Ogasawara N

References (12)

Title : Complete genome sequence of Bacillus cereus NC7401, which produces high levels of the emetic toxin cereulide - Takeno_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_4767
Author(s) : Takeno A , Okamoto A , Tori K , Oshima K , Hirakawa H , Toh H , Agata N , Yamada K , Ogasawara N , Hayashi T , Shimizu T , Kuhara S , Hattori M , Ohta M
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 194 :4767 , 2012
Abstract : We report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Bacillus cereus NC7401, a representative of the strain group that causes emetic-type food poisoning. The emetic toxin, cereulide, is produced by a nonribosomal protein synthesis (NRPS) system that is encoded by a gene cluster on a large resident plasmid, pNCcld.
ESTHER : Takeno_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_4767
PubMedSearch : Takeno_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_4767
PubMedID: 22887669
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacce-c2zyv1

Title : Bacillus subtilis RghR (YvaN) represses rapG and rapH, which encode inhibitors of expression of the srfA operon - Hayashi_2006_Mol.Microbiol_59_1714
Author(s) : Hayashi K , Kensuke T , Kobayashi K , Ogasawara N , Ogura M
Ref : Molecular Microbiology , 59 :1714 , 2006
Abstract : Rap proteins regulate the activity of response regulators including Spo0F, DegU and ComA. We found that overexpression of either RapG or RapH severely downregulated the expression of srfA, which belongs to the ComA regulon. Disruption of those genes, however, showed small effects on srfA expression. These observations suggested that Bacillus subtilis cells possess a repressor for rapG and rapH. To identify candidate repressors we developed a novel transcription factor array (TF array) assay, in which disruptions of 287 genes encoding regulatory proteins were independently transformed into a strain carrying rapH-lacZ and the resultant transformants were grown on agar plates containing Xgal to detect beta-galactosidase activity. We identified a yvaN disruptant which showed a rapH-overproducing phenotype. DNA microarray analysis of the yvaN mutant suggested that both rapG and rapH were overproduced, leading to inhibition of srfA expression. In a gel retardation assay, purified His-tagged YvaN specifically bound to promoter sequences of rapG and rapH. Further footprint and gel retardation analyses using various deleted probes uncovered critical sequences for YvaN binding. In addition, a lacZ fusion analysis confirmed the significance of YvaN binding for transcription regulation of rapG and rapH. Thus, YvaN was renamed RghR (rapG and rapH repressor). As the rapH gene is activated by ComK and RapH inhibits comK indirectly, this constitutes an autoregulatory loop modulated by RghR.
ESTHER : Hayashi_2006_Mol.Microbiol_59_1714
PubMedSearch : Hayashi_2006_Mol.Microbiol_59_1714
PubMedID: 16553878
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-YvaM

Title : Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae - Machida_2005_Nature_438_1157
Author(s) : Machida M , Asai K , Sano M , Tanaka T , Kumagai T , Terai G , Kusumoto K , Arima T , Akita O , Kashiwagi Y , Abe K , Gomi K , Horiuchi H , Kitamoto K , Kobayashi T , Takeuchi M , Denning DW , Galagan JE , Nierman WC , Yu J , Archer DB , Bennett JW , Bhatnagar D , Cleveland TE , Fedorova ND , Gotoh O , Horikawa H , Hosoyama A , Ichinomiya M , Igarashi R , Iwashita K , Juvvadi PR , Kato M , Kato Y , Kin T , Kokubun A , Maeda H , Maeyama N , Maruyama J , Nagasaki H , Nakajima T , Oda K , Okada K , Paulsen I , Sakamoto K , Sawano T , Takahashi M , Takase K , Terabayashi Y , Wortman JR , Yamada O , Yamagata Y , Anazawa H , Hata Y , Koide Y , Komori T , Koyama Y , Minetoki T , Suharnan S , Tanaka A , Isono K , Kuhara S , Ogasawara N , Kikuchi H
Ref : Nature , 438 :1157 , 2005
Abstract : The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus important for the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages in Japan, has been sequenced. The ability to secrete large amounts of proteins and the development of a transformation system have facilitated the use of A. oryzae in modern biotechnology. Although both A. oryzae and Aspergillus flavus belong to the section Flavi of the subgenus Circumdati of Aspergillus, A. oryzae, unlike A. flavus, does not produce aflatoxin, and its long history of use in the food industry has proved its safety. Here we show that the 37-megabase (Mb) genome of A. oryzae contains 12,074 genes and is expanded by 7-9 Mb in comparison with the genomes of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Comparison of the three aspergilli species revealed the presence of syntenic blocks and A. oryzae-specific blocks (lacking synteny with A. nidulans and A. fumigatus) in a mosaic manner throughout the genome of A. oryzae. The blocks of A. oryzae-specific sequence are enriched for genes involved in metabolism, particularly those for the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Specific expansion of genes for secretory hydrolytic enzymes, amino acid metabolism and amino acid/sugar uptake transporters supports the idea that A. oryzae is an ideal microorganism for fermentation.
ESTHER : Machida_2005_Nature_438_1157
PubMedSearch : Machida_2005_Nature_438_1157
PubMedID: 16372010
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspor-Q2U722 , aspfn-b8mvx2 , aspfn-b8mwk1 , aspfn-b8n1a4 , aspfn-b8n5l3 , aspfn-b8n7y0 , aspfn-b8n829 , aspfn-b8ncj5 , aspfn-b8nhj9 , aspfn-b8njx6 , aspfn-b8nsk2 , aspfu-q4wj61 , aspor-axe1 , aspor-CPI , aspor-cutas , aspor-cuti2 , aspor-DPPIV , aspor-faec , aspor-MDLB , aspor-ppme1 , aspor-q2tw11 , aspor-q2tw16 , aspor-q2tw28 , aspor-q2twc4 , aspor-q2twg0 , aspor-q2twj3 , aspor-q2twv2 , aspor-q2twv4 , aspor-q2tx21 , aspor-q2txq8 , aspor-q2tya1 , aspor-q2tyh6 , aspor-q2tyn9 , aspor-q2typ0 , aspor-q2tyq4 , aspor-q2tyv8 , aspor-q2tz03 , aspor-q2tzh3 , aspor-q2tzr5 , aspor-q2tzv9 , aspor-q2u0k7 , aspor-q2u0q2 , aspor-q2u0r6 , aspor-q2u1a5 , aspor-q2u1a6 , aspor-q2u1k0 , aspor-q2u1k8 , aspor-q2u1m8 , aspor-q2u2a1 , aspor-q2u2a4 , aspor-q2u3a3 , aspor-q2u3a6 , aspor-q2u3k5 , aspor-q2u3l6 , aspor-q2u4a0 , aspor-q2u4e0 , aspor-q2u4f6 , aspor-q2u4g6 , aspor-q2u4h9 , aspor-q2u4w9 , aspor-q2u4y8 , aspor-q2u5f5 , aspor-q2u5n3 , aspor-q2u5y8 , aspor-q2u6h7 , aspor-q2u6j5 , aspor-q2u6m8 , aspor-q2u6m9 , aspor-q2u6n6 , aspor-q2u7i2 , aspor-q2u7v0 , aspor-q2u8j8 , aspor-q2u8r1 , aspor-q2u8r4 , aspor-q2u8t5 , aspor-q2u8z3 , aspor-q2u9a1 , aspor-q2u9n5 , aspor-q2u144 , aspor-q2u161 , aspor-q2u185 , aspor-q2u199 , aspor-q2u212 , aspor-q2u331 , aspor-q2u348 , aspor-q2u400 , aspor-q2u453 , aspor-q2u489 , aspor-q2u704 , aspor-q2u728 , aspor-q2u798 , aspor-q2u822 , aspor-q2u854 , aspor-q2u875 , aspor-q2u908 , aspor-q2ua10 , aspor-q2ua48 , aspor-q2uab6 , aspor-q2uak9 , aspor-q2uaq4 , aspor-q2ub32 , aspor-q2ub76 , aspor-q2uba1 , aspor-q2ubd6 , aspor-q2ubm2 , aspor-q2ubr2 , aspor-q2uc28 , aspor-q2uc65 , aspor-q2uc77 , aspor-q2uc98 , aspor-q2uck0 , aspor-q2ucy7 , aspor-q2ud03 , aspor-q2ud06 , aspor-q2ud08 , aspor-q2ud23 , aspor-q2udn5 , aspor-q2udr0 , aspor-q2uec1 , aspor-q2uef3 , aspor-q2uf10 , aspor-q2uf27 , aspor-q2uf48 , aspor-q2ufd8 , aspor-q2ufe5 , aspor-q2ufm4 , aspor-q2ufr3 , aspor-q2ufz8 , aspor-q2ug78 , aspor-q2ugd6 , aspor-q2uge1 , aspor-q2ugg7 , aspor-q2ugi2 , aspor-q2ugl2 , aspor-q2ugy9 , aspor-q2uh24 , aspor-q2uh73 , aspor-q2uhe4 , aspor-q2uhf0 , aspor-q2uhj6 , aspor-q2uhn1 , aspor-q2uhq0 , aspor-q2ui56 , aspor-q2uib2 , aspor-q2uib5 , aspor-q2uie9 , aspor-q2uih1 , aspor-q2uii1 , aspor-q2uik9 , aspor-q2uiq0 , aspor-q2uiu1 , aspor-q2uix9 , aspor-q2uiy5 , aspor-q2uiz4 , aspor-q2uj89 , aspor-q2uja2 , aspor-q2uju3 , aspor-q2uk31 , aspor-q2uk42 , aspor-q2ukb6 , aspor-q2ukq7 , aspor-q2ul81 , aspor-q2uli9 , aspor-q2ulr2 , aspor-q2ulv7 , aspor-q2umf3 , aspor-q2umv2 , aspor-q2umx6 , aspor-q2unw5 , aspor-q2up23 , aspor-q2up89 , aspor-q2upe6 , aspor-q2upi1 , aspor-q2upl1 , aspor-q2upw4 , aspor-q2uq56 , aspor-q2uqb4 , aspor-q2uqm7 , aspor-q2ur58 , aspor-q2ur64 , aspor-q2ur80 , aspor-q2ur83 , aspor-q2ure7 , aspor-q2urf3 , aspor-q2urg5 , aspor-q2urq0 , aspor-q2urt4 , aspor-q2uru5 , aspor-q2usi0 , aspor-q2usp7 , aspor-q2usq8 , aspor-q2usv6 , aspor-q2uta5 , aspor-q2uu89 , aspor-q2uub4 , aspor-q2uux8 , aspor-q2uv29 , aspor-TGLA , aspor-q2ue03 , aspor-q2uj83 , aspno-a0a0l1j1c9

Title : Genome sequence of the ultrasmall unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D - Matsuzaki_2004_Nature_428_653
Author(s) : Matsuzaki M , Misumi O , Shin IT , Maruyama S , Takahara M , Miyagishima SY , Mori T , Nishida K , Yagisawa F , Yoshida Y , Nishimura Y , Nakao S , Kobayashi T , Momoyama Y , Higashiyama T , Minoda A , Sano M , Nomoto H , Oishi K , Hayashi H , Ohta F , Nishizaka S , Haga S , Miura S , Morishita T , Kabeya Y , Terasawa K , Suzuki Y , Ishii Y , Asakawa S , Takano H , Ohta N , Kuroiwa H , Tanaka K , Shimizu N , Sugano S , Sato N , Nozaki H , Ogasawara N , Kohara Y , Kuroiwa T
Ref : Nature , 428 :653 , 2004
Abstract : Small, compact genomes of ultrasmall unicellular algae provide information on the basic and essential genes that support the lives of photosynthetic eukaryotes, including higher plants. Here we report the 16,520,305-base-pair sequence of the 20 chromosomes of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D as the first complete algal genome. We identified 5,331 genes in total, of which at least 86.3% were expressed. Unique characteristics of this genomic structure include: a lack of introns in all but 26 genes; only three copies of ribosomal DNA units that maintain the nucleolus; and two dynamin genes that are involved only in the division of mitochondria and plastids. The conserved mosaic origin of Calvin cycle enzymes in this red alga and in green plants supports the hypothesis of the existence of single primary plastid endosymbiosis. The lack of a myosin gene, in addition to the unexpressed actin gene, suggests a simpler system of cytokinesis. These results indicate that the C. merolae genome provides a model system with a simple gene composition for studying the origin, evolution and fundamental mechanisms of eukaryotic cells.
ESTHER : Matsuzaki_2004_Nature_428_653
PubMedSearch : Matsuzaki_2004_Nature_428_653
PubMedID: 15071595
Gene_locus related to this paper: cyam1-m1vi61 , cyam1-m1vhh9

Title : Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater - Shimizu_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_996
Author(s) : Shimizu T , Ohtani K , Hirakawa H , Ohshima K , Yamashita A , Shiba T , Ogasawara N , Hattori M , Kuhara S , Hayashi H
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 99 :996 , 2002
Abstract : Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes life-threatening gas gangrene and mild enterotoxaemia in humans, although it colonizes as normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. The organism is known to produce a variety of toxins and enzymes that are responsible for the severe myonecrotic lesions. Here we report the complete 3,031,430-bp sequence of C. perfringens strain 13 that comprises 2,660 protein coding regions and 10 rRNA genes, showing pronounced low overall G + C content (28.6%). The genome contains typical anaerobic fermentation enzymes leading to gas production but no enzymes for the tricarboxylic acid cycle or respiratory chain. Various saccharolytic enzymes were found, but many enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis were lacking in the genome. Twenty genes were newly identified as putative virulence factors of C. perfringens, and we found a total of five hyaluronidase genes that will also contribute to virulence. The genome analysis also proved an efficient method for finding four members of the two-component VirR/VirS regulon that coordinately regulates the pathogenicity of C. perfringens. Clearly, C. perfringens obtains various essential materials from the host by producing several degradative enzymes and toxins, resulting in massive destruction of the host tissues.
ESTHER : Shimizu_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_996
PubMedSearch : Shimizu_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_996
PubMedID: 11792842
Gene_locus related to this paper: clope-CPE0307 , clope-CPE0432 , clope-CPE1581 , clope-CPE1596 , clope-CPE1989 , clope-CPE2231 , clope-CPE2312 , clope-lipa , clope-LIPB , clope-PLDB

Title : Whole genome sequencing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Kuroda_2001_Lancet_357_1225
Author(s) : Kuroda M , Ohta T , Uchiyama I , Baba T , Yuzawa H , Kobayashi I , Cui L , Oguchi A , Aoki K , Nagai Y , Lian J , Ito T , Kanamori M , Matsumaru H , Maruyama A , Murakami H , Hosoyama A , Mizutani-Ui Y , Takahashi NK , Sawano T , Inoue R , Kaito C , Sekimizu K , Hirakawa H , Kuhara S , Goto S , Yabuzaki J , Kanehisa M , Yamashita A , Oshima K , Furuya K , Yoshino C , Shiba T , Hattori M , Ogasawara N , Hayashi H , Hiramatsu K
Ref : Lancet , 357 :1225 , 2001
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community-acquired and hospital-acquired infections. It produces numerous toxins including superantigens that cause unique disease entities such as toxic-shock syndrome and staphylococcal scarlet fever, and has acquired resistance to practically all antibiotics. Whole genome analysis is a necessary step towards future development of countermeasures against this organism.
METHODS: Whole genome sequences of two related S aureus strains (N315 and Mu50) were determined by shot-gun random sequencing. N315 is a meticillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) strain isolated in 1982, and Mu50 is an MRSA strain with vancomycin resistance isolated in 1997. The open reading frames were identified by use of GAMBLER and GLIMMER programs, and annotation of each was done with a BLAST homology search, motif analysis, and protein localisation prediction. FINDINGS: The Staphylococcus genome was composed of a complex mixture of genes, many of which seem to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer. Most of the antibiotic resistance genes were carried either by plasmids or by mobile genetic elements including a unique resistance island. Three classes of new pathogenicity islands were identified in the genome: a toxic-shock-syndrome toxin island family, exotoxin islands, and enterotoxin islands. In the latter two pathogenicity islands, clusters of exotoxin and enterotoxin genes were found closely linked with other gene clusters encoding putative pathogenic factors. The analysis also identified 70 candidates for new virulence factors. INTERPRETATION: The remarkable ability of S aureus to acquire useful genes from various organisms was revealed through the observation of genome complexity and evidence of lateral gene transfer. Repeated duplication of genes encoding superantigens explains why S aureus is capable of infecting humans of diverse genetic backgrounds, eliciting severe immune reactions. Investigation of many newly identified gene products, including the 70 putative virulence factors, will greatly improve our understanding of the biology of staphylococci and the processes of infectious diseases caused by S aureus.
ESTHER : Kuroda_2001_Lancet_357_1225
PubMedSearch : Kuroda_2001_Lancet_357_1225
PubMedID: 11418146
Gene_locus related to this paper: staau-LIP , staau-lipas , staau-MW0741 , staau-MW2456 , staau-q6gfm6 , staau-SA0011 , staau-SA0569 , staau-SA0572 , staau-SA0897 , staau-SA1143 , staau-SA2240 , staau-SA2306 , staau-SA2367 , staau-SA2422 , staau-SAV0321 , staau-SAV0446 , staau-SAV0457 , staau-SAV0655 , staau-SAV1014 , staau-SAV1765 , staau-SAV1793 , staau-SAV2188 , staau-SAV2350 , staau-SAV2484 , staau-SAV2594

Title : Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12 - Hayashi_2001_DNA.Res_8_11
Author(s) : Hayashi T , Makino K , Ohnishi M , Kurokawa K , Ishii K , Yokoyama K , Han CG , Ohtsubo E , Nakayama K , Murata T , Tanaka M , Tobe T , Iida T , Takami H , Honda T , Sasakawa C , Ogasawara N , Yasunaga T , Kuhara S , Shiba T , Hattori M , Shinagawa H
Ref : DNA Research , 8 :11 , 2001
Abstract : Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food-borne infectious pathogen that causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here we report the complete chromosome sequence of an O157:H7 strain isolated from the Sakai outbreak, and the results of genomic comparison with a benign laboratory strain, K-12 MG1655. The chromosome is 5.5 Mb in size, 859 Kb larger than that of K-12. We identified a 4.1-Mb sequence highly conserved between the two strains, which may represent the fundamental backbone of the E. coli chromosome. The remaining 1.4-Mb sequence comprises of O157:H7-specific sequences, most of which are horizontally transferred foreign DNAs. The predominant roles of bacteriophages in the emergence of O157:H7 is evident by the presence of 24 prophages and prophage-like elements that occupy more than half of the O157:H7-specific sequences. The O157:H7 chromosome encodes 1632 proteins and 20 tRNAs that are not present in K-12. Among these, at least 131 proteins are assumed to have virulence-related functions. Genome-wide codon usage analysis suggested that the O157:H7-specific tRNAs are involved in the efficient expression of the strain-specific genes. A complete set of the genes specific to O157:H7 presented here sheds new insight into the pathogenicity and the physiology of O157:H7, and will open a way to fully understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the O157:H7 infection.
ESTHER : Hayashi_2001_DNA.Res_8_11
PubMedSearch : Hayashi_2001_DNA.Res_8_11
PubMedID: 11258796
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C0410 , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-MCMK , ecoli-mhpc , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-YNBC , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-Z0347 , ecoli-Z1341 , ecoli-Z1930 , ecoli-Z2445 , ecoli-YfhR

Title : Complete genome sequence of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans and genomic sequence comparison with Bacillus subtilis - Takami_2000_Nucleic.Acids.Res_28_4317
Author(s) : Takami H , Nakasone K , Takaki Y , Maeno G , Sasaki R , Masui N , Fuji F , Hirama C , Nakamura Y , Ogasawara N , Kuhara S , Horikoshi K
Ref : Nucleic Acids Research , 28 :4317 , 2000
Abstract : The 4 202 353 bp genome of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans C-125 contains 4066 predicted protein coding sequences (CDSs), 2141 (52.7%) of which have functional assignments, 1182 (29%) of which are conserved CDSs with unknown function and 743 (18. 3%) of which have no match to any protein database. Among the total CDSs, 8.8% match sequences of proteins found only in Bacillus subtilis and 66.7% are widely conserved in comparison with the proteins of various organisms, including B.subtilis. The B. halodurans genome contains 112 transposase genes, indicating that transposases have played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer and also in internal genetic rearrangement in the genome. Strain C-125 lacks some of the necessary genes for competence, such as comS, srfA and rapC, supporting the fact that competence has not been demonstrated experimentally in C-125. There is no paralog of tupA, encoding teichuronopeptide, which contributes to alkaliphily, in the C-125 genome and an ortholog of tupA cannot be found in the B.subtilis genome. Out of 11 sigma factors which belong to the extracytoplasmic function family, 10 are unique to B. halodurans, suggesting that they may have a role in the special mechanism of adaptation to an alkaline environment.
ESTHER : Takami_2000_Nucleic.Acids.Res_28_4317
PubMedSearch : Takami_2000_Nucleic.Acids.Res_28_4317
PubMedID: 11058132
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacha-BH0727 , bacha-BH0763 , bacha-BH0848 , bacha-BH0879 , bacha-BH1308 , bacha-BH1440 , bacha-BH1838 , bacha-BH1839 , bacha-BH2174 , bacha-BH2248 , bacha-BH2279 , bacha-BH2806 , bacha-BH2917 , bacha-BH3288 , bacha-BH3306 , bacha-BH3326 , bacha-BH3554 , bacha-BH3805 , bacha-BH3908 , bacha-YvaM , bachd-q9k8w0 , bachd-q9kbn0

Title : The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis - Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
Author(s) : Kunst F , Ogasawara N , Moszer I , Albertini AM , Alloni G , Azevedo V , Bertero MG , Bessieres P , Bolotin A , Borchert S , Borriss R , Boursier L , Brans A , Braun M , Brignell SC , Bron S , Brouillet S , Bruschi CV , Caldwell B , Capuano V , Carter NM , Choi SK , Cordani JJ , Connerton IF , Cummings NJ , Daniel RA , Denziot F , Devine KM , Dusterhoft A , Ehrlich SD , Emmerson PT , Entian KD , Errington J , Fabret C , Ferrari E , Foulger D , Fritz C , Fujita M , Fujita Y , Fuma S , Galizzi A , Galleron N , Ghim SY , Glaser P , Goffeau A , Golightly EJ , Grandi G , Guiseppi G , Guy BJ , Haga K , Haiech J , Harwood CR , Henaut A , Hilbert H , Holsappel S , Hosono S , Hullo MF , Itaya M , Jones L , Joris B , Karamata D , Kasahara Y , Klaerr-Blanchard M , Klein C , Kobayashi Y , Koetter P , Koningstein G , Krogh S , Kumano M , Kurita K , Lapidus A , Lardinois S , Lauber J , Lazarevic V , Lee SM , Levine A , Liu H , Masuda S , Mauel C , Medigue C , Medina N , Mellado RP , Mizuno M , Moestl D , Nakai S , Noback M , Noone D , O'Reilly M , Ogawa K , Ogiwara A , Oudega B , Park SH , Parro V , Pohl TM , Portelle D , Porwollik S , Prescott AM , Presecan E , Pujic P , Purnelle B , Rapoport G , Rey M , Reynolds S , Rieger M , Rivolta C , Rocha E , Roche B , Rose M , Sadaie Y , Sato T , Scanlan E , Schleich S , Schroeter R , Scoffone F , Sekiguchi J , Sekowska A , Seror SJ , Serror P , Shin BS , Soldo B , Sorokin A , Tacconi E , Takagi T , Takahashi H , Takemaru K , Takeuchi M , Tamakoshi A , Tanaka T , Terpstra P , Togoni A , Tosato V , Uchiyama S , Vandebol M , Vannier F , Vassarotti A , Viari A , Wambutt R , Wedler H , Weitzenegger T , Winters P , Wipat A , Yamamoto H , Yamane K , Yasumoto K , Yata K , Yoshida K , Yoshikawa HF , Zumstein E , Yoshikawa H , Danchin A
Ref : Nature , 390 :249 , 1997
Abstract : Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.
ESTHER : Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
PubMedSearch : Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
PubMedID: 9384377
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-CAH , bacsu-cbxnp , bacsu-lip , bacsu-LIPB , bacsu-PKSR , bacsu-pnbae , bacsu-PPSE , bacsu-srf4 , bacsu-srfac , bacsu-YBAC , bacsu-YBDG , bacsu-ybfk , bacsu-ycgS , bacsu-yczh , bacsu-YDEN , bacsu-ydjp , bacsu-yfhM , bacsu-yisY , bacsu-YITV , bacsu-yjau , bacsu-YJCH , bacsu-MHQD , bacsu-yqjl , bacsu-yqkd , bacsu-YRAK , bacsu-YTAP , bacsu-YTMA , bacsu-YTPA , bacsu-ytxm , bacsu-yugF , bacsu-YUII , bacsu-YUKL , bacsu-YVAK , bacsu-YvaM , bacsu-RsbQ

Title : Sequence analysis of the groESL-cotA region of the Bacillus subtilis genome, containing the restriction\/modification system genes - Kasahara_1997_DNA.Res_4_335
Author(s) : Kasahara Y , Nakai S , Ogasawara N , Yata K , Sadaie Y
Ref : DNA Research , 4 :335 , 1997
Abstract : We have determined a 35-kb sequence of the groESL-gutR-cotA (45 degrees-52 degrees) region of the Bacillus subtilis genome. In addition to the groESL, gutRB and cotA genes reported previously, we have newly identified 24 ORFs including gutA and fruC genes, encoding glucitol permease and fructokinase, respectively. The inherent restriction/modification system genes, hsdMR and hsdMM, were mapped between groESL and gutRB, and we have identified two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 5-methylcytosine forming DNA methyl transferase and an operon probably encoding a restriction enzyme complex. The unusual genome structure of few ORFs and lower GC content around the restriction/modification genes strongly suggests that the region originated from a bacteriophage integrated during evolution.
ESTHER : Kasahara_1997_DNA.Res_4_335
PubMedSearch : Kasahara_1997_DNA.Res_4_335
PubMedID: 9455482
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-ydjp

Title : Characterization of an lrp-like (lrpC) gene from Bacillus subtilis - Beloin_1997_Mol.Gen.Genet_256_63
Author(s) : Beloin C , Ayora S , Exley R , Hirschbein L , Ogasawara N , Kasahara Y , Alonso JC , Hegarat FL
Ref : Molecular & General Genetics , 256 :63 , 1997
Abstract : In the course of the Bacillus subtilis genome sequencing project, we identified an open reading frame encoding a putative 16.4 kDa protein. This protein shows, respectively, 34% and 25% identity with the Escherichia coli regulatory proteins Lrp and AsnC. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it represents a new group in the AsnC-Lrp family. Sequence comparisons, as well as immunodetection experiments, lead to the conclusion that the product of this B. subtilis lrp-like-gene is a bona fide Lrp protein-the first one to be detected in gram-positive bacteria. When expressed in E. coli, the B. subtilis Lrp-like protein is able to repress, by about two-fold, the expression of the ilvIH operon which is normally regulated by E. coli Lrp, indicating functional similarity in their regulatory targets. Vegetative growth of a B. subtilis lrp-like mutant is not affected in rich medium. However, the lrp-like mutation causes a transitory inhibition of growth in minimal medium in the presence of valine and isoleucine, which is relieved by leucine. This points to a possible role in regulation of amino acid metabolism. In addition, sporogenesis occurs earlier in the lrp-like mutant than in the reference strain, implying that the B subtilis Lrp-like protein plays a role in the growth phase transition.
ESTHER : Beloin_1997_Mol.Gen.Genet_256_63
PubMedSearch : Beloin_1997_Mol.Gen.Genet_256_63
PubMedID: 9341680
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-cbxnp , bacsu-YDEN

Title : Systematic sequencing of the 180 kilobase region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome containing the replication origin. -
Author(s) : Ogasawara N , Nakai S , Yoshikawa H
Ref : DNA Research , 1 :1 , 1994
PubMedID: 7584024