Baker S

References (11)

Title : The Identification and Characterization of Immunoreactive Fungal Proteins Recognized by Sera from Zimbabweans Sensitized to Fungi - Pfavayi_2022_Int.Arch.Allergy.Immunol__1
Author(s) : Pfavayi LT , Burchmore R , Sibanda EN , Baker S , Woolhouse M , Mduluza T , Mutapi F
Ref : Int Arch Allergy Immunol , :1 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Exposure to fungal allergens poses a serious threat to human health, especially to mould-allergic individuals. The prevalence of fungal allergic disease is increasing globally but is poorly studied in Africa. Here, we aimed to identify and characterize fungal proteins that were immunoreactive against serum samples from fungal-sensitized Zimbabweans from Shamva district to inform the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. METHODS: Crude protein extracts of the Ascomycota Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as mucoromycota Rhizopus nigricans were individually separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis for protein staining and immunoblotting. A pool of eight sera from fungi-sensitive Zimbabwean children aged 3-5 years was used to screen the crude extracts to determine their immunoreactivity. Protein bands recognized by the sera were subjected to mass spectrometry to identify the individual proteins reactive with the sera. RESULTS: The pooled serum sample reacted with 20 bands, which resolved to 34 distinct proteins, most of which were novel immunogens. The pool was most reactive to A. alternata. The proteins identified included peptidases (8/34), hydrolases (6/34), oxidoreductases (5/34), and glucosidases (4/34), while 11/34 were unknown. Eight of the proteins were predicted to be allergens using the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP). CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel immunogens from fungi expanding the number of known fungal allergens. These form a potential basis for diagnostics specific for the Zimbabwean population. Validation assays will now need to be carried out to further evaluate the cross-reactivity of the identified allergen candidates as well as investigate their potential recognition in a larger cohort of patients. Furthermore, there is now a need to conduct studies relating sensitization to these immunogens and clinical diseases in the population.
ESTHER : Pfavayi_2022_Int.Arch.Allergy.Immunol__1
PubMedSearch : Pfavayi_2022_Int.Arch.Allergy.Immunol__1
PubMedID: 35584611

Title : Synthesis and SAR of 4-aminocyclopentapyrrolidines as N-type Ca(2)(+) channel blockers with analgesic activity - Beebe_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem_20_4128
Author(s) : Beebe X , Darczak D , Henry RF , Vortherms T , Janis R , Namovic M , Donnelly-Roberts D , Kage KL , Surowy C , Milicic I , Niforatos W , Swensen A , Marsh KC , Wetter JM , Franklin P , Baker S , Zhong C , Simler G , Gomez E , Boyce-Rustay JM , Zhu CZ , Stewart AO , Jarvis MF , Scott VE
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 20 :4128 , 2012
Abstract : A novel 4-aminocyclopentapyrrolidine series of N-type Ca(2+) channel blockers have been discovered. Enantioselective synthesis of the 4-aminocyclopentapyrrolidines was enabled using N-tert-butyl sulfinamide chemistry. SAR studies demonstrate selectivity over L-type Ca(2+) channels. N-type Ca(2+) channel blockade was confirmed using electrophysiological recording techniques. Compound 25 is an N-type Ca(2+) channel blocker that produces antinociception in inflammatory and nociceptive pain models without exhibiting cardiovascular or motor liabilities.
ESTHER : Beebe_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem_20_4128
PubMedSearch : Beebe_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem_20_4128
PubMedID: 22626552

Title : Potentiation of analgesic efficacy but not side effects: co-administration of an alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and its positive allosteric modulator in experimental models of pain in rats - Zhu_2011_Biochem.Pharmacol_82(8)_967
Author(s) : Zhu CZ , Chin CL , Rustay NR , Zhong C , Mikusa J , Chandran P , Salyers A , Gomez E , Simler G , Lewis LG , Gauvin D , Baker S , Pai M , Tovcimak A , Brown J , Komater V , Fox GB , Decker MW , Jacobson PB , Gopalakrishnan M , Lee CH , Honore P
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 82 :967 , 2011
Abstract : Positive modulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha4beta2 subtype by selective positive allosteric modulator NS-9283 has shown to potentiate the nAChR agonist ABT-594-induced anti-allodynic activity in preclinical neuropathic pain. To determine whether this benefit can be extended beyond neuropathic pain, the present study examined the analgesic activity and adverse effect profile of co-administered NS-9283 and ABT-594 in a variety of preclinical models in rats. The effect of the combined therapy on drug-induced brain activities was also determined using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging. In carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia, co-administration of NS-9283 (3.5 mumol/kg, i.p.) induced a 6-fold leftward shift of the dose-response of ABT-594 (ED(50)=26 vs. 160 nmol/kg, i.p.). In the paw skin incision model of post-operative pain, co-administration of NS-9283 similarly induced a 6-fold leftward shift of ABT-594 (ED(50)=26 vs. 153 nmol/kg). In monoiodo-acetate induced knee joint pain, co-administration of NS-9283 enhanced the potency of ABT-594 by 5-fold (ED(50)=1.0 vs. 4.6 nmol/kg). In pharmacological MRI, co-administration of NS-9283 was shown to lead to a leftward shift of ABT-594 dose-response for cortical activation. ABT-594 induced CNS-related adverse effects were not exacerbated in presence of an efficacious dose of NS-9283 (3.5 mumol/kg). Acute challenge of NS-9283 produced no cross sensitization in nicotine-conditioned animals. These results demonstrate that selective positive allosteric modulation at the alpha4beta2 nAChR potentiates nAChR agonist-induced analgesic activity across neuropathic and nociceptive preclinical pain models without potentiating ABT-594-mediated adverse effects, suggesting that selective positive modulation of alpha4beta2 nAChR by PAM may represent a novel analgesic approach.
ESTHER : Zhu_2011_Biochem.Pharmacol_82(8)_967
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2011_Biochem.Pharmacol_82(8)_967
PubMedID: 21620806

Title : Poster: In vivo characterization of the co-administration of alpha4\/beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist and positive allosteric modulator in experimental pain in rats -
Author(s) : Zhu CZ , Chin C-l , Zhong C , Mikusa J , Chandran P , Salyers A , Wensink E , Silmer G , Lewis LG , Gauvin D , Baker S , Tovcimak A , Brown J , Rustay N , Fox GB , Decker MW , Lee C-H , Gopalakrishnan M , Honore P
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 78 :920 , 2009
PubMedID:

Title : A tryptophan in the bottleneck of the catalytic gorge of an invertebrate acetylcholinesterase confers relative resistance to carbamate and organophosphate inhibitors - Patel_2006_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_46_253
Author(s) : Patel R , Sanders R , Brown L , Baker S , Tsigelny I , Pezzementi L
Ref : Cell Biochem Biophys , 46 :253 , 2006
Abstract : Amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, has two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs): cholinesterase 1 (ChE1) and cholinesterase 2 (ChE2). ChE1 is up to 329-fold more resistant to a variety of carbamate and organophosphate inhibitors, including a number of insecticides, when compared with ChE2. One difference between the two enzymes is at the position homologous to Phe331 in Torpedo AChE. In Torpedo AChE, this residue is a component of the hydrophobic subsite and defines one side of the bottleneck in the catalytic gorge of the enzyme. In ChE1, the homologous residue is Trp353; in ChE2, it is Phe353. We used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the proposal that the resistance of ChE1 to inhibition by carbamates and organophosphates was due to this difference, creating a ChE1 W353F mutant to widen the bottleneck. The mutation virtually abolishes the difference in sensitivity to the inhibitors. The ChE1 W353F mutant is only 2- to 3-fold more resistant than ChE2 to carbamates and is actually 2.5- to 10-fold more sensitive to inhibition by organophosphates. The differences in resistance are due to different affinities of the enzymes for the inhibitors, not different reactivities. Molecular modeling supports the proposal that the difference in inhibition is due to the width of the bottleneck of the gorge. Our results have implications for insecticide resistance in insects, in particular mosquitoes and aphids.
ESTHER : Patel_2006_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_46_253
PubMedSearch : Patel_2006_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_46_253
PubMedID: 17272851

Title : The multidrug-resistant human pathogen Clostridium difficile has a highly mobile, mosaic genome - Sebaihia_2006_Nat.Genet_38_779
Author(s) : Sebaihia M , Wren BW , Mullany P , Fairweather NF , Minton N , Stabler R , Thomson NR , Roberts AP , Cerdeno-Tarraga AM , Wang H , Holden MT , Wright A , Churcher C , Quail MA , Baker S , Bason N , Brooks K , Chillingworth T , Cronin A , Davis P , Dowd L , Fraser A , Feltwell T , Hance Z , Holroyd S , Jagels K , Moule S , Mungall K , Price C , Rabbinowitsch E , Sharp S , Simmonds M , Stevens K , Unwin L , Whithead S , Dupuy B , Dougan G , Barrell B , Parkhill J
Ref : Nat Genet , 38 :779 , 2006
Abstract : We determined the complete genome sequence of Clostridium difficile strain 630, a virulent and multidrug-resistant strain. Our analysis indicates that a large proportion (11%) of the genome consists of mobile genetic elements, mainly in the form of conjugative transposons. These mobile elements are putatively responsible for the acquisition by C. difficile of an extensive array of genes involved in antimicrobial resistance, virulence, host interaction and the production of surface structures. The metabolic capabilities encoded in the genome show multiple adaptations for survival and growth within the gut environment. The extreme genome variability was confirmed by whole-genome microarray analysis; it may reflect the organism's niche in the gut and should provide information on the evolution of virulence in this organism.
ESTHER : Sebaihia_2006_Nat.Genet_38_779
PubMedSearch : Sebaihia_2006_Nat.Genet_38_779
PubMedID: 16804543
Gene_locus related to this paper: pepdi-t4eki5 , clod6-q18a60 , clod6-q183v0 , clodi-HYDD , clodr-c9ynf2 , pepd6-pip , pepdi-g6brr4

Title : Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica - Parkhill_2003_Nat.Genet_35_32
Author(s) : Parkhill J , Sebaihia M , Preston A , Murphy LD , Thomson N , Harris DE , Holden MT , Churcher CM , Bentley SD , Mungall KL , Cerdeno-Tarraga AM , Temple L , James K , Harris B , Quail MA , Achtman M , Atkin R , Baker S , Basham D , Bason N , Cherevach I , Chillingworth T , Collins M , Cronin A , Davis P , Doggett J , Feltwell T , Goble A , Hamlin N , Hauser H , Holroyd S , Jagels K , Leather S , Moule S , Norberczak H , O'Neil S , Ormond D , Price C , Rabbinowitsch E , Rutter S , Sanders M , Saunders D , Seeger K , Sharp S , Simmonds M , Skelton J , Squares R , Squares S , Stevens K , Unwin L , Whitehead S , Barrell BG , Maskell DJ
Ref : Nat Genet , 35 :32 , 2003
Abstract : Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are closely related Gram-negative beta-proteobacteria that colonize the respiratory tracts of mammals. B. pertussis is a strict human pathogen of recent evolutionary origin and is the primary etiologic agent of whooping cough. B. parapertussis can also cause whooping cough, and B. bronchiseptica causes chronic respiratory infections in a wide range of animals. We sequenced the genomes of B. bronchiseptica RB50 (5,338,400 bp; 5,007 predicted genes), B. parapertussis 12822 (4,773,551 bp; 4,404 genes) and B. pertussis Tohama I (4,086,186 bp; 3,816 genes). Our analysis indicates that B. parapertussis and B. pertussis are independent derivatives of B. bronchiseptica-like ancestors. During the evolution of these two host-restricted species there was large-scale gene loss and inactivation; host adaptation seems to be a consequence of loss, not gain, of function, and differences in virulence may be related to loss of regulatory or control functions.
ESTHER : Parkhill_2003_Nat.Genet_35_32
PubMedSearch : Parkhill_2003_Nat.Genet_35_32
PubMedID: 12910271
Gene_locus related to this paper: borbr-BB0273 , borbr-BB0570 , borbr-BB0670 , borbr-BB1064 , borbr-BB1079 , borbr-BB1247 , borbr-BB1498 , borbr-BB2718 , borbr-BB4129 , borbr-BB4247 , borbr-MHPC , borbr-q7wdw1 , borbr-q7wiz8 , borbr-q7wk25 , borbr-q7wmc2 , borbr-q7wpd9 , borpa-q7w3f3 , borpa-q7w9v8 , borpe-BIOH , borpe-BP0300 , borpe-BP2114 , borpe-BP2146 , borpe-BP2511 , borpe-BP3096 , borpe-BP3623 , borpe-BP3691 , borpe-CATD2 , borpe-METX , borpe-O30449 , borpe-PHBC , borpe-q7vsl4 , borpe-q7vt07 , borpe-q7vtg0 , borpe-q7vtv2 , borpe-q7vus4 , borpe-q7vuv4 , borpe-q7vv11 , borpe-q7vv48 , borpe-q7vvf6 , borpe-q7vwu4 , borpe-q7vyn0 , borpe-q7vyq4 , borpe-q7vz26 , borpe-q7vzb4 , borpe-q7vzj6 , borpe-q7w073

Title : Sequence of Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 1, 3-9 and 13 - Hall_2002_Nature_419_527
Author(s) : Hall N , Pain A , Berriman M , Churcher C , Harris B , Harris D , Mungall K , Bowman S , Atkin R , Baker S , Barron A , Brooks K , Buckee CO , Burrows C , Cherevach I , Chillingworth C , Chillingworth T , Christodoulou Z , Clark L , Clark R , Corton C , Cronin A , Davies R , Davis P , Dear P , Dearden F , Doggett J , Feltwell T , Goble A , Goodhead I , Gwilliam R , Hamlin N , Hance Z , Harper D , Hauser H , Hornsby T , Holroyd S , Horrocks P , Humphray S , Jagels K , James KD , Johnson D , Kerhornou A , Knights A , Konfortov B , Kyes S , Larke N , Lawson D , Lennard N , Line A , Maddison M , McLean J , Mooney P , Moule S , Murphy L , Oliver K , Ormond D , Price C , Quail MA , Rabbinowitsch E , Rajandream MA , Rutter S , Rutherford KM , Sanders M , Simmonds M , Seeger K , Sharp S , Smith R , Squares R , Squares S , Stevens K , Taylor K , Tivey A , Unwin L , Whitehead S , Woodward J , Sulston JE , Craig A , Newbold C , Barrell BG
Ref : Nature , 419 :527 , 2002
Abstract : Since the sequencing of the first two chromosomes of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, there has been a concerted effort to sequence and assemble the entire genome of this organism. Here we report the sequence of chromosomes 1, 3-9 and 13 of P. falciparum clone 3D7--these chromosomes account for approximately 55% of the total genome. We describe the methods used to map, sequence and annotate these chromosomes. By comparing our assemblies with the optical map, we indicate the completeness of the resulting sequence. During annotation, we assign Gene Ontology terms to the predicted gene products, and observe clustering of some malaria-specific terms to specific chromosomes. We identify a highly conserved sequence element found in the intergenic region of internal var genes that is not associated with their telomeric counterparts.
ESTHER : Hall_2002_Nature_419_527
PubMedSearch : Hall_2002_Nature_419_527
PubMedID: 12368867
Gene_locus related to this paper: plaf7-c0h4q4 , plafa-MAL6P1.135 , plafa-PFD0185C , plafa-PFI1775W , plafa-PFI1800W

Title : The genome sequence of Schizosaccharomyces pombe - Wood_2002_Nature_415_871
Author(s) : Wood V , Gwilliam R , Rajandream MA , Lyne M , Lyne R , Stewart A , Sgouros J , Peat N , Hayles J , Baker S , Basham D , Bowman S , Brooks K , Brown D , Brown S , Chillingworth T , Churcher C , Collins M , Connor R , Cronin A , Davis P , Feltwell T , Fraser A , Gentles S , Goble A , Hamlin N , Harris D , Hidalgo J , Hodgson G , Holroyd S , Hornsby T , Howarth S , Huckle EJ , Hunt S , Jagels K , James K , Jones L , Jones M , Leather S , McDonald S , McLean J , Mooney P , Moule S , Mungall K , Murphy L , Niblett D , Odell C , Oliver K , O'Neil S , Pearson D , Quail MA , Rabbinowitsch E , Rutherford K , Rutter S , Saunders D , Seeger K , Sharp S , Skelton J , Simmonds M , Squares R , Squares S , Stevens K , Taylor K , Taylor RG , Tivey A , Walsh S , Warren T , Whitehead S , Woodward J , Volckaert G , Aert R , Robben J , Grymonprez B , Weltjens I , Vanstreels E , Rieger M , Schafer M , Muller-Auer S , Gabel C , Fuchs M , Dusterhoft A , Fritzc C , Holzer E , Moestl D , Hilbert H , Borzym K , Langer I , Beck A , Lehrach H , Reinhardt R , Pohl TM , Eger P , Zimmermann W , Wedler H , Wambutt R , Purnelle B , Goffeau A , Cadieu E , Dreano S , Gloux S , Lelaure V , Mottier S , Galibert F , Aves SJ , Xiang Z , Hunt C , Moore K , Hurst SM , Lucas M , Rochet M , Gaillardin C , Tallada VA , Garzon A , Thode G , Daga RR , Cruzado L , Jimenez J , Sanchez M , del Rey F , Benito J , Dominguez A , Revuelta JL , Moreno S , Armstrong J , Forsburg SL , Cerutti L , Lowe T , McCombie WR , Paulsen I , Potashkin J , Shpakovski GV , Ussery D , Barrell BG , Nurse P
Ref : Nature , 415 :871 , 2002
Abstract : We have sequenced and annotated the genome of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), which contains the smallest number of protein-coding genes yet recorded for a eukaryote: 4,824. The centromeres are between 35 and 110 kilobases (kb) and contain related repeats including a highly conserved 1.8-kb element. Regions upstream of genes are longer than in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), possibly reflecting more-extended control regions. Some 43% of the genes contain introns, of which there are 4,730. Fifty genes have significant similarity with human disease genes; half of these are cancer related. We identify highly conserved genes important for eukaryotic cell organization including those required for the cytoskeleton, compartmentation, cell-cycle control, proteolysis, protein phosphorylation and RNA splicing. These genes may have originated with the appearance of eukaryotic life. Few similarly conserved genes that are important for multicellular organization were identified, suggesting that the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes required more new genes than did the transition from unicellular to multicellular organization.
ESTHER : Wood_2002_Nature_415_871
PubMedSearch : Wood_2002_Nature_415_871
PubMedID: 11859360
Gene_locus related to this paper: schpo-APTH1 , schpo-be46 , schpo-BST1 , schpo-C2E11.08 , schpo-C14C4.15C , schpo-C22H12.03 , schpo-C23C4.16C , schpo-C57A10.08C , schpo-dyr , schpo-este1 , schpo-KEX1 , schpo-PCY1 , schpo-pdat , schpo-PLG7 , schpo-ppme1 , schpo-q9c0y8 , schpo-SPAC4A8.06C , schpo-C22A12.06C , schpo-SPAC977.15 , schpo-SPAPB1A11.02 , schpo-SPBC14C8.15 , schpo-SPBC530.12C , schpo-SPBC1711.12 , schpo-SPBPB2B2.02 , schpo-SPCC5E4.05C , schpo-SPCC417.12 , schpo-SPCC1672.09 , schpo-yb4e , schpo-yblh , schpo-ydw6 , schpo-ye7a , schpo-ye63 , schpo-ye88 , schpo-yeld , schpo-yk68 , schpo-clr3 , schpo-ykv6

Title : Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. - Parkhill_2001_Nature_413_523
Author(s) : Parkhill J , Wren BW , Thomson NR , Titball RW , Holden MTG , Prentice MB , Sebaihia M , James KD , Churcher C , Mungall KL , Baker S , Basham D , Bentley SD , Brooks K , Cerdeno-Tarraga AM , Chillingworth T , Cronin A , Davies RM , Davis P , Dougan G , Feltwell T , Hamlin N , Holroyd S , Jagels K , Karlyshev AV , Leather S , Moule S , Oyston PCF , Quail M , Rutherford K , Simmonds M , Skelton J , Stevens K , Whitehead S , Barrell BG
Ref : Nature , 413 :523 , 2001
Abstract : The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.
ESTHER : Parkhill_2001_Nature_413_523
PubMedSearch : Parkhill_2001_Nature_413_523
PubMedID: 11586360
Gene_locus related to this paper: yerpe-BIOH , yerpe-dlhh , yerpe-IRP1 , yerpe-PIP , yerpe-PLDB , yerpe-PTRB , yerpe-q8zey9 , yerpe-y1616 , yerpe-y3224 , yerpe-YBTT , yerpe-YPLA , yerpe-YPO0180 , yerpe-YPO0667 , yerpe-YPO0773 , yerpe-YPO0776 , yerpe-YPO0986 , yerpe-YPO1501 , yerpe-YPO1997 , yerpe-YPO2002 , yerpe-YPO2336 , yerpe-YPO2526 , yerpe-YPO2638 , yerpe-YPO2814 , yerpe-YPO4014

Title : Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18 - Parkhill_2001_Nature_413_848
Author(s) : Parkhill J , Dougan G , James KD , Thomson NR , Pickard D , Wain J , Churcher C , Mungall KL , Bentley SD , Holden MT , Sebaihia M , Baker S , Basham D , Brooks K , Chillingworth T , Connerton P , Cronin A , Davis P , Davies RM , Dowd L , White N , Farrar J , Feltwell T , Hamlin N , Haque A , Hien TT , Holroyd S , Jagels K , Krogh A , Larsen TS , Leather S , Moule S , O'Gaora P , Parry C , Quail M , Rutherford K , Simmonds M , Skelton J , Stevens K , Whitehead S , Barrell BG
Ref : Nature , 413 :848 , 2001
Abstract : Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) is the aetiological agent of typhoid fever, a serious invasive bacterial disease of humans with an annual global burden of approximately 16 million cases, leading to 600,000 fatalities. Many S. enterica serovars actively invade the mucosal surface of the intestine but are normally contained in healthy individuals by the local immune defence mechanisms. However, S. typhi has evolved the ability to spread to the deeper tissues of humans, including liver, spleen and bone marrow. Here we have sequenced the 4,809,037-base pair (bp) genome of a S. typhi (CT18) that is resistant to multiple drugs, revealing the presence of hundreds of insertions and deletions compared with the Escherichia coli genome, ranging in size from single genes to large islands. Notably, the genome sequence identifies over two hundred pseudogenes, several corresponding to genes that are known to contribute to virulence in Salmonella typhimurium. This genetic degradation may contribute to the human-restricted host range for S. typhi. CT18 harbours a 218,150-bp multiple-drug-resistance incH1 plasmid (pHCM1), and a 106,516-bp cryptic plasmid (pHCM2), which shows recent common ancestry with a virulence plasmid of Yersinia pestis.
ESTHER : Parkhill_2001_Nature_413_848
PubMedSearch : Parkhill_2001_Nature_413_848
PubMedID: 11677608
Gene_locus related to this paper: salen-OPDB , salti-q8z717 , salty-AES , salty-BIOH , salty-ENTF , salty-FES , salty-IROD , salty-IROE , salty-PLDB , salty-STM2547 , salty-STM4506 , salty-STY1441 , salty-STY2428 , salty-STY3846 , salty-yafa , salty-YBFF , salty-ycfp , salty-YFBB , salty-YJFP , salty-YQIA