietek S , Layer PG , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :593 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Developmental expression and localisation of acetylcholinesterase in rat muscles -
Author(s) : Legay C , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal de Physiologie (Paris) , 92 :457 , 1998
PubMedID:

Title : Quaternary associations of acetylcholinesterase. II. The polyproline attachment domain of the collagen tail - Bon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_3016
Author(s) : Bon S , Coussen F , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 272 :3016 , 1997
Abstract : In transfected COS cells, we analyzed the formation of heteromeric associations between rat acetylcholinesterase of type T (AChET) and various constructions derived from the NH2-terminal region of the collagen tail of asymmetric forms, QN. Using a series of deletions and point mutations in QN, we showed that the binding of AChET to QN does not require the cysteines that normally establish intersubunit disulfide bonds with catalytic subunits and that it essentially relies on the presence of stretches of successive prolines, although adjacent residues also contribute to the interaction. We thus defined a proline-rich attachment domain or PRAD, which recruits AChET subunits to form heteromeric associations. Such molecules, consisting of one PRAD associated with a tetramer of AChET, are exported efficiently by the cells. Using the proportion of AChET subunits engaged in heteromeric tetramers, we ranked the interaction efficiency of various constructions. From these experiments we evaluated the contribution of different elements of the PRAD to the quaternary assembly of AChET subunits in the secretory pathway. The PRAD remained functional when reduced to six residues followed by a string of 10 prolines (Glu-Ser-Thr-Gly3-Pro10). We then showed that synthetic polyproline itself can associate with AChET subunits, producing well defined tetramers, when added to live transfected cells or even to cell extracts. This is the first example of an in vitro assembly of AChE tetramers from monomers and dimers. These results open the way to a chemical-physical exploration of the formation of these quaternary associations, both in the secretory pathway and in vitro.
ESTHER : Bon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_3016
PubMedSearch : Bon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_3016
PubMedID: 9006950

Title : The mammalian gene of acetylcholinesterase-associated collagen - Krejci_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_22840
Author(s) : Krejci E , Thomine S , Boschetti N , Legay C , Sketelj J , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 272 :22840 , 1997
Abstract : The collagen-tailed or asymmetric forms (A) represent a major component of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the neuromuscular junction of higher vertebrates. They are hetero-oligomeric molecules, in which tetramers of catalytic subunits of type T (AChET) are attached to the subunits of a triple-stranded collagen "tail." We report the cloning of a rat AChE-associated collagen subunit, Q. We show that collagen tails are encoded by a single gene, COLQ. The ColQ subunits form homotrimers and readily form collagen-tailed AChE, when coexpressed with rat AChET. We found that the same ColQ subunits are incorporated, in vivo, in asymmetric forms of both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase. A splice variant from the COLQ gene encodes a proline- rich AChE attachment domain without the collagen domain but does not represent the membrane anchor of the brain tetramer. The COLQ gene is expressed in cholinergic tissues, brain, muscle, and heart, and also in noncholinergic tissues such as lung and testis.
ESTHER : Krejci_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_22840
PubMedSearch : Krejci_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_22840
PubMedID: 9278446

Title : Cloning and expression of acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus. Splicing pattern of the 3' exons in vivo and in transfected mammalian cells - Simon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_33045
Author(s) : Simon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 272 :33045 , 1997
Abstract : We cloned and expressed a cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of type T from Electrophorus electricus organs. When expressed in COS, HEK, and Chinese hamster ovary cells, the AChET subunits generated dimers and tetramers. The cells produced more activity at 27 than at 37 degrees C. The kinetic parameters of a recombinant enzyme, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris, were close to those of the natural AChE. Analysis of genomic clones showed that the coding sequence is interrupted by an intron that does not exist in Torpedo and differs in its location from that observed in the mouse. This intron is preceded by a sequence encoding a non-conserved 29-amino acid peptide, which does not exist in Torpedo or mammalian AChEs. According to a three-dimensional model, this non-conserved peptide is located at the surface of the protein, opposite from the entry of the catalytic gorge; its deletion did not modify the catalytic parameters. Sequence analyses and expression of various constructs showed that the gene does not contain any H exon. We also found that splicing of transcripts in mammalian cells reveals cryptic donor sites in exons and acceptor sites in introns, which do not appear to be used in vivo.
ESTHER : Simon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_33045
PubMedSearch : Simon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_33045
PubMedID: 9407087
Gene_locus related to this paper: eleel-ACHE

Title : Expression and processing of vertebrate acetylcholinesterase in the yeast Pichia pastoris - Morel_1997_Biochem.J_328_121
Author(s) : Morel N , Massoulie J
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 328 ( Pt 1) :121 , 1997
Abstract : In the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, we expressed the rat acetylcholinesterase H and T subunits (AChEH and AChET respectively), as well as truncated subunits from rat (W553stop or AChETDelta, from which most of the T-peptide was removed) and from Bungarus (V536stop, or AChENAT, or AChEDelta, reduced to the catalytic domain). We show that AChEH and AChET subunits are processed into the same molecular forms as in vivo or in transfected mammalian cells, but that lytic processes converting amphiphilic forms into non-amphiphilic derivatives appear to be more active in yeast. The production of glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored molecules (dimers, with a small proportion of monomers) demonstrates that P. pastoris can correctly process a mammalian C-terminal GPI-addition signal. Truncated rat and Bungarus AChE molecules, which exclusively generated non-amphiphilic monomers, were released more efficiently and thus produced more AChE activity. In the hope of increasing the production of AChE, we replaced the endogenous signal peptide by yeast prepeptides, with or without a propeptide. We found that the presence of a propeptide, which does not exist in AChE, does not prevent the proper folding of the enzyme, and that it may either increase or decrease the yield of secreted AChE, depending on the signal peptide. Surprisingly, the highest yield was obtained with the endogenous signal peptide. For all combinations, the yield was 2-3 times higher for Bungarus than for rat AChE, probably reflecting differences in the folding efficiency or stability of the polypeptides. The Michaelis constant (Km), the constant of inhibition by excess substrate (Kss) and the catalytic constant (kcat) values of the recombinant AChEs obtained both in P. pastoris and in COS cells, were essentially identical with those of the corresponding natural enzymes, and the Ki values of active-site and peripheral-site inhibitors (edrophonium, decamethonium, propidium) were similar.
ESTHER : Morel_1997_Biochem.J_328_121
PubMedSearch : Morel_1997_Biochem.J_328_121
PubMedID: 9359842

Title : Quaternary associations of acetylcholinesterase. I. Oligomeric associations of T subunits with and without the amino-terminal domain of the collagen tail - Bon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_3007
Author(s) : Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 272 :3007 , 1997
Abstract : We investigated the production of acetylcholinesterase of type T (AChET) in COS cells during transient transfection. When expressed alone, Torpedo AChET remains essentially intracellular, forming dimers and tetramers; in contrast, rat AChET is secreted and produces mostly amphiphilic monomers (G1a) and dimers (G2a), together with smaller proportions of nonamphiphilic (G4na) tetramers, amphiphilic tetramers (G4a), and an unstable higher polymer (13.7 S). The latter two forms have not been described before. We show that secreted G1a and G2a forms differ from their cellular counterparts and that proteolytic cleavage occurs at the COOH terminus of "flagged" subunits. The binding proteins QN/HC and QN/stop are constructed by associating the NH2-terminal domain of the collagen tail (QN) with a functional or truncated signal for addition of a glycolipidic anchor (glycophosphatidylinositol). Coexpression with QN/stop recruits monomers and dimers to form soluble tetramers (G4na), increasing the yield of secreted rat AChE and allowing secretion of Torpedo AChE. Using antibodies against QN or addition of a flag epitope, we showed that the secreted tetramers contain the attachment domain. Coexpression with QN/HC modifies the distribution of AChET in subcellular compartments and allows the externalization of glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored tetramers at the cell surface.
ESTHER : Bon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_3007
PubMedSearch : Bon_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_3007
PubMedID: 9006949

Title : Cloning and expression of acetylcholinesterase from Bungarus fasciatus venom. A new type of cooh-terminal domain\; involvement of a positively charged residue in the peripheral site - Cousin_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_15099
Author(s) : Cousin X , Bon S , Duval N , Massoulie J , Bon C
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 271 :15099 , 1996
Abstract : As deduced from cDNA clones, the catalytic domain of Bungarus fasciatus venom acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is highly homologous to those of other AChEs. It is, however, associated with a short hydrophilic carboxyl-terminal region, containing no cysteine, that bears no resemblance to the alternative COOH-terminal peptides of the GPI-anchored molecules (H) or of other homomeric or heteromeric tailed molecules (T). Expression of complete and truncated AChE in COS cells showed that active hydrophilic monomers are produced and secreted in all cases, and that cleavage of a very basic 8-residue carboxyl-terminal fragment occurs upon secretion. The COS cells produced Bungarus AChE about 30 times more efficiently than an equivalent secreted monomeric rat AChE. The recombinant Bungarus AChE, like the natural venom enzyme, showed a distinctive ladder pattern in nondenaturing electrophoresis, probably reflecting a variation in the number of sialic acids. By mutagenesis, we showed that two differences (methionine instead of tyrosine at position 70; lysine instead of aspartate or glutamate at position 285) explain the low sensitivity of Bungarus AChE to peripheral site inhibitors, compared to the Torpedo or mammalian AChEs. These results illustrate the importance of both the aromatic and the charged residues, and the fact that peripheral site ligands (propidium, gallamine, D-tubocurarine, and fasciculin 2) interact with diverse subsets of residues.
ESTHER : Cousin_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_15099
PubMedSearch : Cousin_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_15099
PubMedID: 8662867
Gene_locus related to this paper: bunfa-ACHE

Title : Biosynthesis and integration of acetylcholinesterase in the cholinergic synapse -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Legay C , Anselmet A , Krejci E , Coussen F , Bon S
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 109 :55 , 1996
PubMedID: 9009693

Title : Site-directed mutants designed to test back-door hypotheses of acetylcholinesterase function - Faerman_1996_FEBS.Lett_386_65
Author(s) : Faerman C , Ripoll D , Bon S , Le Feuvre Y , Morel N , Massoulie J , Sussman JL , Silman I
Ref : FEBS Letters , 386 :65 , 1996
Abstract : The location of the active site of the rapid enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, near the bottom of a deep and narrow gorge indicates that alternative routes may exist for traffic of substrate, products or solute into and out of the gorge. Molecular dynamics suggest the existence of a shutter-like back door near Trp84, a key- residue in the binding site for acetylcholine, in the Torpedo californica enzyme. The homology of the omega loop, bearing Trp84, with the lid which sequesters the substrate in neutral lipases displaying structural homology with acetylcholinesterase, suggests a flap-like back door. Both possibilities were examined by site-directed mutagenesis. The shutter-like back door was tested by generating a salt bridge which might impede opening of the shutter. The flap-like back door was tested by de novo insertion of a disulfide bridge which tethered the omega loop to the body of the enzyme. Neither type of mutation produced significant changes in catalytic activity, thus failing to provide experimental support for either back door model. Molecular dynamics revealed, however, substantial mobility of the omega loop in the immediate vicinity of Trp84, even when the loop was tethered, supporting the possibility that access to the active site, involving limited movement of a segment of the loop, is indeed possible.
ESTHER : Faerman_1996_FEBS.Lett_386_65
PubMedSearch : Faerman_1996_FEBS.Lett_386_65
PubMedID: 8635606

Title : The rate of thermal inactivation of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase is not reduced in the C231S mutant - Wilson_1996_FEBS.Lett_379_161
Author(s) : Wilson EJ , Massoulie J , Bon S , Rosenberry TL
Ref : FEBS Letters , 379 :161 , 1996
Abstract : The rate of thermal inactivation of Torpedo AChE at pH 8.5 was increased by the sulfhydryl reagent 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). At 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C, inactivation rates with 0.3 mM DTNB increased about 5-fold for the wild-type enzyme and for two site-specific mutants, D72S and V129R. The reversible active site inhibitor, ambenonium, completely stabilized the wild type enzyme and partially stabilized the D72S mutant. However, ambenonium did not protect against the destabilization introduced by DTNB, which still accelerated inactivation of D72S 5-fold. When the only free sulfhydryl group in AChE was removed by replacing cysteine 231 with serine, increased rates of thermal inactivation were observed. The inactivation rate increased by a factor of 2 to 3 for the single mutant (C231S) and by a factor of 5 for the double mutant V129R/C231S. Even in the C231S mutants, DTNB still had an additional effect. It increased the inactivation rate for C231S and V129R/C231 by a factor of about 1.5 to 3 beyond the rates seen in the absence of DTNB. Therefore, at least part of the destabilization seen with DTNB in enzymes that retain C231 does not involve reaction of DTNB with C231.
ESTHER : Wilson_1996_FEBS.Lett_379_161
PubMedSearch : Wilson_1996_FEBS.Lett_379_161
PubMedID: 8635584

Title : Acetylcholinesterase from Bungarus venom: a monomeric species - Cousin_1996_FEBS.Lett_387_196
Author(s) : Cousin X , Creminon C , Grassi J , Meflah K , Cornu G , Saliou B , Bon S , Massoulie J , Bon C
Ref : FEBS Letters , 387 :196 , 1996
Abstract : The venom of Bungarus fasciatus, an Elapidae snake, contains a high level of AChE activity. Partial peptide sequences show that it is closely homologous to other AChEs. Bungarus venom AChE is a non-amphiphilic monomeric species, a molecular form of AChE which has not been previously found in significant levels in other tissues. The composition of carbohydrates suggests the presence of N-glycans of the 'complex' and 'hybrid' types. Ion exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing and electrophoresis in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions reveal a complex microheterogeneity of this enzyme, which is partly related to its glycosylation.
ESTHER : Cousin_1996_FEBS.Lett_387_196
PubMedSearch : Cousin_1996_FEBS.Lett_387_196
PubMedID: 8674549

Title : The C-Terminal Alternative Regions of Acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Anselmet A , Bon S , Coussen F , Krejci E , Legay C
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :29 , 1995
PubMedID:

Title : Patients with congenital myasthenia associated with end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency show normal sequence, mRNA splicing, and assembly of catalytic subunits - Camp_1995_J.Clin.Invest_95_333
Author(s) : Camp S , Bon S , Li Y , Getman DK , Engel AG , Massoulie J , Taylor P
Ref : Journal of Clinical Investigation , 95 :333 , 1995
Abstract : A congenital myasthenic condition has been described in several patients characterized by a deficiency in end-plate acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The characteristic form of AChE in the end-plate basal lamina has the catalytic subunits disulfide linked to a collagen-like tail unit. Southern analysis of the gene encoding the catalytic subunits revealed no differences between patient and control DNA. Genomic DNA clones covering exon 4 and the alternatively spliced exons 5 and 6 were analyzed by nuclease protection and sequencing. Although allelic differences were detected between controls, we found no differences in exonic and intronic areas that might yield distinctive splicing patterns in patients and controls. The ACHE gene was cloned from genomic libraries from a patient and a control. Transfection of the cloned genes revealed identical species of mRNA and expressed AChE. Cotransfection of the genes expressing the catalytic subunits with a cDNA from Torpedo encoding the tail unit yielded asymmetric species that require assembly of catalytic subunits and tail unit. thus the catalytic subunits of AChE expressed in the congenital myasthenic syndrome appear identical in sequence, arise from similar splicing patterns, and assemble normally with a tail unit to form a heteromeric species.
ESTHER : Camp_1995_J.Clin.Invest_95_333
PubMedSearch : Camp_1995_J.Clin.Invest_95_333
PubMedID: 7814634

Title : Developmental Regulation of Acetylcholinesterase mRNA in the Mouse Diaphragm -
Author(s) : Legay C , Huchet M , Massoulie J , Changeux JP
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :47 , 1995
PubMedID:

Title : Mutations in the Catalytic Subunit of Acetylcholinesterase do not Appear Responsible for Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome Associated with End-Plate Acetylcholinesterase Deficiency -
Author(s) : Camp S , Engel AG , Getman DK , Bon S , Massoulie J , Taylor P
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :51 , 1995
PubMedID:

Title : Developmental regulation of acetylcholinesterase transcripts in the mouse diaphragm: alternative splicing and focalization - Legay_1995_Eur.J.Neurosci_7_1803
Author(s) : Legay C , Huchet M , Massoulie J , Changeux JP
Ref : European Journal of Neuroscience , 7 :1803 , 1995
Abstract : We studied the splicing and compartmentalization of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) mRNAs during muscle differentiation in the mouse, both in vitro and in vivo. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyse AChE mRNAs in cultures of the myogenic C2 and Sol8 cell lines, and in the developing diaphragm, from embryonic day 14 (E14). We characterized three types of alternatively spliced AChE mRNAs, encoding catalytic subunits that differ by their C-terminal regions (R, H and T). The T transcript is predominant in all cases and represents the only AChE mRNA in the adult muscle. We detected the presence of the minor R and H transcripts in the myogenic cell lines, both as myoblasts and differentiated myotubes, and also in the diaphragm from E14 until birth. At E14 the R transcript represents approximately 1% of AChE mRNA and the level of the H transcript is still lower. By in situ hybridization, we found that the T AChE mRNAs begin to preferentially accumulate at the level of the first neuromuscular contacts in the mouse diaphragm and other muscles as early as E14, e.g. concomitantly with mRNAs encoding the receptor subunits. This suggests that a common control mechanism ensures the synaptic focalization of mRNAs encoding the cholinergic proteins AChE and acetylcholine receptor during muscle development.
ESTHER : Legay_1995_Eur.J.Neurosci_7_1803
PubMedSearch : Legay_1995_Eur.J.Neurosci_7_1803
PubMedID: 7582132

Title : Stable expression of acetylcholinesterase and associated collagenic subunits in transfected RBL cell lines: production of GPI-anchored dimers and collagen-tailed forms - Coussen_1995_Eur.J.Cell.Biol_67_254
Author(s) : Coussen F , Bonnerot C , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Cell Biology , 67 :254 , 1995
Abstract : We obtained a stable expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. 3.1.1.7) in the rat basoleukemia cell line, RBL-2H3, which possesses a well developed secretory pathway, but expresses only very little endogenous AChE. Metabolic labeling showed that AChEH and AChET, differing by C-terminal peptides encoded by alternatively spliced exons, were synthesized at a similar rate. When transfected with AChEH, RBL cells efficiently produced GPI-anchored dimers, which were mostly exposed at the cell surface, as shown both by activity and immunofluorescence labeling. In contrast, when transfected with AChET, RBL cells produced about tenfold less activity, which was essentially retained in the cell, and the enzyme could not be detected at the cell surface by immunolabeling. The fate of the enzyme is therefore determined by its C-terminal alternative peptides. We were also able to coexpress the AChET subunit with the collagenic Q subunit. The cells produced small but significant amounts of collagen-tailed forms, essentially A4. The expression of these different catalytic and structural subunits in stably transfected RBL cells will be useful to explore the regulated posttranslational processes involved in protein maturation and transport.
ESTHER : Coussen_1995_Eur.J.Cell.Biol_67_254
PubMedSearch : Coussen_1995_Eur.J.Cell.Biol_67_254
PubMedID: 7588881

Title : Developmental Regulations of Acetylcholinesterase at the Molecular Level in the Central Nervous System of the Quail -
Author(s) : Anselmet A , Chatel JM , Massoulie J
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :288 , 1995
PubMedID:

Title : Anatomical analysis of the neurons expressing the acetylcholinesterase gene in the rat brain, with special reference to the striatum - Bernard_1995_Neurosci_64_995
Author(s) : Bernard V , Legay C , Massoulie J , Bloch B
Ref : Neuroscience , 64 :995 , 1995
Abstract : The localization of the neurons expressing the acetylcholinesterase gene in the rat central nervous system was studied by in situ hybridization. The striatal and nigral neurons containing acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA were especially identified. Acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA was detected in numerous areas of the central nervous system, including cholinergic areas, like striatum, nucleus basalis of Meynert, septum and diagonal band of Broca, but also non-cholinergic areas, like the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, the cerebellum and the raphe dorsalis. In the striatum, 75% of the neurons expressing the acetylcholinesterase gene were identified as cholinergic neurons and 25% as somatostatin-producing neurons. All dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area were demonstrated to express the acetylcholinesterase gene. Our results suggest that several neuronal populations could contribute to the presence of acetylcholinesterase in the striatum: the striatal cholinergic and somatostatin-containing interneurons, the nigral dopaminergic neurons and other neurons that may be the corticostriatal, thalamostriatal and raphe-striatal neurons. This demonstrates that, especially in the striatum, acetylcholinesterase is not a specific marker of the cholinergic neurons. The diversity of the origins of striatal acetylcholinesterase suggests a multiplicity of functions for this enzyme: besides its cholinolytic actions, it may also possibly play a non-cholinolytic role in neuromodulation.
ESTHER : Bernard_1995_Neurosci_64_995
PubMedSearch : Bernard_1995_Neurosci_64_995
PubMedID: 7753391

Title : 6-Coumarin diazonium salt: a specific affinity label of the Torpedo acetylcholinesterase peripheral site - Schalk_1995_Mol.Pharmacol_48_1063
Author(s) : Schalk I , Ehret-Sabatier L , Le Feuvre Y , Bon S , Massoulie J , Goeldner M
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 48 :1063 , 1995
Abstract : A 6-coumarin diazonium salt was synthesized and tested on Torpedo acetylcholinesterase as a site-directed irreversible probe for quaternary ammonium binding. The rate of the inactivation was examined as a function of time, inhibitor concentration, and pH, which allowed the determination of the dissociation and the rate constants of this efficient affinity labeling process. Protection experiments using tetramethylammonium, edrophonium, and propidium demonstrated that the labeling reaction occurred exclusively at the peripheral quaternary ammonium binding site of the enzyme. This result was confirmed by the modification of propidium binding at the peripheral site after inactivation reaction, as directly determined by fluorescence. Mutations of the likely labeled amino acid residues, Tyr70 and Tyr121, by histidine and phenylalanine indicated a predominant involvement of Tyr70 over Tyr121 in the coupling reaction.
ESTHER : Schalk_1995_Mol.Pharmacol_48_1063
PubMedSearch : Schalk_1995_Mol.Pharmacol_48_1063
PubMedID: 8848006

Title : Differential effects of peripheral site ligands on Torpedo and chicken acetylcholinesterase - Eichler_1994_Mol.Pharmacol_45_335
Author(s) : Eichler J , Anselmet A , Sussman JL , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 45 :335 , 1994
Abstract : Comparison of the effect of three 'peripheral' site ligands, propidium, d-tubocurarine, and gallamine, on acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine hydrolase; EC 3.1.1.7) of Torpedo and chicken shows that all three are substantially more effective inhibitors of the Torpedo enzyme than of the chicken enzyme. In contrast, edrophonium, which is directed to the "anionic" subsite of the active site, inhibits the chicken and Torpedo enzymes equally effectively. Two bisquaternary ligands, decamethonium and 1,5-bis(4-allydimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide, which are believed to bridge the anionic subsite of the active site and the "peripheral" anionic site, are much weaker inhibitors of the chicken enzyme than of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase, whereas the shorter bisquaternary ligand hexamethonium inhibits the two enzymes similarly. The concentration dependence of activity towards the natural substrate acetylcholine is almost identical for the two enzymes, whereas substrate inhibition of chicken acetylcholinesterase is somewhat weaker than that of the Torpedo enzyme. The experimental data can be rationalized on the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the Torpedo enzyme and alignment of the chicken and Torpedo sequences; it is suggested that the absence, in the chicken enzyme, of two aromatic residues, Tyr-70 and Trp-279, that contribute to the peripheral site of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase is responsible for the differential effects of peripheral site ligands on the two enzymes.
ESTHER : Eichler_1994_Mol.Pharmacol_45_335
PubMedSearch : Eichler_1994_Mol.Pharmacol_45_335
PubMedID: 8114681

Title : Two-site immunoradiometric assay of chicken acetylcholinesterase: active and inactive molecular forms in brain and muscle - Chatel_1994_J.Neurochem_63_1111
Author(s) : Chatel JM , Eichler J , Vallette FM , Bon S , Massoulie J , Grassi J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 63 :1111 , 1994
Abstract : Several monoclonal antibodies were raised against chicken acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7). Some of these antibodies react with quail AChE but not with AChEs from nonavian vertebrates or invertebrates and not with butyrylcholinesterase. They may be classified in several mutually compatible groups, i.e., that can bind simultaneously to the monomeric form of AChE. Most antibodies recognize a peptidic domain that does not exist in mammalian AChE and that may be digested by trypsin without loss of activity or dissociation of quaternary structure. The only exception is the antibody C-131, which is conformation dependent and preferentially recognizes active AChE. We have set up two-site immunoradiometric assays, using an immobilized capture antibody, C-6 or C-131, and a radiolabeled antibody, 125I-C-54. The C-6/C-54 assay quantifies the totality of inactive and active AChE subunits: It detects 10(-3) Ellman unit (approximately 40 pg of protein) and yields a linear response up to at least 25 10(-3) Ellman units. An analysis of gradient fractions, using C-6/C-54 and C-131/C-54 assays as well as activity determination, shows that the A12 and G4 forms are exclusively composed of active subunits, whereas inactive molecules cosediment with the active G2 and G1 forms. Both active and inactive G2 and G1 forms are amphiphilic, as indicated by the influence of detergents on their sedimentation coefficients and Stokes radii. In brain, the proportion of inactive forms decreases from 40% at embryonic day 11 (E11) to 20% at birth [day 1 (D1)]. In muscle, we observed no inactive AChE at E11 and a small proportion of inactive G1 at D1.
ESTHER : Chatel_1994_J.Neurochem_63_1111
PubMedSearch : Chatel_1994_J.Neurochem_63_1111
PubMedID: 8051552

Title : Evolution of acetylcholinesterase transcripts and molecular forms during development in the central nervous system of the quail - Anselmet_1994_J.Neurochem_62_2158
Author(s) : Anselmet A , Fauquet M , Chatel JM , Maulet Y , Massoulie J , Vallette FM
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 62 :2158 , 1994
Abstract : We studied the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system (cerebellum, optic lobes and neuroretina) of the quail at different stages of development, from embryonic day 10 (E10) to the adult. Analyzing AChE mRNAs and AChE molecular forms, we observed variations in the following: (a) production of multiple mRNA species (4.5 kb, 5.3 kb, and 6 kb); (b) translation and/or stability of the AChE protein; (c) production of active and inactive AChE molecules; (d) production of amphiphilic and nonamphiphilic AChE forms; and (e) proportions of tetrameric G4, dimeric G2, and monomeric G1 forms. The large transcripts present distinct temporal patterns and disappear in the adult, which possesses only the 4.5-kb mRNA; these changes are unlikely to be related to those observed for the AChE protein, because all transcripts seem to encode the same catalytic subunit (type T). In addition, the levels of mRNA and AChE are not correlated in the three regions, especially at the adult stage. The proportion of inactive AChE was found to be markedly higher at the hatching period (E16) than at earlier stages (E10 and E13) or in the adult. The G4 form is predominant already at E10, and in the adult its proportion reaches 80% of the activity in the cerebellum and optic lobes, and 65-70% in the neuroretina. This form is largely nonamphiphilic in embryonic tissues, but it becomes progressively more amphiphilic with development. Thus, the different processing and maturation steps appear to be regulated in an independent manner and potentially correspond to physiologically adaptative mechanisms.
ESTHER : Anselmet_1994_J.Neurochem_62_2158
PubMedSearch : Anselmet_1994_J.Neurochem_62_2158
PubMedID: 8189224

Title : Multi-level regulation of acetylcholinesterase biosynthesis and maturation. -
Author(s) : Chatel JM , Anselmet A , Vallette FM , Massoulie J
Ref : Biochemical Society Transactions , 22 :735 , 1994
PubMedID: 7821675

Title : Cloning and expression of a rat acetylcholinesterase subunit: generation of multiple molecular forms and complementarity with a Torpedo collagenic subunit - Legay_1993_J.Neurochem_60_337
Author(s) : Legay C , Bon S , Vernier P , Coussen F , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 60 :337 , 1993
Abstract : We obtained a cDNA clone encoding one type of catalytic subunit of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from rat brain (T subunit). The coding sequence shows a high frequency of (G+C) at the third position of the codons (66%), as already noted for several AChEs, in contrast with mammalian butyrylcholinesterase. The predicted primary sequence of rat AChE presents only 11 amino acid differences, including one in the signal peptide, from that of the mouse T subunit. In particular, four alanines in the mouse sequence are replaced by serine or threonine. In northern blots, a rat AChE probe indicates the presence of major 3.2- and 2.4-kb mRNAs, expressed in the CNS as well as in some peripheral tissues, including muscle and spleen. In vivo, we found that the proportions of G1, G2, and G4 forms are highly variable in different brain areas. We did not observe any glycolipid-anchored G2 form, which would be derived from an H subunit. We expressed the cloned rat AChE in COS cells: The transfected cells produce principally an amphiphilic G1a form, together with amphiphilic G2a and G4a forms, and a nonamphiphilic G4na form. The amphiphilic G1a and G2a forms correspond to type II forms, which are predominant in muscle and brain of higher vertebrates. The cells also release G4na, G2a, and G1a in the culture medium. These experiments show that all the forms observed in the CNS in vivo may be obtained from the T subunit. By co-transfecting COS cells with the rat T subunit and the Torpedo collagenic subunit, we obtained chimeric collagen-tailed forms. This cross-species complementarity demonstrates that the interaction domains of the catalytic and structural subunits are highly conserved during evolution.
ESTHER : Legay_1993_J.Neurochem_60_337
PubMedSearch : Legay_1993_J.Neurochem_60_337
PubMedID: 8417155
Gene_locus related to this paper: ratno-ACHE

Title : A conformation-dependent monoclonal antibody against active chicken acetylcholinesterase - Chatel_1993_FEBS.Lett_319_12
Author(s) : Chatel JM , Vallette FM , Massoulie J , Grassi J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 319 :12 , 1993
Abstract : We show that the C-131 monoclonal antibody, directed against chicken AChE, recognizes active chicken AChE, but not the SDS-denatured or heat-inactivated protein. Previous results indicated that C-131 only binds to the active enzyme, and not to inactive molecules which also occur in the embryonic chicken brain. In contrast with C-131, other monoclonal antibodies obtained in the same series, such as C-6 and C-54, also recognize denatured or inactive AChE. It is noteworthy that these antibodies all seem to react with a trypsin-sensitive peptide which is present in chicken but not in mammalian or Torpedo AChE, whereas the C-131 antibody binds trypsin-modified as well as intact molecules. These results show that C-131 is highly conformation-dependent, specific for active AChE. They confirm our previous conclusion that active and inactive molecules arise from different folding processes.
ESTHER : Chatel_1993_FEBS.Lett_319_12
PubMedSearch : Chatel_1993_FEBS.Lett_319_12
PubMedID: 8454042

Title : Existence of an inactive pool of acetylcholinesterase in chicken brain - Chatel_1993_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_90_2476
Author(s) : Chatel JM , Grassi J , Frobert Y , Massoulie J , Vallette FM
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 90 :2476 , 1993
Abstract : We analyzed acetylcholinesterase (AcChoEase; EC 3.1.1.7) activity and AcChoEase immunoreactive protein in chicken brain by using five monoclonal antibodies raised against chicken AcChoEase. Four of them specifically recognized AcChoEase catalytic subunits in Western blots and one, C-131, recognized only enzymatically active AcChoEase. We observed considerable differences in the ratio of immunoreactive protein to catalytic activity in various fractions, indicating the existence of inactive AcChoEase protein. This inactive AcChoEase component was more abundant in a low-salt-soluble extract than in a subsequent detergent-soluble extract. On the basis of the ratio between activity and immunoreactivity, we calculated that the inactive component represents about 30% of the total AcChoEase subunits in chicken brain. The immunoreactive AcChoEase protein sedimented in sucrose gradients like the active molecular forms; the G1 and G2 peaks contained inactive molecules, whereas the G4 peak appeared to contain only active AcChoEase. The bulk of inactive AcChoEase reacted with the organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonothioate (MTP) but was found to bind the active site affinity ligand N-methylacridinium poorly and was not recognized by the active-form-specific monoclonal antibody, C-131. In addition, most of this fraction is sensitive to endoglycosidase H and binds the lectin wheat germ agglutinin poorly, suggesting that it was not processed in the Golgi apparatus. From these observations, we propose that the active and inactive AcChoEase components are differently folded.
ESTHER : Chatel_1993_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_90_2476
PubMedSearch : Chatel_1993_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_90_2476
PubMedID: 8460161

Title : Molecular and cellular biology of cholinesterases -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Pezzementi L , Bon S , Krejci E , Vallette FM
Ref : Prog Neurobiol , 41 :31 , 1993
PubMedID: 8321908

Title : Structure and functions of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Sussman JL , Bon S , Silman I
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 98 :139 , 1993
PubMedID: 8248501

Title : Expression of a cDNA encoding the glycolipid-anchored form of rat acetylcholinesterase - Legay_1993_FEBS.Lett_315_163
Author(s) : Legay C , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 315 :163 , 1993
Abstract : We amplified by PCR and characterized a fragment of cDNA from rat spleen, encoding the distinctive C-terminal region of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) H subunit. A recombinant vector encoding this subunit was constructed and expressed in COS cells: the H subunits produced glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored dimers, showing that the spleen cDNA fragment contained a functional GPI cleavage/attachment site. Using PCR, we did not detect mRNAs encoding AChE H in rat muscle or hypothalamus. In the liver of 16-day rat embryos, we found both H and T transcripts, in agreement with the presence of both GPI-anchored dimers and amphiphilic monomers of type II. In addition, we detected 'read-through' (R) transcripts, in which regular introns are spliced, but the intervening sequence between the common exon 4 and the alternative exon 5 (H) is maintained.
ESTHER : Legay_1993_FEBS.Lett_315_163
PubMedSearch : Legay_1993_FEBS.Lett_315_163
PubMedID: 8417973

Title : Recommendations for Nomenclature in Cholinesterases -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Sussman JL
Ref : In Multidisciplinary approaches to cholinesterase functions - Proceedings of Fourth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Shafferman, A. and Velan, B., Eds) Plenum Press, New York :285 , 1992
PubMedID:

Title : H and T subunits of acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo, expressed in COS cells, generate all types of globular forms - Duval_1992_J.Cell.Biol_118_641
Author(s) : Duval N , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Cell Biology , 118 :641 , 1992
Abstract : We analyzed the production of Torpedo marmorata acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in transfected COS cells. We report that the presence of an aspartic acid at position 397, homologous to that observed in other cholinesterases and related enzymes (Krejci, E., N. Duval, A. Chatonnet, P. Vincens, and J. Massouli. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:6647-6651), is necessary for catalytic activity. The presence of an asparagine in the previously reported cDNA sequence (Sikorav, J.L., E. Krejci, and J. Massouli. 1987. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 6:1865-1873) was most likely due to a cloning error (codon AAC instead of GAC). We expressed the T and H subunits of Torpedo AChE, which differ in their COOH-terminal region and correspond respectively to the collagen-tailed asymmetric forms and to glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored dimers of Torpedo electric organs, as well as a truncated T subunit (T delta), lacking most of the COOH-terminal peptide. The transfected cells synthesized similar amounts of AChE immunoreactive protein at 37 degrees and 27 degrees C. However AChE activity was only produced at 27 degrees C and, even at this temperature, only a small proportion of the protein was active. We analyzed the molecular forms of active AChE produced at 27 degrees C. The H polypeptides generated glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored dimers, resembling the corresponding natural AChE form. The cells also released non-amphiphilic dimers G2na. The T polypeptides generated a series of active forms which are not produced in Torpedo electric organs: G1a, G2a, G4a, and G4na cellular forms and G2a and G4na secreted forms. The amphiphilic forms appeared to correspond to type II forms (Bon, S., J. P. Toutant, K. Mflah, and J. Massouli. 1988. J. Neurochem. 51:776-785; Bon, S., J. P. Toutant, K. Mflah, and J. Massouli. 1988. J. Neurochem. 51:786-794), which are abundant in the nervous tissue and muscles of higher vertebrates (Bon, S., T. L. Rosenberry, and J. Massouli. 1991. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 11:157-172). The H and T catalytic subunits are thus sufficient to account for all types of known AChE forms. The truncated T delta subunit yielded only non-amphiphilic monomers, demonstrating the importance of the T COOH-terminal peptide in the formation of oligomers, and in the hydrophobic character of type II forms.
ESTHER : Duval_1992_J.Cell.Biol_118_641
PubMedSearch : Duval_1992_J.Cell.Biol_118_641
PubMedID: 1639848

Title : Molecular architecture of acetylcholinesterase collagen-tailed forms\; construction of a glycolipid-tailed tetramer - Duval_1992_EMBO.J_11_3255
Author(s) : Duval N , Krejci E , Grassi J , Coussen F , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : EMBO Journal , 11 :3255 , 1992
Abstract : Asymmetric forms of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are produced in COS cells by the simultaneous expression of collagenic subunits (Q) and catalytic T subunits (AChET). Truncated AChET delta subunits, from which most of the C-terminal peptide (TC) had been deleted by mutagenesis, did not associate with Q subunits. The TC peptide is therefore necessary for the association of the AChET and Q subunits. In order to determine the orientation of the Q subunit in the collagen-tailed forms, we have developed an antiserum against its non-collagenic C-terminal domain, expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. This antiserum, which recognized the Q subunit in Western blots, was found to react with intact asymmetric forms, but not with collagenase-treated forms, from which the distal part of the tail had been cleaved, suggesting that the N-terminal non-collogenic domain (QN) is responsible for the interaction with the AChET subunits. This was confirmed by creating a chimeric subunit (QN/HC), in which QN was linked to the C-terminal peptide of the H subunit of Torpedo AChE, which contains the glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) cleavage/attachment signal: co-expression of AChET and QN/NC produced GPI-anchored tetramers, which were sensitive to PI-PLC and largely exposed to the external surface of the cells. We thus demonstrate that: (i) the HC peptide is sufficient to determine the addition of a glycolipid anchor and (ii) the QN domain is sufficient to bind a catalytic AChET tetramer by interacting with the TC peptide.
ESTHER : Duval_1992_EMBO.J_11_3255
PubMedSearch : Duval_1992_EMBO.J_11_3255
PubMedID: 1380451

Title : Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in dystrophic (mdx) mouse tissues - Oliver_1992_Neuromuscul.Disord_2_87
Author(s) : Oliver LJ , Chatel JM , Massoulie J , Vigny M , Vallette FM
Ref : Neuromuscular Disorders , 2 :87 , 1992
Abstract : We analyzed the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and its molecular forms in the tissues of normal and dystrophic (mdx) mice, at different developmental stages. We studied the brain, the heart and the serum, in addition to four predominantly fast-twitch muscles (tibialis, plantaris, gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) and the slow-twitch, soleus muscle. We found no difference between mdx and control mice in the AChE activity of the brain and the heart. The skeletal muscles affected by the disease undergo active degeneration counterbalanced by regeneration between 3 and 14 weeks after birth. The distribution of AChE patches associated with neuromuscular junctions was abnormally scattered in mdx muscles, and in some cases (tibialis and soleus), the number of endplates was more than twice that of normal muscles. There were only minor differences in the concentration and pattern of AChE molecular forms during the acute phase of muscle degeneration and regeneration. After this period, however, we observed a marked deficit in the membrane-bound G4 molecular form of AChE in adult mdx tibialis, gastrocnemius and EDL but not in the plantaris or in the soleus, as compared with their normal counterparts. Whereas the amount of AChE markedly decreased in the serum of normal mice during the first weeks of life, it remained essentially unchanged in the serum of mdx mice. It is likely that this excess of AChE activity in serum originates from the muscles. A deficit in muscle G4 was also reported in other forms of muscular dystrophy in the mouse and chicken. Since it is not correlated to the acute phase of the disease in mdx and also occurs in genetically different dystrophies, it probably represents a secondary effect of the dystrophy.
ESTHER : Oliver_1992_Neuromuscul.Disord_2_87
PubMedSearch : Oliver_1992_Neuromuscul.Disord_2_87
PubMedID: 1422203

Title : Biosynthesis of the Molecular Forms of Acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S , Anselmet A
Ref : In Multidisciplinary approaches to cholinesterase functions - Proceedings of Fourth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Shafferman, A. and Velan, B., Eds) Plenum Press, New York :17 , 1992
PubMedID:

Title : Conversion of acetylcholinesterase to butyrylcholinesterase: modeling and mutagenesis - Harel_1992_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_89_10827
Author(s) : Harel M , Sussman JL , Krejci E , Bon S , Chanal P , Massoulie J , Silman I
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 89 :10827 , 1992
Abstract : Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AcChoEase, EC 3.1.1.7) and human butyrylcholinesterase (BtChoEase, EC 3.1.1.8), while clearly differing in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors, possess 53% sequence homology; this permitted modeling human BtChoEase on the basis of the three-dimensional structure of Torpedo AcChoEase. The modeled BtChoEase structure closely resembled that of AcChoEase in overall features. However, six conserved aromatic residues that line the active-site gorge, which is a prominent feature of the AcChoEase structure, are absent in BtChoEase. Modeling showed that two such residues, Phe-288 and Phe-290, replaced by leucine and valine, respectively, in BtChoEase, may prevent entrance of butyrylcholine into the acyl-binding pocket. Their mutation to leucine and valine in AcChoEase, by site-directed mutagenesis, produced a double mutant that hydrolyzed butyrylthiocholine almost as well as acetylthiocholine. The mutated enzyme was also inhibited well by the bulky, BtChoEase-selective organophosphate inhibitor (tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, iso-OMPA). Trp-279, at the entrance of the active-site gorge in AcChoEase, is absent in BtChoEase. Modeling designated it as part of the "peripheral" anionic site, which is lacking in BtChoEase. The mutant W279A displayed strongly reduced inhibition by the peripheral site-specific ligand propidium relative to wild-type Torpedo AcChoEase, whereas inhibition by the catalytic-site inhibitor edrophonium was unaffected.
ESTHER : Harel_1992_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_89_10827
PubMedSearch : Harel_1992_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_89_10827
PubMedID: 1438284

Title : Site-directed mutagenesis of active-site-related residues in Torpedo acetylcholinesterase. Presence of a glutamic acid in the catalytic triad - Duval_1992_FEBS.Lett_309_421
Author(s) : Duval N , Bon S , Silman I , Sussman JL , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 309 :421 , 1992
Abstract : Site-directed mutagenesis was used to investigate the role of acidic amino acid residues close to the active site of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase. The recently determined atomic structure of this enzyme shows the conserved Glu-327, together with His-440 and Ser-200 as forming a catalytic triad, while the adjacent conserved Asp-326 points away from the active site. Transfection of appropriately mutated DNA into COS cells showed that the mutation of Asp-326----Asn had little effect on catalytic activity or the molecular forms expressed, suggesting no crucial structural or functional role for this residue. Mutation of Glu-327 to Gln or to Asp led to an inactive product. These results support the conclusions of the structural analysis for the two acidic residues.
ESTHER : Duval_1992_FEBS.Lett_309_421
PubMedSearch : Duval_1992_FEBS.Lett_309_421
PubMedID: 1355448

Title : Amphiphilic and nonamphiphilic forms of bovine and human dopamine beta-hydroxylase - Bon_1991_J.Neurochem_57_1100
Author(s) : Bon S , Lamouroux A , Vigny A , Massoulie J , Mallet J , Henry JP
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 57 :1100 , 1991
Abstract : We show that human and bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylases (DBH) exist under three main molecular forms: a soluble nonamphiphilic form and two amphiphilic forms. Sedimentation in sucrose gradients and electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions, by comparison with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), suggest that the three forms are tetramers of the DBH catalytic subunit and bind either no detergent, one detergent micelle, or two detergent micelles. By analogy with the Gna4 and Ga4 AChE forms, we propose to call the nonamphiphilic tetramer Dna4 and the amphiphilic tetramers Da4I and Da4II. In addition to the major tetrameric forms, DBH dimers occur as very minor species, both amphiphilic and nonamphiphilic. Reduction under nondenaturing conditions leads to a partial dissociation of tetramers into dimers, retaining their amphiphilic character. This suggests that the hydrophobic domain is not linked to the subunits through disulfide bonds. The two amphiphilic tetramers are insensitive to phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, but may be converted into soluble DBH by proteolysis in a stepwise manner; Da4II----Da4I----Dna4. Incubation of soluble DBH with various phospholipids did not produce any amphiphilic form. Several bands corresponding to the catalytic subunits of bovine DBH were observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but this multiplicity was not simply correlated with the amphiphilic character of the enzyme. In the case of human DBH, we observed two bands of 78 and 84 kDa. As previously reported by others, the presence of the heavy subunit characterizes the amphiphilic forms of the enzyme. We discuss the nature of the hydrophobic domain, which could be an uncleaved signal peptide, and the organization of the different amphiphilic and nonamphiphilic DBH forms. We present two models in which dimers may possess either one hydrophobic domain or two domains belonging to each subunit; in both cases, a single detergent micelle would be bound per dimer.
ESTHER : Bon_1991_J.Neurochem_57_1100
PubMedSearch : Bon_1991_J.Neurochem_57_1100
PubMedID: 1654385

Title : Cholinesterase-like domains in enzymes and structural proteins: functional and evolutionary relationships and identification of a catalytically essential aspartic acid - Krejci_1991_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_88_6647
Author(s) : Krejci E , Duval N , Chatonnet A , Vincens P , Massoulie J
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 88 :6647 , 1991
Abstract : Primary sequences of cholinesterases and related proteins have been systematically compared. The cholinesterase-like domain of these proteins, about 500 amino acids, may fulfill a catalytic and a structural function. We identified an aspartic acid residue that is conserved among esterases and lipases (Asp-397 in Torpedo acetylcholinesterase) but that had not been considered to be involved in the catalytic mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that this residue is necessary for activity. Analysis of evolutionary relationships shows that the noncatalytic members of the family do not constitute a separate subgroup, suggesting that loss of catalytic activity occurred independently on several occasions, probably from bifunctional molecules. Cholinesterases may thus be involved in cell-cell interactions in addition to the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. This would explain their specific expression in well-defined territories during embryogenesis before the formation of cholinergic synapses and their presence in noncholinergic tissues.
ESTHER : Krejci_1991_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_88_6647
PubMedSearch : Krejci_1991_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_88_6647
PubMedID: 1862088

Title : Regulation and Distribution of Acetylcholinesterase Molecular Forms In Vivo and In Vitro -
Author(s) : Vallette FM , De La Porte S , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases: Structure, Function, Mechanism, Genetics, and Cell Biology , (Massoulie J, Barnard EA, Chatonnet A, Bacou F, Doctor BP, Quinn DM) American Chemical Society, Washington, DC :98 , 1991
PubMedID:

Title : A comparative Raman spectroscopic study of cholinesterases - Aslanian_1991_Biochimie_73_1375
Author(s) : Aslanian D , Grof P , Bon S , Masson P , Negrerie M , Chatel JM , Balkanski M , Taylor P , Massoulie J
Ref : Biochimie , 73 :1375 , 1991
Abstract : We report Raman spectra of various cholinesterases: lytic tetrameric forms (G4) obtained by tryptic digestion of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Torpedo californica and Electrophorus electricus, a PI-PLC-treated dimeric form (G2) of AChE from T marmorata, and the soluble tetrameric form (G4) of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) from human plasma. The contribution of different types of secondary structure was estimated by analyzing the amide I band, using the method of Williams. The spectra of cholinesterases in 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0) indicate the presence of both alpha-helices (about 50%) and beta-sheets (about 25%), together with 15% turns and 10% undefined structures. In 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), the spectra indicated a smaller contribution of alpha-helical structure (about 35%) and an increased beta-sheet content (from 25 to 35%). This shows that the ionic milieu profoundly affects either the conformation of the protein (AChE activity is known to be sensitive to ionic strength), or the evaluation of secondary structure, or both. In addition, we analyzed vibrations corresponding to the side chains of aromatic and aliphatic amino acids. In particular, the analyses of the tyrosine doublet (830-850 cm-1) and of the tryptophan vibration at 880 cm-1 indicated that these residues are predominantly 'exposed' on the surface of the molecules.
ESTHER : Aslanian_1991_Biochimie_73_1375
PubMedSearch : Aslanian_1991_Biochimie_73_1375
PubMedID: 1799630

Title : Amphiphilic, glycophosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-insensitive monomers and dimers of acetylcholinesterase - Bon_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_157
Author(s) : Bon S , Rosenberry TL , Massoulie J
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 11 :157 , 1991
Abstract : 1. In a recent study, we distinguished two classes of amphiphilic AChE3 dimers in Torpedo tissues: class I corresponds to glycolipid-anchored dimers and class II molecules are characterized by their lack of sensitivity to PI-PLC and PI-PLD, relatively small shift in sedimentation with detergent, and absence of aggregation without detergent. 2. In the present report, we analyze the amphiphlic or nonamphiphilic properties of globular AChE forms in T28 murine neural cells, rabbit muscle, and chicken muscle. The molecular forms were identified by sucrose gradient sedimentation in the presence and absence of detergent and analyzed by nondenaturing charge-shift electrophoresis. Some amphiphilic forms showed an abnormal electrophoretic migration in the absence of detergent, because of the retention of detergent micelles. 3. We show that the amphiphilic monomers (G1a) from these tissues, as well as the amphiphilic dimers (G2a) from chicken muscle, resemble the class II dimers of Torpedo AChE. We cannot exclude that these molecules possess a glycolipidic anchor but suggest that their hydrophobic domain may be of a different nature. We discuss their relationship with other cholinesterase molecular forms.
ESTHER : Bon_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_157
PubMedSearch : Bon_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_157
PubMedID: 1849452

Title : Regulation of the expression of acetylcholinesterase by muscular activity in avian primary cultures - Vallette_1991_J.Neurochem_56_1518
Author(s) : Vallette FM , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 56 :1518 , 1991
Abstract : Primary cultures of avian muscle cells express both globular and asymmetric molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) when grown in a simple defined culture medium. Under these conditions, we analyzed the role of various agents interfering with muscular activity: tetrodotoxin (TTX) and veratridine, as well as a depolarizing concentration of KCl. These treatments caused the complete cessation of contractions in mature myotubes. We observed no influence on cellular AChE activity. The paralyzing treatments induced different effects on AChE secretion: TTX increased the secretion by approximately 25%, whereas KCl and veratridine reduced it by approximately 30%. The proportions of secreted molecular forms (mostly hydrophilic G4 and G2) were not modified significantly. TTX did not affect the pattern of molecular forms of cellular AChE (in particular, the proportion of A forms was not changed). Depolarization by veratridine or KCl induced an increase in the proportion of A forms in mature myotubes by a factor of 2-3. Similar results were obtained with quail myotubes cultured under the same conditions. This study shows that, in avian muscle cultures, the ionic balance across myotube membranes, rather than muscular activity per se, can regulate the level of A forms and the rate of AChE secretion. These results do not exclude the possible involvement of other factors, such as Ca2+ and/or peptidic factors. In addition, taking together our results and data from the literature. we conclude that the expression of AChE molecular forms depends both on the species and on the culture conditions used.
ESTHER : Vallette_1991_J.Neurochem_56_1518
PubMedSearch : Vallette_1991_J.Neurochem_56_1518
PubMedID: 2013753

Title : Poster: A comparative raman spectroscopic study of cholinesterases -
Author(s) : Aslanian D , Grof P , Masson P , Taylor P , Bon S , Chatel JM , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases: Structure, Function, Mechanism, Genetics, and Cell Biology , (Massoulie J, Barnard EA, Chatonnet A, Bacou F, Doctor BP, Quinn DM) American Chemical Society, Washington, DC :56 , 1991
PubMedID:

Title : Primary structure of a collagenic tail peptide of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase: co-expression with catalytic subunit induces the production of collagen-tailed forms in transfected cells - Krejci_1991_EMBO.J_10_1285
Author(s) : Krejci E , Coussen F , Duval N , Chatel JM , Legay C , Puype M , Vandekerckhove J , Cartaud J , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : EMBO Journal , 10 :1285 , 1991
Abstract : The asymmetric forms of cholinesterases are synthesized only in differentiated muscular and neural cells of vertebrates. These complex oligomers are characterized by the presence of a collagen-like tail, associated with one, two or three tetramers of catalytic subunits. The collagenic tail is responsible for ionic interactions, explaining the insertion of these molecules in extracellular basal lamina, e.g. at neuromuscular endplates. We report the cloning of a collagenic subunit from Torpedo marmorata acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The predicted primary structure contains a putative signal peptide, a proline-rich domain, a collagenic domain, and a C-terminal domain composed of proline-rich and cysteine-rich regions. Several variants are generated by alternative splicing. Apart from the collagenic domain, the AChE tail subunit does not present any homology with previously known proteins. We show that co-expression of catalytic AChE subunits and collagenic subunits results in the production of asymmetric, collagen-tailed AChE forms in transfected COS cells. Thus, the assembly of these complex forms does not depend on a specific cellular processing, but rather on the expression of the collagenic subunits.
ESTHER : Krejci_1991_EMBO.J_10_1285
PubMedSearch : Krejci_1991_EMBO.J_10_1285
PubMedID: 1840520

Title : The Structure and Significance of Multiple Cholinesterase Forms -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S , Krejci E , Coussen F , Duval N , Chatel JM , Anselmet A , Legay C , Vallette FM , Grassi J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases: Structure, Function, Mechanism, Genetics, and Cell Biology , (Massoulie J, Barnard EA, Chatonnet A, Bacou F, Doctor BP, Quinn DM) American Chemical Society, Washington, DC :2 , 1991
PubMedID:

Title : Expression and localization in the developing cerebellum of the carbohydrate epitopes revealed by Elec-39, an IgM monoclonal antibody related to HNK-1 - Kuchler_1991_Neurosci_41_551
Author(s) : Kuchler S , Zanetta JP , Bon S , Zaepfel M , Massoulie J , Vincendon G
Ref : Neuroscience , 41 :551 , 1991
Abstract : The immunochemical and immunocytochemical reactivity of an anti-carbohydrate monoclonal antibody (Elec-39), obtained against acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus electric organ, was followed during the postnatal development of the rat cerebellum. The specificity of this antibody resembles that of a family of anti-carbohydrate antibodies that includes HNK-1, L2, NC-1 and NSP-4, as well as IgMs that occur in some human neuropathies. As revealed by immunoblotting techniques, the reactivity of Elec-39 is maximum around postnatal days 10-12. At this age, the antibody reveals eight major proteins of mol. wt ranging between 14 and 150 kDa. Some of them (with mol. wts of 14, 18, 28 and 31 kDa) are transiently expressed. They correspond to previously identified glycoproteins binding to the plant lectin concanavalin A and binding also to the endogenous mannose-binding lectin CSL and endogenous membrane-bound mannose-binding lectin. In young animals, an important staining with the Elec-39 antibody can be observed on postmitotic precursors of granule cells, on astrocyte processes in the external granular layer, on newly formed parallel fibres and on unmyelinated axons of the white matter. In adult animals, the labelling is localized essentially in myelin and also in the cytoplasm of astrocytes. These results are discussed in relation to ontogenetic phenomena occurring during cerebellar development and the potential role of the carbohydrate epitope revealed with Elec-39 as a determinant in cell adhesion processes.
ESTHER : Kuchler_1991_Neurosci_41_551
PubMedSearch : Kuchler_1991_Neurosci_41_551
PubMedID: 1714552

Title : Acetylcholinesterase in cocultures of rat myotubes and spinal cord neurons: effects of collagenase and cis-hydroxyproline on molecular forms, intra- and extracellular distribution, and formation of patches at neuromuscular contacts - Vallette_1990_J.Neurochem_54_915
Author(s) : Vallette FM , De La Porte S , Koenig J , Massoulie J , Vigny M
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 54 :915 , 1990
Abstract : Cultures of rat myotubes from 18-day-old embryos produce both globular (G) and asymmetric (A) forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7), mostly G1, G4, and A12 and a small proportion of A8. We show that all forms are partly intracellular and partly exposed to the extracellular medium; the A forms and their intra- and extracellular distribution are not modified when myotubes are grown in the presence of spinal cord neurons. In these cocultures, however, AChE patches may be detected immunohistochemically at sites of neuromuscular contacts. These patches represent a very minor proportion of AChE activity. We found that collagenase removes AChE patches but not the acetylcholine receptor clusters with which they coincide. This digestion specifically decreases the level of the A12 form. cis-Hydroxyproline, an inhibitor of collagen synthesis, reduces the level of G1 and blocks the synthesis of A forms.
ESTHER : Vallette_1990_J.Neurochem_54_915
PubMedSearch : Vallette_1990_J.Neurochem_54_915
PubMedID: 2154553

Title : Subcellular distribution of acetylcholinesterase forms in chromaffin cells. Do chromaffin granules contain a specific secretory acetylcholinesterase? - Bon_1990_Eur.J.Biochem_190_221
Author(s) : Bon S , Bader MF , Aunis D , Massoulie J , Henry JP
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 190 :221 , 1990
Abstract : The presence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in chromaffin granules has been controversial for a long time. We therefore undertook a study of AChE molecular forms in chromaffin cells and of their distribution during subcellular fractionation. We characterized four main AChE forms, three amphiphilic forms (Ga1, Ga2 and Ga4), and one non-amphiphilic form (Gna4). Each form shows the same molecular characteristics (sedimentation, electrophoretic migration, lectin interactions) in the different subcellular fractions. All forms are glycosylated and seem to possess both N-linked and O-linked carbohydrate chains. There are differences in the structure of the glycans carried by the different forms, as indicated by their interaction with some lectins. Glycophosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C converted the Ga2 form, but not the other amphiphilic forms, into non-amphiphilic derivatives. The distinct patterns of AChE molecular forms observed in various subcellular compartments indicate the existence of an active sorting process. Gna4 was concentrated in fractions of high density, containing chromaffin granules. We obtained evidence for the existence of a lighter fraction also containing chromogranin A, tetrabenazine-binding sites and Gna4 AChE, which may correspond to immature, incompletely loaded granules or to partially emptied granules. The distribution of Gna4 during subcellular fractionation suggested that this form is largely, but not exclusively, contained in chromaffin granules, the membranes of which may contain low levels of the three amphiphilic forms.
ESTHER : Bon_1990_Eur.J.Biochem_190_221
PubMedSearch : Bon_1990_Eur.J.Biochem_190_221
PubMedID: 2364948

Title : NGF treatment promotes development of basal forebrain tissue grafts in the anterior chamber of the eye - Eriksdotter-Nilsson_1989_Exp.Brain.Res_74_89
Author(s) : Eriksdotter-Nilsson M , Skirboll S , Ebendal T , Hersh L , Grassi J , Massoulie J , Olson L
Ref : Experimental Brain Research , 74 :89 , 1989
Abstract : The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on developing central cholinergic neurons were studied using intraocular grafts of rat fetal (E17) basal forebrain tissue. Prior to grafting, grafts were incubated in NGF or saline. Transplants were allowed to mature for six weeks, receiving weekly intraocular injections of NGF or saline. Measurements of NGF levels in oculo after one single injection showed that NGF slowly decreases in the anterior chamber fluid, and after one week, low but significant levels were still present in the eye. Following pretreatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), the cholinergic neurons in the grafts were analyzed using three morphological markers: antibodies to cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT), antibodies to acetylcholinesterase (AChE Ab) and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry (AChE). The transplants grew well and became vascularized within the first week. The growth of the NGF-treated basal forebrain grafts was significantly enhanced as compared to the growth of the saline-treated grafts evaluated with repeated stereomicroscopical observations directly through the cornea of the ether-anaesthetized hosts. The NGF-treated grafts contained almost twice as many cholinergic neurons seen with all the cholinergic markers used, as the saline-treated grafts. However, there was no difference in cholinergic cell density between the two groups. The morphology and size of an individual cholinergic neuron was similar in the two groups. The fiber density as evaluated with AChE-immunohistochemistry did not change after NGF-treatment. The DFP-treatment did not seem to affect the AChE-immunoreactivity since an extensive fiber network was found, whereas almost no fibers were seen using conventional AChE histochemistry. We have demonstrated that in oculo transplantation of basal forebrain is a useful model for examining in vivo effects of NGF on central cholinergic function. The marked volume increase of NGF-treated grafts and the unchanged density of cholinergic cells and terminals suggests, that NGF increases the survival of not only developing cholinergic neurons, but possibly other non-cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cells as well. These results support the notion that NGF acts as a neurotrophic factor on cholinergic and possibly non-cholinergic cells in the central nervous system.
ESTHER : Eriksdotter-Nilsson_1989_Exp.Brain.Res_74_89
PubMedSearch : Eriksdotter-Nilsson_1989_Exp.Brain.Res_74_89
PubMedID: 2924843

Title : Vertebrate Cholinesterases: Structure and Types of Interaction -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Toutant JP
Ref : Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology , 86 :167 , 1988
PubMedID:

Title : Cholinesterases: Tissue and Cellular Distribution of Molecular Forms and Their Physiological Regulation -
Author(s) : Toutant JP , Massoulie J
Ref : Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology , 86 :225 , 1988
PubMedID:

Title : Substance P-, VIP- and CGRP-like immunoreactivities coexist in a population of cholinergic postganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating sweat glands in the cat -
Author(s) : Lindh B , Haegerstrand A , Lundberg JM , Hokfelt T , Fahrenkrug J , Cuello AC , Graffi J , Massoulie J
Ref : Acta Physiologica Scandinavica , 134 :569 , 1988
PubMedID: 2471390

Title : Neuropeptide tyrosine in the rat adrenal gland--immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies - Schalling_1988_Neurosci_24_337
Author(s) : Schalling M , Seroogy K , Hokfelt T , Chai SY , Hallman H , Persson H , Larhammar D , Ericsson A , Terenius L , Graffi J , Massoulie J , Goldstein M
Ref : Neuroscience , 24 :337 , 1988
Abstract : The adrenal gland of the rat was analysed with immunohistochemistry and antisera to neuropeptide tyrosine, to the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase, phenyl-ethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, and to acetylcholinesterase and with in situ hybridization using a nick-translated 280 base pair deoxyribonucleic acid probe coding for exon 2 of the rat neuropeptide tyrosine gene. Neuropeptide tyrosine-like immunoreactivity was observed in three structures: chromaffin cells, medullary ganglion cells and nerve fibers. The chromaffin cells were of both the noradrenaline- and adrenaline-type. The ganglion cells did not seem to contain any catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes but exhibited a strong immunoreaction for acetylcholinesterase. They were thus in all probability cholinergic neurons. In situ hybridization using the nick-translated deoxyribonucleic acid probe to rat neuropeptide tyrosine messenger ribonucleic acid revealed a very high-grain density over the ganglion cells, a moderate density over the chromaffin cells and a low background over cortex, in agreement with the immuno-histochemical demonstration of neuropeptide tyrosine-like immunoreactivity both in chromaffin and ganglion cells. The intense neuropeptide tyrosine-like immunoreactivity and low content of neuropeptide tyrosine messenger ribonucleic acid suggest that the chromaffin cells have fairly large peptide stores but that the peptide turnover is low. In contrast, the ganglion cell bodies seem to contain low amounts of neuropeptide tyrosine-like immunoreactivity but exhibit a high neuropeptide tyrosine synthesis rate. Preliminary studies with the amine-depleting drug reserpine revealed an increase in messenger ribonucleic acid both in ganglion cells and medullary cells. In the chromaffin cells the highest activity was seen 3 and 4 days after injection, and the levels were down to normal after 8 days. The present findings demonstrate neuropeptide tyrosine synthesis and storage in two cell populations in the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization with its cellular resolution can provide information on possible differential effects of drugs and experimental procedures on these two neuropeptide tyrosine stores.
ESTHER : Schalling_1988_Neurosci_24_337
PubMedSearch : Schalling_1988_Neurosci_24_337
PubMedID: 2897091

Title : Effects of glycyl-L-glutamine in vitro on the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in the preganglionically denervated superior cervical ganglion of the cat - Koelle_1988_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_85_1686
Author(s) : Koelle GB , Massoulie J , Eugene D , Melone MA
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 85 :1686 , 1988
Abstract : Normal and preganglionically denervated cat superior cervical ganglia were sectioned and cultured for 24 or 48 hr, with or without preliminary inactivation of acetylcholinesterase, and in the presence or absence of 10(-5) M glycyl-L-glutamine. They were then homogenized, and the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. We observed an increased proportion of the globular monomeric G1 form, and to a lesser extent of the dimeric G2 and tetrameric membranous G4 forms, of acetylcholinesterase in the glycyl-L-glutamine-treated compared with the control cultures. There was only a small increase in the total acetylcholinesterase activity and no significant variation in the activity of the metabolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. It therefore seems likely that glycyl-L-glutamine, or the endogenous neurotrophic factor, maintains acetylcholinesterase in the preganglionically denervated ganglia in vivo by specifically increasing the biosynthesis of the monomeric G1 form, but not that of other proteins; these trophic factors do not seem to promote the polymerization of G1 into the more complex G2 and G4 forms.
ESTHER : Koelle_1988_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_85_1686
PubMedSearch : Koelle_1988_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_85_1686
PubMedID: 3422756

Title : Complex alternative splicing of acetylcholinesterase transcripts in Torpedo electric organ\; primary structure of the precursor of the glycolipid-anchored dimeric form - Sikorav_1988_EMBO.J_7_2983
Author(s) : Sikorav JL , Duval N , Anselmet A , Bon S , Krejci E , Legay C , Osterlund M , Reimund B , Massoulie J
Ref : EMBO Journal , 7 :2983 , 1988
Abstract : In this paper, we show the existence of alternative splicing in the 3' region of the coding sequence of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE). We describe two cDNA structures which both diverge from the previously described coding sequence of the catalytic subunit of asymmetric (A) forms (Schumacher et al., 1986; Sikorav et al., 1987). They both contain a coding sequence followed by a non-coding sequence and a poly(A) stretch. Both of these structures were shown to exist in poly(A)+ RNAs, by S1 mapping experiments. The divergent region encoded by the first sequence corresponds to the precursor of the globular dimeric form (G2a), since it contains the expected C-terminal amino acids, Ala-Cys. These amino acids are followed by a 29 amino acid extension which contains a hydrophobic segment and must be replaced by a glycolipid in the mature protein. Analyses of intact G2a AChE showed that the common domain of the protein contains intersubunit disulphide bonds. The divergent region of the second type of cDNA consists of an adjacent genomic sequence, which is removed as an intron in A and Ga mRNAs, but may encode a distinct, less abundant catalytic subunit. The structures of the cDNA clones indicate that they are derived from minor mRNAs, shorter than the three major transcripts which have been described previously (14.5, 10.5 and 5.5 kb). Oligonucleotide probes specific for the asymmetric and globular terminal regions hybridize with the three major transcripts, indicating that their size is determined by 3'-untranslated regions which are not related to the differential splicing leading to A and Ga forms.
ESTHER : Sikorav_1988_EMBO.J_7_2983
PubMedSearch : Sikorav_1988_EMBO.J_7_2983
PubMedID: 3181125

Title : Amphiphilic and nonamphiphilic forms of Torpedo cholinesterases: I. Solubility and aggregation properties - Bon_1988_J.Neurochem_51_776
Author(s) : Bon S , Toutant JP , Meflah K , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 51 :776 , 1988
Abstract : We report an analysis of the solubility and hydrophobic properties of the globular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) from various Torpedo tissues. We distinguish globular nonamphiphilic forms (Gna) from globular amphiphilic forms (Ga). The Ga forms bind micelles of detergent, as indicated by the following properties. They are converted by mild proteolysis into nonamphiphilic derivatives. Their Stokes radius in the presence of Triton X-100 is approximately 2 nm greater than that of their lytic derivatives. The G2a forms fall in two classes. Class I contains molecules that aggregate in the absence of detergent, when mixed with an AChE-depleted Triton X-100 extract from electric organ. AChE G2a forms from electric organs, nerves, skeletal muscle, and erythrocyte membranes correspond to this type, which is also detectable in detergent-soluble (DS) extracts of electric lobes and spinal cord. Class II forms never aggregate but only present a slight shift in sedimentation coefficient, in the presence or absence of detergent. This class contains the AChE G2a forms of plasma and of the low-salt-soluble (LSS) fractions from spinal cord and electric lobes. The heart possesses a BCHE G2a form of class II in LSS extracts, as well as a similar G1a form. G4a forms of AChE, which are solubilized only in the presence of detergent and aggregate in the absence of detergent, represent a large proportion of cholinesterase in DS extracts of nerves and spinal cord, together with a smaller component of G4a BCHE. These forms may be converted to nonamphiphilic derivatives by Pronase. Nonaggregating G4a forms exist at low levels in the plasma (BCHE) and in LSS extracts of nerves (BCHE) and spinal cord (AChE).
ESTHER : Bon_1988_J.Neurochem_51_776
PubMedSearch : Bon_1988_J.Neurochem_51_776
PubMedID: 3411326

Title : Amphiphilic and nonamphiphilic forms of Torpedo cholinesterases: II. Electrophoretic variants and phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C-sensitive and -insensitive forms - Bon_1988_J.Neurochem_51_786
Author(s) : Bon S , Toutant JP , Meflah K , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 51 :786 , 1988
Abstract : We report an electrophoretic analysis of the hydrophobic properties of the globular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) from various Torpedo tissues. In charge-shift electrophoresis, the rate of electrophoretic migration of globular amphiphilic forms (Ga) is increased at least twofold when the anionic detergent deoxycholate is added to Triton X-100, whereas that of globular nonamphiphilic forms (Gna) is not modified. The G2a forms of the first class, as defined by their aggregation properties, are converted to nonamphiphilic derivatives by phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and human serum phospholipase D (PLD). AChE G2a forms from electric organs, nerves, skeletal muscle, and erythrocyte membranes correspond to this type, which also exists in very small quantities in detergent-solubilized extracts of electric lobes and spinal cord. They present different electrophoretic mobilities, so that each of these tissues contains a distinct "electromorph," or two in the case of electric organs. The G2a forms of the second class (AChE in plasma, BCHE in heart), as well as G4a forms of AChE and BCHE, are insensitive to PI-PLC and PLD but may be converted to nonamphiphilic derivatives by Pronase.
ESTHER : Bon_1988_J.Neurochem_51_786
PubMedSearch : Bon_1988_J.Neurochem_51_786
PubMedID: 3411327

Title : Monoclonal antibodies against acetylcholinesterase from electric organs of Electrophorus and Torpedo - Musset_1987_Biochimie_69_147
Author(s) : Musset F , Frobert Y , Grassi J , Vigny M , Boulla G , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Biochimie , 69 :147 , 1987
Abstract : We studied the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from Electrophorus and Torpedo electric organs. We obtained IgG antibodies (Elec-21, Elec-106, Tor-3E5, Tor-ME8, Tor-1A5), all of them directed against the catalytic subunit of the corresponding species, with no significant cross-reactivity. These antibodies do not inhibit the enzyme and recognize all molecular forms, globular (G) and asymmetric (A). Tor-ME8 reacts specifically with the denatured A and G subunits of Torpedo AChE, in immunoblots. Several hybridomas raised against Electrophorus AChE produced IgM antibodies (Elec-39, Elec-118, Elec-121). These antibodies react with the A forms of Electrophorus electric organs and also with a subset of dimers (G2) from Torpedo electric organ. In addition, they react with a number of non-AChE components, in immunoblots. In contrast, they do not recognize AChE from other Electrophorus tissues or A forms from Torpedo electric organs.
ESTHER : Musset_1987_Biochimie_69_147
PubMedSearch : Musset_1987_Biochimie_69_147
PubMedID: 3105603

Title : Distributions of molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in nervous tissue of the cat - Koelle_1987_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_84_7749
Author(s) : Koelle GB , Massoulie J , Eugene D , Melone MA , Boulla G
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 84 :7749 , 1987
Abstract : We analyzed the activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and of the metabolic enzymes enolase and lactate dehydrogenase, in the superior cervical ganglion, ciliary ganglion, dorsal root ganglion, stellate ganglion, and caudate nucleus of the cat; we found that these tissues possess very different levels of enzymic activities. The proportions of the alpha alpha, alpha gamma, and gamma gamma enolase isozymes are also quite variable. We particularly studied the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, in normal tissues and in preganglionically denervated SCG, in comparison with earlier histochemical findings. The results are consistent with the premise that the G1 (globular monomer) forms of both enzymes are located in the cytoplasm, the G4 (globular tetramer) forms are at the plasma membranes, and the A12 (collagen-tailed, asymmetric dodecamer) form of acetylcholinesterase is at synaptic sites.
ESTHER : Koelle_1987_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_84_7749
PubMedSearch : Koelle_1987_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_84_7749
PubMedID: 3478723

Title : An immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody, recognizing a subset of acetylcholinesterase molecules from electric organs of Electrophorus and Torpedo, belongs to the HNK-1 anti-carbohydrate family - Bon_1987_J.Neurochem_49_1720
Author(s) : Bon S , Meflah K , Musset F , Grassi J , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 49 :1720 , 1987
Abstract : An immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibody (mAb Elec-39), obtained against asymmetric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Electrophorus electric organs, also reacts with a fraction of globular AChE (amphiphilic G2 form) from Torpedo electric organs. This antibody does not react with asymmetric AChE from Torpedo electric organs or with the enzyme from other tissues of Electrophorus or Torpedo. The corresponding epitope is removed by endoglycosidase F, showing that it is a carbohydrate. The subsets of Torpedo G2 that react or do not react with Elec-39 (Elec-39+ and Elec-39-) differ in their electrophoretic mobility under nondenaturing conditions; the Elec-39+ component also binds the lectins from Pisum sativum and Lens culinaris. Whereas the Elec-39- component is present at the earliest developmental stages examined, an Elec-39+ component becomes distinguishable only around the 70-mm stage. Its proportion increases progressively, but later than the rapid accumulation of the total G2 form. In immunoblots, mAb Elec-39 recognizes a number of proteins other than AChE from various tissues of several species. The specificity of Elec-39 resembles that of a family of anti-carbohydrate antibodies that includes HNK-1, L2, NC-1, NSP-4, as well as IgMs that occur in human neuropathies. Although some human neuropathy IgMs that recognize the myelin-associated glycoprotein did not react with Elec-39+ AChE, mAbs HNK-1, NC-1, and NSP-4 showed the same selectivity as Elec-39 for Torpedo G2 AChE, but differed in the formation of immune complexes.
ESTHER : Bon_1987_J.Neurochem_49_1720
PubMedSearch : Bon_1987_J.Neurochem_49_1720
PubMedID: 2445915

Title : cDNA sequences of Torpedo marmorata acetylcholinesterase: primary structure of the precursor of a catalytic subunit\; existence of multiple 5'-untranslated regions - Sikorav_1987_EMBO.J_6_1865
Author(s) : Sikorav JL , Krejci E , Massoulie J
Ref : EMBO Journal , 6 :1865 , 1987
Abstract : cDNA clones coding for a catalytic subunit of acetylcholinesterase were isolated from cDNA libraries constructed from Torpedo marmorata electric organ. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNAs codes for a 599-amino acid precursor containing a 24-amino acid signal peptide. This primary structure has been compared with the sequences of Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogasta acetylcholinesterases, and with that of human butyrylcholinesterase. Genomic blot experiments carried out with cDNA restriction fragments used as hybridization probes are in agreement with the existence of a single gene coding for the different catalytic subunits of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase. Unexpectedly, we observed multiple 5'-untranslated regions, which may contain several initiation codons.
ESTHER : Sikorav_1987_EMBO.J_6_1865
PubMedSearch : Sikorav_1987_EMBO.J_6_1865
PubMedID: 2820709
Gene_locus related to this paper: torma-ACHE

Title : Polymorphism of Cholinesterase: Possible Insertion of the Various Molecular Forms in Cellular Structures -
Author(s) : Massoulie J
Ref : Advances in Behavioral Biology , 30 :727 , 1986
PubMedID:

Title : [Prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects. Value of electrophoresis of cholinesterases]. [French] - Muller_1986_Presse.Med_15_783
Author(s) : Muller F , Cedard L , Boue J , Giraudet P , Massoulie J , Boue A
Ref : Presse Med , 15 :783 , 1986
Abstract : Cholinesterase electrophoresis was performed in 802 amniotic fluids and its value in the detection of neural tube defects was compared with those of ultrasonography and amniotic fluid alpha-foetoprotein levels. Cholinesterase electrophoresis confirmed the ultrasonic diagnosis in 51 cases of neural tube abnormality and made it possible to diagnose neural tube defect in 6 other cases which had remained undetected by ultrasound and by alpha-foetoprotein level measurements. When our technique is used before the 28th week of gestation, false-positive results concern abnormalities which are easily detected by ultrasound (omphalocele, Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome, sacrococcygeal tumour). We did not observe any false-negative result.
ESTHER : Muller_1986_Presse.Med_15_783
PubMedSearch : Muller_1986_Presse.Med_15_783
PubMedID: 2423998

Title : Molecular forms and solubility of acetylcholinesterase during the embryonic development of rat and human brain - Muller_1985_Brain.Res_331_295
Author(s) : Muller F , Dumez Y , Massoulie J
Ref : Brain Research , 331 :295 , 1985
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) form homologous sets of multiple molecular forms. The central nervous system of mammals contains mostly tetramers (G4) and monomers (G1). Their proportions have been shown to vary during maturation in rat brain. In order to examine whether a similar evolution occurs in the human, we performed parallel studies of the activity, solubility and molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in rat and human brains at various stages. We find both similarities and differences: in rat brain, the enzyme increases mostly postnatally but in human brain acetylcholinesterase reaches a maximum at birth. There is an increase in the proportion of G4 and a decrease in the solubility of this from in the absence of detergent in human as well as in rat brain. These changes occur around birth in rat, but during early pregnancy, before 11 weeks in human brain. In both species, the solubility of the enzyme in detergent-free buffers decreases progressively from more than 50% before birth to about 10-20% in the adult. In addition we analyzed butyrylcholinesterase as well as the levels of the neuron-specific enolase and of the glial S-100 protein. In human, gamma gamma-enolase rises to its adult level after birth, but before the S-100 protein.
ESTHER : Muller_1985_Brain.Res_331_295
PubMedSearch : Muller_1985_Brain.Res_331_295
PubMedID: 3986571

Title : Proteolytic digestion patterns of soluble and detergent-soluble bovine caudate nucleus acetylcholinesterases - Marsh_1985_J.Neurochem_44_1602
Author(s) : Marsh DJ , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 44 :1602 , 1985
Abstract : The structures of purified "soluble" and "detergent-soluble" bovine caudate nucleus acetylcholinesterases were compared by peptide mapping on polyacrylamide gels. The digestion products generated from the two acetylcholinesterases on proteolysis by a given protease (Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, alpha-chymotrypsin, or papain) are remarkably similar as judged from the electrophoretic band patterns. We conclude that the "soluble" and "detergent-soluble" acetylcholinesterases from bovine caudate nucleus share a common evolutionary origin.
ESTHER : Marsh_1985_J.Neurochem_44_1602
PubMedSearch : Marsh_1985_J.Neurochem_44_1602
PubMedID: 3989553

Title : Stimulation of denervated rat soleus muscle with fast and slow activity patterns induces different expression of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms - Lomo_1985_J.Neurosci_5_1180
Author(s) : Lomo T , Massoulie J , Vigny M
Ref : Journal of Neuroscience , 5 :1180 , 1985
Abstract : The relative amount and distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) molecular forms were studied in slow soleus and (less extensively) in fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the rat before and after denervation and direct stimulation. Normal EDL muscles showed higher total and specific AChE activity than normal soleus muscles and contained essentially three different molecular AChE forms (G1, G4, and A12) as opposed to six forms (G1, G2, G4, A4, A8, and A12) in the soleus. Denervation reduced AChE activity in both muscles. In the soleus direct stimulation starting 2 to 3 weeks after denervation increased the specific AChE activity markedly. The increase started 12 to 24 hr after the onset of stimulation, reached 3 to 5 times normal values after 2 to 7 days, and then declined gradually toward normal values over the next 2 weeks. Furthermore, the effect on the different molecular forms depended strongly on the stimulus pattern. Thus, intermittent 100 Hz stimulation (fast pattern) induced essentially the three forms typical of the normal EDL, whereas continuous 10 Hz stimulation induced the six forms characteristic of normal soleus muscles but with some differences in their relative proportions. In the EDL, 2 days of continuous 10 Hz stimulation (the only duration and pattern examined) failed to induce a similar increase in AChE activity.
ESTHER : Lomo_1985_J.Neurosci_5_1180
PubMedSearch : Lomo_1985_J.Neurosci_5_1180
PubMedID: 3998815

Title : Polymorphism of pseudocholinesterase in Torpedo marmorata tissues: comparative study of the catalytic and molecular properties of this enzyme with acetylcholinesterase - Toutant_1985_J.Neurochem_44_580
Author(s) : Toutant JP , Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 44 :580 , 1985
Abstract : We report the existence, in Torpedo marmorata tissues, of a cholinesterase species (sensitive to 10(-5) M eserine) that differs from acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) in several respects: (a) The enzyme hydrolyzes butyrylthiocholine (BuSCh) at about 30% of the rate at which it hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine (AcSCh), whereas Torpedo AChE does not show any activity on BuSCh. (b) It is not inhibited by 10(-5) M BW 284C51, but rapidly inactivated by 10(-8) M diisopropylfluorophosphonate. (c) It does not exhibit inhibition by excess substrate up to 5 X 10(-3) M AcSCh. (d) It does not cross-react with anti-AChE antibodies raised against purified Torpedo AChE. This enzyme is obviously homologous to the "nonspecific" or pseudocholinesterase (pseudo-ChE, EC 3.1.1.8) that exists in other species, although it is closer to "true" AChE than classic pseudo-ChE in several respects. Thus, it shows the highest Vmax with acetyl-, and not propionyl- or butyrylthiocholine, and it is not specifically sensitive to ethopropazine. Pseudo-ChE is apparently absent from the electric organs, but represents the only cholinesterase species in the heart ventricle. Pseudo-ChE and AChE coexist in the spinal cord and in blood plasma, where they contribute to AcSCh hydrolysis in comparable proportions. Pseudo-ChE exists in several molecular forms, including collagen-tailed forms, which can be considered as homologous to those of AChE. In the heart the major component of pseudo-ChE appears to be a soluble monomeric form (G1). This form is inactivated by Triton X-100 within days.
ESTHER : Toutant_1985_J.Neurochem_44_580
PubMedSearch : Toutant_1985_J.Neurochem_44_580
PubMedID: 2578181

Title : Isolation of a cDNA clone for a catalytic subunit of Torpedo marmorata acetylcholinesterase - Sikorav_1985_FEBS.Lett_193_159
Author(s) : Sikorav JL , Vallette FM , Grassi J , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 193 :159 , 1985
Abstract : We have constructed a cDNA library from Torpedo marmorata electric organ poly(A+) RNA in the lambda phage expression vector lambda gt11. This library has been screened with polyclonal anti-acetylcholinesterase antibodies. One clone, lambda AChE1, produced a fusion protein which was recognized by the antibodies and which prevented the binding of native acetylcholinesterase in an enzymatic immune assay. These results indicate that lambda AChE1 contains a cDNA insert coding for a part of a catalytic subunit of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase. The 200-base-pair cDNA insert hybridized to three mRNAs (14.5, 10.5 and 5.5 kb) from Torpedo electric organs. These mRNAs were also detected in Torpedo electric lobes.
ESTHER : Sikorav_1985_FEBS.Lett_193_159
PubMedSearch : Sikorav_1985_FEBS.Lett_193_159
PubMedID: 2415396

Title : The polymorphism of cholinesterases: classification of molecular forms\; Interactions and solubilization characteristics metabolic relationships and regulations -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S , Lazar M , Grassi J , Marsh D , Meflah K , Toutant JP , Vallette FM , Vigny M
Ref : In: Cholinesterases, fundamental and applied aspects : proceedings of the Second International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Brzin M, Barnard EA, Sket D, Eds) De Gruyter :73 , 1984
PubMedID:

Title : Action of veratridine on acetylcholinesterase in cultures of rat muscle cells - De La Porte_1984_Dev.Biol_106_450
Author(s) : De La Porte S , Vigny M , Massoulie J , Koenig J
Ref : Developmental Biology , 106 :450 , 1984
Abstract : Studies on cultures of embryonic rat muscle cells have suggested that the presence of collagen-tailed forms may be correlated with spontaneous contractile activity: these forms disappear in the presence of tetrodotoxin which blocks the sodium channels involved in the propagation of action potentials. The effect of veratridine, a drug which maintains the sodium channels in the open state, was studied. It is shown here that in young cultures veratridine provoked a dramatic increase in total acetylcholinesterase activity and changed the distribution of the molecular forms of the enzyme, increasing the proportion and absolute amount of the A12 form. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of this drug, the effects of various ions, ionophores, or other agents that modify the ionic permeabilities of membranes were also investigated.
ESTHER : De La Porte_1984_Dev.Biol_106_450
PubMedSearch : De La Porte_1984_Dev.Biol_106_450
PubMedID: 6437894

Title : Poster 15. An Immunological study of mammalian acetylcholinesterase using anti-rat serum -
Author(s) : Grassi J , Marsh D , Vigny M , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases, fundamental and applied aspects : proceedings of the Second International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Brzin M, Barnard EA, Sket D, Eds) De Gruyter , 1984
PubMedID:

Title : Poster 24 Relationship of collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase with basal lamina components: Absence of binding with laminin, fibronectin and collagens type IV and V and lack of reactivity with different anti-collagen antisera -
Author(s) : Grassi J , Massoulie J , Timpl R
Ref : In: Cholinesterases, fundamental and applied aspects : proceedings of the Second International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Brzin M, Barnard EA, Sket D, Eds) De Gruyter , 1984
PubMedID:

Title : Poster 25. Intracellular and extracellular molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in primary cultures of chick embryo myotubes -
Author(s) : Vallette FM , Massoulie J
Ref : In: Cholinesterases, fundamental and applied aspects : proceedings of the Second International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Brzin M, Barnard EA, Sket D, Eds) De Gruyter , 1984
PubMedID:

Title : Heavy isotope-labeling study of the metabolism of monomeric and tetrameric acetylcholinesterase forms in the murine neuronal-like T 28 hybrid cell line - Lazar_1984_J.Biol.Chem_259_3703
Author(s) : Lazar M , Salmeron E , Vigny M , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 259 :3703 , 1984
Abstract : We have used the method of heavy isotope labeling to study the metabolic turnover of acetylcholinesterase forms in the neuroblastoma-derived T 28 hybrid cells in their differentiated state. These cells contain mostly G1 and G4 forms, together with a small proportion of G2, and secrete all these forms into the culture medium. The cells maintained constant and equal levels of acetylcholinesterase, with the same proportions of molecular forms, in a medium containing heavy isotope-labeled amino acids and in a control light medium of similar composition. In addition, they secreted acetylcholinesterase at the same rate in both media. After transfer of the cells into the heavy medium, heavy isotope-labeled acetylcholinesterase molecules progressively replace preexisting light molecules. We analyzed heavy and light components of acetylcholinesterase for each of the two major G1 and G4 forms, by reconstructing the pattern obtained in sucrose gradient differential sedimentation, using combinations of weighted elementary distributions. Heavy molecules were detected in cellular extracts after about 30 min for G1 and 3 h for G4. Both heavy forms also appeared in the medium after a lag of about 3 h. The cellular complement of G1 was renewed much faster than that of G4, the levels of the light forms being reduced to 50% of the original level after 3.5 and 40 h, respectively. Each of these forms appeared to consist of several metabolic pools, and we present simplified models which describe their possible relationships.
ESTHER : Lazar_1984_J.Biol.Chem_259_3703
PubMedSearch : Lazar_1984_J.Biol.Chem_259_3703
PubMedID: 6706975

Title : Interactions with lectins indicate differences in the carbohydrate composition of the membrane-bound enzymes acetylcholinesterase and 5'-nucleotidase in different cell types - Meflah_1984_Biochimie_66_59
Author(s) : Meflah K , Bernard S , Massoulie J
Ref : Biochimie , 66 :59 , 1984
Abstract : We have examined the interactions of the membrane-bound enzymes, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase from bovine tissues with lectins and shown that glycosylation contributes significantly to the polymorphism of these enzymes, in a tissue-specific manner. Lectins which bind 5'-nucleotidase also inhibit its catalytic activity to various degrees. We found different specificities with 5'-nucleotidases from various cell types: for example lymphocyte 5'-nucleotidase did not interact with wheat germ agglutinin, in contrast with 5'-nucleotidases from hepatocyte and caudate nucleus membranes. Treatment with glycohydrolases, alpha-D-mannosidase and neuraminidase, suggested that the latter enzymes possess sialic residues which are absent in the lymphocyte enzyme. Interactions of acetylcholinesterase with lectins were demonstrated by sedimentation analysis and binding to immobilized lectins, but its activity was generally not affected. A notable exception was lymphocyte acetylcholinesterase which was inhibited by the fucose-binding Ulex europeus agglutinin. This inhibition was relieved by alpha-L-fucose but not by alpha-D-fucose and reduced after treatment with alpha-L-fucosidase. In addition this enzyme differs from acetylcholinesterases from other tissues by its higher Km value, although it appears immunologically equivalent. The different forms of acetylcholinesterase from the same tissue may differ in their interactions with lectins. In muscle for example G4 carries carbohydrate chains of the complex type whereas G1 appears to possess only the high mannose type. We discuss the possible relationships between these forms.
ESTHER : Meflah_1984_Biochimie_66_59
PubMedSearch : Meflah_1984_Biochimie_66_59
PubMedID: 6324888

Title : An immunological study of rat acetylcholinesterase: comparison with acetylcholinesterases from other vertebrates - Marsh_1984_J.Neurochem_43_204
Author(s) : Marsh D , Grassi J , Vigny M , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 43 :204 , 1984
Abstract : We have examined the immunoreactivity of acetylcholinesterase from different vertebrate species with a rabbit antiserum raised against the purified rat brain hydrophobic enzyme (G4 form). We found no significant interaction with enzymes from Electrophorus, Torpedo, chicken, and rabbit. The antiserum reacted with acetylcholinesterases from the brains of the other mammalian species studied, with titers decreasing in the following order: rat = mouse greater than human greater than bovine. The serum was inhibitory with murine and human acetylcholinesterases, but not with the bovine enzyme. The inhibition was partially depressed in the presence of salt (e.g., 1 M NaCl). In those species whose acetylcholinesterase was recognized by the antiserum, both soluble and detergent-soluble fractions behaved in essentially the same manner, interacting with the same antibodies. The apparent immunoprecipitation titer was decreased in the presence of salt, and it did not make any difference whether NaCl was included in the solubilization procedure or added to the extracts. Both G1 and G4 forms of acetylcholinesterase in the soluble and detergent-soluble fractions were recognized by the antiserum, and in the case of the human enzyme, by monoclonal antibodies produced against human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. However, the monomer G1 showed a clear tendency to form smaller complexes and precipitate less readily than the tetramer G4. Although we cannot exclude the existence of significant differences between the various molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that they all derive from the same gene or set of genes by posttranslational modifications.
ESTHER : Marsh_1984_J.Neurochem_43_204
PubMedSearch : Marsh_1984_J.Neurochem_43_204
PubMedID: 6374038

Title : Relationship of collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase with basal lamina components. Absence of binding with laminin, fibronectin, and collagen types IV and V and lack of reactivity with different anti-collagen sera - Grassi_1983_Eur.J.Biochem_133_31
Author(s) : Grassi J , Massoulie J , Timpl R
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 133 :31 , 1983
Abstract : In view of their supposed localization in extracellular structures, such as basal lamina, we have investigated the possible interactions of collagen-tailed forms of acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus and bovine superior cervical ganglion with matrix proteins: laminin, fibronectin and types IV and V collagens. Using binding and sedimentation assays, with iodinated or non-radioactive matrix proteins, we have not observed any significant interaction, in conditions of high or low ionic strength. We also examined whether the collagen tail of acetylcholinesterase asymmetric forms possessed an immunological relationship with known collagen types (I, III, IV, V) from mammalian sources. We found no specific immunoreactivity with any of the 32 sera studied, either with the iodinated Electrophorus or with the native bovine enzyme. We conclude from these negative results that the collagen-like tail of acetylcholinesterase is clearly distinct from the classical types of collagen and that asymmetric forms of the enzyme do not interact specifically with the matrix proteins studied. This does not exclude the possibility of specific interactions with other components, remaining to be identified.
ESTHER : Grassi_1983_Eur.J.Biochem_133_31
PubMedSearch : Grassi_1983_Eur.J.Biochem_133_31
PubMedID: 6852032

Title : Comparative affinity chromatography of acetylcholinesterases from five vertebrate species - Vallette_1983_J.Chromato_257_285
Author(s) : Vallette FM , Marsh DJ , Muller F , Massoulie J , Marcot B , Viel C
Ref : Journal of Chromatography , 257 :285 , 1983
Abstract : The efficacy of N-methylacridinium affinity chromatography in the purification of acetylcholinesterases from chicken, rat, calf and human brain and from the electric organ of the electric fish Torpedo marmorata has been investigated. Retention of the enzymes on the N-methylacridinium columns exceeded 90% in all instances except for the chicken enzyme, where 40-80% retention was observed depending on the acridinium concentration. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation profiles revealed no difference between the distribution of molecular forms in the crude extracts and in the partially purified fractions eluted from the columns by decamethonium iodide.
ESTHER : Vallette_1983_J.Chromato_257_285
PubMedSearch : Vallette_1983_J.Chromato_257_285
PubMedID: 6853625

Title : Acetylcholinesterase forms in fast and slow rabbit muscle -
Author(s) : Bacou F , Vigneron P , Massoulie J
Ref : Nature , 296 :661 , 1982
PubMedID: 7070511

Title : The molecular forms of cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase in vertebrates -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : Annual Review of Neuroscience , 5 :57 , 1982
PubMedID: 6176173

Title : Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in bovine caudate nucleus and superior cervical ganglion: solubility properties and hydrophobic character -
Author(s) : Grassi J , Vigny M , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 38 :457 , 1982
PubMedID: 7108551

Title : The quaternary structure of chicken acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase\; effect of collagenase and trypsin - Allemand_1981_J.Neurochem_36_860
Author(s) : Allemand P , Bon S , Massoulie J , Vigny M
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 36 :860 , 1981
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7.; AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8.; BCHE) from chicken muscle exist as sets of structurally homologous forms with very similar properties. The collagenase sensitivity and aggregation properties of the 'heavy' forms of both enzymes indicate that they possess a collagen-like tail, and their stepwise dissociation by trypsin confirms that they correspond to triple (A12) and double (A8) collagen-tailed tetramers. In addition to this dissociating effect, trypsin digests an important fraction of the catalytic units of AChE, in a progressive manner, removing as much as 30% of the enzyme's mass, without inactivation of the tetramers and of the tailed molecules. The trypsin-modified AChE forms closely resemble the corresponding mammalian AChE forms in their hydrodynamic properties. It is not known whether the trypsin-digestible peptides, which do not appear to be involved in the ionic or hydrophobic interactions of the enzymes, are a fragment of the catalytic subunit or whether they constitute distinct polypeptides.
ESTHER : Allemand_1981_J.Neurochem_36_860
PubMedSearch : Allemand_1981_J.Neurochem_36_860
PubMedID: 6259292

Title : Collagen-tailed and hydrophobic components of acetylcholinesterase in Torpedo marmorata electric organ - Bon_1980_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_77_4464
Author(s) : Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 77 :4464 , 1980
Abstract : We have distinguished three fractions of acetylcholinesterase (AcChoE; acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) from Torpedo marmorata electric organs, according to their solubilization characteristics. The low-salt-aggregating collagen-tailed forms are soluble in high-salt buffers; their hydrodynamic properties ae not modified in the presence of detergents. They constitute the A fraction, which amounts to about a third of the tissue's AcChoE activity. The low-salt-soluble (LSS) and detergent-soluble (DS) fractions are not sensitive to ionic strength and collagenase. In the presence of nonionic detergents or bile salts, both fractions behave as a monodisperse "6.3S" form, the properties of which have been investigated mostly in the case of Triton X-100. Disulfide bond reduction dissociates the detergent form into a smaller "5S" form. These two forms are thought to be, respectively, detergent-associated dimers and monomers. In the absence of detergent, the LSS fraction is polydisperse: it contains a major 8S component, 11S and 14S components, and faster-sedimenting aggregates, which appear to represent dimers, tetramers, and higher polymers. The heterogeneity of the 8S component in gel filtration suggests that it also contains variable noncatalytic elements. Upon removal of the detergent the DS fraction forms ill-defined aggregates. Trypsin induces quaternary rearrangements of part of the 8S component into 11S and 14S components, which are still convertible into the detergent form; therefore trypsin probably digests noncatalytic elements. Pronase and proteinase K, on the other hand, convert the enzyme into a dimeric form, G2, that does not interact with detergents, probably by cleaving a minor fragment of the subunit that is involved in hydrophobic interactions.
ESTHER : Bon_1980_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_77_4464
PubMedSearch : Bon_1980_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_77_4464
PubMedID: 6933497

Title : Asymmetric and globular forms of acetylcholinesterase in mammals and birds - Bon_1979_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_76_2546
Author(s) : Bon S , Vigny M , Massoulie J
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 76 :2546 , 1979
Abstract : We have identified six molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AcChoE: acetylcholine hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) in extracts from bovine superior cervical ganglia. We show that three of them resemble the collagen-tailed forms of Electrophorus AcChoE in their hydrodynamic parameters, low-salt aggregation properties, and collagenase sensitivity. The six molecular forms of bovine AcChoE appear structurally homologous to the six forms of electric fish AcChoE that have previously been characterized. They include globular molecules (monomers, dimers, and tetramers) and asymmetric aggregating molecules that possess a collagen-like tail associated with one, two, and three tetramers. We propose to call the globular forms G1, G2, and G4 and the asymmetric forms A4, A8, and A12, the subscripts indicating the number of catalytic subunits. In spite of quantitative differences in their molecular parameters, the AcChoE forms from rat and chicken are clearly homologous to those of bovine AcChoE. Thus the nomenclature we introduce is very probably valid for the main AcChoE molecular forms, at least in vertebrates, and should help to clarify structural relationships and homologies among them. This model, however, does not claim to represent entirely the complex polymorphism of AcChoE, because more or less hydrophobic variants of the G forms have been observed, and because other molecular associations cannot be excluded. We discuss the significance of the globular and collagen-tailed structure for the molecular localization of AcChoE.
ESTHER : Bon_1979_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_76_2546
PubMedSearch : Bon_1979_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_76_2546
PubMedID: 288044

Title : The subunit structure of mammalian acetylcholinesterase: catalytic subunits, dissociating effect of proteolysis and disulphide reduction on the polymeric forms -
Author(s) : Vigny M , Bon S , Massoulie J , Gisiger V
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 33 :559 , 1979
PubMedID: 469545

Title : Distribution of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms in neural and non- neural sections of human muscle -
Author(s) : Carson S , Bon S , Vigny M , Massoulie J , Fardeau M
Ref : FEBS Letters , 97 :348 , 1979
PubMedID: 761642

Title : Biochemical characterization of muscarinic receptors: multiplicity of binding components -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Carson S , Kato G
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 49 :303 , 1979
PubMedID: 390608

Title : Active-site catalytic efficiency of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms in Electrophorus, torpedo, rat and chicken - Vigny_1978_Eur.J.Biochem_85_317
Author(s) : Vigny M , Bon S , Massoulie J , Leterrier F
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 85 :317 , 1978
Abstract : The active sites of acetylcholinesterase multiple forms from four widely different zoological species (Electrophorus, Torpedo, rat and chicken) were titrated using a stable, irreversible phosphorylating inhibitor (O-ethyl-S2-diisopropylaminoethyl methyl-phosphonothionate). In all cases, we found that within a given species, the molecular forms we examined were equivalent in their catalytic activity per active site. As pure preparations of the molecular forms of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase were available, we were able to establish that one inhibitor molecule binds per monomer unit for each of them. This had already been shown by several authors for the tetrameric globular form, but not for the tailed molecules. Analysis of the phosphorylation reaction showed that they are equally reactive. Under our experimental conditions, their turnover number per site was 4.4 x 10(7) mol of acetylthiocholine hydrolysed . h-1 at 28 degrees C, pH 7.0. The corresponding value was less than half for Torpedo (1.64 x 10(7) mol . h-1), and again lower for rat (1.32 x 10(7) mol . h-1) and chicken (1.05 x 10(7) mol . h-1). In the case of rat acetylcholinesterase, the activity per active site of solubilized (with or without Triton X-100) and membrane-bound enzyme were identical. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to the quaternary structure of acetylcholinesterase, and to the physico-chemical state and physiological properties of its molecular forms.
ESTHER : Vigny_1978_Eur.J.Biochem_85_317
PubMedSearch : Vigny_1978_Eur.J.Biochem_85_317
PubMedID: 648523

Title : The dependence of acetylcholinesterase aggregation at low ionic strength upon a polyanionic component -
Author(s) : Bon S , Cartaud J , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 85 :1 , 1978
PubMedID: 639808

Title : Dumbbell-shaped associations of tailed Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase molecules -
Author(s) : Bon S , Cartaud J , Massoulie J
Ref : Mol Biol Rep , 4 :61 , 1978
PubMedID: 642943

Title : Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase. Biochemical and electron microscope characterization of low ionic strength aggregates - Cartaud_1978_J.Cell.Biol_77_315
Author(s) : Cartaud J , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Journal of Cell Biology , 77 :315 , 1978
Abstract : The "tailed" molecules of Electrophorus (electric eel) acetylcholinesterase aggregate under conditions of low ionic strength. These aggregates have been studied by sedimentation analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy. They consist of bundles of at least half a dozen molecules, the tails of which are packed side by side, to form the core of the structure. Although aggregation is normally fully reversible, aggregates were irreversibly stabilized by methylene blue-sensitized photo-oxidation. This process was shown to consist of a singlet oxygen oxidation reaction and probably involves methionine or histidine residues. It did not modify the structural or hydrodynamic characteristics of the aggregates.
ESTHER : Cartaud_1978_J.Cell.Biol_77_315
PubMedSearch : Cartaud_1978_J.Cell.Biol_77_315
PubMedID: 649654

Title : Nonspecific cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase in rat tissues: molecular forms, structural and catalytic properties, and significance of the two enzyme systems - Vigny_1978_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_75_2588
Author(s) : Vigny M , Gisiger V , Massoulie J
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 75 :2588 , 1978
Abstract : "Nonspecific" cholinesterase (acylcholine acylhydrolase; EC 3.1.1.8) from various rat tissues has been found to exist in several stable molecular forms that appear as exact counterparts of molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine hydrolase; EC 3.1.1.7). The sedimentation pattern of cholinesterase was similar to that of acetylcholinesterase with a small but significant shift between the sedimentation coefficients of the corresponding forms. Extraction yields in different media also demonstrated a close parallelism between the two enzyme systems. Other properties, such as thermal stability and catalytic characteristics, indicated both differences and similarities. In spite of the structural resemblance implied by their physicochemical properties, cholinesterase did not crossreact with antibodies against acetylcholinesterase. The nature of the relationships revealed by these studies and their bearing on the physiological significance of cholinesterases are discussed.
ESTHER : Vigny_1978_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_75_2588
PubMedSearch : Vigny_1978_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_75_2588
PubMedID: 78492

Title : Collagenase sensitivity and aggregation properties of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase - Bon_1978_Eur.J.Biochem_89_89
Author(s) : Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 89 :89 , 1978
Abstract : Tailed forms of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase, mainly A (9 S) and C (14.2 S) forms, have been subjected to collagenase treatment. Several steps have been identified, yielding molecules which have lost different portions of the tail, and eventually resulting in separation of the isolated tetramers. These modifications result in the disappearance of the low-ionic strength aggregating properties. The molecules which have retained relatively large fragments of the tail do not aggregate in the same conditions as the intact forms, but still form small aggregates in the presence of high levels of polyanions. A model of the tailed molecules, illustrating the existence of discrete collagenase-sensitive regions in the tail, is discussed.
ESTHER : Bon_1978_Eur.J.Biochem_89_89
PubMedSearch : Bon_1978_Eur.J.Biochem_89_89
PubMedID: 212272

Title : Developmental aspects of acetylcholinesterase activity in chick brain -
Author(s) : Marchand A , Chapouthier G , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 78 :233 , 1977
PubMedID: 885247

Title : An active monomeric form of Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 67 :99 , 1976
PubMedID: 955109

Title : Torpedo marmorata acetylcholinesterase\; a comparison with the Electrophorus electricus enzyme. Molecular forms, subunits, electron microscopy, immunological relationship - Rieger_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_513
Author(s) : Rieger F , Bon S , Massoulie J , Cartaud J , Picard B , Benda P
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 68 :513 , 1976
Abstract : Electron microscopy, sequential degradation by hydrolytic enzymes and the physical-chemical properties of the molecular forms of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase indicate that these molecules are structurally related to each other in the same way as the molecular forms of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase: all are derived from a complex structure in which three tetrameric groups of subunits are associated with a rod-like 'tail'. In aged preparations the catalytic subunits are split into fragments in a manner similar to those of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase. Immunological cross-reaction between both enzymes demonstrates the occurrence of common antigenic sites. The enzymes from the two sources, however, are different in their molecular weights and susceptibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Also, Torpedo acetylcholinesterase does not precipitate with either isologous or heterologous antibodies.
ESTHER : Rieger_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_513
PubMedSearch : Rieger_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_513
PubMedID: 61859

Title : Molecular forms of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase. Molecular weight and composition - Bon_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_523
Author(s) : Bon S , Huet M , Lemonnier M , Rieger F , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 68 :523 , 1976
Abstract : Molecular weights for the series of six Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase forms have been determined either by the sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium method or, particularly in the case of the very scarce G' and G inches forms, from their Stokes radius and sedimentation coefficient values. Both methods are in excellent agreement. The results provide good evidence for the model previously proposed, G inches, G' and G containing one, two and four subunits, whereas A, C and D possess, in addition to respectively one, two and three tetrameric sets of such subunits, a structural element, the tail. Although the amino acid composition of 'tailed' and globular forms did not reveal any significant feature of this element, its mass, about 100 000 daltons, could be deduced from a comparison of molecular weights for the two classes of acetylcholinesterase forms. This value is in close agreement with electron microscopic data. The tail is thought to consist of three 30 000-dalton strands.
ESTHER : Bon_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_523
PubMedSearch : Bon_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_523
PubMedID: 976271

Title : Affinity chromatography of acetylcholinesterase. The importance of hydrophobic interactions - Massoulie_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_531
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 68 :531 , 1976
Abstract : An easily prepared affinity column for acetylcholinesterase is described, which may be operated at ionic strength high enough to prevent aggregation of the asymmetric forms of the enzyme. Specific elution by tetraethylammonium or decamethonium was quantitative. The performance of this column is comparable to that of the column described by Dudai and Silman. It is shown that the hexyl 'spacer arm' strongly participates in the enzyme binding and that its replacement with the more hydrophilic spermine chain lowers the affinity. The hexyl chain itself is shown to bind acetylcholinesterase, although with lower affinity and capacity than the complete column. This binding is also partly reversed by inhibitors. Such hydrophobic columns bind the native asymmetric forms of the enzyme more strongly than the lytic globular ones. The aromatic quaternary ligang inhibits Electrophorus but not Torpedo acetylcholinesterase; therefore the column does not retain the Torpedo enzyme. Differences in Km between acetylcholinesterases of the two species also point to differences in their active sites.
ESTHER : Massoulie_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_531
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_1976_Eur.J.Biochem_68_531
PubMedID: 976272

Title : Molecular forms of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase the catalytic subunits: fragmentation, intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bonds -
Author(s) : Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 71 :273 , 1976
PubMedID: 1001444

Title : Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Bon S , Rieger F , Vigny M
Ref : Croatica Chemica Acta , 47 :163\ , 1975
PubMedID:

Title : General discussion on models for the ligand binding sites of cholinesterase -
Author(s) : Reiner E , Aldridge WN , Hopff WH , Taylor P , Krupka RM , Rosenberry TL , Augustinsson KB , Mooser G , O'Brien RD , Brodbeck U , Massoulie J , Maricic S , Eldefrawi ME , Silman I
Ref : Croatica Chemica Acta , 47 :499 , 1975
PubMedID:

Title : Fine structure of electric ell acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Cartaud J , Rieger F , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Brain Research , 88 :127 , 1975
PubMedID: 1122392

Title : [Electron microscopic studies on stretched and globular acetylcholinesterase molecules of the electric eel (Electrophorus electricus)]. [French] -
Author(s) : Rieger F , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 34 :539 , 1973
PubMedID: 4736704

Title : [Properties of elongated acetylcholinesterase molecules in solution. Stokes radius, density, and mass]. [French] -
Author(s) : Bon S , Rieger F , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 35 :372 , 1973
PubMedID: 4736923

Title : Phospholipids in native Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Rieger F , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 36 :12 , 1973
PubMedID: 4747596

Title : Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase: a glycoprotein\; molecular weight of its subunits -
Author(s) : Powell JT , Bon S , Rieger F , Massoulie J
Ref : FEBS Letters , 36 :17 , 1973
PubMedID: 4747597

Title : [Acetylcholinesterase of muscle, spinal cord and brain in the electric eel. Demonstration and immunochemical localization of native molecular species]. [French] -
Author(s) : Tsuji S , Rieger F , Peltre G , Massoulie J , Benda P
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 19 :989 , 1972
PubMedID: 4623097

Title : [Spontaneous conversion of native acetylcholinesterasic forms of the Gymnotus electric organ, to the globular form]. [French] -
Author(s) : Rieger F , Bon S , Massoulie J
Ref : Comptes Rendus de l Academie des Sciences , 274 :1753 , 1972
PubMedID: 4624804

Title : [Native and globular acetylcholinesterase species in the spinal cord and brain of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus]. [French] -
Author(s) : Rieger F , Tsuji S , Massoulie J
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 30 :73 , 1972
PubMedID: 5086609

Title : [Various globular and elongated acetylcholinesterases in electric organs of fishes]. [French] -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Rieger F , Bon S
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 21 :542 , 1971
PubMedID: 5098771

Title : [Relations between molecular complexes of acetylcholinesterase]. [French] -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Rieger F , Bon S
Ref : Comptes Rendus de l Academie des Sciences , 270 :1837 , 1970
PubMedID: 4986806

Title : [Solubilization of electric organ acetylcholinesterase from eels. Action of trypsin]. [French] -
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Rieger F , Tsuji S
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 14 :430 , 1970
PubMedID: 5488757

Title : [Acetylcholinesterase of fish electric organs (torpedo and electric eel)\; membrane complexes]. [French] - Massoulie_1969_Eur.J.Biochem_11_441
Author(s) : Massoulie J , Rieger F
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 11 :441 , 1969
Abstract :
ESTHER : Massoulie_1969_Eur.J.Biochem_11_441
PubMedSearch : Massoulie_1969_Eur.J.Biochem_11_441
PubMedID: 4904700