Schunkert H

References (8)

Title : LDL triglycerides, hepatic lipase activity, and coronary artery disease: An epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization study - Silbernagel_2018_Atherosclerosis_282_37
Author(s) : Silbernagel G , Scharnagl H , Kleber ME , Delgado G , Stojakovic T , Laaksonen R , Erdmann J , Rankinen T , Bouchard C , Landmesser U , Schunkert H , Marz W , Grammer TB
Ref : Atherosclerosis , 282 :37 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides have been associated with prevalent angiographic coronary artery disease. The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of LDL triglycerides with cardiovascular mortality and to explore possible mechanisms that may link LDL triglycerides to cardiovascular risk. METHODS: LDL triglycerides were measured in 3140 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. They were prospectively followed for cardiovascular mortality (median duration 9.9 years). Genome wide association data for LDL triglycerides were available for 2900 LURIC participants. Genetic data and measurements of hepatic lipase activity were available for 478 participants of the HERITAGE Family study. Genome wide association data for cardiovascular disease were available for 184,305 participants of the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. RESULTS: There was a continuous positive association between LDL triglycerides and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for 5th vs. 1st quintile=2.53, p<0.001) and this association was similar in males and females. Genome wide association analysis in LURIC revealed that LDL triglycerides were strongly associated with variation in the hepatic lipase region (p<10(-15) for rs1800588 and rs10468017). The LDL triglyceride raising alleles in rs1800588 and rs10468017 were associated with low hepatic lipase activity in HERITAGE and increased cardiovascular risk in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis (HERITAGE and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) using rs1800588 and rs10468017 as instrumental variable suggested that low hepatic lipase activity may cause increased cardiovascular risk (p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Low hepatic lipase activity may link high LDL triglycerides to increased cardiovascular risk.
ESTHER : Silbernagel_2018_Atherosclerosis_282_37
PubMedSearch : Silbernagel_2018_Atherosclerosis_282_37
PubMedID: 30685440

Title : Association of Rare and Common Variation in the Lipoprotein Lipase Gene With Coronary Artery Disease - Khera_2017_JAMA_317_937
Author(s) : Khera AV , Won HH , Peloso GM , O'Dushlaine C , Liu D , Stitziel NO , Natarajan P , Nomura A , Emdin CA , Gupta N , Borecki IB , Asselta R , Duga S , Merlini PA , Correa A , Kessler T , Wilson JG , Bown MJ , Hall AS , Braund PS , Carey DJ , Murray MF , Kirchner HL , Leader JB , Lavage DR , Manus JN , Hartzel DN , Samani NJ , Schunkert H , Marrugat J , Elosua R , McPherson R , Farrall M , Watkins H , Lander ES , Rader DJ , Danesh J , Ardissino D , Gabriel S , Willer C , Abecasis GR , Saleheen D , Dewey FE , Kathiresan S
Ref : Jama , 317 :937 , 2017
Abstract : Importance: The activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the rate-determining step in clearing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the circulation. Mutations that damage the LPL gene (LPL) lead to lifelong deficiency in enzymatic activity and can provide insight into the relationship of LPL to human disease. Objective: To determine whether rare and/or common variants in LPL are associated with early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). Design, Setting, and Participants: In a cross-sectional study, LPL was sequenced in 10 CAD case-control cohorts of the multinational Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium and a nested CAD case-control cohort of the Geisinger Health System DiscovEHR cohort between 2010 and 2015. Common variants were genotyped in up to 305699 individuals of the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium and up to 120600 individuals of the CARDIoGRAM Exome Consortium between 2012 and 2014. Study-specific estimates were pooled via meta-analysis. Exposures: Rare damaging mutations in LPL included loss-of-function variants and missense variants annotated as pathogenic in a human genetics database or predicted to be damaging by computer prediction algorithms trained to identify mutations that impair protein function. Common variants in the LPL gene region included those independently associated with circulating triglyceride levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: Circulating lipid levels and CAD. Results: Among 46891 individuals with LPL gene sequencing data available, the mean (SD) age was 50 (12.6) years and 51% were female. A total of 188 participants (0.40%; 95% CI, 0.35%-0.46%) carried a damaging mutation in LPL, including 105 of 32646 control participants (0.32%) and 83 of 14245 participants with early-onset CAD (0.58%). Compared with 46703 noncarriers, the 188 heterozygous carriers of an LPL damaging mutation displayed higher plasma triglyceride levels (19.6 mg/dL; 95% CI, 4.6-34.6 mg/dL) and higher odds of CAD (odds ratio = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.35-2.51; P < .001). An analysis of 6 common LPL variants resulted in an odds ratio for CAD of 1.51 (95% CI, 1.39-1.64; P = 1.1 x 10-22) per 1-SD increase in triglycerides. Conclusions and Relevance: The presence of rare damaging mutations in LPL was significantly associated with higher triglyceride levels and presence of coronary artery disease. However, further research is needed to assess whether there are causal mechanisms by which heterozygous lipoprotein lipase deficiency could lead to coronary artery disease.
ESTHER : Khera_2017_JAMA_317_937
PubMedSearch : Khera_2017_JAMA_317_937
PubMedID: 28267856
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LPL

Title : Genetic invalidation of Lp-PLA(2) as a therapeutic target: Large-scale study of five functional Lp-PLA(2)-lowering alleles - Gregson_2017_Eur.J.Prev.Cardiol_24_492
Author(s) : Gregson JM , Freitag DF , Surendran P , Stitziel NO , Chowdhury R , Burgess S , Kaptoge S , Gao P , Staley JR , Willeit P , Nielsen SF , Caslake M , Trompet S , Polfus LM , Kuulasmaa K , Kontto J , Perola M , Blankenberg S , Veronesi G , Gianfagna F , Mannisto S , Kimura A , Lin H , Reilly DF , Gorski M , Mijatovic V , Munroe PB , Ehret GB , Thompson A , Uria-Nickelsen M , Malarstig A , Dehghan A , Vogt TF , Sasaoka T , Takeuchi F , Kato N , Yamada Y , Kee F , Muller-Nurasyid M , Ferrieres J , Arveiler D , Amouyel P , Salomaa V , Boerwinkle E , Thompson SG , Ford I , Wouter Jukema J , Sattar N , Packard CJ , Shafi Majumder AA , Alam DS , Deloukas P , Schunkert H , Samani NJ , Kathiresan S , Nordestgaard BG , Saleheen D , Howson JM , Di Angelantonio E , Butterworth AS , Danesh J
Ref : Eur J Prev Cardiol , 24 :492 , 2017
Abstract : Aims Darapladib, a potent inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), has not reduced risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes in recent randomized trials. We aimed to test whether Lp-PLA(2) enzyme activity is causally relevant to coronary heart disease. Methods In 72,657 patients with coronary heart disease and 110,218 controls in 23 epidemiological studies, we genotyped five functional variants: four rare loss-of-function mutations (c.109+2T > C (rs142974898), Arg82His (rs144983904), Val279Phe (rs76863441), Gln287Ter (rs140020965)) and one common modest-impact variant (Val379Ala (rs1051931)) in PLA2G7, the gene encoding Lp-PLA(2). We supplemented de-novo genotyping with information on a further 45,823 coronary heart disease patients and 88,680 controls in publicly available databases and other previous studies. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials to compare effects of darapladib treatment on soluble Lp-PLA(2) activity, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease risk with corresponding effects of Lp-PLA(2)-lowering alleles. Results Lp-PLA(2) activity was decreased by 64% ( p = 2.4 x 10(-25)) with carriage of any of the four loss-of-function variants, by 45% ( p < 10(-300)) for every allele inherited at Val279Phe, and by 2.7% ( p = 1.9 x 10(-12)) for every allele inherited at Val379Ala. Darapladib 160 mg once-daily reduced Lp-PLA(2) activity by 65% ( p < 10(-300)). Causal risk ratios for coronary heart disease per 65% lower Lp-PLA(2) activity were: 0.95 (0.88-1.03) with Val279Phe; 0.92 (0.74-1.16) with carriage of any loss-of-function variant; 1.01 (0.68-1.51) with Val379Ala; and 0.95 (0.89-1.02) with darapladib treatment. Conclusions In a large-scale human genetic study, none of a series of Lp-PLA(2)-lowering alleles was related to coronary heart disease risk, suggesting that Lp-PLA(2) is unlikely to be a causal risk factor.
ESTHER : Gregson_2017_Eur.J.Prev.Cardiol_24_492
PubMedSearch : Gregson_2017_Eur.J.Prev.Cardiol_24_492
PubMedID: 27940953
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : Exome sequencing and directed clinical phenotyping diagnose cholesterol ester storage disease presenting as autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia - Stitziel_2013_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_33_2909
Author(s) : Stitziel NO , Fouchier SW , Sjouke B , Peloso GM , Moscoso AM , Auer PL , Goel A , Gigante B , Barnes TA , Melander O , Orho-Melander M , Duga S , Sivapalaratnam S , Nikpay M , Martinelli N , Girelli D , Jackson RD , Kooperberg C , Lange LA , Ardissino D , McPherson R , Farrall M , Watkins H , Reilly MP , Rader DJ , de Faire U , Schunkert H , Erdmann J , Samani NJ , Charnas L , Altshuler D , Gabriel S , Kastelein JJ , Defesche JC , Nederveen AJ , Kathiresan S , Hovingh GK
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 33 :2909 , 2013
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is a rare inherited disorder, characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. We identified a family with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia not explained by mutations in LDLRAP1 or other genes known to cause monogenic hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular pathogenesis of autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia in this family. APPROACH AND
RESULTS: We used exome sequencing to assess all protein-coding regions of the genome in 3 family members and identified a homozygous exon 8 splice junction mutation (c.894G>A, also known as E8SJM) in LIPA that segregated with the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Because homozygosity for mutations in LIPA is known to cause cholesterol ester storage disease, we performed directed follow-up phenotyping by noninvasively measuring hepatic cholesterol content. We observed abnormal hepatic accumulation of cholesterol in the homozygote individuals, supporting the diagnosis of cholesterol ester storage disease. Given previous suggestions of cardiovascular disease risk in heterozygous LIPA mutation carriers, we genotyped E8SJM in >27 000 individuals and found no association with plasma lipid levels or risk of myocardial infarction, confirming a true recessive mode of inheritance.
CONCLUSIONS: By integrating observations from Mendelian and population genetics along with directed clinical phenotyping, we diagnosed clinically unapparent cholesterol ester storage disease in the affected individuals from this kindred and addressed an outstanding question about risk of cardiovascular disease in LIPA E8SJM heterozygous carriers.
ESTHER : Stitziel_2013_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_33_2909
PubMedSearch : Stitziel_2013_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_33_2909
PubMedID: 24072694

Title : Eight genetic loci associated with variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from five community-based studies - Grallert_2012_Eur.Heart.J_33_238
Author(s) : Grallert H , Dupuis J , Bis JC , Dehghan A , Barbalic M , Baumert J , Lu C , Smith NL , Uitterlinden AG , Roberts R , Khuseyinova N , Schnabel RB , Rice KM , Rivadeneira F , Hoogeveen RC , Fontes JD , Meisinger C , Keaney JF, Jr. , Lemaitre R , Aulchenko YS , Vasan RS , Ellis S , Hazen SL , van Duijn CM , Nelson JJ , Marz W , Schunkert H , McPherson RM , Stirnadel-Farrant HA , Psaty BM , Gieger C , Siscovick D , Hofman A , Illig T , Cushman M , Yamamoto JF , Rotter JI , Larson MG , Stewart AF , Boerwinkle E , Witteman JC , Tracy RP , Koenig W , Benjamin EJ , Ballantyne CM
Ref : Eur Heart J , 33 :238 , 2012
Abstract : AIMS: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) generates proinflammatory and proatherogenic compounds in the arterial vascular wall and is a potential therapeutic target in coronary heart disease (CHD). We searched for genetic loci related to Lp-PLA2 mass or activity by a genome-wide association study as part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. METHODS AND RESULTS: In meta-analyses of findings from five population-based studies, comprising 13 664 subjects, variants at two loci (PLA2G7, CETP) were associated with Lp-PLA2 mass. The strongest signal was at rs1805017 in PLA2G7 [P = 2.4 x 10(-23), log Lp-PLA2 difference per allele (beta): 0.043]. Variants at six loci were associated with Lp-PLA2 activity (PLA2G7, APOC1, CELSR2, LDL, ZNF259, SCARB1), among which the strongest signals were at rs4420638, near the APOE-APOC1-APOC4-APOC2 cluster [P = 4.9 x 10(-30); log Lp-PLA2 difference per allele (beta): -0.054]. There were no significant gene-environment interactions between these eight polymorphisms associated with Lp-PLA2 mass or activity and age, sex, body mass index, or smoking status. Four of the polymorphisms (in APOC1, CELSR2, SCARB1, ZNF259), but not PLA2G7, were significantly associated with CHD in a second study. CONCLUSION: Levels of Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were associated with PLA2G7, the gene coding for this protein. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity was also strongly associated with genetic variants related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
ESTHER : Grallert_2012_Eur.Heart.J_33_238
PubMedSearch : Grallert_2012_Eur.Heart.J_33_238
PubMedID: 22003152
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : A genome-wide association study identifies LIPA as a susceptibility gene for coronary artery disease - Wild_2011_Circ.Cardiovasc.Genet_4_403
Author(s) : Wild PS , Zeller T , Schillert A , Szymczak S , Sinning CR , Deiseroth A , Schnabel RB , Lubos E , Keller T , Eleftheriadis MS , Bickel C , Rupprecht HJ , Wilde S , Rossmann H , Diemert P , Cupples LA , Perret C , Erdmann J , Stark K , Kleber ME , Epstein SE , Voight BF , Kuulasmaa K , Li M , Schafer AS , Klopp N , Braund PS , Sager HB , Demissie S , Proust C , Konig IR , Wichmann HE , Reinhard W , Hoffmann MM , Virtamo J , Burnett MS , Siscovick D , Wiklund PG , Qu L , El Mokthari NE , Thompson JR , Peters A , Smith AV , Yon E , Baumert J , Hengstenberg C , Marz W , Amouyel P , Devaney J , Schwartz SM , Saarela O , Mehta NN , Rubin D , Silander K , Hall AS , Ferrieres J , Harris TB , Melander O , Kee F , Hakonarson H , Schrezenmeir J , Gudnason V , Elosua R , Arveiler D , Evans A , Rader DJ , Illig T , Schreiber S , Bis JC , Altshuler D , Kavousi M , Witteman JC , Uitterlinden AG , Hofman A , Folsom AR , Barbalic M , Boerwinkle E , Kathiresan S , Reilly MP , O'Donnell CJ , Samani NJ , Schunkert H , Cambien F , Lackner KJ , Tiret L , Salomaa V , Munzel T , Ziegler A , Blankenberg S
Ref : Circ Cardiovasc Genet , 4 :403 , 2011
Abstract : BACKGROUND: eQTL analyses are important to improve the understanding of genetic association results. We performed a genome-wide association and global gene expression study to identify functionally relevant variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a genome-wide association analysis of 2078 CAD cases and 2953 control subjects, we identified 950 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with CAD at P<10(-3). Subsequent in silico and wet-laboratory replication stages and a final meta-analysis of 21 428 CAD cases and 38 361 control subjects revealed a novel association signal at chromosome 10q23.31 within the LIPA (lysosomal acid lipase A) gene (P=3.7x10(-8); odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.14). The association of this locus with global gene expression was assessed by genome-wide expression analyses in the monocyte transcriptome of 1494 individuals. The results showed a strong association of this locus with expression of the LIPA transcript (P=1.3x10(-96)). An assessment of LIPA SNPs and transcript with cardiovascular phenotypes revealed an association of LIPA transcript levels with impaired endothelial function (P=4.4x10(-3)). CONCLUSIONS: The use of data on genetic variants and the addition of data on global monocytic gene expression led to the identification of the novel functional CAD susceptibility locus LIPA, located on chromosome 10q23.31. The respective eSNPs associated with CAD strongly affect LIPA gene expression level, which was related to endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of CAD.
ESTHER : Wild_2011_Circ.Cardiovasc.Genet_4_403
PubMedSearch : Wild_2011_Circ.Cardiovasc.Genet_4_403
PubMedID: 21606135
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LIPA

Title : [Genetic factors in myocardial infarction--Results from a candidate gene and a genome-wide approach between beta blockers] - Hengstenberg_2002_Herz_27_649
Author(s) : Hengstenberg C , Brockel U , Holmer S , Mayer B , Fischer M , Baessler A , Erdmann J , Lieb W , Lowel H , Riegger G , Schunkert H
Ref : Herz , 27 :649 , 2002
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction are the most frequent causes of death in the Western societies. Even nowadays, every second myocardial infarction is lethal and hits the patients unexpectedly without previous signs or symptoms. In order to install preventive measures most efficiently, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge on the pathophysiology of the disease. The identification of patients who are at high risk for suffering from myocardial infarction can be done with epidemiological methods, such as the determination of "traditional" risk factors, like arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus or smoking), or eventually in the future using molecular genetic testing. This is of great importance especially for asymptomatic siblings and children from myocardial infarction patients. POLYMORPHISMS: Although traditional risk factors occur frequently in families, they explain only in part the familial accumulation of coronary artery disease. Furthermore, stron genetic effects on the development of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction have been demonstrated in several studies. These genetic effects can be examined by 1. a candidate gene approach, or 2. a systematic screening of the whole genome. In the first step, several polymorphisms (sequence variations) wee examined in several candidate genes in which a significant influence on a cardiovascular risk factor or intermediate phenotype (such as atherogeneic lipid profile or arterial hypertension) has been shown in the literature. We thus examined in a large population of patients with myocardial infarction and a sample of the general population the effects of the HindIII polymorphism in the lipoproteinlipase gene, of the -344T/C promoter polymorphism in the aldosterone synthase gene and of the 825C/T polymorphism in the gene of the beta3 subunit of the G protein gene (GNB3). In the general population, we could show an association with unfavorable lipid levels in men and in postmenopausal (but not premenopausal) women for the H2H2 genotype of the HindIII lipoproteinlipase polymorphism. However, the theoretical increase in risk for this genotype is not large enough to demonstrate a significant association with myocardial infarction in the population examined. With the promoter polymorphism in the aldosterone synthase gene, anthropometrical and echocardiographical data did not suggest that the polymorphism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction nor for left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction, which was observed in earlier studies. Furthermore, we could show an association with arterial hypertension in our general population sample with the polymorphism in the GNB3 gene. However, no association could be demonstrated for this polymorphism with myocardial infarction. AFFECTED SIB-PAIR APPROACH: In a systematic screening of the genome for genes that are relevant in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction, an affected sib-pair approach was followed. 1,261 families were identified in which at least two brothers or sisters were affected with myocardial infarction or severe coronary artery disease, such as percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary after bypass grafting. In a subpopulation of 513 families and 1,407 individuals, we performed a total genome screening. The analyses using the variance component method and the SOLAR program revealed a susceptibility locus for myocardial infarction of chromosome 14q32 with a lod score of 3.89 (genome-wide p < 0.05). This locus comprises a region of about seven centi-Morgan and contains approximately 150 genes. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis including the cardiovascular risk factors showed that 1. this myocardial infarction locus is unique and does not overlap with chromosomal loci for well-established risk factors, 2. cardiovascular risk factors, such as Lp(a), diabetes mellitus, serum lipids, or arterial hypertension have strong genetic components. CONCLUSION: These findings do not exclude a role of cardiovascular s do not exclude a role of cardiovascular risk factors or candidate genes in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction, but rather demonstrate that risk factors may act as surrogates of specific underlying disease mechanisms. It is thus necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex polygenic diseases, such as myocardial infarction, including both, established cardiovascular risk factors and genomic data.
ESTHER : Hengstenberg_2002_Herz_27_649
PubMedSearch : Hengstenberg_2002_Herz_27_649
PubMedID: 12439636

Title : Lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism, cholesterol subfractions and myocardial infarction in large samples of the general population - Holmer_2000_Cardiovasc.Res_47_806
Author(s) : Holmer SR , Hengstenberg C , Mayer B , Doring A , Lowel H , Engel S , Hense HW , Wolf M , Klein G , Riegger GA , Schunkert H
Ref : Cardiovascular Research , 47 :806 , 2000
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Genetic variants of the lipoprotein lipase gene have been associated with dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease. However, data have been inconsistent and are mainly based on selected predominantly male patient groups.
METHODS: We evaluated the influence of the HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism on lipid levels in the general population (1361 participants of a large population-based survey from Augsburg, Germany; 50% women) as well as the association of this polymorphism with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI; genotype frequencies in 1159 patients with documented MI under 60 years of age).
RESULTS: In the population-based survey, a highly significant association between the frequent H2H2 genotype and unfavorable cholesterol subfraction levels was observed in men and in postmenopausal women whereas no significant association was observed in premenopausal women (uni- and multivariate analysis). Such unfavorable lipid levels in homozygotes for the H2 allele may be expected to be associated with a 19-25% increased risk to suffer from myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless, genotype and allele frequencies in the general population were not different from those in patients with previous MI (H2H2 genotype frequency 51.3% vs. 53.2%, respectively; P=0.63). CONCLUSION: This large study shows that the H2H2 genotype of the lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism is associated with unfavorable lipid levels. Estrogen status may modulate this association in women. The effects of the genotype on lipid levels were apparently not strong enough to reveal a significant association with MI.
ESTHER : Holmer_2000_Cardiovasc.Res_47_806
PubMedSearch : Holmer_2000_Cardiovasc.Res_47_806
PubMedID: 10974229