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References (5)

Title : Cationic Ester Prodrugs of Curcumin with N,N-dimethyl Amino Acid Promoieties Improved Poor Water Solubility and Intestinal Absorption - Hirano-Kusuda_2023_Pharm.Res__
Author(s) : Hirano-Kusuda M , Setoguchi S , Koga M , Goto S , Yamada A , Watase D , Nagata-Akaho N , Karube Y , Matsunaga K , Takata J
Ref : Pharm Res , : , 2023
Abstract : PURPOSE: Although curcumin (Cur) has powerful pharmacological effects, its use in medicine has not been established yet. The oral bioavailability (BA) of Cur is limited because of its poor water solubility. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether cationic N,N-dimethyl amino acid esters of Cur could act as prodrugs and improve its water solubility and oral bioavailability. METHODS: Two N,N-dimethyl amino acid esters of Cur were synthesized. The hydrolysis profile of the esters was evaluated using rat and human microsomes. A pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of the Cur ester derivatives was performed in rats and compared to the administration of suspended or dissolved Cur formulation. The anti-inflammatory effects of the Cur derivatives were evaluated using macrophage RAW 264.7 stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. RESULTS: Cur ester derivatives showed > 200 mM water solubility. The derivatives were reconverted to the parent compound (Cur) after cleavage of the ester bonds by microsomal esterase, indicating that the compounds could act as Cur prodrugs. The Cur prodrugs enhanced the absolute oral bioavailability of Cur by a 9- and threefold increase of suspended and dissolved Cur administration, respectively, thereby improving intestinal absorption. Cur prodrugs strongly attenuated COX2, iNOS, and ERK phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: The cationic N,N-dimethyl amino acid ester prodrugs of Cur improved the water solubility of Cur and enhanced oral bioavailability in rats. These Cur prodrugs may be good candidates for developing medicinal options previously unavailable due to the poor water solubility and oral BA of Cur.
ESTHER : Hirano-Kusuda_2023_Pharm.Res__
PubMedSearch : Hirano-Kusuda_2023_Pharm.Res__
PubMedID: 37081301

Title : Clinical value of serum cholinesterase levels in Nephrotic syndrome: an observational study - Goto_2022_BMC.Nephrol_23_128
Author(s) : Goto K , Kono K , Fujii H , Goto S , Nishi S
Ref : BMC Nephrol , 23 :128 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) results in massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, which are responsible for a compensatory increase in protein synthesis in the liver. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) also increases in NS. However, its clinical value is not fully elucidated. METHODS: In this study, 184 patients with NS who underwent kidney biopsy were included. The patients were divided into two groups according to serum ChE levels, as follows: hypercholinesterasemia (HC) and non-hypercholinesterasemia (NHC) groups. The clinical factors were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The HC group had significantly more severe proteinuria and higher prevalence of high selective proteinuria than the NHC group. Furthermore, the prevalence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) was significantly higher in the HC group than that in the NHC group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the severity of proteinuria and MCNS were significantly associated with HC. CONCLUSION: In this study, HC in NS was associated with the severity of proteinuria and MCNS, and could help clinicians predict the histological diagnosis of NS.
ESTHER : Goto_2022_BMC.Nephrol_23_128
PubMedSearch : Goto_2022_BMC.Nephrol_23_128
PubMedID: 35366840

Title : Genome sequence of the cat pathogen, Chlamydophila felis - Azuma_2006_DNA.Res_13_15
Author(s) : Azuma Y , Hirakawa H , Yamashita A , Cai Y , Rahman MA , Suzuki H , Mitaku S , Toh H , Goto S , Murakami T , Sugi K , Hayashi H , Fukushi H , Hattori M , Kuhara S , Shirai M
Ref : DNA Research , 13 :15 , 2006
Abstract : Chlamydophila felis (Chlamydia psittaci feline pneumonitis agent) is a worldwide spread pathogen for pneumonia and conjunctivitis in cats. Herein, we determined the entire genomic DNA sequence of the Japanese C. felis strain Fe/C-56 to understand the mechanism of diseases caused by this pathogen. The C. felis genome is composed of a circular 1,166,239 bp chromosome encoding 1005 protein-coding genes and a 7552 bp circular plasmid. Comparison of C. felis gene contents with other Chlamydia species shows that 795 genes are common in the family Chlamydiaceae species and 47 genes are specific to C. felis. Phylogenetic analysis of the common genes reveals that most of the orthologue sets exhibit a similar divergent pattern but 14 C. felis genes accumulate more mutations, implicating that these genes may be involved in the evolutional adaptation to the C. felis-specific niche. Gene distribution and orthologue analyses reveal that two distinctive regions, i.e. the plasticity zone and frequently gene-translocated regions (FGRs), may play important but different roles for chlamydial genome evolution. The genomic DNA sequence of C. felis provides information for comprehension of diseases and elucidation of the chlamydial evolution.
ESTHER : Azuma_2006_DNA.Res_13_15
PubMedSearch : Azuma_2006_DNA.Res_13_15
PubMedID: 16766509
Gene_locus related to this paper: chlff-q253e0 , chlff-q254l8

Title : Whole genome sequencing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Kuroda_2001_Lancet_357_1225
Author(s) : Kuroda M , Ohta T , Uchiyama I , Baba T , Yuzawa H , Kobayashi I , Cui L , Oguchi A , Aoki K , Nagai Y , Lian J , Ito T , Kanamori M , Matsumaru H , Maruyama A , Murakami H , Hosoyama A , Mizutani-Ui Y , Takahashi NK , Sawano T , Inoue R , Kaito C , Sekimizu K , Hirakawa H , Kuhara S , Goto S , Yabuzaki J , Kanehisa M , Yamashita A , Oshima K , Furuya K , Yoshino C , Shiba T , Hattori M , Ogasawara N , Hayashi H , Hiramatsu K
Ref : Lancet , 357 :1225 , 2001
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community-acquired and hospital-acquired infections. It produces numerous toxins including superantigens that cause unique disease entities such as toxic-shock syndrome and staphylococcal scarlet fever, and has acquired resistance to practically all antibiotics. Whole genome analysis is a necessary step towards future development of countermeasures against this organism.
METHODS: Whole genome sequences of two related S aureus strains (N315 and Mu50) were determined by shot-gun random sequencing. N315 is a meticillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) strain isolated in 1982, and Mu50 is an MRSA strain with vancomycin resistance isolated in 1997. The open reading frames were identified by use of GAMBLER and GLIMMER programs, and annotation of each was done with a BLAST homology search, motif analysis, and protein localisation prediction. FINDINGS: The Staphylococcus genome was composed of a complex mixture of genes, many of which seem to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer. Most of the antibiotic resistance genes were carried either by plasmids or by mobile genetic elements including a unique resistance island. Three classes of new pathogenicity islands were identified in the genome: a toxic-shock-syndrome toxin island family, exotoxin islands, and enterotoxin islands. In the latter two pathogenicity islands, clusters of exotoxin and enterotoxin genes were found closely linked with other gene clusters encoding putative pathogenic factors. The analysis also identified 70 candidates for new virulence factors. INTERPRETATION: The remarkable ability of S aureus to acquire useful genes from various organisms was revealed through the observation of genome complexity and evidence of lateral gene transfer. Repeated duplication of genes encoding superantigens explains why S aureus is capable of infecting humans of diverse genetic backgrounds, eliciting severe immune reactions. Investigation of many newly identified gene products, including the 70 putative virulence factors, will greatly improve our understanding of the biology of staphylococci and the processes of infectious diseases caused by S aureus.
ESTHER : Kuroda_2001_Lancet_357_1225
PubMedSearch : Kuroda_2001_Lancet_357_1225
PubMedID: 11418146
Gene_locus related to this paper: staau-LIP , staau-lipas , staau-MW0741 , staau-MW2456 , staau-q6gfm6 , staau-SA0011 , staau-SA0569 , staau-SA0572 , staau-SA0897 , staau-SA1143 , staau-SA2240 , staau-SA2306 , staau-SA2367 , staau-SA2422 , staau-SAV0321 , staau-SAV0446 , staau-SAV0457 , staau-SAV0655 , staau-SAV1014 , staau-SAV1765 , staau-SAV1793 , staau-SAV2188 , staau-SAV2350 , staau-SAV2484 , staau-SAV2594

Title : Cadherin-8 protein expression in gray matter structures and nerve fibers of the neonatal and adult mouse brain - Korematsu_1998_Neurosci_87_303
Author(s) : Korematsu K , Nishi T , Okamura A , Goto S , Morioka M , Hamada J , Ushio Y
Ref : Neuroscience , 87 :303 , 1998
Abstract : The topological distribution of mouse cadherin-8 protein in the neonatal and adult mouse brain was studied immunohistochemically using a rabbit antiserum. Cadherin-8 expression was restricted to several areas in neonatal brains constituting particular neural circuits, i.e. the limbic system, the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit, and the cerebellum and related nuclei. In addition, the nerve fibers linking some of the cadherin-8-positive areas, i.e. the habenulo-interpeduncular tract, decussation of the dorsal tegmentum, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, transverse pontine fibers, the brachium conjunctivum and the inferior cerebellar peduncle were cadherin-8 positive, as were the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, oculomotor nerve, facial nerve and trigeminal nerve. Cadherin-8 expression also showed a patch-like distribution in the intermediate gray layer of the superior colliculus, resembling acetylcholinesterase-rich patches in allocation. Segmentally organized cadherin-8-positive areas were found in the neonatal cerebellar Purkinje cell layer. Some nuclei and fibers in the brainstem and cerebellum, expressing cadherin-8 at neonatal stages, were also stained in the adult mouse brain. These findings suggest that cadherin-8 is involved in the formation of particular neural circuits by connecting areas expressing this molecule with positive nerve fibers, and indicate its possible implication in subdivisional organization in the superior colliculus and cerebellum.
ESTHER : Korematsu_1998_Neurosci_87_303
PubMedSearch : Korematsu_1998_Neurosci_87_303
PubMedID: 9722159