Park G

References (3)

Title : Seropositive Muscle-Specific Tyrosine Kinase Myasthenia Gravis Presenting as a Late-Onset Isolated Sixth Nerve Palsy: A Case Report and a Brief Review of Subtypes of Myasthenia Gravis - Park_2021_Cureus_13_e19701
Author(s) : Park G , Kesserwani H
Ref : Cureus , 13 :e19701 , 2021
Abstract : Autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) is a well-characterized post-synaptic disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Immunologically, there is complement activation with autoantibodies binding to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), leading to cross-linking and internalization of the receptor. The diminished functional clustering leads to impaired folding of the post-synaptic membrane. The antibodies generated by the autoimmune process are directed at the various components of the post-synaptic membrane and its scaffolding, including the AChR, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), and the other recently described epitopes including the extracellular membrane proteins agrin and collagen Q (ColQ). MuSK MG is phenotypically different from classic AChR-antibody-mediated MG by a more frequent presentation of bulbar weakness, less responsiveness to symptomatic therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, the absence of a thymoma, and a better therapeutic response to a cluster of differentiation (CD-20) B-cell therapy such as rituximab. The pleiotropic ocular findings of ocular MG include ptosis, fluctuating and variable involvement of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, pseudo-internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), near-complete or complete ophthalmoplegia, and variable gaze palsies. To our knowledge, we present one of the very few reported cases of MuSK MG presenting as isolated sixth nerve palsy. The localization of a sixth nerve palsy with lateral rectus muscle weakness can be due to disease anywhere along its path from the abducens nucleus, coursing at the skull base through Dorello's canal, through the cavernous sinus, and along its path through the superior orbital fissure and into the orbits. A painless sixth nerve palsy should alert the clinician to MuSK-MG as we outline in this case report.
ESTHER : Park_2021_Cureus_13_e19701
PubMedSearch : Park_2021_Cureus_13_e19701
PubMedID: 34934570

Title : Donepezil inhibits the amyloid-beta oligomer-induced microglial activation in vitro and in vivo - Kim_2013_Neurotoxicol_40C_23
Author(s) : Kim HG , Moon M , Choi JG , Park G , Kim AJ , Hur J , Lee KT , Oh MS
Ref : Neurotoxicology , 40C :23 , 2013
Abstract : Recent studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid-beta (Abeta oligomer, AbetaO) that are directly associated with AD-related pathologies, such as cognitive decline, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Donepezil is a well-known anti-dementia agent that increases acetylcholine levels through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, a growing body of experimental and clinical studies indicates that donepezil may also provide neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects in AD. Additionally, donepezil has recently been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects against lipopolysaccharides and tau pathology. However, it remains unknown whether donepezil has anti-inflammatory effects against AbetaO in cultured microglial cells and the brain in animals. Further, the effects of donepezil against AbetaO-mediated neuronal death, astrogliosis, and memory impairment have also not yet been investigated. Thus, in the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of donepezil against AbetaO and its neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Donepezil significantly attenuated the release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide) from microglia. Donepezil also decreased AbetaO-induced up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B. We next showed that donepezil suppresses activated microglia-mediated toxicity in primary hippocampal cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In intrahippocampal AbetaO-injected mice, donepezil significantly inhibited microgliosis and astrogliosis. Furthermore, behavioral tests revealed that donepezil (2mg/kg/day, 5 days, p.o.) significantly ameliorated AbetaO-induced memory impairment. These results suggest that donepezil directly inhibits microglial activation induced by AbetaO through blocking MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling and, in part, contributing to the amelioration of neurodegeneration and memory impairment.
ESTHER : Kim_2013_Neurotoxicol_40C_23
PubMedSearch : Kim_2013_Neurotoxicol_40C_23
PubMedID: 24189446

Title : Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium - Ma_2010_Nature_464_367
Author(s) : Ma LJ , van der Does HC , Borkovich KA , Coleman JJ , Daboussi MJ , Di Pietro A , Dufresne M , Freitag M , Grabherr M , Henrissat B , Houterman PM , Kang S , Shim WB , Woloshuk C , Xie X , Xu JR , Antoniw J , Baker SE , Bluhm BH , Breakspear A , Brown DW , Butchko RA , Chapman S , Coulson R , Coutinho PM , Danchin EG , Diener A , Gale LR , Gardiner DM , Goff S , Hammond-Kosack KE , Hilburn K , Hua-Van A , Jonkers W , Kazan K , Kodira CD , Koehrsen M , Kumar L , Lee YH , Li L , Manners JM , Miranda-Saavedra D , Mukherjee M , Park G , Park J , Park SY , Proctor RH , Regev A , Ruiz-Roldan MC , Sain D , Sakthikumar S , Sykes S , Schwartz DC , Turgeon BG , Wapinski I , Yoder O , Young S , Zeng Q , Zhou S , Galagan J , Cuomo CA , Kistler HC , Rep M
Ref : Nature , 464 :367 , 2010
Abstract : Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.
ESTHER : Ma_2010_Nature_464_367
PubMedSearch : Ma_2010_Nature_464_367
PubMedID: 20237561
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusox-a0a1d3s5h0 , gibf5-fus2 , fusof-f9f2k2 , fusof-f9f3l6 , fusof-f9f6t8 , fusof-f9f6v2 , fusof-f9f132 , fusof-f9f781 , fusof-f9fd72 , fusof-f9fd90 , fusof-f9fem0 , fusof-f9fhk2 , fusof-f9fj19 , fusof-f9fj20 , fusof-f9fki8 , fusof-f9fmx2 , fusof-f9fnt4 , fusof-f9fpy4 , fusof-f9fvs6 , fusof-f9fwu0 , fusof-f9fxz4 , fusof-f9fzy5 , fusof-f9g2a2 , fusof-f9g3b1 , fusof-f9g5h7 , fusof-f9g6e6 , fusof-f9g6y7 , fusof-f9g7b0 , fusof-f9g797 , fusof-f9g972 , fusof-f9ga50 , fusof-f9gck4 , fusof-f9gd15 , gibze-a8w610 , gibze-b1pdn0 , gibze-i1r9e6 , gibze-i1rda9 , gibze-i1rdk7 , gibze-i1rec8 , gibze-i1rgs0 , gibze-i1rgy0 , gibze-i1rh52 , gibze-i1rhi8 , gibze-i1rig9 , gibze-i1rip5 , gibze-i1rpg6 , gibze-i1rsg2 , gibze-i1rv36 , gibze-i1rxm5 , gibze-i1rxp8 , gibze-i1rxv5 , gibze-i1s1u3 , gibze-i1s3j9 , gibze-i1s6l7 , gibze-i1s8i8 , gibze-i1s9x4 , gibze-q4huy1 , gibze-i1rg17 , fuso4-j9mvr9 , fuso4-j9ngs6 , fuso4-j9niq8 , fuso4-j9nqm2 , gibze-i1rb76 , gibze-i1s1m7 , gibze-i1s3z6 , gibze-i1rd78 , gibze-i1rgl9 , gibze-i1rjp7 , gibze-i1s1q6 , gibze-i1ri35 , gibze-i1rf76 , gibze-i1rhp3 , fusc1-n4uj11 , fusc4-n1s9p6 , gibf5-s0dqr2 , gibm7-w7n1b5 , fusof-f9g6q0 , gibm7-w7n497 , fusox-x0bme4 , gibm7-w7mcf8 , gibm7-w7mak5 , fusox-x0a2c5 , gibm7-w7mum7 , fusox-w9iyc7 , gibm7-w7maw6 , gibm7-w7msi0 , gibm7-w7luf0 , gibm7-w7msa3 , gibm7-w7mna8 , gibm7-w7n8b7 , gibm7-w7n564 , fusox-w9jpi0 , gibm7-w7ngc3 , gibm7-w7m4v6 , gibm7-w7m4v2 , gibm7-w7lt61 , gibm7-w7mly6 , gibm7-w7ncn3 , fusox-w9ibd7 , fusof-f9fnm6 , gibm7-w7n526 , gibza-a0a016pda4 , gibza-a0a016pl96 , gibm7-w7muq1 , fusof-f9gfd3 , gibm7-w7mt52 , gibze-i1rjb5 , gibf5-s0ehu3 , fusox-w9hvf0 , gibze-i1rkc4 , gibm7-w7mv30 , gibze-a0a1c3ylb1 , fuso4-a0a0c4diy4 , gibm7-w7n4n0 , gibze-gra11 , gibze-fsl2 , gibf5-fub4 , gibf5-fub5 , gibf5-fus5 , gibm7-dlh1