Levy A

References (12)

Title : The B73 maize genome: complexity, diversity, and dynamics - Schnable_2009_Science_326_1112
Author(s) : Schnable PS , Ware D , Fulton RS , Stein JC , Wei F , Pasternak S , Liang C , Zhang J , Fulton L , Graves TA , Minx P , Reily AD , Courtney L , Kruchowski SS , Tomlinson C , Strong C , Delehaunty K , Fronick C , Courtney B , Rock SM , Belter E , Du F , Kim K , Abbott RM , Cotton M , Levy A , Marchetto P , Ochoa K , Jackson SM , Gillam B , Chen W , Yan L , Higginbotham J , Cardenas M , Waligorski J , Applebaum E , Phelps L , Falcone J , Kanchi K , Thane T , Scimone A , Thane N , Henke J , Wang T , Ruppert J , Shah N , Rotter K , Hodges J , Ingenthron E , Cordes M , Kohlberg S , Sgro J , Delgado B , Mead K , Chinwalla A , Leonard S , Crouse K , Collura K , Kudrna D , Currie J , He R , Angelova A , Rajasekar S , Mueller T , Lomeli R , Scara G , Ko A , Delaney K , Wissotski M , Lopez G , Campos D , Braidotti M , Ashley E , Golser W , Kim H , Lee S , Lin J , Dujmic Z , Kim W , Talag J , Zuccolo A , Fan C , Sebastian A , Kramer M , Spiegel L , Nascimento L , Zutavern T , Miller B , Ambroise C , Muller S , Spooner W , Narechania A , Ren L , Wei S , Kumari S , Faga B , Levy MJ , McMahan L , Van Buren P , Vaughn MW , Ying K , Yeh CT , Emrich SJ , Jia Y , Kalyanaraman A , Hsia AP , Barbazuk WB , Baucom RS , Brutnell TP , Carpita NC , Chaparro C , Chia JM , Deragon JM , Estill JC , Fu Y , Jeddeloh JA , Han Y , Lee H , Li P , Lisch DR , Liu S , Liu Z , Nagel DH , McCann MC , SanMiguel P , Myers AM , Nettleton D , Nguyen J , Penning BW , Ponnala L , Schneider KL , Schwartz DC , Sharma A , Soderlund C , Springer NM , Sun Q , Wang H , Waterman M , Westerman R , Wolfgruber TK , Yang L , Yu Y , Zhang L , Zhou S , Zhu Q , Bennetzen JL , Dawe RK , Jiang J , Jiang N , Presting GG , Wessler SR , Aluru S , Martienssen RA , Clifton SW , McCombie WR , Wing RA , Wilson RK
Ref : Science , 326 :1112 , 2009
Abstract : We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome. These were responsible for the capture and amplification of numerous gene fragments and affect the composition, sizes, and positions of centromeres. We also report on the correlation of methylation-poor regions with Mu transposon insertions and recombination, and copy number variants with insertions and/or deletions, as well as how uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state. These analyses inform and set the stage for further investigations to improve our understanding of the domestication and agricultural improvements of maize.
ESTHER : Schnable_2009_Science_326_1112
PubMedSearch : Schnable_2009_Science_326_1112
PubMedID: 19965430
Gene_locus related to this paper: maize-b4ffc7 , maize-b6u7e1 , maize-c0pcy5 , maize-c0pgf7 , maize-c0pgw1 , maize-c0pfl3 , maize-b4fpr7 , maize-k7vy73 , maize-a0a096swr3 , maize-k7v3i9 , maize-b6u9v9 , maize-a0a3l6e780 , maize-b4fv80 , maize-a0a1d6nse2 , maize-c4j9a1 , maize-k7uba1

Title : Oxotremorine-induced hypothermia as a method for evaluating long-term neuronal changes following poisoning by cholinesterase inhibitors in rats - Grauer_2007_Toxicology_242_1
Author(s) : Grauer E , Levy A
Ref : Toxicology , 242 :1 , 2007
Abstract : Severe poisoning by inhibitors of cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes is often associated with prolonged central or peripheral neuronal damage. Oxotremorine is a cholinergic agonist known to induce acute hypothermia. Central and peripheral cholinergic signaling is involved in the induction of hypothermia as well as in its recovery. These processes were used in the present study to reveal prolonged neuronal abnormalities in poisoned rats, using oxotremorine with and without concomitant administration of the peripheral muscarinic antagonist methyl scopolamine. In non-poisoned naive rats, the hypothermic effect of oxotremorine appeared faster while its recovery was delayed following co-administration of methyl scopolamine, suggesting predominantly peripheral processes in counteracting the hypothermia. One month after exposure to approximately 1LD(50) of the carbamates aldicarb and oxamyl, the hypothermic effect of oxotremorine was similar to that found in saline-treated control group. However, the effect of methyl scopolamine on the recovery process was significantly diminished, indicating that the impaired cholinergic mechanisms were predominantly peripheral. In contrast, 1 month following organophosphate (OP) poisoning by the nerve agents sarin and VX, oxotremorine-induced hypothermia was reduced, indicating mainly impaired central cholinergic mechanisms. The development of severe convulsions during nerve agent poisoning may explain the central neuronal damage in OP-poisoned rats, displayed as reduced hypothermia. As convulsions were not part of the poisoning symptoms with the carbamates tested, their long-term damage was displayed at the recovery stage. This method might be used as a relatively simple means for detecting differential long-term central and peripheral cholinergic injuries, long after toxicity signs have receded.
ESTHER : Grauer_2007_Toxicology_242_1
PubMedSearch : Grauer_2007_Toxicology_242_1
PubMedID: 17931764

Title : Transient and reversible nephrotoxicity of sarin in rats - Bloch-Shilderman_2007_J.Appl.Toxicol_27_189
Author(s) : Bloch-Shilderman E , Levy A
Ref : J Appl Toxicol , 27 :189 , 2007
Abstract : Organophosphate (OP) poisoning, which inhibits cholinesterase activity, leads to severe cholinergic symptoms. Effective and quick management of these symptoms is considered critical to the clinical outcome. Acute renal damage following exposure to OP insecticides has been reported. Similar complications might occur following exposure to OP nerve agents, however, this subject has been studied only sporadically. In the present study, the effect of the nerve agent sarin on renal function was examined in rats. A single dose of sarin ( approximately 0.9 LD(50)) led to a significant reduction (of 45%) in renal function during the first 2 days post exposure, as exhibited by evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate, through measuring the clearance of ( 99m)Tc-DTPA. The urine volume was reduced by 50%, the urine specific gravity increased to 104% of the control value and massive hematuria and glucosuria were recorded 24-48 h post exposure. In addition, around 60% decrease in urine electrolytes was monitored during the first 2 days following exposure, with a recovery after 8 days. Post mortem gross inspection of the bladder, 24 h post exposure, revealed severe edema and hemorrhage. Treatment with the muscarinic antagonist atropine and the oxime TMB-4, at excessive doses administered 1 min post exposure, did not prevent most renal impairments. It has been concluded that sarin caused an acute renal dysfunction, possibly accompanied by bladder damage. These impairments were reversible, recovered spontaneously within 3-8 days, and were probably related to the state of shock and hypovolemia caused by the poisoning. However, if renal impairments are left unattended, they might contribute to the overall toxic manifestation and as a result aggravate the clinical state of intoxicated casualties.
ESTHER : Bloch-Shilderman_2007_J.Appl.Toxicol_27_189
PubMedSearch : Bloch-Shilderman_2007_J.Appl.Toxicol_27_189
PubMedID: 17154277

Title : Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4 - Hillier_2005_Nature_434_724
Author(s) : Hillier LW , Graves TA , Fulton RS , Fulton LA , Pepin KH , Minx P , Wagner-McPherson C , Layman D , Wylie K , Sekhon M , Becker MC , Fewell GA , Delehaunty KD , Miner TL , Nash WE , Kremitzki C , Oddy L , Du H , Sun H , Bradshaw-Cordum H , Ali J , Carter J , Cordes M , Harris A , Isak A , Van Brunt A , Nguyen C , Du F , Courtney L , Kalicki J , Ozersky P , Abbott S , Armstrong J , Belter EA , Caruso L , Cedroni M , Cotton M , Davidson T , Desai A , Elliott G , Erb T , Fronick C , Gaige T , Haakenson W , Haglund K , Holmes A , Harkins R , Kim K , Kruchowski SS , Strong CM , Grewal N , Goyea E , Hou S , Levy A , Martinka S , Mead K , McLellan MD , Meyer R , Randall-Maher J , Tomlinson C , Dauphin-Kohlberg S , Kozlowicz-Reilly A , Shah N , Swearengen-Shahid S , Snider J , Strong JT , Thompson J , Yoakum M , Leonard S , Pearman C , Trani L , Radionenko M , Waligorski JE , Wang C , Rock SM , Tin-Wollam AM , Maupin R , Latreille P , Wendl MC , Yang SP , Pohl C , Wallis JW , Spieth J , Bieri TA , Berkowicz N , Nelson JO , Osborne J , Ding L , Sabo A , Shotland Y , Sinha P , Wohldmann PE , Cook LL , Hickenbotham MT , Eldred J , Williams D , Jones TA , She X , Ciccarelli FD , Izaurralde E , Taylor J , Schmutz J , Myers RM , Cox DR , Huang X , McPherson JD , Mardis ER , Clifton SW , Warren WC , Chinwalla AT , Eddy SR , Marra MA , Ovcharenko I , Furey TS , Miller W , Eichler EE , Bork P , Suyama M , Torrents D , Waterston RH , Wilson RK
Ref : Nature , 434 :724 , 2005
Abstract : Human chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage in being the product of a head-to-head fusion of two intermediate-sized ancestral chromosomes. Chromosome 4 has received attention primarily related to the search for the Huntington's disease gene, but also for genes associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, polycystic kidney disease and a form of muscular dystrophy. Here we present approximately 237 million base pairs of sequence for chromosome 2, and 186 million base pairs for chromosome 4, representing more than 99.6% of their euchromatic sequences. Our initial analyses have identified 1,346 protein-coding genes and 1,239 pseudogenes on chromosome 2, and 796 protein-coding genes and 778 pseudogenes on chromosome 4. Extensive analyses confirm the underlying construction of the sequence, and expand our understanding of the structure and evolution of mammalian chromosomes, including gene deserts, segmental duplications and highly variant regions.
ESTHER : Hillier_2005_Nature_434_724
PubMedSearch : Hillier_2005_Nature_434_724
PubMedID: 15815621
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD1 , human-LDAH , human-ABHD18 , human-KANSL3 , human-PGAP1 , human-PREPL

Title : Subcellular alterations of protein kinase C isozymes in the rat brain after organophosphate poisoning - Bloch-Shilderman_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_313_1082
Author(s) : Bloch-Shilderman E , Kadar T , Levy A , Sahar R , Rabinovitz I , Gilat E
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 313 :1082 , 2005
Abstract : The protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway has been associated with modulation of N-metyl-D-aspartate receptor activity, motor behavior, learning, and memory, all of which are severely impaired in organophosphate (OP) intoxication. Nevertheless, the role of PKC in OP intoxication is largely unknown. The present study attempted to characterize alterations in the immunoreactivity levels of PKC isozymes expressed in different brain areas in the rat following exposure to the nerve agent sarin (1x LD(50)). Furthermore, possible neuroprotective effect of selective PKC regulating peptide after such insult was evaluated. The results indicated that a significant reduction in the immunoreactivity level of the conventional betaII-PKC and the atypical zeta-PKC was observed in frontal cortex up to 24 h postsarin and in the striatum up to 5 days postsarin exposure. This reduction was in contrast to the increase in the immuno-reactivity level of both isozymes seen in the hippocampus or thalamus. Treatment with the anticonvulsant midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) 10 min postsarin exposure markedly reduced zeta-PKC immunoreactivity level and betaII-PKC in the membrane fractions in the hippocampus. betaII-PKC peptide (380 ng/kg), known to inhibit PKC translocation and activation, attenuated sarin-induced neuropathology. These observations suggest a role for both conventional and atypical PKC isozymes in OP-induced neuropathy in the rat and further support their involvement in cell death.
ESTHER : Bloch-Shilderman_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_313_1082
PubMedSearch : Bloch-Shilderman_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_313_1082
PubMedID: 15716382

Title : Nasal midazolam as a novel anticonvulsive treatment against organophosphate-induced seizure activity in the guinea pig - Gilat_2003_Arch.Toxicol_77_167
Author(s) : Gilat E , Goldman M , Lahat E , Levy A , Rabinovitz I , Cohen G , Brandeis R , Amitai G , Alkalai D , Eshel G
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , 77 :167 , 2003
Abstract : Seizures and status epilepticus, which may contribute to brain injury, are common consequences of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) cholinesterase inhibitors. Effective management of these seizures is critical. To investigate the efficacy of nasal midazolam as an anticonvulsive treatment for OP exposure, as compared to intramuscular midazolam, guinea pigs were connected to a recording swivel for electrocorticograph (ECoG) monitoring and clinical observation. The experimental paradigm consisted of pyridostigmine pretreatment (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) 20 min prior to sarin exposure (1.2x LD(50,) 56 micro g/kg i.m.). One minute post-exposure, atropine (3 mg/kg i.m.) and TMB-4(Trimedoxime) (1 mg/kg im) were administered. Within 3-8 min after sarin exposure all animals developed electrographic seizure activity (EGSA), with convulsive behavior. Treatment with midazolam (1 mg/kg i.m.) 10 min after the onset of EGSA abolished EGSA within 389+/-181 s. The same dose was not effective, in most cases, when given 30 min after onset. However, a higher dose (2 mg/kg) was found efficacious after 30 min (949+/-466 s). In contrast, nasal application of midazolam (1 mg/kg) was found most effective, with significant advantages, in amelioration of EGSA and convulsive behavior, when given 10 min (216+/-185 s) or 30 min (308+/-122 s) following the onset of EGSA ( P<0.001). Thus, nasal midazolam could be used as a novel, rapid and convenient route of application against seizure activity induced by nerve agent poisoning.
ESTHER : Gilat_2003_Arch.Toxicol_77_167
PubMedSearch : Gilat_2003_Arch.Toxicol_77_167
PubMedID: 12632257

Title : Prophylaxis against organophosphate poisoning by sustained release of scopolamine and physostigmine - Meshulam_2001_J.Appl.Toxicol_21 Suppl 1_S75
Author(s) : Meshulam Y , Cohen G , Chapman S , Alkalai D , Levy A
Ref : J Appl Toxicol , 21 Suppl 1 :S75 , 2001
Abstract : Protection efficacy of continuous prophylactic administration of physostigmine and scopolamine against sarin-induced toxicity was evaluated previously in guinea pigs. The present study in large animals used Beagle dogs, that serve as an animal model with cholinergic sensitivity similar to that of humans. Pretreatment with physostigmine salicylate and scopolamine hydrochloride at dose rates of 2.5 and 1 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1), respectively, was administered via Alzet mini-osmotic pumps. At the time of exposure, the physostigmine salicylate concentration in plasma was 0.7 ng x ml(-1) and the scopolamine hydrochloride concentration was ca. 0.2 ng x ml(-1), both of which are levels known to be well tolerated in humans. Whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition was 15-20%. This regimen conferred full protection against 2.5 x LD50 i.v. of sarin. Albeit the high-dose exposure, cholinergic toxicity symptoms were mild with no convulsions. About 11-14 min following poisoning the treated animals started to walk and 15-20 min following exposure full recovery was observed and the dogs behaved normally. With higher dose rates of physostigmine salicylate and scopolamine hydrochloride, at plasma concentrations of 2.1 and 0.6 ng x ml(-1), respectively, treated dogs regained normal posture 6-10 min after exposure.
ESTHER : Meshulam_2001_J.Appl.Toxicol_21 Suppl 1_S75
PubMedSearch : Meshulam_2001_J.Appl.Toxicol_21 Suppl 1_S75
PubMedID: 11920924

Title : Kinetics of brain cholinesterase inhibition following metrifonate administration - Dachir_1999_Neurochem.Res_24_1075
Author(s) : Dachir S , Schmidt BH , Levy A
Ref : Neurochem Res , 24 :1075 , 1999
Abstract : In previous metrifonate (MTF) studies, there has been evidence for a preferential functional effect of the drug in cortical but not in striatal regions. In the present study we investigated the kinetics of brain cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition following an acute administration of MTF (100 mg/kg) in various brain regions of young and old Fischer 344 rats. The main objective was to test the hypothesis that the functional regional selectivity, observed in previous studies, was correlated with the extent of ChE inhibition. Using Karnovsky's method for histochemical staining, the highest staining intensity in control rats was found in the striatum and hippocampus, compared to a low basal activity in the frontal and frontoparietal cortices. In the striatum of drug treated old rats, enzyme inhibition was somewhat greater than that found in young rats. However, in the hippocampus, four to eight hours following MTF administration, the inhibition was greater in young compared to old rats. The differences in the sensitivity of various brain regions towards MTF induced ChE inhibition could not be correlated with the regional variation of MTF functional effects.
ESTHER : Dachir_1999_Neurochem.Res_24_1075
PubMedSearch : Dachir_1999_Neurochem.Res_24_1075
PubMedID: 10478948

Title : Sub-regional hippocampal vulnerability in various animal models leading to cognitive dysfunction - Kadar_1998_J.Neural.Transm_105_987
Author(s) : Kadar T , Dachir S , Shukitt-Hale B , Levy A
Ref : J Neural Transm , 105 :987 , 1998
Abstract : Various animal models, involving different brain insults, lead to memory deficits, which can be measured using behavioral tests. In numerous studies, using five different experimental models in rats, we have found that cognitive dysfunction is invariably accompanied by hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells degeneration. However, of these two, the most affected area changes from one model to the other. The present manuscript describes and compares the morphological alterations within the hippocampus in the following experimental models: normal aging, hypoxia, prolonged corticosterone administration, brain ischemia and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. In all the above, many hippocampal neurons were severely damaged, however, CA3 pyramidal cells were mostly affected in normal aging and following hypobaric hypoxia, whereas CA1 cells were especially affected following corticosterone administration, global ischemia and ChE inhibition. Several mechanisms, which might be involved in the diverse courses of the lesions are being considered: cerebral oxygen and glucose, glutamate neurotoxicity and calcium involvement. It is anticipated that elucidation of the specific role of CA1 and CA3 hippocampal sub-fields in the various experimental models might help in understanding processes such as age-related neuronal degeneration and assist in their prevention.
ESTHER : Kadar_1998_J.Neural.Transm_105_987
PubMedSearch : Kadar_1998_J.Neural.Transm_105_987
PubMedID: 9869331

Title : Effects of metrifonate on radial arm maze acquisition in middle-aged rats - Dachir_1997_Brain.Res_777_251
Author(s) : Dachir S , Schmidt B , Levy A
Ref : Brain Research , 777 :251 , 1997
Abstract : The efficacy of metrifonate, a well-tolerated cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, in attenuating the normal aging- and corticosterone-induced impairments of radial maze performance of rats was compared. Middle-aged Fischer 344 rats were screened for their spatial orientation performance in the Morris water escape task. Good and bad performers were selected: good performers (N= 22) were treated with subcutaneous sustained-release corticosterone pellets, resulting in hippocampal cell damage and impaired spatial orientation in the radial maze; age-induced bad performers (N = 20) were tested without additional pharmacological intervention. Metrifonate (MFT), administered daily during radial maze testing, 30 min before training, at a dose of 15 mg/kg p.o., facilitated the acquisition of the task in age-impaired rats, but not in corticosterone-impaired rats.
ESTHER : Dachir_1997_Brain.Res_777_251
PubMedSearch : Dachir_1997_Brain.Res_777_251
PubMedID: 9449438

Title : Prophylactic transdermal treatment with physostigmine and scopolamine against soman intoxication in guinea-pigs - Meshulam_1995_J.Appl.Toxicol_15_263
Author(s) : Meshulam Y , Davidovici R , Wengier A , Levy A
Ref : Journal of Applied Toxicology , 15 :263 , 1995
Abstract : This study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of transdermally administered physostigmine (PHY) against soman exposure using guinea-pigs. Transdermal PHY pad (3 cm2 kg-1; 60 micrograms cm-2), containing a vehicle based on propionic acid, was applied onto the dorsal back of the animals, 24 h before exposure to the organophosphate. At the time of exposure, PHY concentrations in brain and plasma were ca. 3.6 ng g-1 and 4.1 ng ml-1, respectively. Brain and whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited to 70% and 47% of the original activity, respectively. Transdermal PHY by itself protected up to 70% of the animals exposed to 1.5 LD50 of soman (100% mortality was recorded in the control group). Combining transdermal PHY with Scopoderm provided full protection against 1.5 LD50 of soman (protection of 70% against 3 LD50). When the prophylactic treatment was combined with post-exposure therapy (atropine, 10 mg kg-1; toxogonin, 10 mg kg-1) 1 min after 5 LD50 of soman, protection of 90% of the animals was achieved.
ESTHER : Meshulam_1995_J.Appl.Toxicol_15_263
PubMedSearch : Meshulam_1995_J.Appl.Toxicol_15_263
PubMedID: 7594194

Title : (+-)-cis-2-methyl-spiro(1,3-oxathiolane-5,3')quinuclidine, an M1 selective cholinergic agonist, attenuates cognitive dysfunctions in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease - Fisher_1991_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_257_392
Author(s) : Fisher A , Brandeis R , Karton I , Pittel Z , Gurwitz D , Haring R , Sapir M , Levy A , Heldman E
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 257 :392 , 1991
Abstract : AF102B [(+-)-cis-2-methyl-spiro(1,3-oxathiolane-5,3')quinuclidine], a structurally rigid analog of acetylcholine, was investigated in a number of neurochemical, pharmacological and behavioral tests related to cholinergic functions. AF102B induced atropine-sensitive contractions of isolated guinea pig ilea and trachea preparations with EC50 values of 3.5 and 3 microM being 87- and 1.3-fold less potent than acetylcholine, respectively. Binding studies using the radioligands pirenzepine, cis-dioxolane and quinuclidinyl benzilate in rat cerebral cortex and quinuclidinyl benzilate in cerebellar homogenates indicated that AF102B was a potent and highly selective M1-type muscarinic probe, being more selective for M1 receptors than oxotremorine, carbachol and AF102A (the trans-isomer of AF102B). AF102B had a 3-fold higher apparent affinity for M1 receptors than the prototype M1 agonist, McN-A-343, cis- and trans-AF30 (other rigid analogs of acetylcholine). Treatment of rat cortical homogenates with Cu++ ions did not modify the affinity observed for the muscarinic antagonists atropine, scopolamine and pirenzepine, whereas increasing the proportion of high affinity sites for the agonists oxotremorine-M, carbachol and McN-A-343. The apparent affinity of AF102B also increased by Cu++ treatment suggesting that this compound interacts with rat cerebral cortex muscarinic receptors as an agonist. AF102B did not affect high affinity choline transport, choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in rat brain preparations. In rats treated with AF64A (the cholinotoxin ethylcholine aziridinium ion; 3 nmol/2 microliters/side i.c.v.), AF102B (1 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.), AF102A (1 mg/kg i.p.), cis-AF30 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and physostigmine (0.06 mg/kg i.p.), each reversed cognitive impairments in a step-through passive avoidance task. Both AF102B and AF102A (1 mg/kg i.p.), but not physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg i.p.), were effective also in reversing reference memory impairments in a Morris water maze test. Repetitive administrations of AF102B (0.2 mg/kg/day i.p.) improved AF64A-induced working memory deficits in the Morris water maze test, but did not affect open field behavior. The data show that the selective M1 agonist AF102B can restore AF64A-induced cognitive impairments, without producing adverse central and peripheral side effects at the effective doses and this can indicate its potential use for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Fisher_1991_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_257_392
PubMedSearch : Fisher_1991_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_257_392
PubMedID: 2019998