Xiao G

References (22)

Title : Mechanism of the Change in the Intestinal Microbiota of C-Strain Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after an Interspecific Transference between Rice and Corn - Di_2023_Microorganisms_11_
Author(s) : Di T , Li Y , Du G , He Y , Wang W , Shen Y , Meng J , Xiao W , Xiao G , Chen B
Ref : Microorganisms , 11 : , 2023
Abstract : Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was first found in 2019 in Yunnan, China, and it was characterized as a corn strain; it was also found on rice strains there, and it damages rice in China, but little is known about the effect of host plant transfer on the intestinal microbiota and the activities of detoxification enzymes in the C-strain (corn strain) S. frugiperda. The intestinal microbiota and the protective enzyme activity of S. frugiperda that were transferred from rice plants were assessed, and the fourth generation of insects transferred from corn were studied; the gene types of S. frugiperda that were transferred from rice plants were tested using mitochondrial Tpi gene sequences. The results showed that the intestinal microbiota in the C-strain S. frugiperda were changed after the host transference, and the diversity and richness of the intestinal bacterial communities of the S. frugiperda feeding on rice were significantly reduced after the transfer of the host from corn. The predominant species of intestinal bacteria of the S. frugiperda on rice transferred from corn were Enterococcus and Enterobacter, with relative abundances of 28.7% and 66.68%; the predominant species of intestinal bacteria of the S. frugiperda that were transferred from rice and feeding on corn were Enterococcus (22.35%) and Erysipelatoclostridium (73.92%); and the predominant species of intestinal bacteria of S. frugiperda feeding on corn was Enterococcus, with a relative abundance of 61.26%. The CAT (catalase) activity of the S. frugiperda transferred from corn onto rice from corn was reduced, the POD (peroxidase) activity was significantly increased after the transfer from corn, and no significant variations were found for the SOD (superoxide dismutase), CarE (carboxylesterase), and GST (glutathione S-transferase) activities of S. frugiperda after the host plant transfer. The results showed that after feeding on rice, the activities of CAT and POD in the in S. frugiperda body changed in order to resist plant secondary metabolites from corn or rice, but there was no significant change in the detoxification enzymes in the body. In summary, switching the host plant between corn and rice induced variations in the intestinal microbiota in C-strain S. frugiperda owing to the strain difference between the C-strain and the R-strain (rice strain), and this was consistent with the results of the activities of detoxification enzymes. The results indicat that changes in intestinal microbiota and physiological enzymes may be important reasons for the adaptive capacity of C-strain S. frugiperda to rice.
ESTHER : Di_2023_Microorganisms_11_
PubMedSearch : Di_2023_Microorganisms_11_
PubMedID: 37894172

Title : Cdo1 promotes PPARgamma-mediated adipose tissue lipolysis in male mice - Guo_2022_Nat.Metab_4_1352
Author(s) : Guo YY , Li BY , Xiao G , Liu Y , Guo L , Tang QQ
Ref : Nat Metab , 4 :1352 , 2022
Abstract : Cysteine dioxygenase 1 (Cdo1) is a key enzyme in taurine synthesis. Here we show that Cdo1 promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue. Adipose-specific knockout of Cdo1 in mice impairs energy expenditure, cold tolerance and lipolysis, exacerbates diet-induced obesity (DIO) and decreases adipose expression of the key lipolytic genes encoding ATGL and HSL, with little effect on adipose taurine levels. White-adipose-specific overexpression of ATGL and HSL blunts the role of adipose Cdo1 deficiency in promoting DIO. Mechanistically, Cdo1 interacts with PPARgamma and facilitates the recruitment of Med24, the core subunit of mediator complex, to ATGL and HSL gene promoters, thereby transactivating their expression. Further, mice with transgenic overexpression of Cdo1 show better cold tolerance, ameliorated DIO and higher lipolysis capacity. Thus, we uncover an unexpected and important role of Cdo1 in regulating adipose lipolysis.
ESTHER : Guo_2022_Nat.Metab_4_1352
PubMedSearch : Guo_2022_Nat.Metab_4_1352
PubMedID: 36253617

Title : Rabbit Antidiethoxyphosphotyrosine Antibody, Made by Single B Cell Cloning, Detects Chlorpyrifos Oxon-Modified Proteins in Cultured Cells and Immunopurifies Modified Peptides for Mass Spectrometry - Onder_2021_J.Proteome.Res__
Author(s) : Onder S , van Grol M , Fidder A , Xiao G , Noort D , Yerramalla U , Tacal O , Schopfer LM , Lockridge O
Ref : J Proteome Res , : , 2021
Abstract : Chronic low-dose exposure to organophosphorus pesticides is associated with the risk of neurodegenerative disease. The mechanism of neurotoxicity is independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Adducts on tyrosine, lysine, threonine, and serine can occur after exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, the most stable being adducts on tyrosine. Rabbit monoclonal 1C6 to diethoxyphosphate-modified tyrosine (depY) was created by single B cell cloning. The amino acid sequence and binding constant (K(d) 3.2 x 10(-8) M) were determined. Cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells incubated with a subcytotoxic dose of 10 microM chlorpyrifos oxon contained depY-modified proteins detected by monoclonal 1C6 on Western blots. depY-labeled peptides from tryptic digests of cell lysates were immunopurified by binding to immobilized 1C6. Peptides released with 50% acetonitrile and 1% formic acid were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer. Protein Prospector database searches identified 51 peptides modified on tyrosine by diethoxyphosphate in SH-SY5Y cell lysate and 73 diethoxyphosphate-modified peptides in N2a cell lysate. Adducts appeared most frequently on the cytoskeleton proteins tubulin, actin, and vimentin. It was concluded that rabbit monoclonal 1C6 can be useful for studies that aim to understand the mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from low-dose exposure to organophosphorus pesticides.
ESTHER : Onder_2021_J.Proteome.Res__
PubMedSearch : Onder_2021_J.Proteome.Res__
PubMedID: 34469172

Title : Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro -
Author(s) : Wang M , Cao R , Zhang L , Yang X , Liu J , Xu M , Shi Z , Hu Z , Zhong W , Xiao G
Ref : Cell Res , 30 :269 , 2020
PubMedID: 32020029

Title : Identification of interneurons required for the aversive response of Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide - Xiao_2018_J.Nanobiotechnology_16_45
Author(s) : Xiao G , Chen H , Krasteva N , Liu Q , Wang D
Ref : J Nanobiotechnology , 16 :45 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: So far, how the animals evade the environmental nanomaterials is still largely unclear. In this study, we employed in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the aversive behavior of nematodes to graphene oxide (GO) and the underlying neuronal basis. RESULTS: In this assay model, we detected the significant aversive behavior of nematodes to GO at concentrations more than 50 mg/L. Loss-of-function mutation of nlg-1 encoding a neuroligin with the function in connecting pre- and post-synaptic neurons suppressed the aversive behavior of nematodes to GO. Moreover, based on the neuron-specific activity assay, we found that the NLG-1 activity in AIY or AIB interneurons was required for the regulation of aversive behavior to GO. The neuron-specific activities of NLG-1 in AIY or AIB interneurons were also required for the regulation of GO toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Using nlg-1 mutant as a genetic tool, we identified the AIY and AIB interneurons required for the regulation of aversive behavior to GO. Our results provide an important neuronal basis for the aversive response of animals to environmental nanomaterials.
ESTHER : Xiao_2018_J.Nanobiotechnology_16_45
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2018_J.Nanobiotechnology_16_45
PubMedID: 29703212

Title : Multifunctional 5,6-dimethoxybenzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-one-N-alkylbenzylamine derivatives with acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidases and beta-amyloid aggregation inhibitory activities as potential agents against Alzheimer's disease - Xu_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem_26_1885
Author(s) : Xu R , Xiao G , Li Y , Liu H , Song Q , Zhang X , Yang Z , Zheng Y , Tan Z , Deng Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 26 :1885 , 2018
Abstract : A series of 5,6-dimethoxybenzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-one-N-alkylbenzylamine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as potential multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The in vitro assays indicated that most of these derivatives were selective AChE inhibitors with good multifunctional properties. Among them, compounds 11b and 11d displayed comprehensive advantages, with good AChE (IC50=0.29+/-0.01muM and 0.46+/-0.02muM, respectively), MAO-A (IC50=8.2+/-0.08muM and 7.9+/-0.07muM, respectively) and MAO-B (IC50=20.1+/-0.16muM and 43.8+/-2.0% at 10muM, respectively) inhibitory activities, moderate self-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation inhibitory potency (35.4+/-0.42% and 48.0+/-1.53% at 25muM, respectively) and potential antioxidant activity. In addition, the two representative compounds displayed high BBB permeability in vitro. Taken together, these multifunctional properties make 11b and 11d as a promising candidate for the development of efficient drugs against AD.
ESTHER : Xu_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem_26_1885
PubMedSearch : Xu_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem_26_1885
PubMedID: 29500132

Title : Multifunctional thioxanthone derivatives with acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidases and beta-amyloid aggregation inhibitory activities as potential agents against Alzheimer's disease - Luo_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_1997
Author(s) : Luo L , Li Y , Qiang X , Cao Z , Xu R , Yang X , Xiao G , Song Q , Tan Z , Deng Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 25 :1997 , 2017
Abstract : A series of 1-hydroxyl-3-aminoalkoxy-thioxanthone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as potential multifunctional agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results indicated that most of these compounds exhibited good AChE and MAOs inhibitory activities, significant inhibition of self- and Cu2+-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation, and moderate to good antioxidant activities. Specifically, compound 9e displayed high inhibitory potency toward AChE (IC50=0.59+/-0.02muM), MAO-A and MAO-B (IC50=1.01+/-0.02muM and 0.90+/-0.01muM respectively), excellent efficiency to block both self- and Cu2+-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation (74.8+/-1.2% and 87.7+/-1.9% at 25muM, respectively), good metal-chelating property and a low toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, kinetic and molecular modeling studies revealed that compound 9e binds simultaneously to the catalytic active site and peripheral anionic site of AChE, and could penetrate the BBB. Collectively, these results suggested that 9e might be a potential multifunctional agent for further development in the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Luo_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_1997
PubMedSearch : Luo_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_1997
PubMedID: 28237559

Title : Multitarget drug design strategy against Alzheimer's disease: Homoisoflavonoid Mannich base derivatives serve as acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase B dual inhibitors with multifunctional properties - Li_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_714
Author(s) : Li Y , Qiang X , Luo L , Yang X , Xiao G , Zheng Y , Cao Z , Sang Z , Su F , Deng Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 25 :714 , 2017
Abstract : A series of homoisoflavonoid Mannich base derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as multifunctional agents against Alzheimer's disease. It demonstrated that most of the derivatives were selective AChE and MAO-B dual inhibitors with good multifunctional properties. Among them, compound 10d displayed the comprehensive advantages, with excellent AChE and MAO-B inhibitory activities (IC50=2.49+/-0.08nM and 1.74+/-0.0581muM, respectively), good self- and Cu2+-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation inhibitory potency, antioxidant activity, biometal chelating ability and high BBB permeability. These multifunctional properties make 10d as an excellent candidate for the development of efficient drugs against AD.
ESTHER : Li_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_714
PubMedSearch : Li_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_714
PubMedID: 27923535

Title : Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 4'-aminochalcone-rivastigmine hybrids as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Xiao_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_1030
Author(s) : Xiao G , Li Y , Qiang X , Xu R , Zheng Y , Cao Z , Luo L , Yang X , Sang Z , Su F , Deng Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 25 :1030 , 2017
Abstract : A series of 4'-aminochalcone-revastigmine hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The results showed that most of these compounds exhibited good multifunctional activities. In particular, compound 6c displayed the best inhibitory potency on acetylcholinesterase (IC50=4.91muM), and significant antioxidative activity with a value 2.83-fold of Trolox. The kinetic analysis of AChE inhibition revealed that 6c showed mixed-type inhibition, binding simultaneously to the catalytic active site and peripheral anionic site of AChE. In addition, 6c inhibited self-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation and Cu2+-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation by 89.5% and 79.7% at 25muM respectively, as well as acted as a selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor (IC50=0.29muM) and a selective biometal chelator. Furthermore, 6c could cross the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Based on these results, Compound 6c could be considered as a very promising lead compound for Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Xiao_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_1030
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_1030
PubMedID: 28011206

Title : Immunopurification of Acetylcholinesterase from Red Blood Cells for Detection of Nerve Agent Exposure - Dafferner_2017_Chem.Res.Toxicol_30_1897
Author(s) : Dafferner AJ , Schopfer LM , Xiao G , Cashman JR , Yerramalla U , Johnson RC , Blake TA , Lockridge O
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 30 :1897 , 2017
Abstract : Nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides make a covalent bond with the active site serine of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in inhibition of AChE activity and toxic symptoms. AChE in red blood cells (RBCs) serves as a surrogate for AChE in the nervous system. Mass spectrometry analysis of adducts on RBC AChE could provide evidence of exposure. Our goal was to develop a method of immunopurifying human RBC AChE in quantities adequate for detecting exposure by mass spectrometry. For this purpose, we immobilized 3 commercially available anti-human acetylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies (AE-1, AE-2, and HR2) plus 3 new monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies were characterized for binding affinity, epitope mapping by pairing analysis, and nucleotide and amino acid sequences. AChE was solubilized from frozen RBCs with 1% (v/v) Triton X-100. A 16 mL sample containing 5.8 mug of RBC AChE was treated with a quantity of soman model compound that inhibited 50% of the AChE activity. Native and soman-inhibited RBC AChE samples were immunopurified on antibody-Sepharose beads. The immunopurified RBC AChE was digested with pepsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry on a 6600 Triple-TOF mass spectrometer. The aged soman-modified PheGlyGluSerAlaGlyAlaAlaSer (FGESAGAAS) peptide was detected using a targeted analysis method. It was concluded that all 6 monoclonal antibodies could be used to immunopurify RBC AChE and that exposure to nerve agents could be detected as adducts on the active site serine of RBC AChE.
ESTHER : Dafferner_2017_Chem.Res.Toxicol_30_1897
PubMedSearch : Dafferner_2017_Chem.Res.Toxicol_30_1897
PubMedID: 28892361

Title : Monoclonal Antibody That Recognizes Diethoxyphosphotyrosine-Modified Proteins and Peptides Independent of Surrounding Amino Acids - Onder_2017_Chem.Res.Toxicol_30_2218
Author(s) : Onder S , Dafferner AJ , Schopfer LM , Xiao G , Yerramalla U , Tacal O , Blake TA , Johnson RC , Lockridge O
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 30 :2218 , 2017
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are irreversibly inhibited by organophosphorus pesticides through formation of a covalent bond with the active site serine. Proteins that have no active site serine, for example albumin, are covalently modified on tyrosine and lysine. Chronic illness from pesticide exposure is not explained by inhibition of AChE and BChE. Our goal was to produce a monoclonal antibody that recognizes proteins diethoxyphosphorylated on tyrosine. Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine adducts for 13 peptides were synthesized. The diethoxyphosphorylated (OP) peptides cross-linked to four different carrier proteins were used to immunize, boost, and screen mice. Monoclonal antibodies were produced with hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibody depY was purified and characterized by ELISA, western blotting, Biacore, and Octet technology to determine binding affinity and binding specificity. DepY recognized diethoxyphosphotyrosine independent of the amino acid sequence around the modified tyrosine and independent of the identity of the carrier protein or peptide. It had an IC50 of 3 x 10(-9) M in a competition assay with OP tubulin. Kd values measured by Biacore and OctetRED96 were 10(-8) M for OP-peptides and 1 x 10(-12) M for OP-proteins. The limit of detection measured on western blots hybridized with 0.14 mug/mL of depY was 0.025 mug of human albumin conjugated to YGGFL-OP. DepY was specific for diethoxyphosphotyrosine (chlorpyrifos oxon adduct) as it failed to recognize diethoxyphospholysine, phosphoserine, phosphotyrosine, phosphothreonine, dimethoxyphosphotyrosine (dichlorvos adduct), dimethoxyphosphoserine, monomethoxyphosphotyrosine (aged dichlorvos adduct), and cresylphosphoserine. In conclusion, a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes diethoxyphosphotyrosine adducts has been developed. The depY monoclonal antibody could be useful for identifying new biomarkers of OP exposure.
ESTHER : Onder_2017_Chem.Res.Toxicol_30_2218
PubMedSearch : Onder_2017_Chem.Res.Toxicol_30_2218
PubMedID: 29137457

Title : Characterization of butyrylcholinesterase in bovine serum - Dafferner_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_266_17
Author(s) : Dafferner AJ , Lushchekina SV , Masson P , Xiao G , Schopfer LM , Lockridge O
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 266 :17 , 2017
Abstract : Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) protects from nerve agent toxicity. Our goal was to determine whether bovine serum could be used as a source of BChE. Bovine BChE (BoBChE) was immunopurified from 100 mL fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 380 mL adult bovine serum by binding to immobilized monoclonal mAb2. Bound proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results proved that FBS and adult bovine serum contain BoBChE. The concentration of BoBChE was estimated to be 0.04 mug/mL in FBS, and 0.03 mug/mL in adult bovine serum, values lower than the 4 mug/mL BChE in human serum. Nondenaturing gel electrophoresis showed that monoclonal mAb2 bound BoBChE but not bovine acetylcholinesterase (BoAChE) and confirmed that FBS contains BoBChE and BoAChE. Recombinant bovine BChE (rBoBChE) expressed in serum-free culture medium spontaneously reactivated from inhibition by chlorpyrifos oxon at a rate of 0.0023 min-1 (t1/2 = 301 min-1) and aged at a rate of 0.0138 min-1 (t1/2 = 50 min-1). Both BoBChE and HuBChE have 574 amino acids per subunit and 90% sequence identity. However, the apparent size of serum BoBChE and rBoBChE tetramers was much greater than the 340,000 Da of HuBChE tetramers. Whereas HuBChE tetramers include short polyproline rich peptides derived from lamellipodin, no polyproline peptides have been identified in BoBChE. We hypothesize that BoBChE tetramers use a large polyproline-rich protein to organize subunits into a tetramer and that the low concentration of BoBChE in serum is explained by limited quantities of an unidentified polyproline-rich protein.
ESTHER : Dafferner_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_266_17
PubMedSearch : Dafferner_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_266_17
PubMedID: 28189703
Gene_locus related to this paper: bovin-BCHE

Title : Pterostilbene-O-acetamidoalkylbenzylamines derivatives as novel dual inhibitors of cholinesterase with anti-beta-amyloid aggregation and antioxidant properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Li_2016_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_26_2035
Author(s) : Li Y , Qiang X , Yang X , Luo L , Xiao G , Cao Z , Tan Z , Deng Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 26 :2035 , 2016
Abstract : A series of pterostilbene-O-acetamidoalkylbenzylamines were designed, synthesized and evaluated as dual inhibitors of AChE and BuChE. To further explore the multifunctional properties of the new derivatives, their antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on self-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation and HuAChE-induced Abeta1-40 aggregation were also tested. The results showed that most of these compounds could effectively inhibit AChE and BuChE. Particularly, compound 21d exhibited the best AChE inhibitory activity (IC50=0.06muM) and good inhibition of BuChE (IC50=28.04muM). Both the inhibition kinetic analysis and molecular modeling study revealed that these compounds showed mixed-type inhibition, binding simultaneously to the CAS and PAS of AChE. In addition to cholinesterase inhibitory activities, these compounds showed different levels of antioxidant activity. However, the inhibitory activities against self-induced and HuAChE-induced Abeta aggregation of these new derivatives were unsatisfied. Taking into account the results of the biological evaluation, further modifications will be designed in order to increase the potency on the different targets. The results displayed in this Letter can be a new starting point for further development of multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Li_2016_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_26_2035
PubMedSearch : Li_2016_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_26_2035
PubMedID: 26947607

Title : Aurone Mannich base derivatives as promising multifunctional agents with acetylcholinesterase inhibition, anti-beta-amyloid aggragation and neuroprotective properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Li_2016_Eur.J.Med.Chem_126_762
Author(s) : Li Y , Qiang X , Luo L , Yang X , Xiao G , Liu Q , Ai J , Tan Z , Deng Y
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 126 :762 , 2016
Abstract : A series of aurone Mannich base derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In vitro assays demonstrated that most of the derivatives were selective AChE inhibitors with good multifunctional properties. Among them, compound 7d exhibited outstanding inhibitory activity for RatAChE, EeAChE and HuAChE (IC50 = 0.00878 +/- 0.0002 muM, 0.0212 +/- 0.006 muM and 0.0371 +/- 0.004 muM, respectively). Moreover, 7d displayed high antioxidant activity and could confer significant neuroprotective effect against H2O2-induced PC-12 cell injury. In addition, 7d also showed biometal chelating abilities, good self- and Cu2+-induced Abeta1-42 aggregation inhibitory potency and high BBB permeability. These multifunctional properties highlight 7d as promising candidate for further studies directed to the development of novel drugs against AD.
ESTHER : Li_2016_Eur.J.Med.Chem_126_762
PubMedSearch : Li_2016_Eur.J.Med.Chem_126_762
PubMedID: 27951485

Title : Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity - Shang_2016_Genome.Biol.Evol_8_1374
Author(s) : Shang Y , Xiao G , Zheng P , Cen K , Zhan S , Wang C
Ref : Genome Biol Evol , 8 :1374 , 2016
Abstract : Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation.
ESTHER : Shang_2016_Genome.Biol.Evol_8_1374
PubMedSearch : Shang_2016_Genome.Biol.Evol_8_1374
PubMedID: 27071652
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9hypo-a0a162hs49 , 9hypo-a0a162hub8 , 9hypo-a0a162i1u8 , 9euro-a0a162iix1 , 9hypo-a0a162ima8 , 9hypo-a0a162jas9 , 9hypo-a0a162jfj3 , 9hypo-a0a162jhb9 , 9hypo-a0a162jmg2 , cordf-a0a162k2a2 , 9hypo-a0a162k3b2 , 9hypo-a0a162k3t2 , cordf-a0a162kne2 , cordf-a0a162kwz0 , 9hypo-a0a162m4x7 , cordf-a0a162mwk4 , 9hypo-a0a166nct4 , 9euro-a0a166nl14 , 9hypo-a0a166v6u3 , 9hypo-a0a166wlx9 , 9hypo-a0a166wxz0 , 9hypo-a0a166yda3 , 9hypo-a0a166ymi5 , 9hypo-a0a166z511 , 9hypo-a0a167fcg1 , 9hypo-a0a167gu64 , 9hypo-a0a167gyk2 , 9hypo-a0a167kjz5 , 9hypo-a0a167m3a6 , 9pezi-a0a167nge5 , 9hypo-a0a167qnf7 , 9pezi-a0a167qz56 , 9pezi-a0a167sfr8 , 9pezi-a0a167snk4 , 9hypo-a0a167tjx1 , 9hypo-a0a167tm61 , 9pezi-a0a167u5l8 , 9pezi-a0a167uqx6 , 9hypo-a0a167v4i2 , 9euro-a0a167vcq2 , 9pezi-a0a167vqe2 , 9hypo-a0a167vzl7 , 9euro-a0a167w192 , cordf-a0a167wrl9 , 9pezi-a0a167wyb6 , 9euro-a0a167xzp3 , 9euro-a0a167y0h7 , 9hypo-a0a167yg81 , 9pezi-a0a167z9i1 , cordf-a0a167zqi5 , 9hypo-a0a168are5 , cordf-a0a168bcu5 , 9hypo-a0a168bsl8 , cordf-a0a168cqs1 , cordf-a0a168crk3 , 9hypo-a0a168d6j2 , 9hypo-a0a168enh0 , 9hypo-a0a168eu39 , cordf-a0a168g0e1 , cordf-a0a168g1t1 , cordf-a0a168g678 , cordf-a0a168hsg3 , cordf-a0a168j527 , cordf-a0a168jr90 , cordf-a0a168l178 , 9hypo-a0a167x7j9 , beaba-a0a2s7xwt2 , 9hypo-a0a167xk24 , cordf-a0a168j0y7 , 9hypo-a0a167es80 , 9pezi-a0a162mh01 , 9hypo-a0a168b790 , 9hypo-a0a166uph8 , 9hypo-a0a168enk0 , 9hypo-a0a167dlr2 , cordf-a0a168hsf0 , 9hypo-a0a167hq40 , metrr-a0a166ygn0 , cordf-a0a179ib68 , corfa-a0a167q5m2 , metrr-a0a162jas4 , cordf-a0a168fit9

Title : Genome sequence of cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum TM-1) provides insights into genome evolution - Li_2015_Nat.Biotechnol_33_524
Author(s) : Li F , Fan G , Lu C , Xiao G , Zou C , Kohel RJ , Ma Z , Shang H , Ma X , Wu J , Liang X , Huang G , Percy RG , Liu K , Yang W , Chen W , Du X , Shi C , Yuan Y , Ye W , Liu X , Zhang X , Liu W , Wei H , Wei S , Zhu S , Zhang H , Sun F , Wang X , Liang J , Wang J , He Q , Huang L , Cui J , Song G , Wang K , Xu X , Yu JZ , Zhu Y , Yu S
Ref : Nat Biotechnol , 33 :524 , 2015
Abstract : Gossypium hirsutum has proven difficult to sequence owing to its complex allotetraploid (AtDt) genome. Here we produce a draft genome using 181-fold paired-end sequences assisted by fivefold BAC-to-BAC sequences and a high-resolution genetic map. In our assembly 88.5% of the 2,173-Mb scaffolds, which cover 89.6% approximately 96.7% of the AtDt genome, are anchored and oriented to 26 pseudochromosomes. Comparison of this G. hirsutum AtDt genome with the already sequenced diploid Gossypium arboreum (AA) and Gossypium raimondii (DD) genomes revealed conserved gene order. Repeated sequences account for 67.2% of the AtDt genome, and transposable elements (TEs) originating from Dt seem more active than from At. Reduction in the AtDt genome size occurred after allopolyploidization. The A or At genome may have undergone positive selection for fiber traits. Concerted evolution of different regulatory mechanisms for Cellulose synthase (CesA) and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase1 and 3 (ACO1,3) may be important for enhanced fiber production in G. hirsutum.
ESTHER : Li_2015_Nat.Biotechnol_33_524
PubMedSearch : Li_2015_Nat.Biotechnol_33_524
PubMedID: 25893780
Gene_locus related to this paper: gosra-a0a0d2rxs2 , gosra-a0a0d2tng2 , gosra-a0a0d2twz7 , goshi-a0a1u8hr03 , gosra-a0a0d2vdc5 , goshi-a0a1u8ljh5 , gosra-a0a0d2vj24 , goshi-a0a1u8pxd3 , gosra-a0a0d2sr31 , goshi-a0a1u8knd1 , goshi-a0a1u8nhw9 , goshi-a0a1u8mt09 , goshi-a0a1u8kis4 , goshi-a0a1u8ibk3 , goshi-a0a1u8ieg2 , goshi-a0a1u8iki6 , goshi-a0a1u8jvp4 , goshi-a0a1u8jw35 , gosra-a0a0d2pzd7 , goshi-a0a1u8ied7

Title : Multifunctional scutellarin-rivastigmine hybrids with cholinergic, antioxidant, biometal chelating and neuroprotective properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Sang_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_668
Author(s) : Sang Z , Li Y , Qiang X , Xiao G , Liu Q , Tan Z , Deng Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 23 :668 , 2015
Abstract : To discover multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a series of scutellarein carbamate derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the multitarget-directed ligand strategy. Their acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, antioxidant activities, metal-chelating properties and neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide induced PC12 cell injury were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that most of the synthetic compounds exhibited good multifunctional activities. In particular, compound 15c exhibited dual inhibitory potency on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 0.57 and 22.6muM, respectively, and good antioxidative activity, with a value 1.3-fold of Trolox. In addition, 15c acted as a selective biometal chelator and possessed neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, 15c could cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro and had significant neuroprotective effects in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that compound 15c might be a potential multifunctional agent for the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Sang_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_668
PubMedSearch : Sang_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem_23_668
PubMedID: 25614117

Title : Trajectory and genomic determinants of fungal-pathogen speciation and host adaptation - Hu_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_16796
Author(s) : Hu X , Xiao G , Zheng P , Shang Y , Su Y , Zhang X , Liu X , Zhan S , St Leger RJ , Wang C
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 111 :16796 , 2014
Abstract : Much remains unknown regarding speciation. Host-pathogen interactions are a major driving force for diversification, but the genomic basis for speciation and host shifting remains unclear. The fungal genus Metarhizium contains species ranging from specialists with very narrow host ranges to generalists that attack a wide range of insects. By genomic analyses of seven species, we demonstrated that generalists evolved from specialists via transitional species with intermediate host ranges and that this shift paralleled insect evolution. We found that specialization was associated with retention of sexuality and rapid evolution of existing protein sequences whereas generalization was associated with protein-family expansion, loss of genome-defense mechanisms, genome restructuring, horizontal gene transfer, and positive selection that accelerated after reinforcement of reproductive isolation. These results advance understanding of speciation and genomic signatures that underlie pathogen adaptation to hosts.
ESTHER : Hu_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_16796
PubMedSearch : Hu_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_16796
PubMedID: 25368161
Gene_locus related to this paper: metan-a0a086npb7 , 9hypo-a0a0b2wj22 , 9hypo-a0a0b2wjv9 , 9hypo-a0a0b2wph9 , 9hypo-a0a0b2wpk8 , 9hypo-a0a0b2wpu7 , 9hypo-a0a0b2wwt8 , 9hypo-a0a0b2wyt3 , 9hypo-a0a0b2x1p9 , metan-a0a0b4es34 , 9hypo-a0a0b4g6h7 , 9hypo-a0a0b4gae9 , 9hypo-a0a0b4gyw4 , 9hypo-a0a0b4gzy5 , 9hypo-a0a0b4hfr4 , 9hypo-a0a0b4hi37 , 9hypo-a0a0b4hin0 , 9hypo-a0a0b4fk47 , 9hypo-a0a0b4g7m5 , 9hypo-a0a0b4i0i8 , 9hypo-a0a0b4ie69 , 9hypo-a0a0b4if28 , 9hypo-a0a0b4h1h6 , 9hypo-a0a0b4hlm2 , metan-a0a0d9pev7 , metas-a0a0b2wy97 , metas-a0a0b2wk60 , metra-e9ewg3 , metaq-pks1 , metra-pks2 , metmf-pks2 , metaf-pks1 , metbs-pks2 , metas-pks1

Title : Genome survey uncovers the secrets of sex and lifestyle in caterpillar fungus. - Hu_2013_Chin.Sci.Bull_58_2846
Author(s) : Hu X , Zhang Y , Xiao G , Zheng P , Xia Y , Zhang X , St Leger R.J , Liu X , Wang C
Ref : Chin Sci Bull , 58 :2846 , 2013
Abstract : The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (best known as Cordyceps sinensis) mummifies ghost moth larvae exclusively in Tibetan Plateau alpine ecosystems. Touted as -YHimalayan Viagra, the fungus is highly prized due to its medical benefits and dwindling supplies. Attempts to culture the sexual fruiting-body have failed and the huge market demand has led to severe devastation of local ecosystems and to the fungus heading towards extinction. By genome sequencing, we establish that unlike related insect pathogens O. sinensis contains two compatible mating-type genes in its genome and is self-fertile, i.e. homothallic. However, sexual processes are only initiated under native environmental conditions. O. sinensis resembles biotrophic plant pathogens in having a genome shaped by retrotransposon-driven expansions. The resulting changes in gene content suggest that O. sinensis has a biphasic pathogenic mechanism beginning with stealth pathogenesis in early host instars. O. sinensis is the first psychrophilic fungus sequenced and is adapted to extreme cold with putative antifreeze proteins and mechanisms for increasing lipid accumulation and fatty acid unsaturation. We hypothesize that for the inbreeding O. sinensis the massive proliferation of retrotransposons provides a tradeoff between the advantages of increased genetic variation independent of sexual recombination and deletion of genes dispensable for its specialized pathogenic lifestyle.
ESTHER : Hu_2013_Chin.Sci.Bull_58_2846
PubMedSearch : Hu_2013_Chin.Sci.Bull_58_2846
Gene_locus related to this paper: ophsc-t5ap86 , ophsc-t5abc7 , ophsc-t5acw5 , ophsc-t5ajn1 , ophsc-t5aqy1

Title : Genomic perspectives on the evolution of fungal entomopathogenicity in Beauveria bassiana - Xiao_2012_Sci.Rep_2_483
Author(s) : Xiao G , Ying SH , Zheng P , Wang ZL , Zhang S , Xie XQ , Shang Y , St Leger RJ , Zhao GP , Wang C , Feng MG
Ref : Sci Rep , 2 :483 , 2012
Abstract : The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. We sequenced the genome of B. bassiana and a phylogenomic analysis confirmed that ascomycete entomopathogenicity is polyphyletic, but also revealed convergent evolution to insect pathogenicity. We also found many species-specific virulence genes and gene family expansions and contractions that correlate with host ranges and pathogenic strategies. These include B. bassiana having many more bacterial-like toxins (suggesting an unsuspected potential for oral toxicity) and effector-type proteins. The genome also revealed that B. bassiana resembles the closely related Cordyceps militaris in being heterothallic, although its sexual stage is rarely observed. A high throughput RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis revealed that B. bassiana could sense and adapt to different environmental niches by activating well-defined gene sets. The information from this study will facilitate further development of B. bassiana as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide.
ESTHER : Xiao_2012_Sci.Rep_2_483
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2012_Sci.Rep_2_483
PubMedID: 22761991
Gene_locus related to this paper: beab2-j4kp85 , beab2-j4kq23 , beab2-j4ugv0 , beab2-j4ujz3 , beab2-j4urc2 , beab2-j4ut21 , beab2-j4uti2 , beab2-j4vvv1 , beab2-j4wbg2 , beab2-j5jde3 , beab2-j5jzt0 , beab2-j4wjh2 , beaba-a0a2s7xwt2 , 9hypo-a0a167hq40 , beab2-ops1

Title : Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional Chinese medicine - Zheng_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R116
Author(s) : Zheng P , Xia Y , Xiao G , Xiong C , Hu X , Zhang S , Zheng H , Huang Y , Zhou Y , Wang S , Zhao GP , Liu X , St Leger RJ , Wang C
Ref : Genome Biol , 12 :R116 , 2011
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined.
RESULTS: Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated.
CONCLUSIONS: The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.
ESTHER : Zheng_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R116
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R116
PubMedID: 22112802
Gene_locus related to this paper: cormm-g3jhe4 , cormm-g3j5w5 , cormm-g3jjs8 , cormm-g3jj84 , cormm-g3j580 , cormm-g3jkl0 , cormi-a0a2h4sj63 , cormm-g3jpf2

Title : Genome sequencing and comparative transcriptomics of the model entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. acridum - Gao_2011_PLoS.Genet_7_e1001264
Author(s) : Gao Q , Jin K , Ying SH , Zhang Y , Xiao G , Shang Y , Duan Z , Hu X , Xie XQ , Zhou G , Peng G , Luo Z , Huang W , Wang B , Fang W , Wang S , Zhong Y , Ma LJ , St Leger RJ , Zhao GP , Pei Y , Feng MG , Xia Y , Wang C
Ref : PLoS Genet , 7 :e1001264 , 2011
Abstract : Metarhizium spp. are being used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides, as model systems for studying insect-fungus interactions, and as a resource of genes for biotechnology. We present a comparative analysis of the genome sequences of the broad-spectrum insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and the acridid-specific M. acridum. Whole-genome analyses indicate that the genome structures of these two species are highly syntenic and suggest that the genus Metarhizium evolved from plant endophytes or pathogens. Both M. anisopliae and M. acridum have a strikingly larger proportion of genes encoding secreted proteins than other fungi, while ~30% of these have no functionally characterized homologs, suggesting hitherto unsuspected interactions between fungal pathogens and insects. The analysis of transposase genes provided evidence of repeat-induced point mutations occurring in M. acridum but not in M. anisopliae. With the help of pathogen-host interaction gene database, ~16% of Metarhizium genes were identified that are similar to experimentally verified genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi, particularly plant pathogens. However, relative to M. acridum, M. anisopliae has evolved with many expanded gene families of proteases, chitinases, cytochrome P450s, polyketide synthases, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases for cuticle-degradation, detoxification, and toxin biosynthesis that may facilitate its ability to adapt to heterogeneous environments. Transcriptional analysis of both fungi during early infection processes provided further insights into the genes and pathways involved in infectivity and specificity. Of particular note, M. acridum transcribed distinct G-protein coupled receptors on cuticles from locusts (the natural hosts) and cockroaches, whereas M. anisopliae transcribed the same receptor on both hosts. This study will facilitate the identification of virulence genes and the development of improved biocontrol strains with customized properties.
ESTHER : Gao_2011_PLoS.Genet_7_e1001264
PubMedSearch : Gao_2011_PLoS.Genet_7_e1001264
PubMedID: 21253567
Gene_locus related to this paper: metaq-dapb , metaq-e9dr02 , metaq-e9dr46 , metaq-e9dx32 , metaq-e9dy00 , metaq-e9e6i5 , metaq-e9e332 , metaq-e9e873 , metaq-e9eaq4 , metaq-e9ebs3 , metaq-e9ebt3 , metaq-e9edi2 , metaq-e9edr0 , metaq-e9ee29 , metaq-e9eej3 , metaq-e9ef60 , metaq-e9ef98 , metaq-e9efc1 , metaq-e9eg97 , metaq-e9egz7 , metaq-kex1 , metar-dapb , metar-e9ej81 , metar-e9ejw6 , metar-e9ek06 , metar-e9eka7 , metar-e9eku9 , metar-e9em68 , metar-e9emd0 , metar-e9enf9 , metar-e9eny8 , metar-e9ep20 , metar-e9ep60 , metar-e9eqh0 , metar-e9etb2 , metar-e9etp6 , metar-e9euh9 , metar-e9ey62 , metar-e9eyx6 , metar-e9ezk2 , metar-e9f3f2 , metar-e9f3j3 , metar-e9f3l3 , metar-e9f3z5 , metar-e9f6q5 , metar-e9f6t6 , metar-e9f7y7 , metar-e9f9h2 , metar-e9f029 , metar-e9f205 , metar-e9f721 , metar-e9fa63 , metar-e9fab1 , metar-e9fas3 , metar-e9fbn5 , metar-e9fbt1 , metar-e9fd34 , metaq-e9eej8 , metaq-e9dx35 , metar-e9f3e9 , metar-e9f0w8 , metan-a0a086npb7 , 9hypo-a0a014p983 , metan-a0a086nhe0 , 9hypo-a0a0a1v7e9 , metaq-e9e0y0 , metan-a0a0d9pev7 , metaq-e9edt7 , metra-e9ewg3 , metra-pks2 , metaf-pks1 , metaq-pks2 , metaq-e9e9z0