Okstad OA

References (4)

Title : Complete sequence analysis of novel plasmids from emetic and periodontal Bacillus cereus isolates reveals a common evolutionary history among the B. cereus-group plasmids, including Bacillus anthracis pXO1 - Rasko_2007_J.Bacteriol_189_52
Author(s) : Rasko DA , Rosovitz MJ , Okstad OA , Fouts DE , Jiang L , Cer RZ , Kolsto AB , Gill SR , Ravel J
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 189 :52 , 2007
Abstract : The plasmids of the members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group of organisms are essential in defining the phenotypic traits associated with pathogenesis and ecology. For example, Bacillus anthracis contains two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, encoding toxin production and encapsulation, respectively, that define this species pathogenic potential, whereas the presence of a Bt toxin-encoding plasmid defines Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. In this study the plasmids from B. cereus isolates that produce emetic toxin or are linked to periodontal disease were sequenced and analyzed. Two periodontal isolates examined contained almost identical approximately 272-kb plasmids, named pPER272. The emetic toxin-producing isolate contained one approximately 270-kb plasmid, named pCER270, encoding the cereulide biosynthesis gene cluster. Comparative sequence analyses of these B. cereus plasmids revealed a high degree of sequence similarity to the B. anthracis pXO1 plasmid, especially in a putative replication region. These plasmids form a newly defined group of pXO1-like plasmids. However, these novel plasmids do not contain the pXO1 pathogenicity island, which in each instance is replaced by plasmid specific DNA. Plasmids pCER270 and pPER272 share regions that are not found in any other pXO1-like plasmids. Evolutionary studies suggest that these plasmids are more closely related to each other than to other identified B. cereus plasmids. Screening of a population of B. cereus group isolates revealed that pXO1-like plasmids are more often found in association with clinical isolates. This study demonstrates that the pXO1-like plasmids may define pathogenic B. cereus isolates in the same way that pXO1 and pXO2 define the B. anthracis species.
ESTHER : Rasko_2007_J.Bacteriol_189_52
PubMedSearch : Rasko_2007_J.Bacteriol_189_52
PubMedID: 17041058
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacce-c2zyv1 , bacce-q20cj0 , bacce-q20cj2 , bacti-q3elq7

Title : The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1 - Rasko_2004_Nucleic.Acids.Res_32_977
Author(s) : Rasko DA , Ravel J , Okstad OA , Helgason E , Cer RZ , Jiang L , Shores KA , Fouts DE , Tourasse NJ , Angiuoli SV , Kolonay J , Nelson WC , Kolsto AB , Fraser CM , Read TD
Ref : Nucleic Acids Research , 32 :977 , 2004
Abstract : We sequenced the complete genome of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, a non-lethal dairy isolate in the same genetic subgroup as Bacillus anthracis. Comparison of the chromosomes demonstrated that B.cereus ATCC 10987 was more similar to B.anthracis Ames than B.cereus ATCC 14579, while containing a number of unique metabolic capabilities such as urease and xylose utilization and lacking the ability to utilize nitrate and nitrite. Additionally, genetic mechanisms for variation of capsule carbohydrate and flagella surface structures were identified. Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 contains a single large plasmid (pBc10987), of approximately 208 kb, that is similar in gene content and organization to B.anthracis pXO1 but is lacking the pathogenicity-associated island containing the anthrax lethal and edema toxin complex genes. The chromosomal similarity of B.cereus ATCC 10987 to B.anthracis Ames, as well as the fact that it contains a large pXO1-like plasmid, may make it a possible model for studying B.anthracis plasmid biology and regulatory cross-talk.
ESTHER : Rasko_2004_Nucleic.Acids.Res_32_977
PubMedSearch : Rasko_2004_Nucleic.Acids.Res_32_977
PubMedID: 14960714
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacan-BA1727 , bacan-BA2392 , bacan-BA2687 , bacan-BA3165 , bacan-BA3178 , bacan-BA3343 , bacan-BA4324 , bacan-BA5009 , bacan-BA5110 , bacc1-q72z64 , bacc1-q73a27 , bacc1-q73ab2 , bacc1-q73br9 , bacc1-q73bx8 , bacc1-q73c56 , bacc1-q73c93 , bacc1-q73cm7 , bacc1-q730c7 , bacc1-q731i0 , bacc1-q732y1 , bacc1-q732z3 , bacc1-q734r1 , bacc1-q735c5 , bacc1-q737t7 , bacc1-q738j2 , bacc1-q739p5 , bacce-BC0192 , bacce-BC0968 , bacce-BC1027 , bacce-BC1788 , bacce-BC1954 , bacce-BC2141 , bacce-BC2171 , bacce-BC3642 , bacce-BC4345 , bacce-BC4730 , bacce-BC4862 , bacce-BC4904 , bacce-BC5130 , bacce-BCE3188 , bacce-lipP , bacce-PHAC , bacce-q72yu1 , bacce-q73af5 , bacce-q735f1 , bacce-q736x9 , bacce-q738e6 , baccr-pepx

Title : The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria - Read_2003_Nature_423_81
Author(s) : Read TD , Peterson SN , Tourasse N , Baillie LW , Paulsen IT , Nelson KE , Tettelin H , Fouts DE , Eisen JA , Gill SR , Holtzapple EK , Okstad OA , Helgason E , Rilstone J , Wu M , Kolonay JF , Beanan MJ , Dodson RJ , Brinkac LM , Gwinn M , DeBoy RT , Madpu R , Daugherty SC , Durkin AS , Haft DH , Nelson WC , Peterson JD , Pop M , Khouri HM , Radune D , Benton JL , Mahamoud Y , Jiang L , Hance IR , Weidman JF , Berry KJ , Plaut RD , Wolf AM , Watkins KL , Nierman WC , Hazen A , Cline R , Redmond C , Thwaite JE , White O , Salzberg SL , Thomason B , Friedlander AM , Koehler TM , Hanna PC , Kolsto AB , Fraser CM
Ref : Nature , 423 :81 , 2003
Abstract : Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax. Key virulence genes are found on plasmids (extra-chromosomal, circular, double-stranded DNA molecules) pXO1 (ref. 2) and pXO2 (ref. 3). To identify additional genes that might contribute to virulence, we analysed the complete sequence of the chromosome of B. anthracis Ames (about 5.23 megabases). We found several chromosomally encoded proteins that may contribute to pathogenicity--including haemolysins, phospholipases and iron acquisition functions--and identified numerous surface proteins that might be important targets for vaccines and drugs. Almost all these putative chromosomal virulence and surface proteins have homologues in Bacillus cereus, highlighting the similarity of B. anthracis to near-neighbours that are not associated with anthrax. By performing a comparative genome hybridization of 19 B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains against a B. anthracis DNA microarray, we confirmed the general similarity of chromosomal genes among this group of close relatives. However, we found that the gene sequences of pXO1 and pXO2 were more variable between strains, suggesting plasmid mobility in the group. The complete sequence of B. anthracis is a step towards a better understanding of anthrax pathogenesis.
ESTHER : Read_2003_Nature_423_81
PubMedSearch : Read_2003_Nature_423_81
PubMedID: 12721629
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacan-BA0160 , bacan-BA0950 , bacan-BA0954 , bacan-BA1019 , bacan-BA1242 , bacan-BA1727 , bacan-BA1747 , bacan-BA1866 , bacan-BA1914 , bacan-BA2015 , bacan-BA2392 , bacan-BA2417 , bacan-BA2557 , bacan-BA2607 , bacan-BA2687 , bacan-BA2694 , bacan-BA2738 , bacan-BA2865 , bacan-BA3068 , bacan-BA3165 , bacan-BA3178 , bacan-BA3187 , bacan-BA3343 , bacan-BA3372 , bacan-BA3703 , bacan-BA3805 , bacan-BA3863 , bacan-BA3877 , bacan-BA3887 , bacan-BA4324 , bacan-BA4328 , bacan-BA4338 , bacan-BA4577 , bacan-BA4983 , bacan-BA5009 , bacan-BA5110 , bacan-BA5136 , bacan-DHBF , bacan-q81tt2 , bacce-BC0192 , bacce-BC1788 , bacce-BC1954 , bacce-BC2141 , bacce-BC2171 , bacce-BC4730 , bacce-BC4862 , bacce-BC5130 , bacce-PHAC , bacce-q72yu1 , baccr-pepx

Title : Genome organization is not conserved between Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis - Okstad_1999_Microbiology_145 ( Pt 3)_621
Author(s) : Okstad OA , Hegna I , Lindback T , Rishovd AL , Kolsto AB
Ref : Microbiology , 145 ( Pt 3) :621 , 1999
Abstract : The opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus is the genetically stable member of a group of closely related bacteria including the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis and the mammalian pathogen Bacillus anthracis. Physical maps of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains show considerable variations in discrete parts of the chromosome, suggesting that certain genome regions are more prone to rearrangements. B. cereus belongs to the same subgroup of Bacillus species as Bacillus subtilis, by both phenotypic and rRNA sequence classification. The analysis of 80 kb of genome sequence sampled from different regions of the B. cereus ATCC 10987 chromosome is reported. Analysis of the sequence and comparison of the localization of the putative genes with that of B. subtilis orthologues show the following: (1) gene organization is not conserved between B. cereus and B. subtilis; (2) several putative genes are more closely related to genes from other bacteria and archaea than to B. subtilis, or may be absent in B. subtilis 168; (3) B. cereus contains a 155 bp repetitive sequence that is not present in B. subtilis. By hybridization, this repeat is present in all B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains so far investigated.
ESTHER : Okstad_1999_Microbiology_145 ( Pt 3)_621
PubMedSearch : Okstad_1999_Microbiology_145 ( Pt 3)_621
PubMedID: 10217496
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacan-BA1866