Adibekian A

References (20)

Title : Mixed Alkyl\/Aryl Phosphonates Identify Metabolic Serine Hydrolases as Antimalarial Targets - Bennett_2024_bioRxiv__
Author(s) : Bennett JM , Narwal SK , Kabeche S , Abegg D , Hackett F , Yeo T , Li VL , Muir RK , Faucher FF , Lovell S , Blackman MJ , Adibekian A , Yeh E , Fidock DA , Bogyo M
Ref : Biorxiv , : , 2024
Abstract : Malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, remains a significant health burden. A barrier for developing anti-malarial drugs is the ability of the parasite to rapidly generate resistance. We demonstrated that Salinipostin A (SalA), a natural product, kills parasites by inhibiting multiple lipid metabolizing serine hydrolases, a mechanism with a low propensity for resistance. Given the difficulty of employing natural products as therapeutic agents, we synthesized a library of lipidic mixed alkyl/aryl phosphonates as bioisosteres of SalA. Two constitutional isomers exhibited divergent anti-parasitic potencies which enabled identification of therapeutically relevant targets. We also confirm that this compound kills parasites through a mechanism that is distinct from both SalA and the pan-lipase inhibitor, Orlistat. Like SalA, our compound induces only weak resistance, attributable to mutations in a single protein involved in multidrug resistance. These data suggest that mixed alkyl/aryl phosphonates are a promising, synthetically tractable anti-malarials with a low-propensity to induce resistance.
ESTHER : Bennett_2024_bioRxiv__
PubMedSearch : Bennett_2024_bioRxiv__
PubMedID: 38260474

Title : Chemoproteomics-Enabled De Novo Discovery of Photoswitchable Carboxylesterase Inhibitors for Optically Controlled Drug Metabolism - Dwyer_2021_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl_60_3071
Author(s) : Dwyer BG , Wang C , Abegg D , Racioppo B , Qiu N , Zhao Z , Pechalrieu D , Shuster A , Hoch DG , Adibekian A
Ref : Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , 60 :3071 , 2021
Abstract : Herein, we report arylazopyrazole ureas and sulfones as a novel class of photoswitchable serine hydrolase inhibitors and present a chemoproteomic platform for rapid discovery of optically controlled serine hydrolase targets in complex proteomes. Specifically, we identify highly potent and selective photoswitchable inhibitors of the drug-metabolizing enzymes carboxylesterases 1 and 2 and demonstrate their pharmacological application by optically controlling the metabolism of the immunosuppressant drug mycophenolate mofetil. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study provides a first example of photopharmacological tools to optically control drug metabolism by modulating the activity of a metabolizing enzyme. Our arylazopyrazole ureas and sulfones offer synthetically accessible scaffolds that can be expanded to identify specific photoswitchable inhibitors for other serine hydrolases, including lipases, peptidases, and proteases. Our chemoproteomic platform can be applied to other photoswitches and scaffolds to achieve optical control over diverse protein classes.
ESTHER : Dwyer_2021_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl_60_3071
PubMedSearch : Dwyer_2021_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl_60_3071
PubMedID: 33035395

Title : Combined Omics Approach Identifies Gambogic Acid and Related Xanthones as Covalent Inhibitors of the Serine Palmitoyltransferase Complex - Hoch_2020_Cell.Chem.Biol_27_586
Author(s) : Hoch DG , Abegg D , Hannich JT , Pechalrieu D , Shuster A , Dwyer BG , Wang C , Zhang X , You Q , Riezman H , Adibekian A
Ref : Cell Chemical Biology , 27 :586 , 2020
Abstract : In this study, we identify the natural product gambogic acid as well as structurally related synthetic xanthones as first-in-class covalent inhibitors of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. We apply chemoproteomics to determine that gambogic acid binds to the regulatory small subunit B of the serine palmitoyltransferase complex (SPTSSB). We then test structurally related synthetic xanthones to identify 18 as an equally potent but more selective binder of SPTSSB and show that 18 reduces sphingolipid levels in situ and in vivo. Finally, using various biological methods, we demonstrate that 18 induces cellular responses characteristic for diminished sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. This study demonstrates that SPTSSB may become a viable therapeutic target in various diseases with pathological S1P signaling. Furthermore, we believe that our compound will become a valuable tool for studying the sphingolipid metabolism and serve as a blueprint for the development of a new generation of sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors.
ESTHER : Hoch_2020_Cell.Chem.Biol_27_586
PubMedSearch : Hoch_2020_Cell.Chem.Biol_27_586
PubMedID: 32330443

Title : Discovery and Evaluation of New Activity-Based Probes for Serine Hydrolases - Wang_2019_Chembiochem_20_2212
Author(s) : Wang C , Abegg D , Dwyer BG , Adibekian A
Ref : Chembiochem , 20 :2212 , 2019
Abstract : Serine hydrolases play crucial biological roles and are important therapeutic targets in many clinical applications. Activity-based protein profiling of serine hydrolases by using fluorophosphonate probes, pioneered by Cravatt and co-workers, has been a powerful tool for interrogating serine hydrolases in various biological systems. Herein, we present new phenyl phosphonate probes with an azide handle for click chemistry that offer remarkable improvements over the classical fluorophosphonate serine hydrolase activity-based probes including ease of preparation, excellent cell permeability, and distinct reactivity profiles, as controlled by the phenolate leaving group. Thus, these new activity-based serine hydrolase probes are valuable tools to further interrogate this important class of enzymes.
ESTHER : Wang_2019_Chembiochem_20_2212
PubMedSearch : Wang_2019_Chembiochem_20_2212
PubMedID: 30968522

Title : Cysteine-reactive probes and their use in chemical proteomics - Hoch_2018_Chem.Commun.(Camb)_54_4501
Author(s) : Hoch DG , Abegg D , Adibekian A
Ref : Chem Commun (Camb) , 54 :4501 , 2018
Abstract : Proteomic profiling using bioorthogonal chemical probes that selectively react with certain amino acids is now a widely used method in life sciences to investigate enzymatic activities, study posttranslational modifications and discover novel covalent inhibitors. Over the past two decades, researchers have developed selective probes for several different amino acids, including lysine, serine, cysteine, threonine, tyrosine, aspartate and glutamate. Among these amino acids, cysteines are particularly interesting due to their highly diverse and complex biochemical role in our cells. In this feature article, we focus on the chemical probes and methods used to study cysteines in complex proteomes.
ESTHER : Hoch_2018_Chem.Commun.(Camb)_54_4501
PubMedSearch : Hoch_2018_Chem.Commun.(Camb)_54_4501
PubMedID: 29645055

Title : Omega-3 fatty acid epoxides are autocrine mediators that control the magnitude of IgE-mediated mast cell activation - Shimanaka_2017_Nat.Med_23_1287
Author(s) : Shimanaka Y , Kono N , Taketomi Y , Arita M , Okayama Y , Tanaka Y , Nishito Y , Mochizuki T , Kusuhara H , Adibekian A , Cravatt BF , Murakami M , Arai H
Ref : Nat Med , 23 :1287 , 2017
Abstract : Critical to the function of mast cells in immune responses including allergy is their production of lipid mediators, among which only omega-6 (omega-6) arachidonate-derived eicosanoids have been well characterized. Here, by employing comprehensive lipidomics, we identify omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acid epoxides as new mast cell-derived lipid mediators and show that they are produced by PAF-AH2, an oxidized-phospholipid-selective phospholipase A2. Genetic or pharmacological deletion of PAF-AH2 reduced the steady-state production of omega-3 epoxides, leading to attenuated mast cell activation and anaphylaxis following FcvarepsilonRI cross-linking. Mechanistically, the omega-3 epoxides promote IgE-mediated activation of mast cells by downregulating Srcin1, a Src-inhibitory protein that counteracts FcvarepsilonRI signaling, through a pathway involving PPARg. Thus, the PAF-AH2-omega-3 epoxide-Srcin1 axis presents new potential drug targets for allergic diseases.
ESTHER : Shimanaka_2017_Nat.Med_23_1287
PubMedSearch : Shimanaka_2017_Nat.Med_23_1287
PubMedID: 29035365
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PAFAH2

Title : Mechanistic effects of protein palmitoylation and the cellular consequences thereof - Blaskovic_2014_Chem.Phys.Lipids_180_44
Author(s) : Blaskovic S , Adibekian A , Blanc M , van der Goot GF
Ref : Chemistry & Physic of Lipids , 180 :44 , 2014
Abstract : S-palmitoylation involves the attachment of a 16-carbon long fatty acid chain to the cysteine residues of proteins. The process is enzymatic and dynamic with DHHC enzymes mediating palmitoylation and acyl-protein thioesterases reverting the reaction. Proteins that undergo this modification span almost all cellular functions. While the increase in hydrophobicity generated by palmitoylation has the obvious consequence of triggering membrane association, the effects on transmembrane proteins are less intuitive and span a vast range. We review here the current knowledge on palmitoylating and depalmitoylating enzymes, the methods that allow the study of this lipid modification and which drugs can affect it, and finally we focus on four cellular processes for which recent studies reveal an involvement of palmitoylation: endocytosis, reproduction and cell growth, fat and sugar homeostasis and signal transduction at the synapse.
ESTHER : Blaskovic_2014_Chem.Phys.Lipids_180_44
PubMedSearch : Blaskovic_2014_Chem.Phys.Lipids_180_44
PubMedID: 24534427

Title : Characterization of a Selective, Reversible Inhibitor of Lysophospholipase 2 (LYPLA2) - Adibekian_2013_Probe.Report__4
Author(s) : Adibekian A , Martin BR , Chang JW , Hsu KL , Tsuboi K , Bachovchin DA , Speers AE , Brown SJ , Spicer T , Fernandez-Vega V , Ferguson J , Cravatt BF , Hodder P , Rosen H
Ref : Probe Report , : , 2013
Abstract : Protein palmitoylation is an essential post-translational modification necessary for trafficking and localization of regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell growth and signaling. Multiple oncogenes, including HRAS and SRC, require palmitoylation for malignant transformation. Lysophospholipase 1 (LYPLA1) has been identified as a candidate protein palmitoyl thioesterase responsible for HRAS depalmitoylation in mammalian cells. LYPLA1 has a close homolog, LYPLA2 (65% sequence identity), whose substrate specificity and biochemical roles are, as yet, uncharacterized. Seeking chemical tools to investigate biochemical pathway involvement and potential roles in cancer pathogenesis of these enzymes, we conducted a fluorescence polarization-based competitive activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) HTS campaign to identify inhibitors of LYPLA1 and LYPLA2. HTS identified a lead triazole urea micromolar inhibitor, which we optimized as dual LYPLA1/LYPLA2 inhibitor ML211, and reversible compounds ML348 and ML349 that act as selective LYPLA1 and LYPLA2 inhibitors, respectively. Using an advanced competitive ABPP strategy employing ABPP probes with controlled reactivity rates, we successfully confirmed potent and selective target engagement of these reversible compounds in living systems as detailed here for ML349 and in the accompanying ML348 Probe Report. Together, these compounds should greatly aid investigations into the biological function of LYPLA1 and LYPLA2.
ESTHER : Adibekian_2013_Probe.Report__4
PubMedSearch : Adibekian_2013_Probe.Report__4
PubMedID: 24624468
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LYPLA2

Title : Characterization of a Selective, Reversible Inhibitor of Lysophospholipase 1 (LYPLA1) - Adibekian_2013_Probe.Report__3
Author(s) : Adibekian A , Martin BR , Chang JW , Hsu KL , Tsuboi K , Bachovchin DA , Speers AE , Brown SJ , Spicer T , Fernandez-Vega V , Ferguson J , Cravatt BF , Hodder P , Rosen H
Ref : Probe Report , : , 2013
Abstract : Protein palmitoylation is an essential post-translational modification necessary for trafficking and localization of regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell growth and signaling. Multiple oncogenes, including HRAS and SRC, require palmitoylation for malignant transformation. Lysophospholipase 1 (LYPLA1) has been identified as a candidate protein palmitoyl thioesterase responsible for HRAS depalmitoylation in mammalian cells. Seeking chemical tools to investigate biochemical pathway involvement and potential roles in cancer pathogenesis, we conducted a fluorescence polarization-based competitive activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) HTS campaign to identify inhibitors of LYPLA1 and the structurally related LYPLA2. HTS identified a lead triazole urea micromolar inhibitor, which we optimized as dual LYPLA1/LYPLA2 inhibitor ML211, and reversible compounds ML348 and ML349 that act as selective LYPLA1 and LYPLA2 inhibitors, respectively. Using an advanced competitive ABPP strategy employing ABPP probes with controlled reactivity rates, we successfully confirmed potent and selective target engagement of these reversible compounds in living systems as detailed here for ML348 and in the accompanying ML349 Probe Report. Together, these compounds should greatly aid investigations into the biological function of LYPLA1 and LYPLA2
ESTHER : Adibekian_2013_Probe.Report__3
PubMedSearch : Adibekian_2013_Probe.Report__3
PubMedID: 24624465

Title : Diced electrophoresis gel assay for screening enzymes with specified activities - Komatsu_2013_J.Am.Chem.Soc_135_6002
Author(s) : Komatsu T , Hanaoka K , Adibekian A , Yoshioka K , Terai T , Ueno T , Kawaguchi M , Cravatt BF , Nagano T
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , 135 :6002 , 2013
Abstract : We have established the diced electrophoresis gel (DEG) assay as a proteome-wide screening tool to identify enzymes with activities of interest using turnover-based fluorescent substrates. The method utilizes the combination of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with a multiwell-plate-based fluorometric assay to find protein spots with the specified activity. By developing fluorescent substrates that mimic the structure of neutrophil chemoattractants, we could identify enzymes involved in metabolic inactivation of the chemoattractants.
ESTHER : Komatsu_2013_J.Am.Chem.Soc_135_6002
PubMedSearch : Komatsu_2013_J.Am.Chem.Soc_135_6002
PubMedID: 23581642

Title : Characterization of a serine hydrolase targeted by acyl-protein thioesterase inhibitors in Toxoplasma gondii - Kemp_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_27002
Author(s) : Kemp LE , Rusch M , Adibekian A , Bullen HE , Graindorge A , Freymond C , Rottmann M , Braun-Breton C , Baumeister S , Porfetye AT , Vetter IR , Hedberg C , Soldati-Favre D
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 288 :27002 , 2013
Abstract : In eukaryotic organisms, cysteine palmitoylation is an important reversible modification that impacts protein targeting, folding, stability, and interactions with partners. Evidence suggests that protein palmitoylation contributes to key biological processes in Apicomplexa with the recent palmitome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reporting over 400 substrates that are modified with palmitate by a broad range of protein S-acyl transferases. Dynamic palmitoylation cycles require the action of an acyl-protein thioesterase (APT) that cleaves palmitate from substrates and conveys reversibility to this posttranslational modification. In this work, we identified candidates for APT activity in Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of parasites with low micromolar concentrations of beta-lactone- or triazole urea-based inhibitors that target human APT1 showed varied detrimental effects at multiple steps of the parasite lytic cycle. The use of an activity-based probe in combination with these inhibitors revealed the existence of several serine hydrolases that are targeted by APT1 inhibitors. The active serine hydrolase, TgASH1, identified as the homologue closest to human APT1 and APT2, was characterized further. Biochemical analysis of TgASH1 indicated that this enzyme cleaves substrates with a specificity similar to APTs, and homology modeling points toward an APT-like enzyme. TgASH1 is dispensable for parasite survival, which indicates that the severe effects observed with the beta-lactone inhibitors are caused by the inhibition of non-TgASH1 targets. Other ASH candidates for APT activity were functionally characterized, and one of them was found to be resistant to gene disruption due to the potential essential nature of the protein.
ESTHER : Kemp_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_27002
PubMedSearch : Kemp_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_27002
PubMedID: 23913689
Gene_locus related to this paper: toxgo-TgASH3 , toxgo-TgASH2 , toxgo-s8en43 , toxgo-s4ug63 , toxgo-a0a125yz56

Title : Confirming target engagement for reversible inhibitors in vivo by kinetically tuned activity-based probes - Adibekian_2012_J.Am.Chem.Soc_134_10345
Author(s) : Adibekian A , Martin BR , Chang JW , Hsu KL , Tsuboi K , Bachovchin DA , Speers AE , Brown SJ , Spicer T , Fernandez-Vega V , Ferguson J , Hodder PS , Rosen H , Cravatt BF
Ref : J Am Chem Soc , 134 :10345 , 2012
Abstract : The development of small-molecule inhibitors for perturbing enzyme function requires assays to confirm that the inhibitors interact with their enzymatic targets in vivo. Determining target engagement in vivo can be particularly challenging for poorly characterized enzymes that lack known biomarkers (e.g., endogenous substrates and products) to report on their inhibition. Here, we describe a competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) method for measuring the binding of reversible inhibitors to enzymes in animal models. Key to the success of this approach is the use of activity-based probes that show tempered rates of reactivity with enzymes, such that competition for target engagement with reversible inhibitors can be measured in vivo. We apply the competitive ABPP strategy to evaluate a newly described class of piperazine amide reversible inhibitors for the serine hydrolases LYPLA1 and LYPLA2, two enzymes for which selective, in vivo active inhibitors are lacking. Competitive ABPP identified individual piperazine amides that selectively inhibit LYPLA1 or LYPLA2 in mice. In summary, competitive ABPP adapted to operate with moderately reactive probes can assess the target engagement of reversible inhibitors in animal models to facilitate the discovery of small-molecule probes for characterizing enzyme function in vivo.
ESTHER : Adibekian_2012_J.Am.Chem.Soc_134_10345
PubMedSearch : Adibekian_2012_J.Am.Chem.Soc_134_10345
PubMedID: 22690931

Title : DAGLbeta inhibition perturbs a lipid network involved in macrophage inflammatory responses - Hsu_2012_Nat.Chem.Biol_8_999
Author(s) : Hsu KL , Tsuboi K , Adibekian A , Pugh H , Masuda K , Cravatt BF
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 8 :999 , 2012
Abstract : The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is biosynthesized by diacylglycerol lipases DAGLalpha and DAGLbeta. Chemical probes to perturb DAGLs are needed to characterize endocannabinoid function in biological processes. Here we report a series of 1,2,3-triazole urea inhibitors, along with paired negative-control and activity-based probes, for the functional analysis of DAGLbeta in living systems. Optimized inhibitors showed high selectivity for DAGLbeta over other serine hydrolases, including DAGLalpha ( approximately 60-fold selectivity), and the limited off-targets, such as ABHD6, were also inhibited by the negative-control probe. Using these agents and Daglb(-/-) mice, we show that DAGLbeta inactivation lowers 2-AG, as well as arachidonic acid and eicosanoids, in mouse peritoneal macrophages in a manner that is distinct and complementary to disruption of cytosolic phospholipase-A2. We observed a corresponding reduction in lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release. These findings indicate that DAGLbeta is a key metabolic hub within a lipid network that regulates proinflammatory responses in macrophages.
ESTHER : Hsu_2012_Nat.Chem.Biol_8_999
PubMedSearch : Hsu_2012_Nat.Chem.Biol_8_999
PubMedID: 23103940
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA , human-DAGLB

Title : Global profiling of dynamic protein palmitoylation - Martin_2012_Nat.Methods_9_84
Author(s) : Martin BR , Wang C , Adibekian A , Tully SE , Cravatt BF
Ref : Nat Methods , 9 :84 , 2012
Abstract : The reversible thioester linkage of palmitic acid on cysteines, known as protein S-palmitoylation, facilitates the membrane association and proper subcellular localization of proteins. Here we report the metabolic incorporation of the palmitic acid analog 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA) in combination with stable-isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and pulse-chase methods to generate a global quantitative map of dynamic protein palmitoylation events in cells. We distinguished stably palmitoylated proteins from those that turn over rapidly. Treatment with a serine lipase-selective inhibitor identified a pool of dynamically palmitoylated proteins regulated by palmitoyl-protein thioesterases. This subset was enriched in oncoproteins and other proteins linked to aberrant cell growth, migration and cancer. Our method provides a straightforward way to characterize global palmitoylation dynamics in cells and confirms enzyme-mediated depalmitoylation as a critical regulatory mechanism for a specific subset of rapidly cycling palmitoylated proteins.
ESTHER : Martin_2012_Nat.Methods_9_84
PubMedSearch : Martin_2012_Nat.Methods_9_84
PubMedID: 22056678

Title : Optimization and characterization of a triazole urea inhibitor for alpha\/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 11 (ABHD11): anti-probe for LYPLA1\/LYPLA2 dual inhibitor ML211 - Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__1
Author(s) : Adibekian A , Hsu KL , Speers AE , Brown SJ , Spicer T , Fernandez-Vega V , Ferguson J , Cravatt BF , Hodder P , Rosen H
Ref : Probe Report , : , 2011
Abstract : Protein palmitoylation is an essential post-translational modification necessary for trafficking and localization of regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell growth and signaling. Multiple oncogenes, including HRAS and SRC, require palmitoylation for malignant transformation. We and others have previously identified lysophospholipase 1 (LYPLA1) as a candidate protein palmitoyl thioesterase responsible for HRAS depalmitoylation in mammalian cells. Seeking chemical tools to investigate biochemical pathway involvement and potential roles in cancer pathogenesis, we conducted a fluorescence polarization-based competitive activity-based protein profiling (FluoPol ABPP) high throughput screening (HTS) campaign to identify inhibitors of LYPLA1 and the structurally related LYPLA2. HTS identified a micromolar triazole urea inhibitor, that we successfully optimized via several rounds of SAR-by-synthesis as ML211 (SID 99445338), a low nanomolar dual inhibitor of LYPLA1 and LYPLA2. The reported probe operates by a covalent mechanism of action and is active both in vitro and in situ. Out of more than 20 serine hydrolases (SHs) profiled by gel-based competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), ML211 was observed to have one anti-target, alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 11 (ABHD11). Fortuitously, one of the triazole urea library members synthesized during the course of probe optimization was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of ABHD11, a poorly characterized SH that is hemizygously deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome [4], and was presented as a control anti-probe (SID 99445332) in the ML211 Probe Report. The optimized ABHD11 probe ML226 is a potent inhibitor of ABHD11, with an IC50 of 15 nM, and exhibits at least 100-fold selectivity for all other SHs (~20) assessed by gel-based competitive ABPP. The probe is also active in situ, completely and selectively inhibiting ABHD11 at sub-nanomolar concentrations. As with ML211, the probe operates by a covalent mechanism of action, carbamoylating the active site serine of ABHD11. The complete properties, characterization, and synthesis of ML226 are detailed in this Probe Report.
ESTHER : Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__1
PubMedSearch : Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__1
PubMedID: 23658953

Title : Click-generated triazole ureas as ultrapotent in vivo-active serine hydrolase inhibitors - Adibekian_2011_Nat.Chem.Biol_7_469
Author(s) : Adibekian A , Martin BR , Wang C , Hsu KL , Bachovchin DA , Niessen S , Hoover H , Cravatt BF
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 7 :469 , 2011
Abstract : Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class representing approximately 1% of all human proteins. The biological functions of most serine hydrolases remain poorly characterized owing to a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their activity in living systems. Here we show that a substantial number of serine hydrolases can be irreversibly inactivated by 1,2,3-triazole ureas, which show negligible cross-reactivity with other protein classes. Rapid lead optimization by click chemistry-enabled synthesis and competitive activity-based profiling identified 1,2,3-triazole ureas that selectively inhibit enzymes from diverse branches of the serine hydrolase class, including peptidases (acyl-peptide hydrolase, or APEH), lipases (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase-2, or PAFAH2) and uncharacterized hydrolases (alpha,beta-hydrolase-11, or ABHD11), with exceptional potency in cells (sub-nanomolar) and mice (<1 mg kg(-1)). We show that APEH inhibition leads to accumulation of N-acetylated proteins and promotes proliferation in T cells. These data indicate 1,2,3-triazole ureas are a pharmacologically privileged chemotype for serine hydrolase inhibition, combining broad activity across the serine hydrolase class with tunable selectivity for individual enzymes.
ESTHER : Adibekian_2011_Nat.Chem.Biol_7_469
PubMedSearch : Adibekian_2011_Nat.Chem.Biol_7_469
PubMedID: 21572424

Title : Optimization and characterization of a triazole urea inhibitor for platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type 2 (PAFAH2) - Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__2
Author(s) : Adibekian A , Hsu KL , Speers AE , Monillas ES , Brown SJ , Spicer T , Fernandez-Vega V , Ferguson J , Bahnson BJ , Cravatt BF , Hodder P , Rosen H
Ref : Probe Report , : , 2011
Abstract : Oxidative stress has been implicated as an underlying inflammatory factor in several disease pathologies, including cancer, atherosclerosis, aging, and various neurodegenerative disorders. Phospholipids in particular are susceptible to oxidative damage, and it is thought that the cytosolic enzyme type II platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH2) may facilitate turnover of oxidized phospholipids via hydrolysis of their oxidatively truncated acyl chains. In support of this theory, over-expression of PAFAH2 has been shown to reduce oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, no selective inhibitors of PAFAH2 are known for investigation of PAFAH2 biology. We initiated a fluorescence polarization activity-based protein profiling (FluoPol-ABPP) HTS campaign to identify potential inhibitors of PAFAH2 (AIDs 492956 and 493030). The assay also served as a counterscreen for inhibitor discovery for the related enzyme, plasma PAFAH (pPAFAH; AIDs 463082, 463230). Interestingly, the triazole urea SID 7974398a top lead in the lysophospholipase (LYPLA1) inhibitor screen from which we derived a dual inhibitor of LYPLA1/LYPLA2 (ML211) and inhibitor of ABHD11 (ML226) was also a top hit in the PAFAH2 HTS assay. Given that triazole ureas were previously found to have tunable potency and selectivity, low cytotoxicity, and good activity in situ, we endeavored to derive a PAFAH2-selective probe from the triazole urea scaffold. The medchem optimized probe (ML225, SID 103913572) is highly potent against its target enzyme (IC50 = 3 nM), and is active in situ at sub-nanomolar concentrations. ML225 is at least 333-fold selective for all other serine hydrolases (~20) assessed by gel-based competitive activity-based protein profiling, and is selective for other PAFAH enzymes. ML225 inhibits PAFAH2 by carbamoylating the active site serine. The complete properties, characterization, and synthesis of ML225 are detailed in this Probe Report.
ESTHER : Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__2
PubMedSearch : Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__2
PubMedID: 23658960

Title : Optimization and characterization of a triazole urea dual inhibitor for lysophospholipase 1 (LYPLA1) and lysophospholipase 2 (LYPLA2) - Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__5
Author(s) : Adibekian A , Martin BR , Speers AE , Brown SJ , Spicer T , Fernandez-Vega V , Ferguson J , Cravatt BF , Hodder P , Rosen H
Ref : Probe Report , : , 2011
Abstract : Protein palmitoylation is an essential post-translational modification necessary for trafficking and localization of regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell growth and signaling. Multiple oncogenes, including HRAS and SRC, require palmitoylation for malignant transformation. We and others have previously identified lysophospholipase 1 (LYPLA1) as a candidate protein palmitoyl thioesterase responsible for HRAS depalmitoylation in mammalian cells. Seeking chemical tools to investigate biochemical pathway involvement and potential roles in cancer pathogenesis, we conducted a fluorescence polarization-based competitive activity-based protein profiling (FluoPol ABPP) high throughput screening (HTS) campaign to identify inhibitors of LYPLA1 and the structurally related LYPLA2. HTS identified a micromolar triazole urea inhibitor, which we successfully optimized via several rounds of structure activity relationship (SAR)-by-synthesis to produce ML211 (SID 99445338), a low nanomolar dual inhibitor of LYPLA1 and LYPLA2. The reported probe operates by a covalent mechanism of action and is active both in vitro and in situ. Out of more than 20 serine hydrolases (SHs) profiled by gel-based competitive ABPP, ML211 is observed to have one anti-target, alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 11 (ABHD11). However, during our SAR campaign, we fortuitously discovered a selective ABHD11 inhibitor from among the synthetic triazole urea library compounds. This compound, ML226, is presented as an anti-probe for control studies.
ESTHER : Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__5
PubMedSearch : Adibekian_2011_Probe.Report__5
PubMedID: 23658947

Title : Superfamily-wide portrait of serine hydrolase inhibition achieved by library-versus-library screening - Bachovchin_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_20941
Author(s) : Bachovchin DA , Ji T , Li W , Simon GM , Blankman JL , Adibekian A , Hoover H , Niessen S , Cravatt BF
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 107 :20941 , 2010
Abstract : Serine hydrolases (SHs) are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in mammals. They play fundamental roles in virtually all physiological processes and are targeted by drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite this, we lack biological understanding for most of the 110+ predicted mammalian metabolic SHs, in large part because of a dearth of assays to assess their biochemical activities and a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their function in living systems. We show here that the vast majority (> 80%) of mammalian metabolic SHs can be labeled in proteomes by a single, active site-directed fluorophosphonate probe. We exploit this universal activity-based assay in a library-versus-library format to screen 70+ SHs against 140+ structurally diverse carbamates. Lead inhibitors were discovered for approximately 40% of the screened enzymes, including many poorly characterized SHs. Global profiles identified carbamate inhibitors that discriminate among highly sequence-related SHs and, conversely, enzymes that share inhibitor sensitivity profiles despite lacking sequence homology. These findings indicate that sequence relatedness is not a strong predictor of shared pharmacology within the SH superfamily. Finally, we show that lead carbamate inhibitors can be optimized into pharmacological probes that inactivate individual SHs with high specificity in vivo.
ESTHER : Bachovchin_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_20941
PubMedSearch : Bachovchin_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_20941
PubMedID: 21084632

Title : Characterization of tunable piperidine and piperazine carbamates as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases - Long_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_1830
Author(s) : Long JZ , Jin X , Adibekian A , Li W , Cravatt BF
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 53 :1830 , 2010
Abstract : Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are two enzymes from the serine hydrolase superfamily that degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, respectively. We have recently discovered that MAGL and FAAH are both inhibited by carbamates bearing an N-piperidine/piperazine group. Piperidine/piperazine carbamates show excellent in vivo activity, raising brain endocannabinoid levels and producing CB1-dependent behavioral effects in mice, suggesting that they represent a promising class of inhibitors for studying the endogenous functions of MAGL and FAAH. Herein, we disclose a full account of the syntheses, structure-activity relationships, and inhibitory activities of piperidine/piperazine carbamates against members of the serine hydrolase family. These scaffolds can be tuned for MAGL-selective or dual MAGL-FAAH inhibition by the attachment of an appropriately substituted bisarylcarbinol or aryloxybenzyl moiety, respectively, on the piperidine/piperazine ring. Modifications to the piperidine/piperazine ring ablated inhibitory activity, suggesting a strict requirement for a six-membered ring to maintain potency.
ESTHER : Long_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_1830
PubMedSearch : Long_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_1830
PubMedID: 20099888