Patel R

References (14)

Title : Larvicidal proficiency of volatile compounds present in Commiphora wightii gum extract against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) - Patel_2023_Front.Plant.Sci_14_1220339
Author(s) : Patel K , Akbari D , Pandya RV , Trivedi J , Mevada V , Wanale SG , Patel R , Yadav VK , Tank JG , Sahoo DK , Patel A
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 14 :1220339 , 2023
Abstract : Aedes mosquitoes are the major cause of several vector-borne diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Synthetic pesticides against these mosquitoes have certain limitations; hence, natural, eco-friendly, and safe larvicides obtained from plant resources are used to overcome these. In the present study, the larvicidal efficiency of Commiphora wightii against the fourth instar stage of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) was studied. The gum resin of C. wightii was collected using the borehole tapping method, and hexane extracts in different concentrations were prepared. The fourth-instar larvae were exposed to the extracts, and percent mortality, as well as LC(20), LC(50), and LC(90), was calculated. Volatile compounds of the hexane gum extract were analyzed by Headspace GC/MS, and the sequence of the acetylcholine, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, and octopamine receptor subunit of A. aegypti was obtained. It was found that the hexane gum extract was toxic and lethal for larvae at different concentrations. Minimum mortality was observed at 164 microg mL(-1) (10%/h), while maximum mortality was at 276 microg mL(-1) (50%/h). The lethal concentrations LC(20), LC(50), and LC(90) were 197.38 microg mL(-1), 294.13 microg mL(-1), and 540.15 microg mL(-1), respectively. The GC/MS analysis confirmed the presence of diterpenes, monoterpenes, monoterpene alcohol, and sesquiterpenes in the gum samples, which are lethal for larvae due to their inhibitory activity on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, GABA receptor, and octopamine receptor subunit. The use of commonly occurring plant gum for the control of mosquitoes was explored, and it was found that the gum of C. wightii had larvicidal activities and could be potentially insecticidal.
ESTHER : Patel_2023_Front.Plant.Sci_14_1220339
PubMedSearch : Patel_2023_Front.Plant.Sci_14_1220339
PubMedID: 37711311

Title : Central cholinergic transmission affects the compulsive-like behavior of mice in marble-burying test - Patel_2023_Brain.Res_1825_148713
Author(s) : Patel C , Patel R , Maturkar V , Jain NS
Ref : Brain Research , 1825 :148713 , 2023
Abstract : The presence of the cholinergic system in the brain areas implicated in the precipitation of obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB) has been reported but the exact role of the central cholinergic system therein is still unexplored. Therefore, the current study assessed the effect of cholinergic analogs on central administration on the marble-burying behavior (MBB) of mice, a behavior correlated with OCB. The result reveals that the enhancement of central cholinergic transmission in mice achieved by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of acetylcholine (0.01 microg) (Subeffective: 0.1 and 0.5 microg), cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 microg/mouse) and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, nicotine (0.1, 2 microg/mouse) significantly attenuated the number of marbles buried by mice in MBB test without affecting basal locomotor activity. Similarly, central injection of mAChR antagonist, atropine (0.1, 0.5, 5 microg/mouse), nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine (0.1, 0.5, 3 microg/mouse) per se also reduced the MBB in mice, indicative of anti-OCB like effect of all the tested cholinergic mAChR or nAChR agonist and antagonist. Surprisingly, i.c.v. injection of acetylcholine (0.01 microg), and neostigmine (0.1 microg) failed to elicit an anti-OCB-like effect in mice pre-treated (i.c.v.) with atropine (0.1 microg), or mecamylamine (0.1 microg). Thus, the findings of the present investigationdelineate the role of central cholinergic transmission in the compulsive-like behavior of mice probably via mAChR or nAChR stimulation.
ESTHER : Patel_2023_Brain.Res_1825_148713
PubMedSearch : Patel_2023_Brain.Res_1825_148713
PubMedID: 38097126

Title : Lipid droplets modulate proteostasis, SQST-1\/SQSTM1 dynamics, and lifespan in C. elegans - Kumar_2023_iScience_26_107960
Author(s) : Kumar AV , Mills J , Parker WM , Leitao JA , Rodriguez DI , Daigle SE , Ng C , Patel R , Aguilera JL , Johnson JR , Wong SQ , Lapierre LR
Ref : iScience , 26 :107960 , 2023
Abstract : In several long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans strains, such as insulin/IGF-1 receptor daf-2 mutants, enhanced proteostatic mechanisms are accompanied by elevated intestinal lipid stores, but their role in longevity is unclear. Here, while determining the regulatory network of the selective autophagy receptor SQST-1/SQSTM1, we uncovered an important role for lipid droplets in proteostasis and longevity. Using genome-wide RNAi screening, we identified several SQST-1 modulators, including lipid droplets-associated and aggregation-prone proteins. Expansion of intestinal lipid droplets by silencing the conserved cytosolic triacylglycerol lipase gene atgl-1/ATGL enhanced autophagy, and extended lifespan. Notably, a substantial amount of ubiquitinated proteins were found on lipid droplets. Reducing lipid droplet levels exacerbated the proteostatic collapse when autophagy or proteasome function was compromised, and significantly reduced the lifespan of long-lived daf-2 animals. Altogether, our study uncovered a key role for lipid droplets in C. elegans as a proteostatic mediator that modulates ubiquitinated protein accumulation, facilitates autophagy, and promotes longevity.
ESTHER : Kumar_2023_iScience_26_107960
PubMedSearch : Kumar_2023_iScience_26_107960
PubMedID: 37810233

Title : Protective effect of andrographolide against STZ induced Alzheimer's disease in experimental rats: possible neuromodulation and Abeta((1-42)) analysis - Patel_2021_Inflammopharmacology__
Author(s) : Patel R , Kaur K , Singh S
Ref : Inflammopharmacology , : , 2021
Abstract : STZ is a glucosamine-nitrosourea compound, causes dysfunctioning of insulin receptors in the brain and disrupts glucose metabolism, produces cognitive decline and AD-like symptoms. ICV injection of STZ causes accumulation of Abeta and cognitive dysfunctions. Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a major bioactive constituent of Andrographis paniculata, has various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinesterase, and neuroprotective properties. The study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ANDRO against ICV-STZ induced AD-like symptoms in rats. To conduct the study, the Wistar rat received two injections of STZ (3 mg/kg) through the ICV route. Rats were treated with three different doses of ANDRO (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) and donepezil (5 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days. The behavioral impairments were analyzed on weekly basis. Subsequently, rats were sacrificed for the assessment of biochemical (MDA, Nitrite, GSH, SOD, Catalase and AChE), neuroinflammatory markers (IL-1beta, IL-16, and TNF-alpha), neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA), level of Abeta(1-42) and p tau in the hippocampus on day 21st. Our result indicated that ANDRO treatment provided a protective effect against STZ induced behavioral deficits and changes in the biochemical, neuroinflammatory mediators, and neurotransmitters of the hippocampus. Further, ANDRO also reduced the level of Abeta(1-42) and p tau in the rat hippocampus. These findings suggested that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinesterase potential of ANDRO contributed to its neuroprotective effect as well as promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cognitive impairment and AD-like symptoms.
ESTHER : Patel_2021_Inflammopharmacology__
PubMedSearch : Patel_2021_Inflammopharmacology__
PubMedID: 34235591

Title : Discovery of a Selective Covalent Inhibitor of Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1) as a Tool to Evaluate the Role of this Serine Hydrolase in Metabolism - Ahn_2016_ACS.Chem.Biol_11_2529
Author(s) : Ahn K , Boehm M , Brown MF , Calloway J , Che Y , Chen J , Fennell KF , Geoghegan KF , Gilbert AM , Gutierrez JA , Kalgutkar AS , Lanba A , Limberakis C , Magee TV , O'Doherty I , Oliver R , Pabst B , Pandit J , Parris K , Pfefferkorn JA , Rolph TP , Patel R , Schuff B , Shanmugasundaram V , Starr JT , Varghese AH , Vera NB , Vernochet C , Yan J
Ref : ACS Chemical Biology , 11 :2529 , 2016
Abstract : Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1) is an uncharacterized metabolic serine hydrolase. Human genome-wide association studies link variants of the gene encoding this enzyme to fat distribution, waist-to-hip ratio, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We describe the discovery of potent and selective covalent small-molecule inhibitors of LYPLAL1 and their use to investigate its role in hepatic metabolism. In hepatocytes, selective inhibition of LYPLAL1 increased glucose production supporting the inference that LYPLAL1 is a significant actor in hepatic metabolism. The results provide an example of how a selective chemical tool can contribute to evaluating a hypothetical target for therapeutic intervention, even in the absence of complete biochemical characterization.
ESTHER : Ahn_2016_ACS.Chem.Biol_11_2529
PubMedSearch : Ahn_2016_ACS.Chem.Biol_11_2529
PubMedID: 27391855
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LYPLAL1

Title : A general method to improve fluorophores for live-cell and single-molecule microscopy - Grimm_2015_Nat.Methods_12_244
Author(s) : Grimm JB , English BP , Chen J , Slaughter JP , Zhang Z , Revyakin A , Patel R , Macklin JJ , Normanno D , Singer RH , Lionnet T , Lavis LD
Ref : Nat Methods , 12 :244 , 2015
Abstract : Specific labeling of biomolecules with bright fluorophores is the keystone of fluorescence microscopy. Genetically encoded self-labeling tag proteins can be coupled to synthetic dyes inside living cells, resulting in brighter reporters than fluorescent proteins. Intracellular labeling using these techniques requires cell-permeable fluorescent ligands, however, limiting utility to a small number of classic fluorophores. Here we describe a simple structural modification that improves the brightness and photostability of dyes while preserving spectral properties and cell permeability. Inspired by molecular modeling, we replaced the N,N-dimethylamino substituents in tetramethylrhodamine with four-membered azetidine rings. This addition of two carbon atoms doubles the quantum efficiency and improves the photon yield of the dye in applications ranging from in vitro single-molecule measurements to super-resolution imaging. The novel substitution is generalizable, yielding a palette of chemical dyes with improved quantum efficiencies that spans the UV and visible range.
ESTHER : Grimm_2015_Nat.Methods_12_244
PubMedSearch : Grimm_2015_Nat.Methods_12_244
PubMedID: 25599551

Title : Escherichia coli serotype O55:H7 diversity supports parallel acquisition of bacteriophage at Shiga toxin phage insertion sites during evolution of the O157:H7 lineage - Kyle_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_1885
Author(s) : Kyle JL , Cummings CA , Parker CT , Quinones B , Vatta P , Newton E , Huynh S , Swimley M , Degoricija L , Barker M , Fontanoz S , Nguyen K , Patel R , Fang R , Tebbs R , Petrauskene O , Furtado M , Mandrell RE
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 194 :1885 , 2012
Abstract : Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) continues to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children around the world. Two EPEC genomes have been fully sequenced: those of EPEC O127:H6 strain E2348/69 (United Kingdom, 1969) and EPEC O55:H7 strain CB9615 (Germany, 2003). The O55:H7 serotype is a recent precursor to the virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7. To explore the diversity of O55:H7 and better understand the clonal evolution of O157:H7, we fully sequenced EPEC O55:H7 strain RM12579 (California, 1974), which was collected 1 year before the first U.S. isolate of O157:H7 was identified in California. Phage-related sequences accounted for nearly all differences between the two O55:H7 strains. Additionally, O55:H7 and O157:H7 strains were tested for the presence and insertion sites of Shiga toxin gene (stx)-containing bacteriophages. Analysis of non-phage-associated genes supported core elements of previous O157:H7 stepwise evolutionary models, whereas phage composition and insertion analyses suggested a key refinement. Specifically, the placement and presence of lambda-like bacteriophages (including those containing stx) should not be considered stable evolutionary markers or be required in placing O55:H7 and O157:H7 strains within the stepwise evolutionary models. Additionally, we suggest that a 10.9-kb region (block 172) previously believed unique to O55:H7 strains can be used to identify early O157:H7 strains. Finally, we defined two subsets of O55:H7 strains that share an as-yet-unobserved or extinct common ancestor with O157:H7 strains. Exploration of O55:H7 diversity improved our understanding of the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 and suggested a key revision to accommodate existing and future configurations of stx-containing bacteriophages into current models.
ESTHER : Kyle_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_1885
PubMedSearch : Kyle_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_1885
PubMedID: 22328665
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-Z1930

Title : Optimization of physical parameters for lipase production from Arthrobacter sp. BGCC#490 - Sharma_2009_Indian.J.Biochem.Biophys_46_178
Author(s) : Sharma A , Bardhan D , Patel R
Ref : Indian J Biochem Biophys , 46 :178 , 2009
Abstract : The physical parameters for the production of thermostable, alkaline lipase from Arthrobacter sp. BGCC# 490 were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), employing face centered central composite design (FCCCD). The design was employed by selecting pH, temperature and incubation period as the model factors and to achieve maximum yield, interaction of these factors was studied by RSM. A second-order quadratic model and response surface method showed that the optimum conditions for lipase production (pH 10.0, temperature 40 degrees C and incubation period 48 h) resulted in 1.6-fold increase in lipase production (13.75 EUml(-1)), as compared to the initial level (8.6 EUml(-1)) after 48 h of incubation, whereas its value predicted by the quadratic model was 12.8 EUml(-1). Lipase showed stability in the pH range 8-10 and temperature range 40-60 degrees C, with maximum activity at pH 9.0 and temperature 50 degrees C. Lipase activity was enhanced in the presence of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, but inhibited by Hg2+ ions. The enzyme exhibited high activity in the presence of acetone, isopropanol and ethanol, but was unaffected by methanol. These properties suggest that the lipase may find potential applications in the detergent industry. The present work also demonstrated the feasibility of using experimental design tools to optimize physical parameters for lipase production by an indigenous Arthrobacter sp.
ESTHER : Sharma_2009_Indian.J.Biochem.Biophys_46_178
PubMedSearch : Sharma_2009_Indian.J.Biochem.Biophys_46_178
PubMedID: 19517996

Title : Discovery of new binding elements in DPP-4 inhibition and their applications in novel DPP-4 inhibitor design - Liang_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_18_3706
Author(s) : Liang GB , Qian X , Biftu T , Singh S , Gao YD , Scapin G , Patel S , Leiting B , Patel R , Wu J , Zhang X , Thornberry NA , Weber AE
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 18 :3706 , 2008
Abstract : Probing with tool molecules, and by modeling and X-ray crystallography the binding modes of two structurally distinct series of DPP-4 inhibitors led to the discovery of a rare aromatic fluorine H-bond and the spatial requirement for better biaryl binding in the DPP-4 enzyme active site. These newly found binding elements were successfully incorporated into novel DPP-4 inhibitors.
ESTHER : Liang_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_18_3706
PubMedSearch : Liang_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_18_3706
PubMedID: 18524582
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP4

Title : Human methyl parathion poisoning - Isbister_2007_Clin.Toxicol.(Phila)_45_956
Author(s) : Isbister GK , Mills K , Friberg LE , Hodge M , O'Connor E , Patel R , Abeyewardene M , Eddleston M
Ref : Clinical Toxicology (Phila) , 45 :956 , 2007
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Methyl parathion is classed as an extremely hazardous pesticide with a rodent LD50 of 6 to 24 mg/kg. It has been banned in numerous countries, but there are few reports of acute methyl parathion poisoning.
METHODS: Plasma cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase were measured in blood. Methyl parathion and the major metabolite 4-nitrophenol where measured in serum and urine. Based on the available concentration-time data, the pharmacokinetic parameters of methyl parathion were estimated for this patient. CASE REPORT AND
RESULTS: A 29-year-old male ingested 50 to 100mL (12 to 24 g) of methyl parathion causing delayed and prolonged suppression of acetylcholinesterase but almost no clinical effects. Absorption was predicted to last for 30 hours and the bioavailability appeared to be very low.
CONCLUSIONS: Although it is feasible the patient ingested much less, a tenth of his alleged ingestion dose is more than the oral LD50 in rats. Methyl parathion appears to be less toxic in humans than parathion for similar amounts ingested, which is not consistent with the two pesticides having similar rodent LD50.
ESTHER : Isbister_2007_Clin.Toxicol.(Phila)_45_956
PubMedSearch : Isbister_2007_Clin.Toxicol.(Phila)_45_956
PubMedID: 17852161

Title : A tryptophan in the bottleneck of the catalytic gorge of an invertebrate acetylcholinesterase confers relative resistance to carbamate and organophosphate inhibitors - Patel_2006_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_46_253
Author(s) : Patel R , Sanders R , Brown L , Baker S , Tsigelny I , Pezzementi L
Ref : Cell Biochem Biophys , 46 :253 , 2006
Abstract : Amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, has two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs): cholinesterase 1 (ChE1) and cholinesterase 2 (ChE2). ChE1 is up to 329-fold more resistant to a variety of carbamate and organophosphate inhibitors, including a number of insecticides, when compared with ChE2. One difference between the two enzymes is at the position homologous to Phe331 in Torpedo AChE. In Torpedo AChE, this residue is a component of the hydrophobic subsite and defines one side of the bottleneck in the catalytic gorge of the enzyme. In ChE1, the homologous residue is Trp353; in ChE2, it is Phe353. We used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the proposal that the resistance of ChE1 to inhibition by carbamates and organophosphates was due to this difference, creating a ChE1 W353F mutant to widen the bottleneck. The mutation virtually abolishes the difference in sensitivity to the inhibitors. The ChE1 W353F mutant is only 2- to 3-fold more resistant than ChE2 to carbamates and is actually 2.5- to 10-fold more sensitive to inhibition by organophosphates. The differences in resistance are due to different affinities of the enzymes for the inhibitors, not different reactivities. Molecular modeling supports the proposal that the difference in inhibition is due to the width of the bottleneck of the gorge. Our results have implications for insecticide resistance in insects, in particular mosquitoes and aphids.
ESTHER : Patel_2006_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_46_253
PubMedSearch : Patel_2006_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_46_253
PubMedID: 17272851

Title : Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin - Gill_2006_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_16_705
Author(s) : Gill I , Patel R
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 16 :705 , 2006
Abstract : An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%.
ESTHER : Gill_2006_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_16_705
PubMedSearch : Gill_2006_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_16_705
PubMedID: 16257208
Gene_locus related to this paper: canar-LipB

Title : The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6 - Mungall_2003_Nature_425_805
Author(s) : Mungall AJ , Palmer SA , Sims SK , Edwards CA , Ashurst JL , Wilming L , Jones MC , Horton R , Hunt SE , Scott CE , Gilbert JG , Clamp ME , Bethel G , Milne S , Ainscough R , Almeida JP , Ambrose KD , Andrews TD , Ashwell RI , Babbage AK , Bagguley CL , Bailey J , Banerjee R , Barker DJ , Barlow KF , Bates K , Beare DM , Beasley H , Beasley O , Bird CP , Blakey S , Bray-Allen S , Brook J , Brown AJ , Brown JY , Burford DC , Burrill W , Burton J , Carder C , Carter NP , Chapman JC , Clark SY , Clark G , Clee CM , Clegg S , Cobley V , Collier RE , Collins JE , Colman LK , Corby NR , Coville GJ , Culley KM , Dhami P , Davies J , Dunn M , Earthrowl ME , Ellington AE , Evans KA , Faulkner L , Francis MD , Frankish A , Frankland J , French L , Garner P , Garnett J , Ghori MJ , Gilby LM , Gillson CJ , Glithero RJ , Grafham DV , Grant M , Gribble S , Griffiths C , Griffiths M , Hall R , Halls KS , Hammond S , Harley JL , Hart EA , Heath PD , Heathcott R , Holmes SJ , Howden PJ , Howe KL , Howell GR , Huckle E , Humphray SJ , Humphries MD , Hunt AR , Johnson CM , Joy AA , Kay M , Keenan SJ , Kimberley AM , King A , Laird GK , Langford C , Lawlor S , Leongamornlert DA , Leversha M , Lloyd CR , Lloyd DM , Loveland JE , Lovell J , Martin S , Mashreghi-Mohammadi M , Maslen GL , Matthews L , Mccann OT , McLaren SJ , McLay K , McMurray A , Moore MJ , Mullikin JC , Niblett D , Nickerson T , Novik KL , Oliver K , Overton-Larty EK , Parker A , Patel R , Pearce AV , Peck AI , Phillimore B , Phillips S , Plumb RW , Porter KM , Ramsey Y , Ranby SA , Rice CM , Ross MT , Searle SM , Sehra HK , Sheridan E , Skuce CD , Smith S , Smith M , Spraggon L , Squares SL , Steward CA , Sycamore N , Tamlyn-Hall G , Tester J , Theaker AJ , Thomas DW , Thorpe A , Tracey A , Tromans A , Tubby B , Wall M , Wallis JM , West AP , White SS , Whitehead SL , Whittaker H , Wild A , Willey DJ , Wilmer TE , Wood JM , Wray PW , Wyatt JC , Young L , Younger RM , Bentley DR , Coulson A , Durbin R , Hubbard T , Sulston JE , Dunham I , Rogers J , Beck S
Ref : Nature , 425 :805 , 2003
Abstract : Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes. Here we report that at least 96% of the protein-coding genes have been identified, as assessed by multi-species comparative sequence analysis, and provide evidence for the presence of further, otherwise unsupported exons/genes. Among these are genes directly implicated in cancer, schizophrenia, autoimmunity and many other diseases. Chromosome 6 harbours the largest transfer RNA gene cluster in the genome; we show that this cluster co-localizes with a region of high transcriptional activity. Within the essential immune loci of the major histocompatibility complex, we find HLA-B to be the most polymorphic gene on chromosome 6 and in the human genome.
ESTHER : Mungall_2003_Nature_425_805
PubMedSearch : Mungall_2003_Nature_425_805
PubMedID: 14574404
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD16A , human-BPHL , human-FAM135A , human-PRSS16 , human-SERAC1

Title : The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20 - Deloukas_2001_Nature_414_865
Author(s) : Deloukas P , Matthews LH , Ashurst J , Burton J , Gilbert JG , Jones M , Stavrides G , Almeida JP , Babbage AK , Bagguley CL , Bailey J , Barlow KF , Bates KN , Beard LM , Beare DM , Beasley OP , Bird CP , Blakey SE , Bridgeman AM , Brown AJ , Buck D , Burrill W , Butler AP , Carder C , Carter NP , Chapman JC , Clamp M , Clark G , Clark LN , Clark SY , Clee CM , Clegg S , Cobley VE , Collier RE , Connor R , Corby NR , Coulson A , Coville GJ , Deadman R , Dhami P , Dunn M , Ellington AG , Frankland JA , Fraser A , French L , Garner P , Grafham DV , Griffiths C , Griffiths MN , Gwilliam R , Hall RE , Hammond S , Harley JL , Heath PD , Ho S , Holden JL , Howden PJ , Huckle E , Hunt AR , Hunt SE , Jekosch K , Johnson CM , Johnson D , Kay MP , Kimberley AM , King A , Knights A , Laird GK , Lawlor S , Lehvaslaiho MH , Leversha M , Lloyd C , Lloyd DM , Lovell JD , Marsh VL , Martin SL , McConnachie LJ , McLay K , McMurray AA , Milne S , Mistry D , Moore MJ , Mullikin JC , Nickerson T , Oliver K , Parker A , Patel R , Pearce TA , Peck AI , Phillimore BJ , Prathalingam SR , Plumb RW , Ramsay H , Rice CM , Ross MT , Scott CE , Sehra HK , Shownkeen R , Sims S , Skuce CD , Smith ML , Soderlund C , Steward CA , Sulston JE , Swann M , Sycamore N , Taylor R , Tee L , Thomas DW , Thorpe A , Tracey A , Tromans AC , Vaudin M , Wall M , Wallis JM , Whitehead SL , Whittaker P , Willey DL , Williams L , Williams SA , Wilming L , Wray PW , Hubbard T , Durbin RM , Bentley DR , Beck S , Rogers J
Ref : Nature , 414 :865 , 2001
Abstract : The finished sequence of human chromosome 20 comprises 59,187,298 base pairs (bp) and represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA. A single contig of 26 megabases (Mb) spans the entire short arm, and five contigs separated by gaps totalling 320 kb span the long arm of this metacentric chromosome. An additional 234,339 bp of sequence has been determined within the pericentromeric region of the long arm. We annotated 727 genes and 168 pseudogenes in the sequence. About 64% of these genes have a 5' and a 3' untranslated region and a complete open reading frame. Comparative analysis of the sequence of chromosome 20 to whole-genome shotgun-sequence data of two other vertebrates, the mouse Mus musculus and the puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis, provides an independent measure of the efficiency of gene annotation, and indicates that this analysis may account for more than 95% of all coding exons and almost all genes.
ESTHER : Deloukas_2001_Nature_414_865
PubMedSearch : Deloukas_2001_Nature_414_865
PubMedID: 11780052
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD12 , human-ABHD16B , human-CTSA , human-NDRG3 , human-RBBP9