Brown DW

References (12)

Title : Evolution of structural diversity of trichothecenes, a family of toxins produced by plant pathogenic and entomopathogenic fungi - Proctor_2018_PLoS.Pathog_14_e1006946
Author(s) : Proctor RH , McCormick SP , Kim HS , Cardoza RE , Stanley AM , Lindo L , Kelly A , Brown DW , Lee T , Vaughan MM , Alexander NJ , Busman M , Gutierrez S
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 14 :e1006946 , 2018
Abstract : Trichothecenes are a family of terpenoid toxins produced by multiple genera of fungi, including plant and insect pathogens. Some trichothecenes produced by the fungus Fusarium are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety because of their toxicity and frequent occurrence in cereal crops, and trichothecene production contributes to pathogenesis of some Fusarium species on plants. Collectively, fungi produce over 150 trichothecene analogs: i.e., molecules that share the same core structure but differ in patterns of substituents attached to the core structure. Here, we carried out genomic, phylogenetic, gene-function, and analytical chemistry studies of strains from nine fungal genera to identify genetic variation responsible for trichothecene structural diversity and to gain insight into evolutionary processes that have contributed to the variation. The results indicate that structural diversity has resulted from gain, loss, and functional changes of trichothecene biosynthetic (TRI) genes. The results also indicate that the presence of some substituents has arisen independently in different fungi by gain of different genes with the same function. Variation in TRI gene duplication and number of TRI loci was also observed among the fungi examined, but there was no evidence that such genetic differences have contributed to trichothecene structural variation. We also inferred ancestral states of the TRI cluster and trichothecene biosynthetic pathway, and proposed scenarios for changes in trichothecene structures during divergence of TRI cluster homologs. Together, our findings provide insight into evolutionary processes responsible for structural diversification of toxins produced by pathogenic fungi.
ESTHER : Proctor_2018_PLoS.Pathog_14_e1006946
PubMedSearch : Proctor_2018_PLoS.Pathog_14_e1006946
PubMedID: 29649280
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9hypo-a0a395s326 , gibze-i1rkc4 , triar-a0a395nwj2 , gibze-a0a1c3ylb1 , 9hypo-a0a395t5y9 , triar-a0a395nq82 , triar-a0a395nkh6

Title : Comparative Omics of the Fusarium fujikuroi Species Complex Highlights Differences in Genetic Potential and Metabolite Synthesis - Niehaus_2016_Genome.Biol.Evol_8_3574
Author(s) : Niehaus EM , Munsterkotter M , Proctor RH , Brown DW , Sharon A , Idan Y , Oren-Young L , Sieber CM , Novak O , Pencik A , Tarkowska D , Hromadova K , Freeman S , Maymon M , Elazar M , Youssef SA , El-Shabrawy ES , Shalaby AB , Houterman P , Brock NL , Burkhardt I , Tsavkelova EA , Dickschat JS , Galuszka P , Guldener U , Tudzynski B
Ref : Genome Biol Evol , 8 :3574 , 2016
Abstract : Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share 90% sequence similarity, they can differ in host plant specificity and life style. FFC species can also produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including the mycotoxins fumonisins, fusarins, fusaric acid, and beauvericin, and the phytohormones gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins. The spectrum of SMs produced can differ among closely related species, suggesting that SMs might be determinants of host specificity. To date, genomes of only a limited number of FFC species have been sequenced. Here, we provide draft genome sequences of three more members of the FFC: a single isolate of F. mangiferae, the cause of mango malformation, and two isolates of F. proliferatum, one a pathogen of maize and the other an orchid endophyte. We compared these genomes to publicly available genome sequences of three other FFC species. The comparisons revealed species-specific and isolate-specific differences in the composition and expression (in vitro and in planta) of genes involved in SM production including those for phytohormome biosynthesis. Such differences have the potential to impact host specificity and, as in the case of F. proliferatum, the pathogenic versus endophytic life style.
ESTHER : Niehaus_2016_Genome.Biol.Evol_8_3574
PubMedSearch : Niehaus_2016_Genome.Biol.Evol_8_3574
PubMedID: 28040774
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusma-a0a1l7uhq5 , gibf5-s0ehu3 , fusma-a0a1l7uad3

Title : Identification of a 12-gene Fusaric Acid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium Species Through Comparative and Functional Genomics - Brown_2015_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_28_319
Author(s) : Brown DW , Lee SH , Kim LH , Ryu JG , Lee S , Seo Y , Kim YH , Busman M , Yun SH , Proctor RH , Lee T
Ref : Mol Plant Microbe Interact , 28 :319 , 2015
Abstract : In fungi, genes involved in biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite (SM) are often located adjacent to one another in the genome and are coordinately regulated. These SM biosynthetic gene clusters typically encode enzymes, one or more transcription factors, and a transport protein. Fusaric acid is a polyketide-derived SM produced by multiple species of the fungal genus Fusarium. This SM is of concern because it is toxic to animals and, therefore, is considered a mycotoxin and may contribute to plant pathogenesis. Preliminary descriptions of the fusaric acid (FA) biosynthetic gene (FUB) cluster have been reported in two Fusarium species, the maize pathogen F. verticillioides and the rice pathogen F. fujikuroi. The cluster consisted of five genes and did not include a transcription factor or transporter gene. Here, analysis of the FUB region in F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi, and F. oxysporum, a plant pathogen with multiple hosts, indicates the FUB cluster consists of at least 12 genes (FUB1 to FUB12). Deletion analysis confirmed that nine FUB genes, including two Zn(II)2Cys6 transcription factor genes, are required for production of wild-type levels of FA. Comparisons of FUB cluster homologs across multiple Fusarium isolates and species revealed insertion of non-FUB genes at one or two locations in some homologs. Although the ability to produce FA contributed to the phytotoxicity of F. oxysporum culture extracts, lack of production did not affect virulence of F. oxysporum on cactus or F. verticillioides on maize seedlings. These findings provide new insights into the genetic and biochemical processes required for FA production.
ESTHER : Brown_2015_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_28_319
PubMedSearch : Brown_2015_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_28_319
PubMedID: 25372119
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibf5-fub4 , gibf5-fub5

Title : Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot\/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi - Riley_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_9923
Author(s) : Riley R , Salamov AA , Brown DW , Nagy LG , Floudas D , Held BW , Levasseur A , Lombard V , Morin E , Otillar R , Lindquist EA , Sun H , LaButti KM , Schmutz J , Jabbour D , Luo H , Baker SE , Pisabarro AG , Walton JD , Blanchette RA , Henrissat B , Martin F , Cullen D , Hibbett DS , Grigoriev IV
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 111 :9923 , 2014
Abstract : Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.
ESTHER : Riley_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_9923
PubMedSearch : Riley_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_9923
PubMedID: 24958869
Gene_locus related to this paper: pleos-a0a067nlj6 , 9agar-a0a067t0n0 , 9agar-a0a067sha0 , 9homo-a0a067pav0 , pleos-a0a067n337 , 9homo-a0a067pz82 , 9homo-a0a067m7p7 , pleos-a0a067p245 , 9homo-a0a067lrz6 , 9homo-a0a067m4r5 , 9homo-a0a067mr63 , 9homo-a0a067mrq8 , 9agar-a0a067t4j6 , 9homo-a0a067pdz2 , 9homo-a0a067q2n9 , 9agar-a0a067tsx5 , 9homo-a0a067mfq5 , 9homo-a0a067qc90 , pleos-a0a067p113 , 9homo-a0a067pwi6 , 9agar-a0a067s6d7 , 9agar-a0a067tie7 , pleos-a0a067ngc3 , 9agar-a0a067st69 , 9agar-a0a067t6h9 , 9agar-a0a067tj80 , pleos-a0a067npl2 , 9agar-a0a067sm07 , 9agar-a0a067tar9 , 9agar-a0a067tid6 , 9agar-a0a067u335 , pleos-a0a067ndv5 , pleos-a0a067nqw6 , 9homo-a0a067pkj2 , 9agar-a0a067t683 , 9homo-a0a067mgl1 , 9agar-a0a067sg35 , 9homo-a0a067q7g6 , 9agar-a0a067tub0 , 9agar-a0a067t8f5 , 9agar-a0a067tj19 , 9homo-a0a067pyu9 , 9agar-a0a067tjp8 , 9agar-a0a067sjg9 , 9agar-a0a067u0h4 , pleos-a0a067nxe9 , 9agar-a0a067sqt2 , 9agar-a0a067tgx3 , 9homo-a0a067psv8 , 9agar-a0a067sq58 , 9homo-a0a067m4m0 , 9agar-a0a067tqz5 , pleos-a0a067new9 , 9homo-a0a067m9v3 , 9agar-a0a067tlx5 , 9agar-a0a067tfq4 , pleos-a0a067nln4 , pleos-a0a067ndf5 , pleos-a0a067nn26 , pleos-a0a067nfv2 , 9homo-a0a067pnd3 , 9agar-a0a067sw48 , pleos-a0a067neg3 , pleos-a0a067nz51 , pleos-a0a067naf9 , pleos-a0a067nad7 , 9agar-a0a067sxe2 , 9agar-a0a067slu3 , pleos-a0a067n7p8 , pleos-a0a067nl60 , pleos-a0a067ncd0 , 9agar-a0a067th99 , 9agar-a0a067sp22 , pleos-a0a067pbw7 , 9homo-a0a067q916 , 9homo-a0a067pwe5 , galm3-a0a067scb0 , galm3-popa

Title : Deciphering the cryptic genome: genome-wide analyses of the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi reveal complex regulation of secondary metabolism and novel metabolites - Wiemann_2013_PLoS.Pathog_9_e1003475
Author(s) : Wiemann P , Sieber CM , von Bargen KW , Studt L , Niehaus EM , Espino JJ , Huss K , Michielse CB , Albermann S , Wagner D , Bergner SV , Connolly LR , Fischer A , Reuter G , Kleigrewe K , Bald T , Wingfield BD , Ophir R , Freeman S , Hippler M , Smith KM , Brown DW , Proctor RH , Munsterkotter M , Freitag M , Humpf HU , Guldener U , Tudzynski B
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 9 :e1003475 , 2013
Abstract : The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes "bakanae" disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F. fujikuroi as a rice pathogen.
ESTHER : Wiemann_2013_PLoS.Pathog_9_e1003475
PubMedSearch : Wiemann_2013_PLoS.Pathog_9_e1003475
PubMedID: 23825955
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusox-a0a1d3s5h0 , fusof-f9f6t8 , fusof-f9f6v2 , fusof-f9f132 , fusof-f9fd90 , fusof-f9fmx2 , fusof-f9fnt4 , fusof-f9g2a2 , fusof-f9g797 , fusof-f9ga50 , fusof-f9gck4 , fusof-f9gd15 , gibf5-s0ea65 , gibf5-s0enx6 , gibf5-s0epd5 , gibf5-s0dwm1 , gibf5-s0egd1 , gibf5-s0duw7 , gibf5-s0ekf7 , gibf5-s0e2n9 , gibf5-s0en31 , gibf5-s0e7t9 , gibf5-s0eim9 , gibf5-s0drv8 , gibf5-s0e9e0 , gibf5-s0e3u9 , gibf5-s0dzu5 , gibf5-s0dqr2 , gibf5-s0ecj3 , gibf5-s0ekc4 , gibf5-s0ejq7 , gibf5-s0eli0 , gibf5-s0dz40 , gibf5-s0ehu3 , gibf5-fuj3 , gibf5-fub5 , gibf5-fus5 , gibf5-bik1

Title : Lae1 regulates expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters in Fusarium verticillioides - Butchko_2012_Fungal.Genet.Biol_49_602
Author(s) : Butchko RA , Brown DW , Busman M , Tudzynski B , Wiemann P
Ref : Fungal Genet Biol , 49 :602 , 2012
Abstract : The filamentous fungus Fusarium verticillioides can cause disease of maize and is capable of producing fumonisins, a family of toxic secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans and lung edema in swine and leukoencephalomalacia in equines. The expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes is influenced by broad-domain transcription factors (global regulators) and Fum21, a pathway-specific transcription factor. LaeA is a global regulator that in Aspergillus nidulans, affects the expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters by modifying heterochromatin structure. Here, we employed gene deletion analysis to assess the effect of loss of a F. verticillioides laeA orthologue, LAE1, on genome-wide gene expression and secondary metabolite production. Loss of Lae1 resulted in reduced expression of gene clusters responsible for synthesis of the secondary metabolites bikaverin, fumonisins, fusaric acid and fusarins as well as two clusters for which the corresponding secondary metabolite is unknown. Analysis of secondary metabolites revealed that, in contrast to a previously described Fusarium fujikuroi lae1 mutant, bikaverin production is reduced. Fumonisin production is unchanged in the F. verticillioides lae1 mutant. Complementation of the F. verticillioides mutant resulted in increased fumonisin production.
ESTHER : Butchko_2012_Fungal.Genet.Biol_49_602
PubMedSearch : Butchko_2012_Fungal.Genet.Biol_49_602
PubMedID: 22713715
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibf5-fub4 , gibf5-fub5

Title : Identification of gene clusters associated with fusaric acid, fusarin, and perithecial pigment production in Fusarium verticillioides - Brown_2012_Fungal.Genet.Biol_49_521
Author(s) : Brown DW , Butchko RA , Busman M , Proctor RH
Ref : Fungal Genet Biol , 49 :521 , 2012
Abstract : The genus Fusarium is of concern to agricultural production and food/feed safety because of its ability to cause crop disease and to produce mycotoxins. Understanding the genetic basis for production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites (SMs) has the potential to limit crop disease and mycotoxin contamination. In fungi, SM biosynthetic genes are typically located adjacent to one another in clusters of co-expressed genes. Such clusters typically include a core gene, responsible for synthesis of an initial chemical, and several genes responsible for chemical modifications, transport, and/or regulation. Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most common pathogens of maize and produces a variety of SMs of concern. Here, we employed whole genome expression analysis and utilized existing knowledge of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes, a common cluster core gene, to identify three novel clusters of co-expressed genes in F. verticillioides. Functional analysis of the PKS genes linked the clusters to production of three known Fusarium SMs, a violet pigment in sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) and the mycotoxins fusarin C and fusaric acid. The results indicate that microarray analysis of RNA derived from culture conditions that induce differential gene expression can be an effective tool for identifying SM biosynthetic gene clusters.
ESTHER : Brown_2012_Fungal.Genet.Biol_49_521
PubMedSearch : Brown_2012_Fungal.Genet.Biol_49_521
PubMedID: 22652150
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibf5-fus2 , gibf5-fub4 , gibf5-fub5 , gibf5-fus5

Title : FfVel1 and FfLae1, components of a velvet-like complex in Fusarium fujikuroi, affect differentiation, secondary metabolism and virulence - Wiemann_2010_Mol.Microbiol_77_972
Author(s) : Wiemann P , Brown DW , Kleigrewe K , Bok JW , Keller NP , Humpf HU , Tudzynski B
Ref : Molecular Microbiology , 77 :972 , 2010
Abstract : Besides industrially produced gibberellins (GAs), Fusarium fujikuroi is able to produce additional secondary metabolites such as the pigments bikaverin and neurosporaxanthin and the mycotoxins fumonisins and fusarin C. The global regulation of these biosynthetic pathways is only poorly understood. Recently, the velvet complex containing VeA and several other regulatory proteins was shown to be involved in global regulation of secondary metabolism and differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we report on the characterization of two components of the F. fujikuroi velvet-like complex, FfVel1 and FfLae1. The gene encoding this first reported LaeA orthologue outside the class of Eurotiomycetidae is upregulated in deltaFfvel1 microarray-studies and FfLae1 interacts with FfVel1 in the nucleus. Deletion of Ffvel1 and Fflae1 revealed for the first time that velvet can simultaneously act as positive (GAs, fumonisins and fusarin C) and negative (bikaverin) regulator of secondary metabolism, and that both components affect conidiation and virulence of F. fujikuroi. Furthermore, the velvet-like protein FfVel2 revealed similar functions regarding conidiation, secondary metabolism and virulence as FfVel1. Cross-genus complementation studies of velvet complex component mutants between Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium support an ancient origin for this complex, which has undergone a divergence in specific functions mediating development and secondary metabolism.
ESTHER : Wiemann_2010_Mol.Microbiol_77_972
PubMedSearch : Wiemann_2010_Mol.Microbiol_77_972
PubMedID: 20572938
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibf5-fus5 , gibf5-bik1

Title : Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium - Ma_2010_Nature_464_367
Author(s) : Ma LJ , van der Does HC , Borkovich KA , Coleman JJ , Daboussi MJ , Di Pietro A , Dufresne M , Freitag M , Grabherr M , Henrissat B , Houterman PM , Kang S , Shim WB , Woloshuk C , Xie X , Xu JR , Antoniw J , Baker SE , Bluhm BH , Breakspear A , Brown DW , Butchko RA , Chapman S , Coulson R , Coutinho PM , Danchin EG , Diener A , Gale LR , Gardiner DM , Goff S , Hammond-Kosack KE , Hilburn K , Hua-Van A , Jonkers W , Kazan K , Kodira CD , Koehrsen M , Kumar L , Lee YH , Li L , Manners JM , Miranda-Saavedra D , Mukherjee M , Park G , Park J , Park SY , Proctor RH , Regev A , Ruiz-Roldan MC , Sain D , Sakthikumar S , Sykes S , Schwartz DC , Turgeon BG , Wapinski I , Yoder O , Young S , Zeng Q , Zhou S , Galagan J , Cuomo CA , Kistler HC , Rep M
Ref : Nature , 464 :367 , 2010
Abstract : Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.
ESTHER : Ma_2010_Nature_464_367
PubMedSearch : Ma_2010_Nature_464_367
PubMedID: 20237561
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusox-a0a1d3s5h0 , gibf5-fus2 , fusof-f9f2k2 , fusof-f9f3l6 , fusof-f9f6t8 , fusof-f9f6v2 , fusof-f9f132 , fusof-f9f781 , fusof-f9fd72 , fusof-f9fd90 , fusof-f9fem0 , fusof-f9fhk2 , fusof-f9fj19 , fusof-f9fj20 , fusof-f9fki8 , fusof-f9fmx2 , fusof-f9fnt4 , fusof-f9fpy4 , fusof-f9fvs6 , fusof-f9fwu0 , fusof-f9fxz4 , fusof-f9fzy5 , fusof-f9g2a2 , fusof-f9g3b1 , fusof-f9g5h7 , fusof-f9g6e6 , fusof-f9g6y7 , fusof-f9g7b0 , fusof-f9g797 , fusof-f9g972 , fusof-f9ga50 , fusof-f9gck4 , fusof-f9gd15 , gibze-a8w610 , gibze-b1pdn0 , gibze-i1r9e6 , gibze-i1rda9 , gibze-i1rdk7 , gibze-i1rec8 , gibze-i1rgs0 , gibze-i1rgy0 , gibze-i1rh52 , gibze-i1rhi8 , gibze-i1rig9 , gibze-i1rip5 , gibze-i1rpg6 , gibze-i1rsg2 , gibze-i1rv36 , gibze-i1rxm5 , gibze-i1rxp8 , gibze-i1rxv5 , gibze-i1s1u3 , gibze-i1s3j9 , gibze-i1s6l7 , gibze-i1s8i8 , gibze-i1s9x4 , gibze-q4huy1 , gibze-i1rg17 , fuso4-j9mvr9 , fuso4-j9ngs6 , fuso4-j9niq8 , fuso4-j9nqm2 , gibze-i1rb76 , gibze-i1s1m7 , gibze-i1s3z6 , gibze-i1rd78 , gibze-i1rgl9 , gibze-i1rjp7 , gibze-i1s1q6 , gibze-i1ri35 , gibze-i1rf76 , gibze-i1rhp3 , fusc1-n4uj11 , fusc4-n1s9p6 , gibf5-s0dqr2 , gibm7-w7n1b5 , fusof-f9g6q0 , gibm7-w7n497 , fusox-x0bme4 , gibm7-w7mcf8 , gibm7-w7mak5 , fusox-x0a2c5 , gibm7-w7mum7 , fusox-w9iyc7 , gibm7-w7maw6 , gibm7-w7msi0 , gibm7-w7luf0 , gibm7-w7msa3 , gibm7-w7mna8 , gibm7-w7n8b7 , gibm7-w7n564 , fusox-w9jpi0 , gibm7-w7ngc3 , gibm7-w7m4v6 , gibm7-w7m4v2 , gibm7-w7lt61 , gibm7-w7mly6 , gibm7-w7ncn3 , fusox-w9ibd7 , fusof-f9fnm6 , gibm7-w7n526 , gibza-a0a016pda4 , gibza-a0a016pl96 , gibm7-w7muq1 , fusof-f9gfd3 , gibm7-w7mt52 , gibze-i1rjb5 , gibf5-s0ehu3 , fusox-w9hvf0 , gibze-i1rkc4 , gibm7-w7mv30 , gibze-a0a1c3ylb1 , fuso4-a0a0c4diy4 , gibm7-w7n4n0 , gibze-gra11 , gibze-fsl2 , gibf5-fub4 , gibf5-fub5 , gibf5-fus5 , gibm7-dlh1

Title : Functional analysis of the polyketide synthase genes in the filamentous fungus Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum) - Gaffoor_2005_Eukaryot.Cell_4_1926
Author(s) : Gaffoor I , Brown DW , Plattner R , Proctor RH , Qi W , Trail F
Ref : Eukaryot Cell , 4 :1926 , 2005
Abstract : Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites that exhibit a vast diversity of form and function. In fungi, these compounds are produced by large, multidomain enzymes classified as type I polyketide synthases (PKSs). In this study we identified and functionally disrupted 15 PKS genes from the genome of the filamentous fungus Gibberella zeae. Five of these genes are responsible for producing the mycotoxins zearalenone, aurofusarin, and fusarin C and the black perithecial pigment. A comprehensive expression analysis of the 15 genes revealed diverse expression patterns during grain colonization, plant colonization, sexual development, and mycelial growth. Expression of one of the PKS genes was not detected under any of 18 conditions tested. This is the first study to genetically characterize a complete set of PKS genes from a single organism.
ESTHER : Gaffoor_2005_Eukaryot.Cell_4_1926
PubMedSearch : Gaffoor_2005_Eukaryot.Cell_4_1926
PubMedID: 16278459
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibze-q66sy0

Title : A genetic and biochemical approach to study trichothecene diversity in Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum - Brown_2001_Fungal.Genet.Biol_32_121
Author(s) : Brown DW , McCormick SP , Alexander NJ , Proctor RH , Desjardins AE
Ref : Fungal Genet Biol , 32 :121 , 2001
Abstract : The trichothecenes T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are natural fungal products that are toxic to both animals and plants. Their importance in the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. on crop plants has inspired efforts to understand the genetic and biochemical mechanisms leading to trichothecene synthesis. In order to better understand T-2 toxin biosynthesis by Fusarium sporotrichioides and DON biosynthesis by F. graminearum, we compared the nucleotide sequence of the 23-kb core trichothecene gene cluster from each organism. This comparative genetic analysis allowed us to predict proteins encoded by two trichothecene genes, TRI9 and TRI10, that had not previously been described from either Fusarium species. Differences in gene structure also were correlated with differences in the types of trichothecenes that the two species produce. Gene disruption experiments showed that F. sporotrichioides TRI7 (FsTRI7) is required for acetylation of the oxygen on C-4 of T-2 toxin. Sequence analysis indicated that F. graminearum TRI7 (FgTRI7) is nonfunctional. This is consistent with the fact that the FgTRI7 product is not required for DON synthesis in F. graminearum because C-4 is not oxygenated.
ESTHER : Brown_2001_Fungal.Genet.Biol_32_121
PubMedSearch : Brown_2001_Fungal.Genet.Biol_32_121
PubMedID: 11352533
Gene_locus related to this paper: fussp-TRI8 , gibze-TRI8

Title : Twenty-five coregulated transcripts define a sterigmatocystin gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans -
Author(s) : Brown DW , Yu JH , Kelkar HS , Fernandes M , Nesbitt TC
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 93 :1418 , 1996
PubMedID: 8643646
Gene_locus related to this paper: emeni-stca , emeni-stci