Zhang S

References (198)

Title : Upconversion fluorescence nanosensor based on enzymatic inhibited and copper-triggered o-phenylenediamine oxidation for the detection of dimethoate pesticides - Li_2024_Food.Chem_453_139666
Author(s) : Li S , Zhang S , Wu J , Khan IM , Chen M , Jiao T , Wei J , Chen X , Chen Q
Ref : Food Chem , 453 :139666 , 2024
Abstract : Pesticide residues in agricultural products pose a significant threat to human health. Herein, a sensitive fluorescence method employing upconversion nanoparticles was developed for detecting organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) based on the principle of enzyme inhibition and copper-triggered o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidation. Copper ions (Cu(2+)) oxidized the colorless OPD to a yellow 2,3-diaminophenazine (oxOPD). The yellow solution oxOPD quenched the fluorescence of upconversion nanoparticles due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The high affinity of Cu(2+) for thiocholine reduced the level of oxOPD, resulting in almost no fluorescence quenching. The addition of dimethoate led to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and thus prevented the formation of thiocholine. Subsequently, Cu(2+) oxidized OPD to form oxOPD, which attenuated the fluorescence signal of the system. The detection system has a good linear range of 0.01 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.008 ng/mL, providing promising applications for rapid detection of dimethoate.
ESTHER : Li_2024_Food.Chem_453_139666
PubMedSearch : Li_2024_Food.Chem_453_139666
PubMedID: 38759443

Title : Inhibiting PLA2G7 reverses the immunosuppressive function of intratumoral macrophages and augments immunotherapy response in hepatocellular carcinoma - Zhang_2024_J.Immunother.Cancer_12_e008094
Author(s) : Zhang F , Liu W , Meng F , Jiang Q , Tang W , Liu Z , Lin X , Xue R , Zhang S , Dong L
Ref : J Immunother Cancer , 12 : , 2024
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an exceptionally immunosuppressive malignancy characterized by limited treatment options and a dismal prognosis. Macrophages constitute the primary and heterogeneous immune cell population within the HCC microenvironment. Our objective is to identify distinct subsets of macrophages implicated in the progression of HCC and their resistance to immunotherapy. METHODS: Intratumoral macrophage-specific marker genes were identified via single-cell RNA sequencing analyses. The clinical relevance of phospholipase A2 Group VII (PLA2G7), a pivotal enzyme in phospholipid metabolism, was assessed in patients with HCC through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Flow cytometry and an in vitro co-culture system were used to elucidate the specific role of PLA2G7 in macrophages. Orthotopic and subcutaneous HCC mouse models were employed to evaluate the potential of the PLA2G7 inhibitor in complementing immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. RESULTS: Single-cell RNA sequencing analyses disclosed predominant PLA2G7 expression in intratumoral macrophages within the HCC microenvironment. The macrophage-specific PLA2G7 was significantly correlated with poorer prognosis and immunotherapy resistance in patients with HCC. PLA2G7(high) macrophages represent a highly immunosuppressive subset and impede CD8 T-cell activation. Pharmacological inhibition of PLA2G7 by darapladib improved the therapeutic efficacy of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibodies in the HCC mouse models. CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage-specific PLA2G7 serves as a novel biomarker capable of prognosticating immunotherapy responsiveness and inhibiting PLA2G7 has the potential to enhance the efficacy of ICB therapy for HCC.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_J.Immunother.Cancer_12_e008094
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_J.Immunother.Cancer_12_e008094
PubMedID: 38272562
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : Synthesis and evaluation of a highly selective cannabidiol amide cholinesterase inhibitor - Zhang_2024_Results.Chem_7_101492
Author(s) : Zhang R , Zhao M , Wang D , Zhao Y , Li J , Zhang S , Zhang W , Shi Z
Ref : Results in Chemistry , 7 :101492 , 2024
Abstract : The therapeutic mechanism for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mainly by inhibiting the activity of cholinesterase (ChE) and increasing the transmission of choline and the function of neurons. In this study, two series of ChE inhibitors (CA1CA8 and CB1CB7) were designed and synthesized by the acylation of a cannabinoid (CBD) with bromoacetyl bromide, or the esterification of a CBD with an amino acid. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro activity to evaluate the compounds as AD therapies. Compound CB7 was identified as a potential butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor (IC50=0.310.09microM), which did not display toxicity against HepG2 or PC12 cells at 6.25microM. Compound CB7 showed good antioxidant behavior, effective anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50=0.0370.003microM), and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (IC50=19.730.79microM). Kinetic studies also showed that CB7 can act as a dual inhibitor. These results provide a theoretical basis for the use of the natural product CBD in the design and development of anti-AD drugs.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Results.Chem_7_101492
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Results.Chem_7_101492

Title : Genome-wide association studies of egg production traits by whole genome sequencing of Laiwu Black chicken - Lei_2024_Poult.Sci_103_103705
Author(s) : Lei Q , Zhang S , Wang J , Qi C , Liu J , Cao D , Li F , Han H , Liu W , Li D , Tang C , Zhou Y
Ref : Poult Sci , 103 :103705 , 2024
Abstract : Compared to high-yield commercial laying hens, Chinese indigenous chicken breeds have poor egg laying capacity due to the lack of intensive selection. However, as these breeds have not undergone systematic selection, it is possible that there is a greater abundance of genetic variations related to egg laying traits. In this study, we assessed 5 egg number (EN) traits at different stages of the egg-laying period: EN1 (from the first egg to 23 wk), EN2 (from 23 to 35 wk), EN3 (from 35 to 48 wk), EN4 (from the first egg to 35 wk), and EN5 (from the first egg to 48 wk). To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying egg number traits in a Chinese local chicken breed, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using data from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 399 Laiwu Black chickens. We obtained a total of 3.01 Tb of raw data with an average depth of 7.07 x per individual. A total of 86 genome-wide suggestive or significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) contained within a set of 45 corresponding candidate genes were identified and found to be associated with stages EN1-EN5. The genes vitellogenin 2 (VTG2), lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1), calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit alpha2delta 3 (CACNA2D3), poly(A) binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), programmed cell death 11 (PDCD11) and family with sequence similarity 213 member A (FAM213A) can be considered as the candidate genes associated with egg number traits, due to their reported association with animal reproduction traits. Noteworthy, results suggests that VTG2 and PDCD11 are not only involved in the regulation of EN3, but also in the regulation of EN5, implies that VTG2 and PDCD11 have a significant influence on egg production traits. Our study offers valuable genomic insights into the molecular genetic mechanisms that govern egg number traits in a Chinese indigenous egg-laying chicken breed. These findings have the potential to enhance the egg-laying performance of chickens.
ESTHER : Lei_2024_Poult.Sci_103_103705
PubMedSearch : Lei_2024_Poult.Sci_103_103705
PubMedID: 38598913

Title : Multiple strategies to improve extracellular secretion and activity of feruloyl esterase - Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_269_132082
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wang J , Liu Y , Xu Z
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , 269 :132082 , 2024
Abstract : Feruloyl esterase has a wide range of applications, but there are still problems with low enzyme yield and activity, and complex purification steps. Our previous research found Lactobacillus amylovorus feruloyl esterase could be secreted extracellular in Escherichia coli. In this study, multiple strategies were implemented to maximize the extracellular production of feruloyl esterase with improved activity in E. coli. Firstly, codon-optimized feruloyl esterase was obtained based on the preference of E. coli, resulting in 41.97 % increase in extracellular secretion. Furthermore, by cascading T7 promoters, replacing the 5' UTR, randomly mutating the N-terminal sequence, and co-expressing secretory cofactors, the extracellular secretion was increased by 36.46 %, 31.25 %, 20.66 % and 25.75 %, respectively. Moreover, the feruloyl esterase were mutated to improve the substrate affinity and activity. The catalytic efficiency of Fae-Q134T and Fae-Q198A increased by 4.62-fold and 5.42-fold. Combining above strategies, extracellular feruloyl esterase activity was increased from 2013.70 U/L to 10,349.04 U/L. These results indicated that the activity and yield of feruloyl esterase secreted by E. coli were significantly increased, which laid a foundation for its industrial application.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_269_132082
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_269_132082
PubMedID: 38705319
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacam-a0a1c9u7k7

Title : Efficient secretion of an enzyme cocktail in Escherichia coli for hemicellulose degradation - Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__129205
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wang J , Chen Y , Zheng Z , Xu Z
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , :129205 , 2024
Abstract : The use of host to secrete several hemicellulase is a cost-effective way for hemicellulose degradation. In this study, the xylose utilization gene xylAB of Escherichia coli BL21 was knocked out, and the xylanase (N20Xyl), beta-xylosidase (Xys), and feruloyl esterase (FaeLam) were co-expressed in this strain. By measuring the content of reducing sugars generated by enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran in the fermentation supernatant, the order of the three enzymes was screened to obtain the optimal recombinant strain of E. coli BL21/deltaxylAB/pDIII-2. Subsequently, fermentation conditions including culture medium, inducer concentration, induction timing, metal ions, and glycine concentration were optimized. Then, different concentrations of wheat bran and xylan were added to the fermentation medium for degradation. The results showed that the extracellular reducing sugars content reached the highest value of 33.70 +/- 0.46 g/L when 50 g/L xylan was added. Besides, the scavenging rates of hydroxyl radical by the fermentation supernatant was 81.0 +/- 1.41 %, and the total antioxidant capacity reached 2.289 +/- 0.55. Furthermore, it showed the growth promotion effect on different lactic acid bacteria. These results provided a basis for constructing E. coli strain to efficiently degrade hemicellulose, and the strain obtained has great potential application to transform hemicellulose into fermentable carbon source.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__129205
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__129205
PubMedID: 38185299

Title : Serum levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 are associated with coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression in diabetic and non-diabetic patients - Zhang_2024_BMC.Cardiovasc.Disord_24_251
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wang J , Chen S , Zhang Y , He R , Wang X , Ding F , Hu W , Dai Y , Lu L , Zhang R , Ni J , Chen Q
Ref : BMC Cardiovasc Disord , 24 :251 , 2024
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Lp-PLA2 is linked to cardiovascular diseases and poor outcomes, especially in diabetes, as it functions as a pro-inflammatory and oxidative mediator. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to explore if there is a connection between the serum levels of Lp-PLA2 and the progression of coronary plaques (PP) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and those without the condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum Lp-PLA2 levels were measured in 137 T2DM patients with PP and 137 T2DM patients with no PP, and in 205 non-diabetic patients with PP and 205 non-diabetic patients with no PP. These individuals met the criteria for eligibility and underwent quantitative coronary angiography at the outset and again after about one year of follow-up. The attributes and parameters of the participants at the outset were recorded. RESULTS: Increased serum levels of Lp-PLA2 were closely associated with coronary artery PP, and also significantly correlated with change of MLD, change of diameter stenosis and change of cumulative coronary obstruction in both diabetic and non-diabetic groups, with higher correlation coefficients in diabetic patients as compared with non-diabetic patients. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum Lp-PLA2 level was an independent determinant of PP in both groups, with OR values more significant in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of serum Lp-PLA2 show a significant association with the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque in patients with T2DM and those without, especially among individuals with diabetes.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_BMC.Cardiovasc.Disord_24_251
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_BMC.Cardiovasc.Disord_24_251
PubMedID: 38745157

Title : Abscisic acid ameliorates d-galactose -induced aging in mice by modulating AMPK-SIRT1-p53 pathway and intestinal flora - Zheng_2024_Heliyon_10_e28283
Author(s) : Zheng Y , Chen X , Ding C , Liu X , Chi L , Zhang S
Ref : Heliyon , 10 :e28283 , 2024
Abstract : Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone with various biological activities. Aging is a natural process accompanied by cognitive and physiological decline, and aging and its associated diseases pose a serious threat to public health, but its mechanisms remain insufficient. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of ABA on d-galactose (D-Gal)-induced aging in mice and to delve into its molecular mechanisms. Aging model was es-tablished by theintraperitoneal injection of D-Gal. We evaluated the oxidative stress by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) levels in serum. Proteins content in brain were determined by Western blot. D-Gal-induced brain damage was monitored by measuring the levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) content and hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E). To evaluate the effects of ABA on aging, we measured the gut microbiota. The results demonstrated that ABA increased SOD, CAT and AChE, decreased MDA level. H&E staining showed that ABA could improve D-Gal-induced damage. In addition, ABA regulated the B-cell-lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family and Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway, while further regulating the acetylation of p53 protein by modulating the AMPK pathway and activating SIRT1 protein, thereby inhibiting the apoptosis of brain neurons and thus regulating the aging process. Interestingly, ABA improved the ratio of intestinal bacteria involved in regulating multiple metabolic pathways in the aging process, such as Bacteroides, Firmicutes, Lactobacillus and Ak-kermansia. In conclusion, the present study suggests that ABA may be responsible for improving and delaying the aging process by enhancing antioxidant activity, anti-apoptosis and regulating intestinal flora.
ESTHER : Zheng_2024_Heliyon_10_e28283
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2024_Heliyon_10_e28283
PubMedID: 38524603

Title : Molecular identification of carboxylesterase genes and their potential roles in the insecticides susceptibility of Grapholita molesta - Li_2023_Insect.Mol.Biol__
Author(s) : Li J , Jia Y , Zhang D , Li Z , Zhang S , Liu X
Ref : Insect Molecular Biology , : , 2023
Abstract : Grapholita molesta is one of the most damaging pests worldwide in stone and pome fruits. Application of chemical pesticides is still the main method to control this pest, and results in resistance to several types of insecticides. Carboxylesterase (CarE) is one kind of the important enzymes involved in the detoxification metabolism and tolerance of xenobiotics and insecticides. However, the roles of CarEs in insecticides susceptibility of G. molesta are still unclear. In the present study, the enzyme activity of CarEs and mRNA expression of six CarE genes were consistently elevated after treatment with three insecticides (emamectin benzoate, lambda-cyhalothrin, and chlorantraniliprole). According to spatio-temporal expression profiles, 6 CarE genes expressed differently in different developmental stages, and highly expressed in some detoxification metabolic organs. RNAi-mediated knockdown of these six CarE genes indicated that the susceptibility of G. molesta to all these three insecticides were obviously raised after GmCarE9, GmCarE14, GmCarE16, and GmCarE22 knockdown, respectively. Overall, these results demonstrated that GmCarE9, GmCarE14, GmCarE16, and GmCarE22 play a role in the susceptibility of G. molesta to emamectin benzoate, lambda-cyhalothrin, and chlorantraniliprole treatment. This study expands our understanding of CarEs in insects, that the same CarE gene could participate in the susceptibility of different insecticides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Li_2023_Insect.Mol.Biol__
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_Insect.Mol.Biol__
PubMedID: 36661850

Title : Inulin reduces liver triacylglycerol by increasing lipid droplet lipolysis in fat-loaded mice - Chen_2023_Food.Res.Int_163_112226
Author(s) : Chen B , Shi Y , Zhang K , Chang Y , Fu P , Liu P , Zhang S
Ref : Food Res Int , 163 :112226 , 2023
Abstract : Increased consumption of high-fat low-fiber foods has been shown to contribute to the development of metabolic syndromes, such as fatty liver, obesity, diabetes, et al. Fermentable dietary fiber, such as inulin, is broadly used to mitigate host metabolic abnormalities. In this work, we studied systematically the effect of inulin on mice with metabolic disorders, induced by either short- or long-term high-fat feeding. As expected, inulin reduced the body weight of mice in both groups. However, it was found that inulin feeding could only increase energy expenditure, alleviate adiposity, and improve glucose intolerance in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 1smonth but not for 4smonths. Surprisingly, inulin supplementation could alleviate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, mediated through increasing adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on liver lipid droplets, in both groups. Gut microbiota in the short- and long-term fat-loaded mice were shown to be modulated differently, which may mediate the differential effects of inulin. These results may help in understanding the role and mechanism of fermentable fiber regulating host metabolism.
ESTHER : Chen_2023_Food.Res.Int_163_112226
PubMedSearch : Chen_2023_Food.Res.Int_163_112226
PubMedID: 36596155

Title : Biomimetic single Al-OH site with high acetylcholinesterase-like activity and self-defense ability for neuroprotection - Xu_2023_Nat.Commun_14_6064
Author(s) : Xu W , Cai X , Wu Y , Wen Y , Su R , Zhang Y , Huang Y , Zheng Q , Hu L , Cui X , Zheng L , Zhang S , Gu W , Song W , Guo S , Zhu C
Ref : Nat Commun , 14 :6064 , 2023
Abstract : Neurotoxicity of organophosphate compounds (OPs) can catastrophically cause nervous system injury by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression. Although artificial systems have been developed for indirect neuroprotection, they are limited to dissociating P-O bonds for eliminating OPs. However, these systems have failed to overcome the deactivation of AChE. Herein, we report our finding that Al(3+) is engineered onto the nodes of metal-organic framework to synthesize MOF-808-Al with enhanced Lewis acidity. The resultant MOF-808-Al efficiently mimics the catalytic behavior of AChE and has a self-defense ability to break the activity inhibition by OPs. Mechanism investigations elucidate that Al(3+) Lewis acid sites with a strong polarization effect unite the highly electronegative -OH groups to form the enzyme-like catalytic center, resulting in superior substrate activation and nucleophilic attack ability with a 2.7-fold activity improvement. The multifunctional MOF-808-Al, which has satisfactory biosafety, is efficient in reducing neurotoxic effects and preventing neuronal tissue damage.
ESTHER : Xu_2023_Nat.Commun_14_6064
PubMedSearch : Xu_2023_Nat.Commun_14_6064
PubMedID: 37770453

Title : Measurement of ATGL activity using adiposomes - Ma_2023_Biophys.Rep_9_3
Author(s) : Ma X , Zhi Z , Zhang S , Liu P
Ref : Biophys Rep , 9 :3 , 2023
Abstract : Adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) is a dynamic lipid droplet-associated protein involved in cellular lipolysis, which is conserved from bacteria to humans. Recent methods that measure the enzymatic activity of ATGL in vitro are established using lipid emulsions. However, the lipid emulsion platforms contain various membranous structures which reduce the accuracy of enzymatic activity determination. Therefore, a new platform and corresponding method are required for accurate measurement of ATGL enzymatic activity that represents cellular lipid and energy homeostasis. Adiposomes are artificial lipid nanostructures mimicking lipid droplets. Employing adiposome as a platform, we have developed an assay to measure the enzymatic activity of ATGL in vitro. Here, a detailed protocol is described to explain how to measure the activity of ATGL using adiposomes. This method successfully proves the concept of lipid droplet-mimetic lipase activity determining platform and provides a tool to identify the active sites of lipases.
ESTHER : Ma_2023_Biophys.Rep_9_3
PubMedSearch : Ma_2023_Biophys.Rep_9_3
PubMedID: 37426198

Title : DPP-IV Inhibitory Peptides from Coix Seed Prolamins: Release, Identification, and Analysis of the Interaction between Key Residues and Enzyme Domains - Zhang_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
Author(s) : Zhang S , Li ZM , Feng Y , Yu S , Li Z , Zhang D , Wang C
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides can regulate type 2 diabetes by inhibiting the cleavage of glucagon-like peptide-1 andv prolonging its half-life. The development of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides is still a hot topic. The primary structure of coix seed prolamins contains peptide sequence fragments that potentially inhibit DPP-IV; however, limited information is available regarding the extraction of peptides from coix seeds and the analysis of their conformational relationships. In this study, novel coix seed prolamin-derived peptides were obtained through single hydrolysis and double-enzyme stepwise hydrolysis. The inhibitory activity of these peptides against DPP-IV was evaluated to explore new functional properties of coix seeds. The results evidenced that the step-by-step enzymolysis (papain and alcalase) compared to single enzymolysis promoted the secondary structure disruption of the hydrolysates, enhanced the beta-turn structure, significantly increased the content of peptides below 1 kDa, and exhibited a substantial increase in DPP-IV inhibitory activity (97% inhibition). Three nontoxic DPP-IV inhibitory peptides, namely, LPFYPN, TFFPQ, and ATFFPQ (IC(50) = 70.24, 176.87, 268.31 microM), were isolated and identified. All three peptides exhibited strong interactions with DPP-IV (all K(A) values >10(3)). LPFYPN exhibited competitive inhibition, while TFFPQ and ATFFPQ demonstrated mixed competitive-noncompetitive inhibition. Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main contributors to the coix seed prolamin peptides binding to DPP-IV. The central residue was a key amino acid in the parent peptide sequence, forming a more stable Pi-Pi stacking with residues in the active pocket, which may facilitate peptide activity. This study provides theoretical support for the development of coix seed-derived hypoglycemic peptides.
ESTHER : Zhang_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedID: 37748081

Title : Circular RNA eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 facilitates TPC-1 cell proliferation and invasion through the microRNA-138-5p\/lipase H axis - Yi_2023_Funct.Integr.Genomics_23_313
Author(s) : Yi D , Zhang D , Zeng Z , Zhang S , Song B , He C , Li M , He J
Ref : Funct Integr Genomics , 23 :313 , 2023
Abstract : Both circular RNA eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 (circEIF6) and microRNA (miR)-138-5p participate in thyroid cancer (TC) progression. Nevertheless, the relationship between them remains under-explored. Hence, this research ascertained the mechanism of circEIF6 in TC via miR-138-5p. After TC tissues and cells were harvested, circEIF6, miR-138-5p, and lipase H (LIPH) levels were assessed. The binding relationships among circEIF6, miR-138-5p, and LIPH were analyzed. The impacts of circEIF6, miR-138-5p, and LIPH on the invasive and proliferative abilities of TPC-1 cells were examined by Transwell and EdU assays. Tumor xenograft in nude mice was established for in vivo validation of the impact of circEIF6. CircEIF6 expression was high in TC cells and tissues. Additionally, miR-138-5p was poor and LIPH level was high in TC tissues. Mechanistically, circEIF6 competitively bound to miR-138-5p to elevate LIPH via a competitive endogenous RNA mechanism. Silencing of circEIF6 reduced TPC-1 cell proliferative and invasive properties, which was annulled by further inhibiting miR-138-5p or overexpressing LIPH. Likewise, circEIF6 silencing repressed the growth of transplanted tumors, augmented miR-138-5p expression, and diminished LIPH expression in nude mice. Conclusively, circEIF6 silencing reduced LIPH level by competitive binding to miR-138-5p, thus subduing the proliferation and invasion of TPC-1 cells.
ESTHER : Yi_2023_Funct.Integr.Genomics_23_313
PubMedSearch : Yi_2023_Funct.Integr.Genomics_23_313
PubMedID: 37776372

Title : Exploration of Synergistic Pesticidal Activities, Control Effects and Toxicology Study of a Monoterpene Essential Oil with Two Natural Alkaloids - Xu_2023_Toxins.(Basel)_15_
Author(s) : Xu J , Lv M , Fang S , Wang Y , Wen H , Zhang S , Xu H
Ref : Toxins (Basel) , 15 : , 2023
Abstract : With the increasing development of pest resistances, it is not easy to achieve satisfactory control effects by using only one agrochemical. Additionally, although the alkaloid matrine (MT) isolated from Sophora flavescens is now utilized as a botanical pesticide in China, in fact, its pesticidal activities are much lower in magnitude than those of commercially agrochemicals. To improve its pesticidal activities, here, the joint pesticidal effects of MT with another alkaloid oxymatrine (OMT) (isolated from S. flavescens) and the monoterpene essential oil 1,8-cineole (CN) (isolated from the eucalyptus leaves) were investigated in the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Moreover, their toxicological properties were also studied. Against Plutella xylostella, when the mass ratio of MT and OMT was 8/2, good larvicidal activity was obtained; against Tetranychus urticae, when the mass ratio of MT and OMT was 3/7, good acaricidal activity was obtained. Especially when MT and OMT were combined with CN, the significant synergistic effects were observed: against P. xylostella, the co-toxicity coefficient (CTC) of MT/OMT (8/2)/CN was 213; against T. urticae, the CTC of MT/OMT (3/7)/CN was 252. Moreover, the activity changes over time of two detoxification enzymes, carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) of P. xylostella treated with MT/OMT (8/2)/CN, were observed. In addition, by scanning electron microscope (SEM), the toxicological study suggested that the acaricidal activity of MT/OMT (3/7)/CN may be related to the damage of the cuticle layer crest of T. urticae.
ESTHER : Xu_2023_Toxins.(Basel)_15_
PubMedSearch : Xu_2023_Toxins.(Basel)_15_
PubMedID: 37104178

Title : The advantages of penehyclidine hydrochloride over atropine in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: A meta-analysis - Zeng_2023_J.Intensive.Med_3_171
Author(s) : Zeng S , Ma L , Yang L , Hu X , Wang C , Guo X , Li Y , Gou Y , Zhang Y , Li S , Zhang S , Wu X , Li M , Lei J , Li B , Bi C , Luo Q
Ref : J Intensive Med , 3 :171 , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) has been used for many years as an anticholinergic drug for the treatment of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore whether PHC has advantages over atropine in the use of anticholinergic drugs in AOPP. METHODS: We searched Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, ProQuest, Ovid, Web of Science, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Duxiu, Chinese Biomedical literature (CBM), WanFang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), from inception to March 2022. After all qualified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included, we conducted quality evaluation, data extraction, and statistical analysis. Statistics using risk ratios (RR), weighted mean difference (WMD), and standard mean difference (SMD). RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 20,797 subjects from 240 studies across 242 different hospitals in China. Compared with the atropine group, the PHC group showed decreased mortality rate (RR=0.20, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.16-0.25, P <0.001), hospitalization time (WMD=-3.89, 95% CI: -4.37 to -3.41, P <0.001), overall incidence rate of complications (RR=0.35, 95% CI: 0.28-0.43, P <0.001), overall incidence of adverse reactions (RR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.17-0.22, P <0.001), total symptom disappearance time (SMD=-2.13, 95% CI: -2.35 to -1.90, P <0.001), time for cholinesterase activity to return to normal value 50-60% (SMD=-1.87, 95% CI: -2.03 to -1.70, P <0.001), coma time (WMD=-5.57, 95% CI: -7.20 to -3.95, P <0.001), and mechanical ventilation time (WMD=-2.16, 95% CI: -2.79 to -1.53, P <0.001). CONCLUSION: PHC has several advantages over atropine as an anticholinergic drug in AOPP.
ESTHER : Zeng_2023_J.Intensive.Med_3_171
PubMedSearch : Zeng_2023_J.Intensive.Med_3_171
PubMedID: 37188113

Title : Clinical and genetic characteristics of CEL-MODY (MODY8): a literature review and screening in Chinese individuals diagnosed with early-onset type 2 diabetes - Sun_2023_Endocrine__
Author(s) : Sun S , Gong S , Li M , Wang X , Wang F , Cai X , Liu W , Luo Y , Zhang S , Zhang R , Zhou L , Zhu Y , Ma Y , Ren Q , Zhang X , Chen J , Chen L , Wu J , Gao L , Zhou X , Li Y , Zhong L , Han X , Ji L
Ref : Endocrine , : , 2023
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: CEL-related maturity-onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY, MODY8) is a special type of monogenetic diabetes caused by mutations in the carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene. This study aimed to summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of CEL-MODY patients and to determine the prevalence of the disease among Chinese patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes (EOD). METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature associated with CEL-MODY in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data to analyze the features of patients with CEL-MODY. We screened and evaluated rare variants of the CEL gene in a cohort of 679 Chinese patients with EOD to estimate the prevalence of CEL-MODY in China. RESULTS: In total, 21 individuals reported in previous studies were diagnosed with CEL-MODY based on the combination of diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction as well as frameshift mutations in exon 11 of the CEL gene. CEL-MODY patients were nonobese and presented with exocrine pancreatic affection (e.g., chronic pancreatitis, low fecal elastase levels, pancreas atrophy and lipomatosis) followed by insulin-dependent diabetes. No carriers of CEL missense mutations were reported with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Sequencing of CEL in Chinese EOD patients led to the identification of the variant p.Val736Cysfs*22 in two patients. However, these patients could not be diagnosed with CEL-MODY because there were no signs that the exocrine pancreas was afflicted. CONCLUSION: CEL-MODY is a very rare disease caused by frameshift mutations affecting the proximal VNTR segments of the CEL gene. Signs of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction provide diagnostic clues for CEL-MODY, and genetic testing is vital for proper diagnosis. Further research in larger cohorts is needed to investigate the characteristics and prevalence of CEL-MODY in the Chinese population.
ESTHER : Sun_2023_Endocrine__
PubMedSearch : Sun_2023_Endocrine__
PubMedID: 37726640

Title : Identification, expression profiles and involvement in insecticides tolerance and detoxification of carboxylesterase genes in Bactrocera dorsalis - Li_2023_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_193_105443
Author(s) : Li Z , Chen M , Bai W , Zhang S , Meng L , Dou W , Wang J , Yuan G
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 193 :105443 , 2023
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CarEs) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes and play an important role in detoxification of various insecticides in insects. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the most destructive agricultural pests and has developed different degrees of resistance to organophosphates in field. However, the involvement of BdCarEs in tolerance or resistance to other alternative insecticides are still unclear. In the present study, 33 BdCarEs genes were identified based on the genome database of B. dorsalis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that they were classified into nine clades, with abundance of alpha-esterases. Meanwhile, the sequence characterization and the chromosome distribution were also analyzed. The spatiotemporal expression analysis of BdCarEs genes suggested that the diversity of potential function in different physiological processes. With the exception of BdCarE21, all BdCarEs genes responded to at least one insecticide exposure, and BdCarE20 was found to be up-regulated after exposure to all five tested insecticides individually. Eight BdCarEs genes were overexpressed in MR strain when compared to that in SS strain. Subsequently, knockdown the expression of representative BdCarEs genes significantly increased the susceptibility of the oriental fruit fly to corresponding insecticides, which indicated that the tested BdCarEs genes contributed to one or multiple insecticide detoxification. These findings provide valuable insights into the potential role in respond to tolerance or resistance to insecticides with different mode of action, and will facilitate development of efficiency management strategy for B. dorsalis.
ESTHER : Li_2023_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_193_105443
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_193_105443
PubMedID: 37248012

Title : Conjugated linoleic acids inhibit lipid deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue and alter lipid profiles in serum of pigs - Wang_2023_J.Anim.Sci__
Author(s) : Wang L , Zhang S , Huang Y , Zhou Y , Shan T
Ref : J Anim Sci , : , 2023
Abstract : Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have served as a nutritional strategy to reduce fat deposition in adipose tissues of pigs. However, the effects of CLAs on lipid profiles in serum and how these lipid molecules regulate fat deposition are still unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of CLAs on regulating lipid deposition in adipose tissues in terms of lipid molecules and microbiota based on a Heigai pig model. A total of 56 Heigai finishing pigs (body weight: 85.58 +/- 10.39 kg) were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed diets containing 1% soyabean oil or 1% CLAs for 40 days. CLAs reduced fat deposition and affected fatty acids composition in adipose tissues of Heigai pigs via upregulating the expression of lipolytic gene (hormone sensitive lipase, HSL) in vivo and in vitro. CLAs also altered the biochemical immune indexes including reduced the content of total cholesterol (TChol), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and changed lipids profiles including decreased sphingolipids especially cermides (Cers) and sphingomyelins (SMs) in serum of Heigai pigs. Mechanically, CLAs may decrease peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgammaexpression and further inhibit adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissues of pigs through suppressing the function of Cers in serum. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation analysis showed HSL expression was positively related to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the gut (P < 0.05) but the abundance of Cers were negatively related to the production and functions of SCFAs (P < 0.05). CLAs altered the lipids distribution in serum and inhibited adipogenic differentiation through suppressing the function of Cers and further decreasing PPARgammaexpression in adipose tissues of Heigai pigs. Besides, the HSL expression and the abundance of Cers are associated with the production and functions of SCFAs in the gut.
ESTHER : Wang_2023_J.Anim.Sci__
PubMedSearch : Wang_2023_J.Anim.Sci__
PubMedID: 37646838

Title : 8R-methoxy-9R-hydroxyl-fumitremorgin C, a new diketopiperazine alkaloid from Haima cold seep-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CYH-5 - Che_2023_Nat.Prod.Res__1
Author(s) : Che YH , Wang JF , Shi XF , Ding WP , Xiao ZH , Wu JM , Wang FZ , Zhang S
Ref : Nat Prod Res , :1 , 2023
Abstract : One novel diketopiperazine derivative 8R-methoxy-9R-hydroxyl-fumitremorgin C (1), together with twelve known compounds, was separated from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CYH-5 collected from Haima cold seep. The structures of the compounds were identified by NMR, MS, optical rotation, hydrolysis reaction and comparing with literatures. Among them, compounds 10 and 11 exhibited inhibitory effect against bacteria. Compound 11 showed inhibitory activity on alpha-glucosidase and compound 8 displayed acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity.
ESTHER : Che_2023_Nat.Prod.Res__1
PubMedSearch : Che_2023_Nat.Prod.Res__1
PubMedID: 38099373

Title : Ultrasensitive Quantification Method for Understanding Biologically Relevant Concentrations of Host Cell Proteins in Therapeutics - Zhang_2023_Anal.Chem__
Author(s) : Zhang S , Zhao B , Adaniya S , Xiao H , Li N
Ref : Analytical Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Certain host cell proteins (HCPs) in biotherapeutic drugs may be detrimental to drug product quality even when they are present at the subppm level. Therefore, an analytical method that can reliably quantify trace amounts of HCPs is desirable. This study demonstrates a novel strategy to quantify HCPs present at subppm levels with ProteoMiner enrichment coupled with limited digestion followed by targeted analysis with nano-liquid chromatography-parallel reaction monitoring. The method can achieve LLOQ values as low as 0.06 ppm, with an accuracy of 85%-111% of the theoretical value, and inter-run and intrarun precision within 12% and 25%, respectively. The approach was applied to the quantification of five high-risk HCPs in drug products. The results indicated that 2.5 ppm lysosomal acid lipase, 0.14 ppm liver carboxylesterase, 1.8 ppm palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1, and 1 ppm cathepsin D affected the stability of drug products, whereas drug products could safely contain 1.5 ppm lipoprotein lipase, 0.1 ppm lysosomal acid lipase, or 0.3 ppm cathepsin D. In combination with lipase activity analysis, the accurate quantification of lipases/esterases in drug products enables better understanding and comparison of the enzymatic activity of polysorbate degradation from endogenous proteins.
ESTHER : Zhang_2023_Anal.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2023_Anal.Chem__
PubMedID: 36977129

Title : Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU Alleviates Nab-Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Neuropathic Pain via Suppressing NF-B Signalling in the Spinal Cord of a Rat - Wei_2023_Pain.Res.Manag_2023_9058774
Author(s) : Wei X , Jia L , Zhou Y , Li W , Shan C , Zhang S , Zhao Y
Ref : Pain Res Manag , 2023 :9058774 , 2023
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is a debilitating and difficult-to-treat side effect of paclitaxel. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) can rapidly metabolize the endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators' epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. This study aimed to assess whether the sEH inhibitor N-(1-(1-oxopropy)-4-piperidinyl]-N'-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl)-urea (TPPU) plays a critical role in PIPN of rats and provides a new target for treatment. METHODS: A Sprague-Dawley male rat model of PIPN induced by nab-paclitaxel was established. Rats were randomly divided into a control group, nab-paclitaxel group, and nab-paclitaxel + TPPU (sEH inhibitor) group, with 36 rats in each group. The effects of the sEH inhibitor TPPU on behavioural assays, apoptosis, glial activation, axonal injury, microstructure, and permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier were detected, and the underlying mechanisms were explored by examining the expression of NF-kappaB signalling pathways, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. RESULTS: The results showed that the mechanical and thermal pain thresholds of rats were decreased after nab-paclitaxel treatment, accompanied by an increased expression of axonal injury-related proteins, enhanced cell apoptosis, aggravated destruction of vascular permeability, intense glial responses, and elevated inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in the L4-L6 spinal cord. TPPU restored the mechanical and thermal thresholds, decreased cell apoptosis, alleviated axonal injury and glial responses, and protected vascular permeability by increasing the expression of tight junction proteins. TPPU relieved PIPN by inhibiting the activation of the sEH and NF-kappaB signalling pathways by decreasing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: These findings support a role for sEH in PIPN and suggest that the inhibition of sEH represents a potential new therapeutic target for PIPN.
ESTHER : Wei_2023_Pain.Res.Manag_2023_9058774
PubMedSearch : Wei_2023_Pain.Res.Manag_2023_9058774
PubMedID: 36819745

Title : GDSL Esterase\/Lipase GELP1 Involved in the Defense of Apple Leaves against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Infection - Ji_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_
Author(s) : Ji Z , Wang M , Zhang S , Du Y , Cong J , Yan H , Guo H , Xu B , Zhou Z
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 24 : , 2023
Abstract : GDSL esterases/lipases are a subclass of lipolytic enzymes that play critical roles in plant growth and development, stress response, and pathogen defense. However, the GDSL esterase/lipase genes involved in the pathogen response of apple remain to be identified and characterized. Thus, in this study, we aimed to analyze the phenotypic difference between the resistant variety, Fuji, and susceptible variety, Gala, during infection with C. gloeosporioides, screen for anti-disease-associated proteins in Fuji leaves, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that GDSL esterase/lipase protein GELP1 contributed to C. gloeosporioides infection defense in apple. During C. gloeosporioides infection, GELP1 expression was significantly upregulated in Fuji. Fuji leaves exhibited a highly resistant phenotype compared with Gala leaves. The formation of infection hyphae of C. gloeosporioides was inhibited in Fuji. Moreover, recombinant His:GELP1 protein suppressed hyphal formation during infection in vitro. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that GELP1-eGFP localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplasts. GELP1 overexpression in GL-3 plants increased resistance to C. gloeosporioides. MdWRKY15 expression was upregulated in the transgenic lines. Notably, GELP1 transcript levels were elevated in GL-3 after salicylic acid treatment. These results suggest that GELP1 increases apple resistance to C. gloeosporioides by indirectly regulating salicylic acid biosynthesis.
ESTHER : Ji_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_
PubMedSearch : Ji_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_
PubMedID: 37373491

Title : Molluscicidal activity of Nicotiana tabacum extracts on the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata - Guo_2023_Sci.Rep_13_11597
Author(s) : Guo J , Zhang S , Zeng J , Chen Y , Guo Y , Liu J , He A
Ref : Sci Rep , 13 :11597 , 2023
Abstract : Botanical molluscicides for controlling the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata have attracted worldwide attention because of their cost and environmental friendliness. Aqueous extracts from discarded tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tobacum) were evaluated for molluscicidal activity against different-sized P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. The results showed that over 90% of the snails died in 1 g/L tobacco extract within 4 days, and the survival of P. canaliculata was inversely proportional to the snail size, tobacco extract concentration and length of exposure time. Adult males were more susceptible to tobacco extract than females. The snails had few chances to feed or mate in 0.5 g/L tobacco extract, and reproduction was greatly limited in 0.2 g/L. The growth of juvenile snails was inhibited in 0.2 g/L tobacco extract, but adults were unaffected. The antioxidant capacity of P. canaliculata in response to tobacco extract can be size- and sex-dependent, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and acetylcholinesterase and the contents of glutathione and malondialdehyde were increased in adult males. These results suggest that discarded tobacco leaves can be useful as a molluscicide for controlling the invasive snail P. canaliculata based on its effects on survival, behaviour, food intake, growth performance and antioxidant capacity.
ESTHER : Guo_2023_Sci.Rep_13_11597
PubMedSearch : Guo_2023_Sci.Rep_13_11597
PubMedID: 37463929

Title : A molecular imaging tool for monitoring carboxylesterase 2 during early diagnosis of liver-related diseases - Li_2023_Sens.Actuators.B.Chem_377_133122
Author(s) : Li J , Cao J , Wu W , Xu L , Zhang S , Ma P , Wu Q , Song D
Ref : Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical , 377 :133122 , 2023
Abstract : Early disease diagnosis is crucial for human health and successful therapy. Carboxylesterase 2 (CES2), the main enzyme found in many tumor tissues, is closely associated with many malignant diseases. Therefore, the ability to detect endogenous CES2-associated diseases can be of therapeutic significance. In this study, we designed a novel mitochondria-targeting near-infrared (NIR) chemosensor (YDT) to visualize the endogenous CES2. This is the first study to track CES2 at the mitochondrial level and present the currently most sensitive CES2 detection sensor. With various features including large Stokes shift, quick response time, excellent selectivity, and ultrahigh sensitivity, the sensor can overcome numerous limitations faced by traditional CES2 probes. YDT is an "off-on" chemosensor that releases fluorophore YD-1 upon interacting with CES2, emits strong fluorescence at 660 nm. Importantly, YDT can dynamically monitor immediate changes in CES2 level under external stimuli. Moreover, we used YDT to systematically study the CES2 expression in drug-induced liver injury and its remediation model, as well as in an inflammation model. With these outstanding characteristics, YDT is a considerably promising tool for further research on biological processes and for examining the physiological roles of CES2 in living systems
ESTHER : Li_2023_Sens.Actuators.B.Chem_377_133122
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_Sens.Actuators.B.Chem_377_133122
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES2

Title : Construction of Fusion Protein with Carbohydrate-Binding Module and Leaf-Branch Compost Cutinase to Enhance the Degradation Efficiency of Polyethylene Terephthalate - Chen_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_2780
Author(s) : Chen Y , Zhang S , Zhai Z , Ma J , Liang X , Li Q
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 24 :2780 , 2023
Abstract : Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a manufactured plastic broadly available, whereas improper disposal of PET waste has become a serious burden on the environment. Leaf-branch compost cutinase (LCC) is one of the most powerful and promising PET hydrolases, and its mutant LCC(ICCG) shows high catalytic activity and excellent thermal stability. However, low binding affinity with PET has been found to dramatically limit its further industrial application. Herein, TrCBM and CfCBM were rationally selected from the CAZy database to construct fusion proteins with LCC(ICCG), and mechanistic studies revealed that these two domains could bind with PET favorably via polar amino acids. The optimal temperatures of LCC(ICCG)-TrCBM and CfCBM-LCC(ICCG) were measured to be 70 and 80 degreesC, respectively. Moreover, these two fusion proteins exhibited favorable thermal stability, maintaining 53.1% and 48.8% of initial activity after the incubation at 90 degreesC for 300 min. Compared with LCC(ICCG), the binding affinity of LCC(ICCG)-TrCBM and CfCBM-LCC(ICCG) for PET has been improved by 1.4- and 1.3-fold, respectively, and meanwhile their degradation efficiency on PET films was enhanced by 3.7% and 24.2%. Overall, this study demonstrated that the strategy of constructing fusion proteins is practical and prospective to facilitate the enzymatic PET degradation ability.
ESTHER : Chen_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_2780
PubMedSearch : Chen_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_2780
PubMedID: 36769118
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-g9by57

Title : Acalculous cholecystitis is a common extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis E and suggests a more serious condition - Cao_2023_Virol.J_20_77
Author(s) : Cao X , Jiang W , Shi L , Wang Y , Chen J , Huang W , Zhang S
Ref : Virol J , 20 :77 , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: This study aimed to understand the incidence and clinical significance of acalculous cholecystitis in patients with acute hepatitis E (HE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single center enrolled 114 patients with acute HE. All patients underwent imaging of the gallbladder, and patients with gallstones and cholecystectomy were excluded. RESULTS: Acalculous cholecystitis was found in 66 patients (57.89%) with acute HE. The incidence in males was 63.95%, which was significantly higher than in females (39.29%) (P = 0.022). The mean length of hospital stay and the incidence of spontaneous peritonitis in patients with cholecystitis (20.12 +/- 9.43 days and 9.09%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in patients without cholecystitis (12.98 +/- 7.26 days and 0%, respectively) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032). Albumin, total bile acid, bilirubin, cholinesterase, and prothrombin activity in patients with cholecystitis were significantly inferior to those in patients without cholecystitis (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). After correction by multivariate analysis, albumin and total bile acid were found to be closely related to acalculous cholecystitis in HE. CONCLUSION: Acalculous cholecystitis is very common in patients with acute HE, and may serve as a predictor of increased peritonitis, synthetic decompensation, and longer hospital stay.
ESTHER : Cao_2023_Virol.J_20_77
PubMedSearch : Cao_2023_Virol.J_20_77
PubMedID: 37095526

Title : Two birds with one stone: An enzyme-regulated ratiometric fluorescent and photothermal dual-mode probe for organophosphorus pesticide detection - Jiang_2023_Biosens.Bioelectron_224_115074
Author(s) : Jiang W , Yang Z , Tong F , Zhang S , Zhu L , Wang L , Huang L , Liu K , Zheng M , Zhou Y , Hou R , Liu Y
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 224 :115074 , 2023
Abstract : In this study, based on the oxidase activity and photothermal effect of manganese dioxide nanosheets (MnO(2) NSs), with thiamine (TH) as the fluorescence response signal and tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) hexahydrate as the reference signal, an enzyme-regulated ratiometric fluorescence and photothermal dual-mode probe was constructed for the quantitative detection of organophosphorus pesticide (OPs) residues. OPs reduced the production of the reductive product thiocholine by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase, thereby regulating the residual amount of MnO(2) NSs. With the increase of OPs concentration, the color of the probe solution gradually transitioned from red to blue, and the temperature gradually increased. Using dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos as pesticide models, the developed probes exhibited sensitive responses to OPs in a wide linear range of 0.1-8000sng/mL. The detection limits of dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos in fluorescence mode were 1.13sxs10(-3)sng/mL and 0.86sng/mL, respectively. The corresponding detection limits in photothermal mode were 1.01sng/mL and 1.02sng/mL, respectively. The proposed probe displayed excellent anti-interference and reliability in the analysis of OPs residues in real samples. The dual-mode probe with self-verification function is expected to provide more accurate and robust detection results than the single-mode probe, and has a wider application prospect.
ESTHER : Jiang_2023_Biosens.Bioelectron_224_115074
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2023_Biosens.Bioelectron_224_115074
PubMedID: 36638562

Title : Identification of the specific causes of polysorbate 20 degradation in monoclonal antibody formulations containing multiple lipases - Zhang_2022_Pharm.Res_39_75
Author(s) : Zhang S , Riccardi C , Kamen D , Reilly J , Mattila J , Bak H , Xiao H , Li N
Ref : Pharm Res , 39 :75 , 2022
Abstract : PURPOSE: Polysorbates (PS) are excipients used in the biotech industry to stabilize monoclonal antibody (mAb) protein products. However, PS in drug product formulations can be degraded during storage and lead to particle formation because of the limited solubility of the free fatty acids released through the enzymatic hydrolysis of PS-a process driven by residual host cell proteins, especially lipases, that are co-purified with the drugs. When multiple lipases are present, it is very difficult to know the cause for PS degradation. In this study, we aim to determine the cause of PS degradation from two lipases, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). METHODS: PS degradation pattern of the drug product was compared with those induced by recombinant lipases. Correlations between the concentration of LPL or LAL and PS20 loss were compared. Specific inhibitors, LAL inhibitor lalistat2 and LPL inhibitor GSK264220A, were used to differentiate their degradation of PS in the drug products. RESULTS: The complete inhibition of PS20 degradation by lalistat2 suggested that LAL, rather than LPL, was responsible for the PS20 degradation. In addition, LAL was more strongly correlated than LPL with the percentage of PS20 degradation. No PS20 degradation was observed for several mAbs containing similar levels of LPL (0.5-1.5 ppm) in the absence of LAL, suggesting that LPL concentrations below 1.5 ppm does not degrade PS20 in drug products. CONCLUSIONS: LAL was determined to be the cause of the PS20 degradation. This study provides a practical strategy to determine the root cause of PS degradation.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Pharm.Res_39_75
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Pharm.Res_39_75
PubMedID: 34981317

Title : Eucommia ulmoides Olive Male Flower Extracts Ameliorate Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology in Zebrafish via Regulating Autophagy, Acetylcholinesterase, and the Dopamine Transporter - Sun_2022_Front.Mol.Neurosci_15_901953
Author(s) : Sun C , Zhang S , Ba S , Dang J , Ren Q , Zhu Y , Liu K , Jin M
Ref : Front Mol Neurosci , 15 :901953 , 2022
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neural disorder. However, the therapeutic agents for AD are limited. Eucommia ulmoides Olive (EUO) is widely used as a traditional Chinese herb to treat various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether the extracts of EUO male flower (EUMF) have therapeutic effects against AD. We focused on the flavonoids of EUMF and identified the composition using a targeted HPLC-MS analysis. As a result, 125 flavonoids and flavanols, 32 flavanones, 22 isoflavonoids, 11 chalcones and dihydrochalcones, and 17 anthocyanins were identified. Then, the anti-AD effects of the EUMF were tested by using zebrafish AD model. The behavioral changes were detected by automated video-tracking system. Abeta deposition was assayed by thioflavin S staining. Ache activity and cell apoptosis in zebrafish were tested by, Acetylcholine Assay Kit and TUNEL assay, respectively. The results showed that EUMF significantly rescued the dyskinesia of zebrafish and inhibited Abeta deposition, Ache activity, and occurrence of cell apoptosis in the head of zebrafish induced by AlCl(3). We also investigated the mechanism underlying anti-AD effects of EUMF by RT-qPCR and found that EUMF ameliorated AD-like symptoms possibly through inhibiting excessive autophagy and the abnormal expressions of ache and slc6a3 genes. In summary, our findings suggested EUMF can be a therapeutic candidate for AD treatment.
ESTHER : Sun_2022_Front.Mol.Neurosci_15_901953
PubMedSearch : Sun_2022_Front.Mol.Neurosci_15_901953
PubMedID: 35754707

Title : Polyketide Derivatives from the Endophytic Fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. LF5 Isolated from Huperzia serrata and Their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities - Xiao_2022_J.Fungi.(Basel)_8_
Author(s) : Xiao Y , Liang W , Zhang Z , Wang Y , Zhang S , Liu J , Chang J , Ji C , Zhu D
Ref : J Fungi (Basel) , 8 : , 2022
Abstract : The secondary metabolites of Phaeosphaeria sp. LF5, an endophytic fungus with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity isolated from Huperzia serrata, were investigated. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic data, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) analyses, and calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). A chemical study on the solid-cultured fungus LF5 resulted in 11 polyketide derivatives, which included three previously undescribed derivatives: aspilactonol I (4), 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-6-methylisonicotinic acid (7), and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-(1'R, 2'R-dihydroxypropyl)-isocoumarin (9), and two new natural-source-derived aspilactonols (G, H) (2, 3). Moreover, the absolute configuration of de-O-methyldiaporthin (11) was identified for the first time. Compounds 4 and 11 exhibited inhibitory activity against AChE with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 6.26 and 21.18 microM, respectively. Aspilactonol I (4) is the first reported furanone AChE inhibitor (AChEI). The results indicated that Phaeosphaeria is a good source of polyketide derivatives. This study identified intriguing lead compounds for further research and development of new AChEIs.
ESTHER : Xiao_2022_J.Fungi.(Basel)_8_
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2022_J.Fungi.(Basel)_8_
PubMedID: 35330234

Title : Differences in neurotoxic outcomes of organophosphorus pesticides revealed via multi-dimensional screening in adult and regenerating planarians - Ireland_2022_Front.Toxicol_4_948455
Author(s) : Ireland D , Zhang S , Bochenek V , Hsieh JH , Rabeler C , Meyer Z , Collins ES
Ref : Front Toxicol , 4 :948455 , 2022
Abstract : Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a chemically diverse class of commonly used insecticides. Epidemiological studies suggest that low dose chronic prenatal and infant exposures can lead to life-long neurological damage and behavioral disorders. While inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the shared mechanism of acute OP neurotoxicity, OP-induced developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) can occur independently and/or in the absence of significant AChE inhibition, implying that OPs affect alternative targets. Moreover, different OPs can cause different adverse outcomes, suggesting that different OPs act through different mechanisms. These findings emphasize the importance of comparative studies of OP toxicity. Freshwater planarians are an invertebrate system that uniquely allows for automated, rapid and inexpensive testing of adult and developing organisms in parallel to differentiate neurotoxicity from DNT. Effects found only in regenerating planarians would be indicative of DNT, whereas shared effects may represent neurotoxicity. We leverage this unique feature of planarians to investigate potential differential effects of OPs on the adult and developing brain by performing a comparative screen to test 7 OPs (acephate, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, diazinon, malathion, parathion and profenofos) across 10 concentrations in quarter-log steps. Neurotoxicity was evaluated using a wide range of quantitative morphological and behavioral readouts. AChE activity was measured using an Ellman assay. The toxicological profiles of the 7 OPs differed across the OPs and between adult and regenerating planarians. Toxicological profiles were not correlated with levels of AChE inhibition. Twenty-two "mechanistic control compounds" known to target pathways suggested in the literature to be affected by OPs (cholinergic neurotransmission, serotonin neurotransmission, endocannabinoid system, cytoskeleton, adenyl cyclase and oxidative stress) and 2 negative controls were also screened. When compared with the mechanistic control compounds, the phenotypic profiles of the different OPs separated into distinct clusters. The phenotypic profiles of adult vs. regenerating planarians exposed to the OPs clustered differently, suggesting some developmental-specific mechanisms. These results further support findings in other systems that OPs cause different adverse outcomes in the (developing) brain and build the foundation for future comparative studies focused on delineating the mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity in planarians.
ESTHER : Ireland_2022_Front.Toxicol_4_948455
PubMedSearch : Ireland_2022_Front.Toxicol_4_948455
PubMedID: 36267428

Title : Ultrasensitive Acetylcholinesterase detection based on a surface-enhanced Raman scattering lever strategy for identifying nerve fibers - Li_2022_Talanta_252_123867
Author(s) : Li T , Sui T , Wang B , Xu K , Zhang S , Cao X , Wang Y , Qian W , Dong J
Ref : Talanta , 252 :123867 , 2022
Abstract : Accurate discriminating nerve fibers is a prerequisite for right suturing nerves in nerve transfer operation. Various methods have been developed for identification of motor and sensory fibers, but no simple method meets the requirements in clinic. In this study, a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) lever strategy is designed and developed to detect Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) ultrasensitively, in which using produced thiocholine with weak intrinsic Raman activity (four ounces) to adjust absorbance of Rhodamine B with strong intrinsic Raman activity (thousand catties) on SERS-active substrates is to increase the sensitivity. Employing a miniaturized SERS substrate, SERS-active microneedles, is to decrease the volume of enzymolysis systems. Adopting an internal reference is to increase the repeatability of collected signal. The ultrasensitive AchE detection method discriminate samples with four times of difference in enzyme activity between 1-1 x 10(-4) U/mL in about 10 min of enzymolysis time. AchE amounts in 2-mm-long segments of ventral and dorsal roots were about 0.00025-0.001 U and 0.01-0.02 U, respectively. The developed method would be a reliable method met the requirements of identifying motor and sensory fibers in clinic.
ESTHER : Li_2022_Talanta_252_123867
PubMedSearch : Li_2022_Talanta_252_123867
PubMedID: 36041317

Title : Insights into acylation mechanisms: co-expression of serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases and their non-catalytic companion paralogs - Yao_2022_Plant.J_111_117
Author(s) : Yao S , Liu Y , Zhuang J , Zhao Y , Dai X , Jiang C , Wang Z , Jiang X , Zhang S , Qian Y , Tai Y , Wang Y , Wang H , Xie DY , Gao L , Xia T
Ref : Plant J , 111 :117 , 2022
Abstract : Serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases (SCPL-ATs) play a vital role in the diversification of plant metabolites. Galloylated flavan-3-ols highly accumulate in tea (Camellia sinensis), grape (Vitis vinifera), and persimmon (Diospyros kaki). To date, the biosynthetic mechanism of these compounds remains unknown. Herein, we report that two SCPL-AT paralogs are involved in galloylation of flavan-3-ols: CsSCPL4, which contains the conserved catalytic triad S-D-H, and CsSCPL5, which has the alternative triad T-D-Y. Integrated data from transgenic plants, recombinant enzymes, and gene mutations showed that CsSCPL4 is a catalytic acyltransferase, while CsSCPL5 is a non-catalytic companion paralog (NCCP). Co-expression of CsSCPL4 and CsSCPL5 is likely responsible for the galloylation. Furthermore, pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that CsSCPL4 and CsSCPL5 interact, increasing protein stability and promoting post-translational processing. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses revealed that their homologs co-exist in galloylated flavan-3-ol- or hydrolyzable tannin-rich plant species. Enzymatic assays further revealed the necessity of co-expression of those homologs for acyltransferase activity. Evolution analysis revealed that the mutations of the CsSCPL5 catalytic residues may have taken place about 10 million years ago. These findings show that the co-expression of SCPL-ATs and their NCCPs contributes to the acylation of flavan-3-ols in the plant kingdom.
ESTHER : Yao_2022_Plant.J_111_117
PubMedSearch : Yao_2022_Plant.J_111_117
PubMedID: 35437852
Gene_locus related to this paper: dioka-dkSCPL1 , camsi-SCPL5 , camsi-SCPL4

Title : Microplastics exposure as an emerging threat to ancient lineage: A contaminant of concern for abnormal bending of amphioxus via neurotoxicity - Xiang_2022_J.Hazard.Mater_438_129454
Author(s) : Xiang K , He Z , Fu J , Wang G , Li H , Zhang Y , Zhang S , Chen L
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 438 :129454 , 2022
Abstract : Growing inputs of microplastics into marine sediment have increased significantly the needs for assessment of their potential risks to the marine benthos. A knowledge gap remains with regard to the effect of microplastics on benthos, such as cephalochordates. By employing amphioxus as a model benthic chordate, here we show that exposure to microplastics for 96 h at doses of 1 mg/L and 100 mg/L results in evident accumulation of the polyethylene microplastics. The accumulated microplastics are as much as 0.027% of body weight upon high-dose exposure, causing an abnormal body-bending phenotype that limits the locomotion capability of amphioxus. Mechanistic insight reveals that microplastics can bring about histological damages in gill, intestine and hepatic cecum; In-depth assay of relevant biomarkers including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, pyruvic acid and total cholesterol indicates the occurrence of oxidative damage and metabolic disorder; Further, microplastics exposure depresses the activity of acetylcholinesterase while allowing the level of acetylcholine to rise in muscle, suggesting the emergence of neurotoxicity. These consequences eventually contribute to the muscle dysfunction of amphioxus. This study rationalizes the abnormal response of the vulnerable notochord to microplastics, signifying the dilemma suffered by the ancient lineage under the emerging threat. Given the enrichment of microplastics through marine food chains, this study also raises significant concerns on the impact of microplastics to other marine organisms, and eventually human beings.
ESTHER : Xiang_2022_J.Hazard.Mater_438_129454
PubMedSearch : Xiang_2022_J.Hazard.Mater_438_129454
PubMedID: 35803186

Title : Gelsemine relieves the neuropathic pain by down-regulating DPP4 level in rats - Yang_2022_Neurosci.Lett_792_136961
Author(s) : Yang L , Zhou G , Chen J , Zhang S
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 792 :136961 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Based on the previous findings on the relieving role of gelsemine in neuropathic pain, this research aims to further investigate the relevant regulatory mechanism. METHODS: Targets of gelsemine were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction. The peripheral neuropathic pain rat model was established by ligating spinal nerves, and then gelsemine (10 g for one day) or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) oligonucleotides (5 g/day, for 7 days) was injected into intrathecal bolus of rats. The mechanical threshold (0, 1, 2, 4 h after the last injection) was examined to evaluate the mechanical allodynia of rats. After the mechanical threshold measurement, the rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. IBA1- and DPP4-positive cells in the spinal dorsal horn of rats were determined using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. The expressions of DPP4, IL-1 and TNF-alpha in the spinal dorsal horn of rats were measured by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: DPP4 was one of the targets of gelsemine. Gelsemine could elevate the down-regulated mechanical threshold, and lessen the up-regulated IBA1- and DPP4-positive cells and expressions of DPP4, IL-1 and TNF-alpha in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with neuropathic pain. DPP4 overexpression reversed the role of gelsemine in neuropathic pain. CONCLUSION: Gelsemine relieves neuropathic pain by down-regulating DPP4 level in rats, providing a novel drug candidate and biomarker for neuropathic pain treatment.
ESTHER : Yang_2022_Neurosci.Lett_792_136961
PubMedSearch : Yang_2022_Neurosci.Lett_792_136961
PubMedID: 36370955

Title : Esterase-responsive and size-optimized prodrug nanoparticles for effective intracranial drug delivery and glioblastoma treatment - Ye_2022_Nanomedicine__102581
Author(s) : Ye Z , Gao L , Cai J , Wang Y , Li Y , Tong S , Yan T , Sun Q , Qi Y , Xu Y , Jiang H , Zhang S , Zhao L , Chen Q
Ref : Nanomedicine , :102581 , 2022
Abstract : Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the intracranial malignancy with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy is often ineffective against GBM due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB); however, the application of nanotechnology is expected to overcome this limitation. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a degradable and nontoxic functional polymer with good biocompatibility that is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Previous studies have shown that the ability of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) to penetrate the BBB is largely determined by their size; however, determination of the optimal PLGA NP size requires further research. Here, we report a tandutinib-based prodrug (proTan), which responds to the GBM microenvironment, that was combined with NPs to overcome the BBB. AMD3100-PLGA NPs loaded with proTan inhibited tumor growth and effectively prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice.
ESTHER : Ye_2022_Nanomedicine__102581
PubMedSearch : Ye_2022_Nanomedicine__102581
PubMedID: 35811067

Title : Bladder epithelial cell phosphate transporter inhibition protects mice against uropathogenic Escherichia coli infection - Pang_2022_Cell.Rep_39_110698
Author(s) : Pang Y , Cheng Z , Zhang S , Li S , Li X , Zhang X , Feng Y , Cui H , Chen Z , Liu L , Li Q , Huang J , Zhang M , Zhu S , Wang L , Feng L
Ref : Cell Rep , 39 :110698 , 2022
Abstract : Urinary tract infections are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC infects bladder epithelial cells (BECs) via fusiform vesicles, escapes into the cytosol to evade exocytosis, and establishes intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) for the next round of infection. The UPEC vesicle escape mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that UPEC senses host immune responses and initiates escape by upregulating a key phospholipase. The UPEC phospholipase PldA disrupts the vesicle membrane, and pldA expression is activated by phosphate reduction in vesicles. The host phosphate transporter PIT1 is located on the fusiform vesicle membrane, transporting phosphate into the cytosol. UPEC infection upregulates PIT1 via nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), resulting in phosphate reduction. Silencing PIT1 blocks UPEC vesicle escape in BECs, inhibits IBC formation in mouse bladders, and protects mice from UPEC infection. Our results shed light on pathogenic bacteria responding to intracellular phosphate shortage and tackling host defense and provide insights for development of new therapeutic agents to treat UPEC infection.
ESTHER : Pang_2022_Cell.Rep_39_110698
PubMedSearch : Pang_2022_Cell.Rep_39_110698
PubMedID: 35443182

Title : Lipase-catalyzed one-step regioselective synthesis of 1,2-dioctanoylgalloylglycerol in a solvent-free system: Optimization of reaction conditions and structural elucidation - Zhang_2022_Food.Chem_382_132302
Author(s) : Zhang S , Hyatt JR , Akoh CC
Ref : Food Chem , 382 :132302 , 2022
Abstract : A multi-functional galloylated structured lipid, 1,2-dioctanoylgalloylglycerol (DOGG), was synthesized enzymatically via a regioselective transesterification of propyl gallate and trioctanoate using an immobilized food-grade Candida antarctica lipase B (Lipozyme(a) 435) as the biocatalyst under solvent-free condition. The variables that affect the reaction, including reaction temperature, substrate ratio, reaction time, and enzyme load, were evaluated and optimized using Taguchi method and response surface methodology. Both methods predicted the same optimal reaction condition, resulting in a 68.8 +/- 1.3% DOGG yield with reaction selectivity of 82.9 +/- 0.6% at 90 degreesC, 25/1 trioctanoate/PG (mol/mol), 72 h reaction, and 25% enzyme load relative to the total substrate weight. The structure of the reaction product was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and ESI-HRMS, confirming the regioselectivity of the reaction. Enzyme retained 50% of its activity after 5 cycles of reuse. It is feasible to synthesize DOGG as a potential antioxidant and nutraceutical using Lipozyme(a) 435.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Food.Chem_382_132302
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Food.Chem_382_132302
PubMedID: 35144189

Title : Effects of the hemolytic index on the test results of a dry chemistry analyzer and a verification of the hemolytic interference threshold - Yang_2022_Ann.Palliat.Med_11_1381
Author(s) : Yang Q , Huang S , Han R , Lin B , Liu Q , Duan X , Ma Z , Zhang H , Shou H , Zhang S
Ref : Ann Palliat Med , 11 :1381 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: This study verified and assessed 26 biochemical indicators tested by a dry chemistry analyzer using the hemolytic index test function to determine the degree of interference and the trends among the hemolysis samples on the test results. This study also sought to ensure that reasonable test reports could be issued taking into account practical clinical needs. METHODS: The samples were manually divided into the control group and the test group. The hemolytic index and biochemical indicators of the samples were tested using the Ortho Vitros 5600 to compare the deviation of the test results between the 2 groups. The judgment standard was set as 1/3 of the total error allowable as required by the quality assessment criterion of the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. The interference degree of hemolysis on the dry chemistry-based biochemical indicators was assessed, and the hemolytic thresholds of 26 biochemical indicators provided by the manufacturer were verified in terms of their validity and rationality. RESULTS: The hemolytic thresholds of 26 dry chemistry-based biochemical indicators were verified to analyze the degree of interference. The results revealed that hemolysis interfered with 17 indicators. Hemolysis positively interfered with the test results of phosphorus, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GGT), magnesium, iron, total protein, potassium, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferase, but negatively interfered with cholinesterase, direct high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, elevated carbon dioxide alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase. A negative deviation of gamma-GGT by hemoglobin was described in the manufacturer's statement, but our test data showed a positive deviation by hemolysis. The hemolytic threshold verification results of the other biochemical indicators were consistent with the manufacturer's statement. CONCLUSIONS: The hemolytic index test function was used to determine which samples were interfered with by hemolysis to make an analytical judgment according to the hemolytic interference thresholds of the different test items, verify the validity of the hemolytic thresholds of the test items, perform reasonable tests on the hemolytic samples, and issue valid reports to reduce the rejection rate of the hemolytic samples, shorten the turnaround time (TAT) of laboratories.
ESTHER : Yang_2022_Ann.Palliat.Med_11_1381
PubMedSearch : Yang_2022_Ann.Palliat.Med_11_1381
PubMedID: 35523746

Title : Enrichment of polystyrene microplastics induces histological damage, oxidative stress, Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway-related gene expression in loach juveniles (Paramisgurnus dabryanus) - Wang_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_237_113540
Author(s) : Wang X , Jian S , Zhang S , Wu D , Wang J , Gao M , Sheng J , Hong Y
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 237 :113540 , 2022
Abstract : Polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs, particle size<5 mm) cause great harm to aquatic organisms. However, their precise effects are not completely understood. In China, placing plastic film at the pond bottom has become an important loach aquaculture mode. In this mode, MPs will affect loach health. This study investigated the enrichment of PS-MPs and its effects on the growth, liver histomorphology, antioxidant enzymes, and Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway-related gene expression in loach juveniles (Paramisgurnus dabryanus). The loach juveniles were raised at the concentration of 1000 microg/L fluorescent polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) with particle size of 0.5 microm or 5 microm for seven days, the results showed that fluorescent PS-MPs were found to be enriched in liver, intestine, and gill, and the enrichment amount was higher in liver than in gill and intestine (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the enrichment amount of different-sized PS-MPs was different in liver, gill, and intestine. The loach juveniles were cultured for 21 days in the water of the concentration of 100 or 1000 microg/L PS-MPs with particle size of 0.5 microm or 5 microm, the results showed that the survival rate, weight gain rate, and specific growth rate of loach juveniles were significantly reduced. The histological analysis revealed that PS-MPs caused liver damage. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were decreased with the extended exposure to PS-MPs. Generally, the expressions of Nrf2 and Keap1 showed the similar change trend. From 7-14 day, the expression trend of oxidative stressed-related genes was not completely consistent with that of Nrf2 gene, but on day 21, the gene expression trend of oxidative stress-related SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX in the downstream of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway was roughly consistent with that of Nrf2 gene. Basically, the change trends of these three gene expression were similar to those of their corresponding enzyme activities. This study provides theoretical basis for the toxicological effects of PS-MPs on freshwater fish.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_237_113540
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_237_113540
PubMedID: 35453027

Title : Biological Properties and Clinical Significance of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A(2) in Ischemic Stroke - Zhang_2022_Cardiovasc.Ther_2022_3328574
Author(s) : Zhang S , Huang S , Hu D , Jiang F , Lv Y , Liu G
Ref : Cardiovasc Ther , 2022 :3328574 , 2022
Abstract : Ischemic stroke, which occurs following blockage of the blood supply to the brain, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Its main cause is atherosclerosis, a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on the inner artery walls. Multiple proteins involved in the inflammation response have been identified as diagnosing biomarkers of ischemic stroke. One of these is lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), an enzyme that can hydrolyze circulating oxidized phospholipids, generating proinflammatory lysophosphatidylcholine and promoting the development of atherosclerosis. In the last two decades, a number of studies have revealed that both the concentration and the activity of Lp-PLA(2) are independent biomarkers of ischemic stroke. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two tests to determine Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity for predicting stroke. In this review, we summarize the biological properties of Lp-PLA(2), the detection sensitivity and limitations of Lp-PLA(2) measurement, the clinical significance and association of Lp-PLA(2) in ischemic stroke, and the prospects of therapeutic inhibition of Lp-PLA(2) as an intervention and treatment.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Cardiovasc.Ther_2022_3328574
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Cardiovasc.Ther_2022_3328574
PubMedID: 36313479

Title : Carboxylesterase 2 induces mitochondrial dysfunction via disrupting lipid homeostasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma - Chen_2022_Mol.Metab__101600
Author(s) : Chen X , Liu Q , Chen Y , Wang L , Yang R , Zhang W , Pan X , Zhang S , Chen C , Wu T , Xia J , Cheng B , Ren X
Ref : Mol Metab , :101600 , 2022
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by high recurrence and metastasis and places a heavy burden on societies worldwide. Cancer cells thrive in a changing microenvironment by reprogramming lipidomic metabolic processes to provide nutrients and energy, activate oncogenic signaling pathways, and manage redox homeostasis to avoid lipotoxicity. The mechanism by which OSCC cells maintain lipid homeostasis during malignant progression is unclear. METHODS: The altered expression of fatty acid (FA) metabolism genes in OSCC, compared with that in normal tissues, and in OSCC patients with or without recurrence or metastasis were determined using public data from the TCGA and GEO databases. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) protein level in our own cohort. CCK-8 and Transwell assays and an in vivo xenograft model were used to evaluate the biological functions of CES2. Mass spectrometry and RNA sequencing were performed to determine the lipidome and transcriptome alterations induced by CES2. Mitochondrial mass, mtDNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS levels, and oxygen consumption and apoptosis rates were evaluated to determine the effects of CES2 on mitochondrial function in OSCC. RESULTS: CES2 was downregulated in OSCC patients, especially those with recurrence or metastasis. CES2(high) OSCC patients showed better overall survival than CES2(low) OSCC patients. Restoring CES2 expression reduced OSCC cell viability and suppressed their migration and invasion in vitro, and it inhibited OSCC tumor growth in vivo. CES2 reprogrammed lipid metabolism in OSCC cells by hydrolyzing neutral lipid diacylglycerols (DGs) to release free fatty acids and reduce the membrane structure lipid phospholipids (PLs) synthesis. Free FAs were converted to acyl-carnitines (CARs) and transferred to mitochondria for oxidation, which induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis activation. Furthermore, the reduction in signaling lipids, e.g., DGs, PLs and substrates, suppressed PI3K/AKT/MYC signaling pathways. Restoring MYC rescued the diminished cell viability, suppressed migratory and invasive abilities, damaged mitochondria and reduced apoptosis rate induced by CES2. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that CES2 downregulation plays an important role in OSCC by maintaining lipid homeostasis and reducing lipotoxicity during tumor progression and may provide a potential therapeutic target for OSCC.
ESTHER : Chen_2022_Mol.Metab__101600
PubMedSearch : Chen_2022_Mol.Metab__101600
PubMedID: 36113774

Title : Emerging role of psychosis in Parkinson's disease: From clinical relevance to molecular mechanisms - Zhang_2022_World.J.Psychiatry_12_1127
Author(s) : Zhang S , Ma Y
Ref : World J Psychiatry , 12 :1127 , 2022
Abstract : Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Psychosis is one of the common psychiatric presentations in the natural course of PD. PD psychosis is an important non-motor symptom, which is strongly correlated with a poor prognosis. Increasing attention is being given to PD psychosis. In this opinion review, we summarized and analyzed the identification, screening, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors, and therapeutic approaches of PD psychosis based on the current clinical evidence. PD psychosis tends to have a negative effect on patients' quality of life and increases the burden of family caregiving. Screening and identification in the early stage of disease is crucial for establishing tailored therapeutic strategies and predicting the long-term outcome. Development of PD psychosis is believed to involve a combination of exogenous and endogenous mechanisms including imbalance of neurotransmitters, structural and network changes, genetic profiles, cognitive impairment, and antiparkinsonian medications. The therapeutic strategy for PD psychosis includes reducing or ceasing the use of dopaminergic drug, antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and non-pharmacological interventions. Ongoing clinical trials are expected to provide new insights for tailoring therapy for PD psychosis. Future research based on novel biomarkers and genetic factors may help inform individualized therapeutic strategies.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_World.J.Psychiatry_12_1127
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_World.J.Psychiatry_12_1127
PubMedID: 36186499

Title : Genetic manipulation of the interconversion between diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in Rhodosporidium toruloides - Zhang_2022_Front.Bioeng.Biotechnol_10_1034972
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Zhang S , Chu Y , Zhang Q , Zhou R , Yu D , Wang S , Lyu L , Xu G , Zhao ZK
Ref : Front Bioeng Biotechnol , 10 :1034972 , 2022
Abstract : The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (R. toruloides) is an excellent producer for neutral lipids, including triacylglycerols (TAG). Partially because genetic tools for this yeast were less developed, limited efforts were shown to explore its capacity for the production of higher-value lipids such as diacylglycerols (DAG). Here, four genes linked to the interconversion between DAG and TAG were manipulated to promote the production of DAG and free fatty acids (FFA). Among them, three TAG synthesis-related genes, DGA1, LRO1, and ARE1, were down-regulated successively via the RNA interference technology, and an endogenous TAG lipase encoded by TGL5 was fused with LDP1 and over-expressed to convert TAG into DAG and FFA. Results showed that those engineered R. toruloides strains grew normally under nutrient-rich conditions but notably slower than the parental strain NP11 in the lipid production stage. When cultivated in nitrogen-limited media, engineered strains were able to produce total lipids with improved contents of DAG and FFA by up to two-fold and three-fold, respectively. Further correlation analysis between lipid composition and cell density indicated that the formation of TAG correlated positively with cell growth; however, other lipids including DAG did negatively. This study offered valuable information and strains to engineer R. toruloides for advanced production of fatty acid derivatives.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Front.Bioeng.Biotechnol_10_1034972
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Front.Bioeng.Biotechnol_10_1034972
PubMedID: 36394004

Title : Bioinformatics analysis of PAE family in Populus trichocarpa and responsiveness to carbon and nitrogen treatment - Xu_2021_3.Biotech_11_370
Author(s) : Xu C , Zhang S , Suo J , Chang R , Xu X , Xu Z , Yang C , Qu C , Liu G
Ref : 3 Biotech , 11 :370 , 2021
Abstract : Plant Pectin acetylesterase (PAE) belongs to family CE13 of carbohydrate esterases in the CAZy database. The ability of PAE to regulate the degree of acetylation of pectin, an important polysaccharide in the cell wall, affects the structure of plant cell wall. In this study, ten PtPAE genes were identified and characterized in Populus trichocarpa genome using bioinformatics methods, and the physiochemical properties such as molecular weight, isoelectric points, and hydrophilicity, as well as the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein were predicted. According to phylogenetic analysis, ten PtPAEs can be divided into three evolutionary clades, each of which had similar gene structure and motifs. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that the PtPAEs had different expression patterns. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that transcription level of PtPAEs was regulated by different CO(2) and nitrogen concentrations. These results provide important information for the study of the phylogenetic relationship and function of PtPAEs in Populus trichocarpa. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02918-1.
ESTHER : Xu_2021_3.Biotech_11_370
PubMedSearch : Xu_2021_3.Biotech_11_370
PubMedID: 34295610

Title : Long non-coding RNA ABHD11-AS1 promotes colorectal cancer progression and invasion through targeting the integrin subunit alpha 5\/focal adhesion kinase\/phosphoinositide 3 kinase\/Akt signaling pathway - Luo_2021_Aging.(Albany.NY)_13_20179
Author(s) : Luo J , Jiang Y , Wu L , Zhuo D , Zhang S , Jiang X , Sun Y , Huang Y
Ref : Aging (Albany NY) , 13 :20179 , 2021
Abstract : Long non-coding (lnc)RNA ABHD11-AS1 participates in the development and progress of various cancers, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly known. In the present study, public database analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR of CRC and normal tissues showed that ABHD11-AS1 was overexpressed in CRC and associated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that loss-of-function of ABHD11-AS1 attenuated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells and induced their apoptosis. Transcriptome sequencing and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is a potential target of ABHD11-AS1. Additionally, we noted that ABHD11-AS1 deficiency reduced integrin subunit alpha (ITGA)5 expression, and impaired the phosphorylation of P85, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and Akt1 in CRC cell lines and tumor tissues of nude mice. Furthermore, we observed that ITGA5 overexpression abrogated the effect of ABHD11-AS1 knockdown on the proliferation and invasion abilities of CRC cells. Taken together, our studies suggest that lncRNA ABHD11-AS1 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion in CRC by activating the ITGA5/Fak/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and that the ITGA5/Fak/PI3K/Akt axis is a promising target for CRC therapy.
ESTHER : Luo_2021_Aging.(Albany.NY)_13_20179
PubMedSearch : Luo_2021_Aging.(Albany.NY)_13_20179
PubMedID: 34375304
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD11

Title : Case Report\/Case Series: Rare case of anti-LGI1 limbic encephalitis with rapidly progressive dementia, psychiatric symptoms, and frequently seizures: A case report - Wu_2021_Medicine.(Baltimore)_100_e26654
Author(s) : Wu H , Mei F , Liu L , Zhang L , Hao H , Zhang S
Ref : Medicine (Baltimore) , 100 :e26654 , 2021
Abstract : RATIONALE: Anti leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) limbic encephalitis (LE) is rare autoimmune encephalitis, characterized by acute or subacute cognitive impairment, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, mental disorders, and refractory hyponatremia. As a type of treatable rapidly progressive dementia with a good prognosis, early, and accurate diagnosis is essential. We present a case of anti-LGI1 LE who was initially misdiagnosed with Alzheimer disease because his clinical manifestations were similar to Alzheimer disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A male patient presenting with rapidly progressive dementia, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, psychiatric disturbance, and refractory hyponatremia was admitted. The scores of Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory were 19/30, 16/30, and 91/144, respectively. Brain magnetic resonance images indicated moderate atrophy of the hippocampus and abnormally hyperintensities in the left medial temporal and hippocampus. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with anti-LGI1 LE based on the presence of LGI-1 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum and clinical manifestations. INTERVENTIONS: Patient was treated with glucocorticoid against LGI1, antiepileptic drug, cholinesterase inhibitors, and other adjuvant therapy. OUTCOMES: The patient showed marked improvement on immunotherapy. Clinical symptoms were disappeared and the LGI-1 antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum were both negative at the time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Recognition of the specific symptoms and LGI-1 antibody test will be helpful for the early diagnosis, prompt immunotherapy, and good prognosis. This case raises the awareness that rapidly progressive dementia with frequent seizures could be caused by immunoreactions.
ESTHER : Wu_2021_Medicine.(Baltimore)_100_e26654
PubMedSearch : Wu_2021_Medicine.(Baltimore)_100_e26654
PubMedID: 34398024

Title : Inducing new bioactive metabolites production from coculture of Pestalotiopsis sp. and Penicillium bialowiezense - Li_2021_Bioorg.Chem_110_104826
Author(s) : Li F , Yan S , Huang Z , Gao W , Zhang S , Mo S , Lin S , Wang J , Hu Z , Zhang Y
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 110 :104826 , 2021
Abstract : Coculturing two or more fungi is a useful strategy to awaken the silent genes to produce structurally diverse and bioactive natural products. Through the coculture of Pestalotiopsis sp. and Penicillium bialowiezense, six new isoprenylated chromane derivatives, including two pairs of enantiomeric ones (1a/1b-2a/2b) and two optical pure ones (3-4), two new isoprenylated phenol glucoside derivatives (6-7), as well as eight known structural analogues (5 and 8-14), were obtained. The structures of these new compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and ECD calculation. The delta(10,11) double bond of pestaloficin D (5) was revised to E-configurated based on the extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1a/1b and 2a/2b were the first examples of enantiomeric isoprenylated chromane derivatives, which were successfully separated by chiral HPLC. Additionally, all the isolated compounds were evaluated for the in vitro beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Compounds 1a and 1b showed significant beta-glucuronidase inhibitory potency with IC(50) values of 7.6 and 10.3 microM, respectively. Compound 14 exhibited moderate BChE inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 21.3 microM. In addition, the structure-enzyme inhibitory activity relationship of compounds 1-14 is discussed.
ESTHER : Li_2021_Bioorg.Chem_110_104826
PubMedSearch : Li_2021_Bioorg.Chem_110_104826
PubMedID: 33780746

Title : Multivalent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor discovered by exploiting dynamic combinatorial chemistry - Zhao_2021_Bioorg.Chem_108_104656
Author(s) : Zhao S , Xu J , Zhang S , Han M , Wu Y , Li Y , Hu L
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 108 :104656 , 2021
Abstract : In this study, we report the generation of a polymer-based dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) incorporating exchangeable side chains using acylhydrazone formation reaction. In combination with tetrameric butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the most potent binding side chain was identified, and the information obtained was further used for the synthesis of a multivalent BChE inhibitor. In the in vitro biological evaluation, this multivalent inhibitor exhibited not only better inhibitory effect than the commercial reference but also high selectivity on BChE over acetylcholinesterase (AChE).
ESTHER : Zhao_2021_Bioorg.Chem_108_104656
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2021_Bioorg.Chem_108_104656
PubMedID: 33548731

Title : Chemical composition of essential oils from Thymus mongolicus, Cinnamomum verum, and Origanum vulgare and their acaricidal effects on Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) - Qiao_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_224_112672
Author(s) : Qiao Y , Yu Z , Bai L , Li H , Zhang S , Liu J , Gao Z , Yang X
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 224 :112672 , 2021
Abstract : Chemical acaricides are mainly used in traditional tick control, which leads to the emergence of tick resistance and concurrently results in environmental pollution. In the present study, the chemical constituents of essential oils (EOs) from Thymus mongolicus, Cinnamomum verum, and Origanum vulgare was analyzed, and their potential application was evaluated to control the vector tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, which is widely distributed over vast areas of Eurasia, Australia, and New Zealand. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the phenols thymol and carvacrol accounted for 34.66% and 75.72% of the EOs of T. mongolicus and O. vulgare, respectively, whereas trans-cinnamaldehyde (49.42%) was the main constituent of C. verum EO. Immersion tests showed that the EOs of C. verum and O. vulgare had significant acaricidal activity against larval H. longicornis, with the 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) being 16.07 and 18.02 mg/mL, respectively, and the 95% lethal concentration (LC(95)) being 120.37 and 130.09 mg/mL, respectively. The EOs of O. vulgare and T. mongolicus showed significant acaricidal activity against unfed adult H. longicornis, with LC(50) being 43.50 and 44.21 mg/mL, respectively, and LC(95) being 113.66 and 137.99 mg/mL, respectively. The fumigant toxicity test showed significant acaricidal activity of the three EOs against both unfed and engorged nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Enzyme assays revealed that the EOs of both C. verum and O. vulgare significantly inhibited glutathione S-transferase activity (P < 0.05). In contrast, the activities of carboxylesterase and multifunction oxidases were significantly inhibited by EOs extracted from all three plants (P < 0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that plant EOs may serve as an environment-friendly alternative for synthetic acaricides in future tick control.
ESTHER : Qiao_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_224_112672
PubMedSearch : Qiao_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_224_112672
PubMedID: 34416637

Title : PbCSE1 promotes lignification during stone cell development in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit - Xu_2021_Sci.Rep_11_9450
Author(s) : Xu J , Tao X , Xie Z , Gong X , Qi K , Zhang S , Shiratake K , Tao S
Ref : Sci Rep , 11 :9450 , 2021
Abstract : Pear [Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Dangshan Su] fruit quality is not always satisfactory owing to the presence of stone cells, and lignin is the main component of stone cells in pear fruits. Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) is a key enzyme in the lignin biosynthesis. Although CSE-like genes have been isolated from a variety of plant species, their orthologs are not characterized in pear. In this study, the CSE gene family (PbCSE) from P. bretschneideri was identified. According to the physiological data and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), PbCSE1 was associated with lignin deposition and stone cell formation. The overexpression of PbCSE1 increased the lignin content in pear fruits. Relative to wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, the overexpression of PbCSE1 delayed growth, increased the lignin deposition and lignin content in stems. Simultaneously, the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes were also increased in pear fruits and Arabidopsis. These results demonstrated that PbCSE1 plays an important role in cell lignification and will provide a potential molecular strategy to improve the quality of pear fruits.
ESTHER : Xu_2021_Sci.Rep_11_9450
PubMedSearch : Xu_2021_Sci.Rep_11_9450
PubMedID: 33941813

Title : IL-6 downregulates hepatic carboxylesterases via NF-kappaB activation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis - Li_2021_Int.Immunopharmacol_99_107920
Author(s) : Li M , Lan L , Zhang S , Xu Y , He W , Xiang D , Liu D , Ren X , Zhang C
Ref : Int Immunopharmacol , 99 :107920 , 2021
Abstract : Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with increased levels of inflammatory factors, which is attributed to the abnormal expression and activity of enzymes and transporters in the liver, affecting drug disposition in vivo. This study aimed to examine the impact of intestinal inflammation on the expression of hepatic carboxylesterases (CESs) in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Two major CESs isoforms, CES1 and CES2, were down-regulated, accompanied by decreases in hepatic microsomal metabolism of clopidogrel and irinotecan. Meanwhile, IL-6 levels significantly increased compared with other inflammatory factors in the livers of UC mice. In contrast, using IL-6 antibody simultaneously reversed the down-regulation of CES1, CES2, pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in the liver. We further confirmed that treatment with NF-kappaB inhibitor abolished IL-6-induced down-regulation of CES1, CES2, PXR, and CAR in vitro. Thus, it was concluded that IL-6 represses hepatic CESs via the NF-kappaB pathway in DSS-induced colitis. These findings indicate that caution should be exercised concerning the proper and safe use of therapeutic drugs in patients with UC.
ESTHER : Li_2021_Int.Immunopharmacol_99_107920
PubMedSearch : Li_2021_Int.Immunopharmacol_99_107920
PubMedID: 34217990

Title : [Experimental study on liver injury induced by intraperitoneal hypertension under mechanical ventilation] - Zhang_2021_Zhonghua.Wei.Zhong.Bing.Ji.Jiu.Yi.Xue_33_740
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wang H , Yu J
Ref : Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue , 33 :740 , 2021
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of mechanical ventilation on liver cytological and enzymatic indexes in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) by establishing a porcine model of abdominal hypertension. METHODS: Six healthy adult pigs were selected. After general anesthesia, they were intubated and given ventilator assisted breathing. The breathing mode was volume controlled ventilation (VCV), tidal volume (VT) 10 mL/kg, respiratory rate (RR) 16 time/min, fraction of inspiration oxygen (FiO(2)) 0.40, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cmH(2)O (1 cmH(2)O = 0.098 kPa). Intraperitoneal pressure was simulated by injecting normal saline into the pressurized water sac, and the pressure was measured once every 50 mL of normal saline. 5 mL of blood was collected from ear vein every 1 hour before and 4 hours after operation for liver enzyme examination. 4 hours after operation, the animals were sacrificed and the liver was collected to observe pathological changes under light microscope. RESULTS: Six pigs were successfully modeled. The RR and heart rate (HR) of the animals remained stable. No one suffered from barotrauma or death during the experiment. There was a positive correlation between abdominal pressure and abdominal volume increase (r(2) = 0.839 6, P = 0.003 7). There were no significant differences in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cholinesterase (ChE) preoperative and 1, 2, 3, 4 hours after operation. As time went on, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased first and then decreased, and increased significantly at 1 hour after operation (U/L: 46.84+/-8.57 vs. 23.35+/-5.14, P < 0.05), and decreased significantly 2, 3, 4 hours after operation (U/L: 16.33+/-3.58, 14.54+/-3.35, 15.44+/-3.21 vs. 23.35+/-5.14, all P < 0.05). The level of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) increased and then decreased, but there was significant difference only at 1 hour after operation, compared with baseline (U/L: 101.20+/-17.79 vs. 51.34+/-9.13, P < 0.05). Under the light microscope, there were dilation and congestion of interlobular vein, dilation of interlobular bile duct, hyperplasia of small bile duct, hyperplasia of connective tissue in portal area, infiltration of a large number of acute and chronic inflammatory cells, swelling of hepatocytes, light staining of cytoplasm, balloon like transformation of some cells, and punctate necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal hypertension under mechanical ventilation can cause obvious enzyme changes and cytological damage of liver.
ESTHER : Zhang_2021_Zhonghua.Wei.Zhong.Bing.Ji.Jiu.Yi.Xue_33_740
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2021_Zhonghua.Wei.Zhong.Bing.Ji.Jiu.Yi.Xue_33_740
PubMedID: 34296697

Title : A Network Pharmacology-Based Study on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Prevention and Treatment Utilizing Shenling Baizhu Powder - Meng_2021_Biomed.Res.Int_2021_4579850
Author(s) : Meng M , Bai C , Wan B , Zhao L , Li Z , Li D , Zhang S
Ref : Biomed Res Int , 2021 :4579850 , 2021
Abstract : METHODS: Metabolomics was used to detect the secondary metabolites in SLBZP; the target protein was acquired by target fishing according to the compound's structure. The SymMap database was used to search herbal medicines for the target protein. The target gene of IBS gave rise to the common gene protein which is the potential target of SLBZP in IBS therapy. The interactions between target proteins were analyzed in a STRING database, the protein relationship network was analyzed using Cytoscape software, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of the core target gene group was carried out in a DAVID database in order to construct the "compound-traditional Chinese medicine/molecule-target-pathway" network. Molecular docking was used to verify the core protein and its related small molecular compounds. RESULT: There were 129 types of secondary metabolites in SLBZP. 80 target proteins of these metabolites were potential core targets for IBS treatment including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2), recombinant cyclin D1 (CCND1), and catenin-beta1 (CTNNB1), among others. Results from these targets indicated that the most enriched pathway was the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway (p < 0.001) and that the most abundant pathway was signal transduction. In the network nodes of the TNF signaling pathway, the Chinese medicines with the highest aggregation were Lablab semen album and Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma (degree = 11). The small molecules with the highest aggregation were oxypeucedanin and 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (degree = 4). Molecular docking results confirmed that daidzein 7-O-glucoside (daidzin) had the highest degree of binding to TNF proteins in the TNF signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: This study shows that SLBZP can treat IBS by influencing multiple targets and pathways, of which the TNF signaling pathway may be the most significant. This typifies the pharmacological characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, i.e., multiple targets, numerous pathways, and specific therapeutic effects on diseases. SLBZP can therefore be used as a candidate drug for clinical IBS by intervening in human signal transduction.
ESTHER : Meng_2021_Biomed.Res.Int_2021_4579850
PubMedSearch : Meng_2021_Biomed.Res.Int_2021_4579850
PubMedID: 34859100

Title : The Roles of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4 Inhibitors in Different Lung Diseases: New Evidence - Zhang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_731453
Author(s) : Zhang T , Tong X , Zhang S , Wang D , Wang L , Wang Q , Fan H
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 12 :731453 , 2021
Abstract : CD26/Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is widely expressed in various organs and cells. It can also exist in body fluids in a soluble form. DPP4 participates in various physiological and pathological processes by regulating energy metabolism, inflammation, and immune function. DPP4 inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. More evidence has shown the role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of lung diseases, since it is highly expressed in the lung parenchyma and the surface of the epithelium, vascular endothelium, and fibroblasts of human bronchi. It is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for various lung diseases. During the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) global pandemic, DPP4 was found to be an important marker that may play a significant role in disease progression. Some clinical trials on DPP4 inhibitors in COVID-19 are ongoing. DPP4 also affects other infectious respiratory diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome and non-infectious lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma. This review aims to summarize the roles of DPP4 and its inhibitors in infectious lung diseases and non-infectious diseases to provide new insights for clinical physicians.
ESTHER : Zhang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_731453
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_731453
PubMedID: 34955820

Title : Comparative Analyses of Sperm DNA Methylomes Among Three Commercial Pig Breeds Reveal Vital Hypomethylated Regions Associated With Spermatogenesis and Embryonic Development - Chen_2021_Front.Genet_12_740036
Author(s) : Chen S , Liu S , Mi S , Li W , Zhang S , Ding X , Yu Y
Ref : Front Genet , 12 :740036 , 2021
Abstract : Identifying epigenetic changes is essential for an in-depth understanding of phenotypic diversity and pigs as the human medical model for anatomizing complex diseases. Abnormal sperm DNA methylation can lead to male infertility, fetal development failure, and affect the phenotypic traits of offspring. However, the whole genome epigenome map in pig sperm is lacking to date. In this study, we profiled methylation levels of cytosine in three commercial pig breeds, Landrace, Duroc, and Large White using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). The results showed that the correlation of methylation levels between Landrace and Large White pigs was higher. We found that 1,040-1,666 breed-specific hypomethylated regions (HMRs) were associated with embryonic developmental and economically complex traits for each breed. By integrating reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) public data of pig testis, 1743 conservated HMRs between sperm and testis were defined, which may play a role in spermatogenesis. In addition, we found that the DNA methylation patterns of human and pig sperm showed high similarity by integrating public data from WGBS and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in other mammals, such as human and mouse. We identified 2,733 conserved HMRs between human and pig involved in organ development and brain-related traits, such as NLGN1 (neuroligin 1) containing a conserved-HMR between human and pig. Our results revealed the similarities and diversity of sperm methylation patterns among three commercial pig breeds and between human and pig. These findings are beneficial for elucidating the mechanism of male fertility, and the changes in commercial traits that undergo strong selection.
ESTHER : Chen_2021_Front.Genet_12_740036
PubMedSearch : Chen_2021_Front.Genet_12_740036
PubMedID: 34691153

Title : Catabolism of strigolactones by a carboxylesterase - Xu_2021_Nat.Plants_7_1495
Author(s) : Xu E , Chai L , Zhang S , Yu R , Zhang X , Xu C , Hu Y
Ref : Nat Plants , 7 :1495 , 2021
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones that control shoot branching and communications between host plants and symbiotic fungi or root parasitic plants. Extensive studies have identified the key components participating in SL biosynthesis and signalling, whereas the catabolism or deactivation of endogenous SLs in planta remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis carboxylesterase 15 (AtCXE15) and its orthologues function as efficient hydrolases of SLs. We show that overexpression of AtCXE15 promotes shoot branching by dampening SL-inhibited axillary bud outgrowth. We further demonstrate that AtCXE15 could bind and efficiently hydrolyse SLs both in vitro and in planta. We also provide evidence that AtCXE15 is capable of catalysing hydrolysis of diverse SL analogues and that such CXE15-dependent catabolism of SLs is evolutionarily conserved in seed plants. These results disclose a catalytic mechanism underlying homoeostatic regulation of SLs in plants, which also provides a rational approach to spatial-temporally manipulate the endogenous SLs and thus architecture of crops and ornamental plants.
ESTHER : Xu_2021_Nat.Plants_7_1495
PubMedSearch : Xu_2021_Nat.Plants_7_1495
PubMedID: 34764442
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-CXE15

Title : Rapid Polysorbate 80 Degradation by Liver Carboxylesterase in a Monoclonal Antibody Formulated Drug Substance at Early Stage Development - Zhang_2020_J.Pharm.Sci_109_3300
Author(s) : Zhang S , Xiao H , Molden R , Qiu H , Li N
Ref : J Pharm Sci , 109 :3300 , 2020
Abstract : Polysorbates (PS) are surfactants commonly added in a therapeutic protein drug product to protect proteins from denaturation and aggregation during storage, transportation, and delivery. Significant degradation of PS in drug products could lead to particulate formation with shortened drug shelf life, and one of the major root causes of PS degradation is the host cell protein (HCP) derived lipase/esterase, which belong to the serine hydrolase family. Typically, PS degradation can only be observed in drug products after a long time of storage if very low levels of host cell protein impurity with PS degradation activities are present. In this study, PS80 degradation was observed in a monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 18 h at 5 degreesC with a low level of HCP presented (<20 ppm) based on ELISA quantitation. This observation suggested that a trace amount of unknown host cell protein(s) with strong enzymatic activity on polysorbate degradation was present in this drug substance. The activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) method with the ActivX FP serine hydrolase probe was employed to identify host cell proteins that can hydrolyze PS. Two hydrolases, liver carboxylesterase B-1-like protein (CES-B1L, A0A061I7X9) and liver carboxylesterase 1-like protein (CES-1L, A0A061IFE2) were identified with high confidence using the ABPP approach for the first time in a mAb drug substance during early stage development. PS80 became stable in the drug substance sample after the two hydrolases were depleted using the immobilized ActivX FP probe, confirming these two hydrolases were responsible for the rapid PS80 degradation. In addition, the PS80 degradation pattern was found to be equivalent to that generated by their human analog, human liver carboxylesterase-1 (hCES-1) and rabbit liver esterase (rLES). Overall, these results suggest that CES-B1L and CES-1L are the primary cause of PS80 degradation in this mAb drug.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_J.Pharm.Sci_109_3300
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_J.Pharm.Sci_109_3300
PubMedID: 32721471
Gene_locus related to this paper: crigr-g3i7x7 , crigr-a0a061i7x9

Title : Development of a multivalent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor via dynamic combinatorial chemistry - Xu_2020_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_150_1184
Author(s) : Xu J , Zhao S , Zhang S , Pei J , Li Y , Zhang Y , He X , Hu L
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , 150 :1184 , 2020
Abstract : In this study, we report the generation of a polymer based dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) using aldehyde-functionalized linear poly(glycidol) and hydrazide derivatives as initial building blocks. In combination with tetrameric acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a certain type of amplified acylhydrazone side chain is identified and further used for the synthesis of a multivalent AChE inhibitor. The cytotoxicity and inhibition properties of the multivalent inhibitor are evaluated, and the results indicate superior bioactivity compared to the commercial reference Edrophonium chloride.
ESTHER : Xu_2020_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_150_1184
PubMedSearch : Xu_2020_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_150_1184
PubMedID: 31758986

Title : Toxicological effects of nano- and micro-polystyrene plastics on red tilapia: Are larger plastic particles more harmless? - Ding_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_396_122693
Author(s) : Ding J , Huang Y , Liu S , Zhang S , Zou H , Wang Z , Zhu W , Geng J
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 396 :122693 , 2020
Abstract : Nanoplastics (NPs) and microplastics (MPs) are a heterogeneous class of pollutants with diverse sizes in aquatic environments. To evaluate the hazardous effects of N/MPs with different sizes, the accumulation, oxidative stress, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, neurotoxicity, and metabolomics changes were investigated in the red tilapia exposed to three sizes of polystyrene (PS) N/MPs (0.3, 5, and 70-90mum). After 14-d exposures, the largest particles (70-90mum) showed the highest accumulation levels in most cases. Exposures to PS-MPs (5 and 70-90mum) caused a more severe oxidative stress in red tilapia than PS-NPs. The activity of CYP3A-related enzyme was obviously inhibited by PS-NPs, whereas the CYP enzymes in the liver may not be sensitive to MP exposures. In the brain, only 5mumPS-MPs significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity. After exposures, the treatments with 0.3, 5, and 70-90mum N/MPs resulted in 31, 40, and 23 significantly differentially expressed metabolites, respectively, in which the pathway of tyrosine metabolism was significantly affected by all the three PS-N/MP exposures. Overall, the PS particles within the mum size posed more severe stress to red tilapia. Our results suggest that the toxicity of N/MPs may not show a simply monotonic negative correlation with their sizes.
ESTHER : Ding_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_396_122693
PubMedSearch : Ding_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_396_122693
PubMedID: 32353735

Title : Extradural Contralateral C7 Nerve Root Transfer in a Cervical Posterior Approach for Treating Spastic Limb Paralysis: A Cadaver Feasibility Study - Yang_2020_Spine.(Phila.Pa.1976)_45_E608
Author(s) : Yang K , Jiang F , Zhang S , Zhao H , Shi Z , Liu J , Cao X
Ref : Spine (Phila Pa 1976) , 45 :E608 , 2020
Abstract : STUDY DESIGN: Anatomic study in nine fresh-frozen cadavers. OBJECTIVE: To confirm the anatomical feasibility of transferring the extradural ventral roots (VRs) and dorsal roots (DRs) of contralateral C7 nerves to those of the ipsilateral C7 nerves respectively through a cervical posterior approach. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The contralateral C7 nerve root transfer technique makes breakthrough for treating spastic limb paralysis. However, its limitations include large surgical trauma and limited indications. METHODS: Nine fresh-frozen cadavers (four females and five males) were placed prone, and the feasibility of exposing the bilateral extradural C7 nerve roots, separation of the extradural C7 VR and DR, and transfer of the VR and DR of the contralateral C7 to those of the ipsilateral C7 on the dural mater were assessed. The pertinent distances and the myelography results of each specimen were analyzed. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antineurofilament 200 (NF200) double immunofluorescent staining were preformed to determine the nerve fiber properties. RESULTS: A cervical posterior midline approach was made and the laminectomy was performed to expose the bilateral extradural C7 nerve roots. After the extradural C7 VR and DR are separated, the VR and DR of the contralateral C7 have sufficient lengths to be transferred to those of the ipsilateral C7 on the dural mater. The myelography results showed that the spinal cord is not compressed after the nerve anastomosis. The AChE and NF200 double immunofluorescent staining showed the distal ends of the contralateral C7 VRs were mostly motor nerve fibers, and the distal ends of the contralateral C7 DRs were mostly sensory nerve fibers. CONCLUSION: Extradural contralateral C7 nerve root transfer in a cervical posterior approach for treating spastic limb paralysis is anatomically feasible. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5.
ESTHER : Yang_2020_Spine.(Phila.Pa.1976)_45_E608
PubMedSearch : Yang_2020_Spine.(Phila.Pa.1976)_45_E608
PubMedID: 31770316

Title : Positive correlation between human exposure to organophosphate esters and gastrointestinal cancer in patients from Wuhan, China - Li_2020_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_196_110548
Author(s) : Li Y , Fu Y , Hu K , Zhang Y , Chen J , Zhang S , Zhang B , Liu Y
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 196 :110548 , 2020
Abstract : As kinds of endocrine disruptors, organophosphate esters (OPEs) pollution in the environment had received increasing attention recently. Food and water intake were two important exposure pathways for OPEs. However, the studies about the potential association between OPEs and gastrointestinal cancer were limited. This study investigated the possible association between OPEs and gastrointestinal cancer. All cancer patients were diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer from a Grade 3 A hospital in Wuhan, China, while the control group was non-cancer healthy persons. The results showed that 6 OPEs were found in the control samples, while 8 in the samples from patients with gastrointestinal cancer. The detection frequencies of OPEs in gastrointestinal cancer patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), except for triethyl phosphate (TEP) and tris (methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) in the gastric cancer group. The concentrations of OPEs in the control group were significantly lower than those in the gastric cancer group and colorectal cancer group (p < 0.01). In the control group and gastrointestinal cancer group, TEP was the dominant pollutant. Correlation analysis found that concentrations of TEP, tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TMPP, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) were associated with gastric cancer (p < 0.01), and concentrations of TEP, TCIPP, TPHP, TMPP and TEHP were associated with colorectal cancer (p < 0.01). A cluster analysis divided the 34 patients with gastric cancer and 40 patients with colorectal cancer in four groups. The results showed that the elderly male patients with gastric cancer were more sensitive to the exposure of EHDPP, while the TEP exposure was more sensitive to the relatively young gastrointestinal cancer patients. These findings indicated that OPEs might play a role in developing gastrointestinal cancer.
ESTHER : Li_2020_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_196_110548
PubMedSearch : Li_2020_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_196_110548
PubMedID: 32278140

Title : Antioxidant property and characterization data of 1-o-galloylglycerol synthesized via enzymatic glycerolysis - Zhang_2020_Data.Brief_29_105110
Author(s) : Zhang S , Akoh CC
Ref : Data Brief , 29 :105110 , 2020
Abstract : This article provides comprehensive experimental data characterizing antioxidant activity, as well as chemical and physical properties of 1-o-galloylglycerol (GG), synthesized by enzymatic glycerolysis of propyl gallate (PG) using a food-grade lipase (Lipozyme 435) [1]. GG was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), (1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H gradient correlation spectroscopy (gCOSY), (1)H-(13)C gradient heteronuclear single quantum coherence (gHSQC), (1)H-(13)C gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), and (1)H-(13)C gradient heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (gHMBC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies (NMR), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). The antioxidant property of GG, which was evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(.)), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.+)), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging assays, is also presented.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Data.Brief_29_105110
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Data.Brief_29_105110
PubMedID: 31993468

Title : Enzymatic synthesis of 1-o-galloylglycerol: Characterization and determination of its antioxidant properties - Zhang_2020_Food.Chem_305_125479
Author(s) : Zhang S , Akoh CC
Ref : Food Chem , 305 :125479 , 2020
Abstract : 1-o-Galloylglycerol (GG) was synthesized by the enzymatic glycerolysis of propyl gallate (PG) using a food-grade lipase (Lipozyme 435). The reaction conditions affecting the yield of GG were optimized and a yield of 76.9% +/- 1.2% was obtained. GG was characterized by various techniques after being separated from the reaction mixture using liquid-liquid extraction. The water solubility and hydrophilicity of GG were significantly higher than those of gallic acid (GA) and PG. The antioxidant properties, measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging assays, showed that GG exhibited the highest scavenging capacity (GG > GA > PG). From the results of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(.)) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.+)) assays, GG and GA exhibited greater scavenging capacity than PG (GG = GA > PG). These results suggest that GG may be used as a water-soluble antioxidant alternative to GA for food and cosmetic applications.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Food.Chem_305_125479
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Food.Chem_305_125479
PubMedID: 31505418

Title : Antifungal Effect of Triglycerol Monolaurate Synthesized by Lipozyme 435-Mediated Esterification - Zhang_2020_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_30_561
Author(s) : Zhang S , Xiong J , Lou W , Ning Z , Zhang D , Yang J
Ref : J Microbiol Biotechnol , 30 :561 , 2020
Abstract : This study was designed to synthesize triglycerol monolaurate (TGML) with Lipozyme 435 as the catalyst, and explore its effects on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) and Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and the secretion of aflatoxin b1. The highest content of TGML (49.76%) was obtained at a molar ratio of triglycerol to lauric acid of 1.08, a reaction temperature of 84.93 degC, a reaction time of 6 h and an enzyme dosage of 1.32%. After purification by molecular distillation combined with the washes with ethyl acetate and water, the purity of TGML reached 98.3%. Through characterization by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, infrared spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonance, the structure of TGML was identified as a linear triglycerol combined with lauroyl at the end. Finally, the inhibitory effects of TGML on the growths of A. parasiticus and A. flavus and the secretion of aflatoxin b1 were evaluated by measuring the colony diameter, the inhibition rate of mycelial growth and the content of mycotoxin in the media. The results indicated that TGML had a stronger inhibitory effects on colony growth and mycelial development of both toxic molds compared to sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, and the secretions of toxins from A. parasiticus and A. flavus were completely suppressed when adding TGML at 10 and 5 mM, respectively. Based on the above results, TGML may be used as a substitute for traditional antifungal agents in the food industry.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_30_561
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_30_561
PubMedID: 31986567

Title : Biochemical Mechanisms, Cross-resistance and Stability of Resistance to Metaflumizone in Plutella xylostella - Shen_2020_Insects_11_
Author(s) : Shen J , Li Z , Li D , Wang R , Zhang S , You H , Li J
Ref : Insects , 11 : , 2020
Abstract : The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) is an important pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. It has developed resistance to many conventional and novel insecticide classes. Metaflumizone belongs to the new chemical class of semicarbazone insecticides. To delay the development of metaflumizone resistance in P. xylostella and to guide insecticide use in the field, the biochemical mechanisms, cross-resistance spectrum, and stability of resistance to metaflumizone were studied in a laboratory-selected resistant strain (metaflu-SEL). Synergism tests with the carboxylesterase inhibitor triphenyl phosphate (TPP), the glutathione S-transferase depletor diethyl maleate (DEM), and the P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had no obvious effect on metaflumizone in the metaflu-SEL strain and the susceptible strain (SS) of P. xylostella, with synergism ratios that ranged from 1.02 to 1.86. Biochemical studies revealed that the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase increased only 1.13-fold in the metaflu-SEL strain compared with the UNSEL stain; meanwhile, carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity showed no difference. These results suggest that these detoxification enzymes may be not actively involved in metaflumizone resistance. Furthermore, the metaflu-SEL population showed a moderate level of cross-resistance to indoxacarb (11.63-fold), but only very low cross-resistance to spinosad (1.75-fold), spinetoram (3.52-fold), abamectin (2.81-fold), beta-cypermethrin (0.71-fold), diafenthiuron (0.79-fold), chlorantraniliprole (2.16-fold), BT (WG-001) (3.34-fold), chlorfenapyr (0.49-fold), and chlorfluazuron (0.97-fold). Moreover, metaflumizone resistance decreased from 1087.85- to 1.23-fold in the metaflu-SEL strain after 12 generations without exposure to metaflumizone. These results are useful for formulating insecticide resistance management strategies to control P. xylostella and to delay the development of metaflumizone resistance in the field.
ESTHER : Shen_2020_Insects_11_
PubMedSearch : Shen_2020_Insects_11_
PubMedID: 32429053

Title : Transcription Factors ZEB1 and CREB Promote the Transcription of Bovine ABHD5 Gene - Wang_2021_DNA.Cell.Biol_40_219
Author(s) : Wang X , Li A , Raza SHA , Liang C , Zhang S , Mei C , Yang W , Zan L
Ref : DNA & Cell Biology , 40 :219 , 2020
Abstract : Alpha/beta hydrolase domain 5 (ABHD5) plays a significant role in intracellular lipid metabolism, which is regulated by a complex network of transcription factors. The transcriptional regulation of the ABHD5 gene in cattle and other livestock, however, has not been previously investigated. Investigations in humans and animal models indicate that the transcription factors zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) may play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of ABHD5 in cattle. Our comparison of the sequence similarities in the transcription factor binding sites in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, Bos mutus, and Homo sapiens revealed high homology. Based on the data collected by the Cistrome Data Browser and its visualization window, we found that ZEB1 and CREB have significant ChIP-seq enrichments in the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) of the human ABHD5 gene. In bovine adipocytes, we detected ZEB1 and CREB binding sites in the ABHD5 gene. Mutations in the ZEB1 and CREB binding sites significantly reduced the promoter activity (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated the binding of the transcription factors in vivo and in vitro, respectively. And overexpression or silencing the expression of the ZEB1 and CREB, respectively, resulted in significant changes to the ABHD5 promoter activity. Collectively, these results indicate that ZEB1 and CREB are important transcription factors that regulate ABHD5 gene expression in bovine adipocytes. They further our understanding of the transcriptional regulation and biological functions of the bovine ABHD5 gene.
ESTHER : Wang_2021_DNA.Cell.Biol_40_219
PubMedSearch : Wang_2021_DNA.Cell.Biol_40_219
PubMedID: 33332227
Gene_locus related to this paper: bovin-q0vcc8 , human-ABHD5

Title : LncRNA KCNQ1OT1 ameliorates the liver injury induced by acetaminophen through the regulation of miR-122-5p\/CES2 axis - Pei_2020_Mol.Cell.Biochem_475_107
Author(s) : Pei J , Sun X , Yang G , Zhang S
Ref : Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry , 475 :107 , 2020
Abstract : Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be implicated in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI). We applied this study to investigate the role and functional mechanism of KCNQ1 overlapping transcript 1 (KCNQ1OT1) in AILI. The AILI model was established by APAP treatment in mice. The liver injury was preliminarily evaluated by ALT and AST activities via the detection kits. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was exploited for detecting the expression of KCNQ1OT1, microRNA-122-5p (miR-122-5p), and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2). Protein levels were analyzed via Western blot. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and flow cytometry were separately applied to determine cell proliferation and apoptosis rate. Inflammation was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dual-luciferase reporter assay was implemented to testify the intergenic combination. The function of KCNQ1OT1 in vivo was explored through KCNQ1OT1 knockdown in mice. APAP triggered the downregulation of KCNQ1OT1 and CES2 in mice serums. KCNQ1OT1 upregulation could relieve the AILI in HepaRG cells, which were abrogated by CES2 downregulation. KCNQ1OT1 served as a sponge of miR-122-5p and miR-122-5p directly targeted CES2. KCNQ1OT1 overexpression abated the AILI through the miR-122-5p/CES2 axis in HepaRG cells in vitro and mice in vivo. The collective results clarified that KCNQ1OT1 weakened the AILI in vitro and in vivo by the miR-122-5p/CES2 axis, providing an explicit molecular mechanism and selectable therapeutic strategy of AILI.
ESTHER : Pei_2020_Mol.Cell.Biochem_475_107
PubMedSearch : Pei_2020_Mol.Cell.Biochem_475_107
PubMedID: 32779042

Title : Neuroprotective function of a novel hexapeptide QMDDQ from shrimp via activation of PKA\/CREB\/BNDF signaling pathway and its structure-activity relationship - Wu_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
Author(s) : Wu D , Zhang S , Sun N , Zhu B , Lin S
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , : , 2020
Abstract : This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective function of shrimp-derived peptides QMDDQ and KMDDQ. Biochemical results revealed that both peptides exerted neuroprotective effects by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) content and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in PC12 cells; QMDDQ was more active than KMDDQ. COSY-NOESY spectroscopic data showed that the superior neuroprotective function of QMDDQ might be attributed to its N-terminal glutamine as it exhibited an extended spatial conformation, facilitating its interactions with AChE. QMDDQ can promote the basic energy metabolism of cells more than KMDDQ. The peptides showed neuroprotective ability due to activating the anti-apoptosis and PKA/CREB/BNDF signaling pathway. QMDDQ was selected to investigate its memory-enhancing activity in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice, revealing memory protection in mice, as it improved their performance in the Morris water maze experiment. In addition, QMDDQ increased ACh content (4.98+/-0.51 mug/mg prot) and decreased AChE activity (4.72+/-0.11 U/mg prot) in the mouse hippocampus. These data indicate the systemic mechanism through which naturally derived QMDDQ improved neuroprotection and memory ability.
ESTHER : Wu_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Wu_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedID: 32452680

Title : Diosgenin alleviates hypercholesterolemia via SRB1\/CES-1\/CYP7A1\/FXR pathway in high-fat diet-fed rats - Yu_2020_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol__115388
Author(s) : Yu L , Lu H , Yang X , Li R , Shi J , Yu Y , Ma C , Sun F , Zhang S , Zhang F
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , :115388 , 2020
Abstract : Phytosterol diosgenin (DG) exhibits cholesterol-lowering properties. Few studies focused on the underlying mechanism of DG attenuation of hypercholesterolemia by promoting cholesterol metabolism. To investigate the roles of SRB1/CES-1/CYP7A1/FXR pathways in accelerating cholesterol elimination and alleviating hypercholesterolemia, a rat model of hypercholesterolemia was induced by providing a high-fat diet (HFD). Experimental rat models were randomly divided into a normal control (Con) group, HFD group, low-dose DG (LDG) group (150mg/kg/d), high-dose DG (HDG) group (300mg/kg) and Simvastatin (Sim) group (4mg/kg/d). Body weights, serum and hepatic lipid parameters of rats were tested. The expression levels of scavenger receptor class B type I (SRB1), carboxylesterase-1 (CES-1), cholesterol7alpha- hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) were determined. The results showed that DG reduced weight and lowered lipid levels in HFD-fed rats. Pathological morphology analyses revealed that DG notably improved hepatic steatosis and intestinal structure. Further studies showed the increased hepatic SRB1, CES-1, CYP7A1 and inhibited FXR-mediated signaling in DG-fed rats, which contributing to the decrease of hepatic cholesterol. DG also increased intestinal SRB1 and CES-1, inhibiting cholesterol absorption and promoting RCT. The expression levels of these receptors in the HDG group were higher than LDG and Sim groups. These data suggested that DG accelerated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and enhanced cholesterol elimination via SRB1/CES-1/CYP7A1/FXR pathway, and DG might be a new candidate for the alleviation of hypercholesterolemia.
ESTHER : Yu_2020_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol__115388
PubMedSearch : Yu_2020_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol__115388
PubMedID: 33383043

Title : Ratiometric sensors with selective fluorescence enhancement effects based on photonic crystals for the determination of acetylcholinesterase and its inhibitor - Liu_2020_J.Mater.Chem.B_8_11001
Author(s) : Liu R , Bao L , Zhang S , Wu Z , Zhou J , Liu C , Yu R
Ref : J Mater Chem B , 8 :11001 , 2020
Abstract : Ratiometric fluorescent sensors are powerful tools for quantitative analyses. However, gold nano-clusters (AuNCs) as typical fluorophores in ratiometric sensors have some disadvantages, such as low luminous efficiency. In this study, a highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescence sensor was fabricated by the combination of AuNCs and fluorescein (FL), and the photonic crystals (PhCs) were used to selectively enhance the fluorescence intensity of AuNCs. This fluorescence sensor was used for the sensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and its inhibitor paraoxon. AChE can catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCh) to form thiocholine (TCh), which can induce the fluorescence quenching of AuNCs while having no obvious influence on the fluorescence intensity of FL. AChE can be determined in the range from 0.1 to 25 mU mL-1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.027 mU mL-1, and paraoxon can be determined in the range of 0.06 to 60 ng mL-1 with a LOD 0.025 ng mL-1. This method, as a new way to selectively improve the fluorescence signal of one of the fluorophores in the ratiometric sensor, would be a promising strategy for the sensitive determination of AChE and its inhibitor.
ESTHER : Liu_2020_J.Mater.Chem.B_8_11001
PubMedSearch : Liu_2020_J.Mater.Chem.B_8_11001
PubMedID: 33225325

Title : Protective effects of chondroitin sulphate nano-selenium on a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - Ji_2020_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__
Author(s) : Ji D , Wu X , Li D , Liu P , Zhang S , Gao D , Gao F , Zhang M , Xiao Y
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , : , 2020
Abstract : In this study, the effect of chondroitin sulphate nano-selenium (CS@Se) on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in mice was investigated. CS@Se alleviated anxiety and improved the spatial learning and memory impairment in AD mice. CS@Se significantly reduced cell oedema and pyknosis, protected the mitochondria, and improved abnormal changes in the ultrastructure of hippocampal neuron synapses of AD mice. Moreover, CS@Se significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase assay (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and acetyltransferase (ChAT), and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase (ChAE) in AD mice. Western blot results showed that CS@Se can attenuate excessive phosphorylation of tau (Ser396/Ser404) by regulating the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3beta). In addition, CS@Se can activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signalling pathways to inhibit nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) nuclear translocation, thereby regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In summary, CS@Se can reduce oxidative stress damage, inhibit excessive tau phosphorylation, reduce inflammation to delay AD development, and increase the learning and memory capacities of AD mice.
ESTHER : Ji_2020_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__
PubMedSearch : Ji_2020_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__
PubMedID: 32171837

Title : Analysis of a Chinese Pedigree With Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome Reveals Two Novel LPL Mutations by Whole-Exome Sequencing - Liu_2020_Front.Genet_11_741
Author(s) : Liu Y , Lan Z , Zhao F , Zhang S , Zhang W
Ref : Front Genet , 11 :741 , 2020
Abstract : Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in chylomicron breakdown through hydrolysis of triglycerides into free fatty acids. Patients are often diagnosed in early childhood with extremely high triglyceride levels and symptoms including abdominal pain, eruptive cutaneous xanthomata, hepatosplenomegaly, and significant cognitive, psychological, and social impairment. The most serious medical condition suffered by FCS patients is recurrent acute pancreatitis. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene mutation accounts for majority of the known pathogenic mutations. Early diagnosis and strict low-fat diet are critical for successful management of the triglyceride concentration to lower the risk of pancreatitis. The true prevalence of FCS in China is unknown and here we report a Chinese female preterm neonate presented with an extremely high triglyceride level of 22.11 mmol/L on day 13 after birth. Clinical and laboratory workup including whole-exome sequencing revealed two novel compound heterozygous LPL mutations (c.406G > C and c.829G > C) that are co-segregated with her non-consanguineous parents, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. A diagnosis of FCS based on clinical, biochemical, and genetic ground was made to guide her management.
ESTHER : Liu_2020_Front.Genet_11_741
PubMedSearch : Liu_2020_Front.Genet_11_741
PubMedID: 32765589
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LPL

Title : Comparison of Enzyme Secretion and Ferulic Acid Production by Escherichia coli Expressing Different Lactobacillus Feruloyl Esterases - Xu_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_568716
Author(s) : Xu Z , Kong J , Zhang S , Wang T , Liu X
Ref : Front Microbiol , 11 :568716 , 2020
Abstract : Construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying feruloyl esterase genes for secretory expression offers an attractive way to facilitate enzyme purification and one-step production of ferulic acid from agricultural waste. A total of 10 feruloyl esterases derived from nine Lactobacillus species were expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) to investigate their secretion and ferulic acid production. Extracellular activity determination showed all these Lactobacillus feruloyl esterases could be secreted out of E. coli cells. However, protein analysis indicated that they could be classified as three types. The first type presented a low secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus johnsonii. The second type showed a high secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus helveticus. The third type also behaved a high secretion level but easy degradation, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus reuteri. Moreover, these recombinant E. coli strains could directly release ferulic acid from agricultural waste. The highest yield was 140 g on the basis of 0.1 g de-starched wheat bran by using E. coli expressed L. amylovorus feruloyl esterase. These results provided a solid basis for the production of feruloyl esterase and ferulic acid.
ESTHER : Xu_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_568716
PubMedSearch : Xu_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_568716
PubMedID: 33329424
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacam-a0a1c9u7k7

Title : Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of 1,2-dipalmitoylgalloylglycerol: Characterization and optimization of reaction condition - Zhang_2020_Food.Chem__128604
Author(s) : Zhang S , Hyatt JR , Akoh CC
Ref : Food Chem , :128604 , 2020
Abstract : A novel diacylglycerol-based galloyl structured lipid, 1,2-dipalmitoylgalloylglycerol (DPGG), was synthesized using the enzymatic transesterification of propyl gallate (PG) and tripalmitin under solvent-free condition. An immobilized and commercially available food-grade Candida antarctica lipase B, Lipozyme 435, was used as the biocatalyst. The reaction variables that affect the yield of DPGG were optimized using a 3(3) full factorial design. At 70 degreeC, DPGG was obtained at a yield of 33.0 +/- 2.0% with PG conversion at 44.8 +/- 1.8% when the following condition was used: 25 substrate molar ratio of tripalmitin to PG, 120 h reaction time, and 25% enzyme load relative to the total substrate weight. The structure of reaction product was elucidated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrospray ionization high-resolution accurate-mass tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-HRAM-MS/MS), and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The effects of different lipases and galloyl donors/acceptors on the transesterification were also investigated.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Food.Chem__128604
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Food.Chem__128604
PubMedID: 33243556

Title : 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and up-regulation of neurofilament expression in neuronal cells: Evaluation of AhR and MAPK pathways - Chen_2020_Environ.Int_134_105193
Author(s) : Chen Y , Xie HQ , Sha R , Xu T , Zhang S , Fu H , Xia Y , Liu YY , Xu L , Zhao B
Ref : Environ Int , 134 :105193 , 2020
Abstract : Dioxin exposure is reported to affect nervous system development and increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, dioxin exerts its neurotoxicity via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Neurofilament (NF) light (NFL) protein is a biomarker for both neuronal differentiation and neurodegeneration and its expression is controlled by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, the effects of dioxin on NFL expression and involved mechanisms are incompletely understood. We aimed to investigate the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on NFL expression and elucidate the underlining signaling pathways and their potential crosstalk, specifically between MAPK and AhR pathway. We employed primary cultured rat cortical neurons to evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on NFL expression. We also used nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC12 cells with specific inhibitors to investigate the involvement of and potential crosstalk between the MAPK pathway and the AhR pathway in mediating the effects of TCDD on NFL expression. After TCDD exposure, NFL mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in cultured neurons. NFL protein was preferentially found in the cell body compared with neurites of the cultured neurons. In PC12 cells, TCDD enhanced both NGF-induced NFL expression and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38. The addition of MAPK-pathway inhibitors (PD98059 and SB230580) partially blocked the TCDD-induced NFL upregulation. CH223191, an AhR antagonist, reversed the upregulation of NFL and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 induced by TCDD. This study demonstrated TCDD-induced upregulation of NFL in cultured neurons, with protein retained in the cell body. TCDD action was dependent on activation of AhR and MAPK, while crosstalk was found between these two signaling pathways.
ESTHER : Chen_2020_Environ.Int_134_105193
PubMedSearch : Chen_2020_Environ.Int_134_105193
PubMedID: 31775093

Title : Correlation analysis between CARMEN variants and alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in the Chinese population - Guo_2020_BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord_21_547
Author(s) : Guo Y , Cao Y , Gong S , Zhang S , Hou F , Zhang X , Hu J , Yang Z , Yi J , Luo D , Chen X , Song J
Ref : BMC Musculoskelet Disord , 21 :547 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a complicated disease associated with trauma, hormone abuse and excessive alcohol consumption. Polymorphisms of long non-coding RNAs have been also linked with the development of ONFH. Our research aimed to explore the relationship between CARMEN (Cardiac Mesoderm Enhancer-Associated Non-Coding RNA) variants and ONFH risk. METHODS: Our study used Agena MassARRAY Assay to genotype 6 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 731 participants (308 alcohol-induced ONFH patients and 423 controls). We used odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to calculate the effect of gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of alcohol-induced ONFH by logistic regression analysis and haplotype analysis. RESULTS: Our overall analysis illustrated that rs13177623 and rs12654195 had an association with a reduced risk of ONFH after adjustment for age and gender. We also found that rs13177623, rs12654195 and rs11168100 were associated with a decreased susceptibility to alcohol-induced ONFH in people <=45 years. In addition, the necrotic sites stratification analysis showed that rs12654195 was only found to be related to alcohol-induced ONFH risk in the recessive model. In patients with different clinical stages, rs353300 was observed to be associated with a higher incidence of ONFH. Individuals with different genotypes of rs13177623, rs12654195 and rs11168100 had significantly different clinical parameters (cholinesterase, globulin, percentage of neutrophils and the absolute value of lymphocytes). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provided new light on the association between CARMEN polymorphisms and alcohol-induced ONFH risk in the Chinese Han population.
ESTHER : Guo_2020_BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord_21_547
PubMedSearch : Guo_2020_BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord_21_547
PubMedID: 32799824

Title : Constructing Cross-linked Nanofibrous Scaffold via Dual-Enzyme-Instructed Hierarchical Assembly - Zhang_2020_Langmuir__
Author(s) : Zhang S , Cortes W , Zhang Y
Ref : Langmuir , : , 2020
Abstract : To explore the potential of step-by-step assembly in the fabrication of biological materials, we designed and synthesized two peptide-based molecules for enzyme-instructed hierarchical assembly (EIHA). Upon the treatment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), one molecule undergoes enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) forming uniformed nanofibers. The other one that can self-assemble into vesicles undergoes enzyme-induced transformation of self-assembly (EITSA) converting vesicles into irregular aggregates upon the treatment of carboxylesterase (CES). Co-administration of two enzymes to a mixture of these two molecules in a stage-by-stage fashion leads to a physically knotted nanofibrous scaffold that is applicable as a nanostructured matrix for cell culture.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Langmuir__
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Langmuir__
PubMedID: 32418429

Title : An optimized acetylcholine sensor for monitoring in vivo cholinergic activity - Jing_2020_Nat.Methods_17_1139
Author(s) : Jing M , Li Y , Zeng J , Huang P , Skirzewski M , Kljakic O , Peng W , Qian T , Tan K , Zou J , Trinh S , Wu R , Zhang S , Pan S , Hires SA , Xu M , Li H , Saksida LM , Prado VF , Bussey TJ , Prado MAM , Chen L , Cheng H
Ref : Nat Methods , 17 :1139 , 2020
Abstract : The ability to directly measure acetylcholine (ACh) release is an essential step toward understanding its physiological function. Here we optimized the GRAB(ACh) (GPCR-activation-based ACh) sensor to achieve substantially improved sensitivity in ACh detection, as well as reduced downstream coupling to intracellular pathways. The improved version of the ACh sensor retains the subsecond response kinetics, physiologically relevant affinity and precise molecular specificity for ACh of its predecessor. Using this sensor, we revealed compartmental ACh signals in the olfactory center of transgenic flies in response to external stimuli including odor and body shock. Using fiber photometry recording and two-photon imaging, our ACh sensor also enabled sensitive detection of single-trial ACh dynamics in multiple brain regions in mice performing a variety of behaviors.
ESTHER : Jing_2020_Nat.Methods_17_1139
PubMedSearch : Jing_2020_Nat.Methods_17_1139
PubMedID: 32989318

Title : A case report of acute renal failure caused by Amanita neoovoidea poisoning in Anhui Province, eastern China - Wang_2020_Toxicon_173_62
Author(s) : Wang H , Wang Y , Shi FF , Zhang S , Fang WT , Qi LM , Wang N , Huang C , Fang HQ , Li HJ
Ref : Toxicon , 173 :62 , 2020
Abstract : Amanita neoovoidea (genus Amanita Pers.) poisoning leads to acute renal failure. Here, we present seven case reports of acute renal failure with acute hepatic failure due to ingestion of A. neoovoidea. Clinical manifestations included gastrointestinal symptoms 1-72 h after ingestion; elevation of renal parameters and blood uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine levels; a few abnormal hepatic parameters, primarily albumin decrease and alanine aminotransferase increase; and elevation of zymogram parameters such as cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase. To determine whether the hepatic/renal lesions were caused by amanitins, we analyzed the blood and urine samples of patients and specimens of poisonous mushrooms. Morphological and molecular biological analyses indicated that the mushroom was A. neoovoidea. However, no amatoxins and phallotoxins were detected in its basidiomata.
ESTHER : Wang_2020_Toxicon_173_62
PubMedSearch : Wang_2020_Toxicon_173_62
PubMedID: 31759921

Title : Inhibition of cell proliferation and migration in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells through the suppression of LYPLA1 - Mohammed_2019_Oncol.Rep_41_973
Author(s) : Mohammed A , Zhang C , Zhang S , Shen Q , Li J , Tang Z , Liu H
Ref : Oncol Rep , 41 :973 , 2019
Abstract : Lysophospholipase1 (LYPLA1) also known as acylprotein thioesterase1 (APT1) belongs to the superfamily of alpha/beta hydrolase. It has been found to have the properties of a homodimer by manifesting depalmitoylation as well as lysophospholipase activity. LYPLAs are under the control of both microRNAs, miR138 and miR424. They were observed to be significantly overexpressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. To date, LYPLAs are the sole enzymes recognized to activate depalmitoylation. In this study, we provide the expression pattern of LYPLA1 in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using four different NSCLC cell lines. Western blot analysis and RTPCR were performed to detect the protein expression and mRNA expression of LYPLA1 in NSCLC cell lines. We detected the highest LYPLA1 protein expression level in SPCA1 cells followed by A549 cells, and the highest LYPLA1 mRNA expression level was detected in the SPCA1 cells followed by the H1299 cell line. We found that suppression of LYPLA1 expression using smallinterfering RNA significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of the LYPLA1transfected NSCLC cells. Furthermore, we explored the involvement of LYPLA1 in the regulation of epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT). The epithelial marker Ecadherin was significantly increased, while mesenchymal markers Ncadherin, vimentin and SNAIL were markedly decreased in the LYPLA1silenced cells. Collectively the results of the present study suggest that the LYPLA1 gene plays a tumorpromotor role in NSCLC cells in vitro.
ESTHER : Mohammed_2019_Oncol.Rep_41_973
PubMedSearch : Mohammed_2019_Oncol.Rep_41_973
PubMedID: 30431103
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LYPLA1

Title : Transcriptomic analysis of Chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterial strain Klebsiella jilinsis 2N3 - Zhang_2019_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_183_109581
Author(s) : Zhang C , Hao Q , Zhang S , Zhang Z , Zhang X , Sun P , Pan H , Zhang H , Sun F
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 183 :109581 , 2019
Abstract : Chlorimuron-ethyl is a sulfonylurea herbicide with a long residual period in the field and is toxic to rotational crops. Klebsiella jilinsis 2N3 is a gram-negative bacterium that can rapidly degrade Chlorimuron-ethyl. In this study, the gene expression changes in strain 2N3 during degradation of Chlorimuron-ethyl was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that 386 genes were up-regulated and 453 genes were down-regulated. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed the highest enrichment ratio in the pathway of sulfur metabolism. On the basis of the functional annotation and gene expression, we predicted that carboxylesterase, monooxygenase, glycosyltransferase, and cytochrome P450 were involved in the metabolism of Chlorimuron-ethyl biodegradation. Results of qRT-PCR showed that the relative mRNA expression levels of these genes were higher in treatment group than those in control group. The cytochrome P450 encoded by Kj-CysJ and the alkanesulfonate monooxygenase encoded by Kj-SsuD were predicted and further experimentally confirmed by gene knockout as the key enzymes in the biodegradation process. Cultured in basal medium containing Chlorimuron-ethyl (5mgL(-1)) in 36h, the strains of DeltaKj-CysJ, DeltaKj-SsuD, and WT reached the highest OD600 values of 0.308, 0.873, and 1.085, and the highest degradation rates of Chlorimuron-ethyl of 11.83%, 96.21%, and 95.62%, respectively.
ESTHER : Zhang_2019_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_183_109581
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2019_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_183_109581
PubMedID: 31446172

Title : Chemical characterization of the main bioactive polyphenols from the roots of Morus australis (mulberry) - Guo_2019_Food.Funct_10_6915
Author(s) : Guo S , Liu L , Zhang S , Yang C , Yue W , Zhao H , Ho CT , Du J , Zhang H , Bai N
Ref : Food Funct , 10 :6915 , 2019
Abstract : Morus species, commonly known as mulberry, is widely distributed in China. The mulberry tree is a high-value plant in agriculture. Morus australis is one of the major Morus species growing in Northern China. However, the biological properties of the main constituents of M. australis roots were not well studied. In the present study, through extensive chromatographic and spectral analysis, 12 phenolic compounds were isolated and identified from the M. australis roots. Compounds 1, 2, 8, 9 and 12 were isolated from M. australis roots for the first time. Antitumor activities of these polyphenols were studied on the A549 cell line. Compounds 1, 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxicity on A549 cells and induced apoptosis in A549 cells via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. They also mediated inhibition of autophagic flux contributed cell death via the PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway. In order to explore more potential bioactivities of these isolates, alpha-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were studied, and the results demonstrated that the inhibitory activity of these polyphenols on enzymes was not defined by their basic structural skeletons, but by the substituted position.
ESTHER : Guo_2019_Food.Funct_10_6915
PubMedSearch : Guo_2019_Food.Funct_10_6915
PubMedID: 31588440

Title : Molecular Basis of BioJ, a Unique Gatekeeper in Bacterial Biotin Synthesis - Wei_2019_iScience_19_796
Author(s) : Wei W , Guan H , Zhu T , Zhang S , Fan C , Ouyang S , Feng Y
Ref : iScience , 19 :796 , 2019
Abstract : Biotin is an indispensable cofactor in the three domains of life. The unusual virulence factor BioJ of Francisella catalyzes the formation of pimeloyl-ACP, an intermediate in biotin synthesis. Here, we report the 1.58 A crystal structure of BioJ, the enzymatic activity of which is determined with the in vitro reconstituted reaction and biotin bioassay in vivo. Unlike the paradigm BioH, BioJ displays an atypical alpha/beta-hydrolase fold. A structurally conserved catalytic triad (S151, D248, and H278) of BioJ is functionally defined. A proposed model for BioJ catalysis involves two basic residues-rich cavities, of which cavity-1, rather than cavity-2, binds to the ACP moiety of its physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester. In summary, this finding provides molecular insights into the BioJ gatekeeper of biotin synthesis.
ESTHER : Wei_2019_iScience_19_796
PubMedSearch : Wei_2019_iScience_19_796
PubMedID: 31494495
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9gamm-BioJ

Title : Chemical characterization of main bioactive constituents in Paeonia ostii seed meal and GC-MS analysis of seed oil - Tian_2019_J.Food.Biochem__e13088
Author(s) : Tian X , Guo S , Zhang S , Li P , Wang T , Ho CT , Pan MH , Bai N
Ref : J Food Biochem , :e13088 , 2019
Abstract : The seeds of tree peony (Paeonia ostii) are promulgated as emerging edible oil crops. However, biological properties of principal constituents of peony seeds were not well studied. Fifteen main constituents including suffruticosols A and B, trans-epsilon-viniferin, ampelopsin E, resveratrol, trans-resveratrol-4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, paeoniflorin, luteolin, luteolin-4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin, kaempferol, oleanic acid, betulinic acid, hederagenin, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified. Their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines (COLO205, HT-29, HepG2, AGS, and HL-60) were evaluated. Among them, trans-epsilon-viniferin showed the most potent cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (IC50 5.6 muM); ampelopsin E exhibited the most obvious antiproliferative properties on COLO205 (IC50 78.1 muM) and HT-29 (IC50 4.2 muM) cells, and betulinic acid showed the strongest growth inhibitory effects on HepG2 (IC50 6.6 muM) and AGS (IC50 5.4 muM) cells. Three enzymes (tyronsinase, alpha-glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase) inhibitory activities of 12 compounds were also screened. Stilbene compounds, especially suffruticosols A and B, showed a significant inhibitory activity on all three enzymes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The cytotoxicity of 15 main constituents from peony seeds against COLO205, HT-29, HepG2, AGS, and HL-60 cells were evaluated. Among them, trans-epsilon-viniferin showed the most potent cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (IC50 5.6 muM); ampelopsin E exhibited the most obvious antiproliferative properties on COLO205 (IC50 78.1 muM) and HT-29 (IC50 4.2 muM) cells, and betulinic acid showed the strongest growth inhibitory effects on HepG2 (IC50 6.6 muM) and AGS (IC50 5.4 muM) cells. Collectively, these results suggested that Paeonia ostii seed (POS) extracts are potential candidates for anticancer agents.
ESTHER : Tian_2019_J.Food.Biochem__e13088
PubMedSearch : Tian_2019_J.Food.Biochem__e13088
PubMedID: 31646682

Title : Enhancing thermostability of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 2 through engineering multiple disulfide bonds and mitigating reduced lipase production associated with disulfide bonds - Li_2019_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_126_41
Author(s) : Li L , Zhang S , Wu W , Guan W , Deng Z , Qiao H
Ref : Enzyme Microb Technol , 126 :41 , 2019
Abstract : The limited thermostability of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 2 (Lip2) hampers its industrial application. To improve its thermostability, we combined single disulfide bonds which our group identified previously. In this study, combining different regional disulfide bonds had greater effect than combining same regional disulfide bonds. Furthermore, mutants with 4, 5, and 6 disulfide bonds exhibited dramatically enhanced thermostability. Compared with the wild-type, sextuple mutant 6s displayed a 22.53 and 31.23 degC increase in the melting temperature (T(m)) and the half loss temperature at 15 min (T15 50), respectively, with greater pH stability and a wider reaction pH range. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed that multiple disulfide bonds resulted in more rigid structures of mutants 4s, 5s and 6s, and prolonged enzyme unfolding times. Moreover, secretions of mutants 5s and 6s were significantly increased by 60% and 80% by co-expressing with the chaperone protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which mitigated the reduced production issue caused by multiple disulfide bonds. Results of this study indicated that enhanced heat endurance giving more potential for industrial application.
ESTHER : Li_2019_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_126_41
PubMedSearch : Li_2019_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_126_41
PubMedID: 31000163

Title : Structural definition of a neutralization epitope on the N-terminal domain of MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein - Zhou_2019_Nat.Commun_10_3068
Author(s) : Zhou H , Chen Y , Zhang S , Niu P , Qin K , Jia W , Huang B , Lan J , Zhang L , Tan W , Wang X
Ref : Nat Commun , 10 :3068 , 2019
Abstract : Most neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein and block its binding to the cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The epitopes and mechanisms of mAbs targeting non-RBD regions have not been well characterized yet. Here we report the monoclonal antibody 7D10 that binds to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike glycoprotein and inhibits the cell entry of MERS-CoV with high potency. Structure determination and mutagenesis experiments reveal the epitope and critical residues on the NTD for 7D10 binding and neutralization. Further experiments indicate that the neutralization by 7D10 is not solely dependent on the inhibition of DPP4 binding, but also acts after viral cell attachment, inhibiting the pre-fusion to post-fusion conformational change of the spike. These properties give 7D10 a wide neutralization breadth and help explain its synergistic effects with several RBD-targeting antibodies.
ESTHER : Zhou_2019_Nat.Commun_10_3068
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2019_Nat.Commun_10_3068
PubMedID: 31296843

Title : Functional analysis of the GbDWARF14 gene associated with branching development in cotton - Wang_2019_PeerJ_7_e6901
Author(s) : Wang P , Zhang S , Qiao J , Sun Q , Shi Q , Cai C , Mo J , Chu Z , Yuan Y , Du X , Miao Y , Zhang X , Cai Y
Ref : PeerJ , 7 :e6901 , 2019
Abstract : Plant architecture, including branching pattern, is an important agronomic trait of cotton crops. In recent years, strigolactones (SLs) have been considered important plant hormones that regulate branch development. In some species such as Arabidopsis, DWARF14 is an unconventional receptor that plays an important role in the SL signaling pathway. However, studies on SL receptors in cotton are still lacking. Here, we cloned and analysed the structure of the GbD14 gene in Gossypium barbadense and found that it contains the domains necessary for a SL receptor. The GbD14 gene was expressed primarily in the roots, leaves and vascular bundles, and the GbD14 protein was determined via GFP to localize to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Gene expression analysis revealed that the GbD14 gene not only responded to SL signals but also was differentially expressed between cotton plants whose types of branching differed. In particular, GbD14 was expressed mainly in the axillary buds of normal-branching cotton, while it was expressed the most in the leaves of nulliplex-branch cotton. In cotton, the GbD14 gene can be induced by SL and other plant hormones, such as indoleacetic acid, abscisic acid, and jasmonic acid. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis, GbD14-overexpressing Arabidopsis responded more rapidly to SL signals. Moreover, we also found that GbD14 can rescue the multi-branched phenotype of Arabidopsis Atd14 mutants. Our results indicate that the function of GbD14 is similar to that of AtD14, and GbD14 may be a receptor for SL in cotton and involved in regulating branch development. This research provides a theoretical basis for a profound understanding of the molecular mechanism of branch development and ideal plant architecture for cotton breeding improvements.
ESTHER : Wang_2019_PeerJ_7_e6901
PubMedSearch : Wang_2019_PeerJ_7_e6901
PubMedID: 31143538

Title : Characterization of the prognostic values of the NDRG family in gastric cancer - Yu_2019_Therap.Adv.Gastroenterol_12_1756284819858507
Author(s) : Yu C , Hao X , Zhang S , Hu W , Li J , Sun J , Zheng M
Ref : Therap Adv Gastroenterol , 12 :1756284819858507 , 2019
Abstract : Background: The N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) family, NDRG1-4, has been involved in a wide spectrum of biological functions in multiple cancers. However, their prognostic values remain sparse in gastric cancer (GC). Therefore, it is crucial to systematically investigate the prognostic values of the NDRG family in GC. Methods: The prognostic values of the NDRG family were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier Plotter and SurvExpress. The mRNA of the NDRG family was investigated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs associated with the NDRG family were predicted by NetworkAnalysis. The prognostic values of DNA methylation levels were analyzed by MethSurv. The correlation between immune cells and the NDRG family was evaluated by the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database. Results: High levels of mRNA expression of NDRG2 and NDRG3 were associated with a favorable prognosis in all GCs. In HER2 (-) GC, NDRG1 was significantly associated with a poor prognosis of GC [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-2.33, p = 0.0046]. In HER2 (+) GC, NDRG4 showed a poor prognosis (HR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, p = 0.017). NDRG4 was an independent prognostic factor in recurrence-free survival by TCGA cohort. The low-risk NDRG-signature group displayed a significantly favorable survival outcome than the high-risk group (HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.2-2.59, p = 0.00385). The phosphorylated protein NDRG1 (NDRG1_pT346) displayed a favorable overall survival and was significantly associated with HER2 and phosphorylated HER2. Epidermis development was the top biological process (BP) for coexpressed genes associated with NDRG1 and NDRG4, while mitotic nuclear division and mitotic cell processes were the top BPs for NDRG2 and NDRG3, respectively. Overall, 6 CpGs of NDRG1, 4 CpGs of NDRG2, 3 CpGs of NDRG3 and 24 CpGs of NDRG4 were associated with significant prognosis. CD4(+) T-cells showed the highest correlation with NDRG4 (correlation = 0.341, p = 2.14e(-11)). Furthermore, BCL6 in follicular helper T-cells (Tfh) cells showed the highest association with NDRG4 (correlation = 0.438, p = 00e(+)00). Conclusions: This study analyzed the multilevel prognostic values and biological roles of the NDRG family in GC.
ESTHER : Yu_2019_Therap.Adv.Gastroenterol_12_1756284819858507
PubMedSearch : Yu_2019_Therap.Adv.Gastroenterol_12_1756284819858507
PubMedID: 31384305

Title : Exposure to diclofop-methyl induces immunotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in zebrafish embryos - Cao_2019_Aquat.Toxicol_214_105253
Author(s) : Cao Z , Zou L , Wang H , Zhang H , Liao X , Xiao J , Zhang S , Lu H
Ref : Aquat Toxicol , 214 :105253 , 2019
Abstract : Diclofop-methyl (DM) is widely used in agriculture and may lead to serious toxicity. However, a limited number of studies have been performed to evaluate the toxicity of DM in the immune and nervous systems of animals. Here, we utilized a good vertebrate model, zebrafish, to evaluate the toxicity of DM during the developmental process. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5mg/l DM from 6h post fertilization (hpf) to 72 hpf induced developmental abnormalities, such as shorter body lengths and yolk sac edemas. The number of immune cells in zebrafish larvae was significantly reduced, but the inflammatory response was not influenced by DM treatment. The expression of immune-related genes were downregulated and the levels of oxidative stress were upregulated by DM exposure. Moreover, locomotor behaviors were inhibited by DM exposure. Therefore, our results suggest that DM has the potential to induce immunotoxicity and cause behavioral changes in zebrafish larvae. This study provides new evidence of the influence of DM exposure on aquatic ecosystems.
ESTHER : Cao_2019_Aquat.Toxicol_214_105253
PubMedSearch : Cao_2019_Aquat.Toxicol_214_105253
PubMedID: 31352076

Title : Screening for neurotoxic potential of 15 flame retardants using freshwater planarians - Zhang_2019_Neurotoxicol.Teratol_73_54
Author(s) : Zhang S , Ireland D , Sipes NS , Behl M , Collins ES
Ref : Neurotoxicology & Teratology , 73 :54 , 2019
Abstract : Asexual freshwater planarians are an attractive invertebrate model for high-throughput neurotoxicity screening, because they possess multiple quantifiable behaviors to assess distinct neuronal functions. Planarians uniquely allow direct comparisons between developing and adult animals to distinguish developmentally selective effects from general neurotoxicity. In this study, we used our automated planarian screening platform to compare the neurotoxicity of 15 flame retardants (FRs), consisting of representative phased-out brominated (BFRs) and replacement organophosphorus FRs (OPFRs). OPFRs have emerged as a proposed safer alternative to BFRs; however, limited information is available on their health effects. We found 11 of the 15 FRs (3/6 BFRs, 7/8 OPFRs, and Firemaster 550) caused adverse effects in both adult and developing planarians with similar nominal lowest-effect-levels for BFRs and OPFRs. This suggests that replacement OPFRs are comparably neurotoxic to the phased-out compounds. BFRs were primarily systemically toxic, whereas OPFRs, except Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, shared a behavioral phenotype in response to noxious heat at sublethal concentrations, indicating specific neurotoxic effects. We found this behavioral phenotype was correlated with cholinesterase inhibition, thus linking behavioral outcomes to molecular targets. By directly comparing effects on adult and developing planarians, we further found that one BFR (3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol A) caused a developmental selective defect. Together, these results demonstrate that our planarian screening platform yields high content data from various behavioral and morphological endpoints, allowing us to distinguish selective neurotoxic effects and effects specific to the developing nervous system. Ten of these 11 bioactive FRs were previously found to be bioactive in other models, including cell culture and alternative animal models (nematodes and zebrafish). This level of concordance across different platforms emphasizes the urgent need for further evaluation of OPFRs in mammalian systems.
ESTHER : Zhang_2019_Neurotoxicol.Teratol_73_54
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2019_Neurotoxicol.Teratol_73_54
PubMedID: 30943442

Title : Single intranasal immunization with chimpanzee adenovirus-based vaccine induces sustained and protective immunity against MERS-CoV infection - Jia_2019_Emerg.Microbes.Infect_8_760
Author(s) : Jia W , Channappanavar R , Zhang C , Li M , Zhou H , Zhang S , Zhou P , Xu J , Shan S , Shi X , Wang X , Zhao J , Zhou D , Perlman S , Zhang L
Ref : Emerg Microbes Infect , 8 :760 , 2019
Abstract : The recently identified Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe and fatal acute respiratory illness in humans. However, no approved prophylactic and therapeutic interventions are currently available. The MERS-CoV envelope spike protein serves as a crucial target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development, as it plays a critical role in mediating viral entry through interactions with the cellular receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). Here, we constructed a recombinant rare serotype of the chimpanzee adenovirus 68 (AdC68) that expresses full-length MERS-CoV S protein (AdC68-S). Single intranasal immunization with AdC68-S induced robust and sustained neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in BALB/c mice. In a human DPP4 knock-in (hDPP4-KI) mouse model, it completely protected against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (MERS-CoV-MA). Passive transfer of immune sera to naive hDPP4-KI mice also provided survival advantages from lethal MERS-CoV-MA challenge. Analysis of sera absorption and isolated monoclonal antibodies from immunized mice demonstrated that the potent and broad neutralizing activity was largely attributed to antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. These results show that AdC68-S can induce protective immune responses in mice and represent a promising candidate for further development against MERS-CoV infection in both dromedaries and humans.
ESTHER : Jia_2019_Emerg.Microbes.Infect_8_760
PubMedSearch : Jia_2019_Emerg.Microbes.Infect_8_760
PubMedID: 31130102

Title : Demethylbellidifolin isolated from Swertia bimaculate against human carboxylesterase 2: Kinetics and interaction mechanism merged with docking simulations - Liu_2019_Bioorg.Chem_90_103101
Author(s) : Liu TT , Huo XK , Tian XG , Liang JH , Yi J , Zhang XY , Zhang S , Feng L , Ning J , Zhang BJ , Sun CP , Ma XC
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 90 :103101 , 2019
Abstract : In this study, forty-nine kinds of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against human carboxylesterase 2 (HCE 2) using a human liver microsome (HLM) system. Swertia bimaculata showed significant inhibition on HCE 2 at 10mug/mL among forty-nine kinds of TCMs. The extract of Swertia bimaculata was separated by preparative HPLC to afford demethylbellidifolin (1) identified by MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectra. Demethylbellidifolin (1) was assayed for its inhibitory HCE 2 effect by HCE 2-mediated DDAB hydrolysis, and its potential IC50 value was 3.12+/-0.64muM. Demethylbellidifolin (1) was assigned as a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the inhibiton constant Ki value of 6.87microM by Lineweaver-Burk and slope plots. Living cell imaging was conducted to corroborate its inhibitory HCE 2 activity. Molecular docking indicated potential interactions of demethylbellidifolin (1) with HCE 2 through two hydrogen bonds of the C-3 and C-5 hydroxy groups with amino acid residues Glu227 and Ser228 in the catalytic cavity, respectively.
ESTHER : Liu_2019_Bioorg.Chem_90_103101
PubMedSearch : Liu_2019_Bioorg.Chem_90_103101
PubMedID: 31291611

Title : Bioactive Constituents of F. esculentum Bee Pollen and Quantitative Analysis of Samples Collected from Seven Areas by HPLC - Li_2019_Molecules_24_2705
Author(s) : Li F , Guo S , Zhang S , Peng S , Cao W , Ho CT , Bai N
Ref : Molecules , 24 :2705 , 2019
Abstract : Bee pollen contains all the essential amino acids needed by humans. China is the largest producer of bee pollen in the world. In the present study, we identified 11 fatty acids in F. esculentum bee pollen oil by GC-MS analysis, and 16 compounds were isolated from F. esculentum bee pollen by column chromatography and identified. A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for the quality control of F. esculentum bee pollen. A validated HPLC-DAD method was successfully applied to the simultaneous characterization and quantification of nine main constituents in seven samples collected from seven different areas in China. The results showed that all standard calibration curves exhibited good linearity (R(2) > 0.999) in HPLC-DAD analysis with excellent precision, repeatability and stability. The total amount in the samples from the seven regions ranged from 23.50 to 46.05 mg/g. In addition, seven compounds were studied for their bioactivity using enzymic methods, whereby kaempferol (3) showed high alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 80.35 mug/mL), ergosterol peroxide (8) showed high tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC50: 202.37 mug/mL), and luteolin (1) had strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50: 476.25 mug/mL). All results indicated that F. esculentum bee pollen could be a nutritious health food.
ESTHER : Li_2019_Molecules_24_2705
PubMedSearch : Li_2019_Molecules_24_2705
PubMedID: 31349561

Title : Clethodim exposure induced development toxicity and behaviour alteration in early stages of zebrafish life - Wang_2019_Environ.Pollut_255_113218
Author(s) : Wang H , Zhou L , Meng Z , Su M , Zhang S , Huang P , Jiang F , Liao X , Cao Z , Lu H
Ref : Environ Pollut , 255 :113218 , 2019
Abstract : Clethodim is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, however, its potential toxic effects on organisms and the underlying toxicity mechanism are still poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish embryos at 6h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to 10mg/L, 20mg/L, and 30mg/L clethodim for up to 24 hpf, and zebrafish larvae at 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) were exposed to the same density gradient for 24h. Our results showed that clethodim could cause head and cardiovascular malformations in embryos: blurred brain ventricles, unapparent brain regions, condensation of nucleus and cytoplasm in brain cells, increased intercellular space, developmental malformations of eyes and ears, reduced neonatal neurons, disorder migration of neural ridge cells; morphological aberrations of the vascular ICM, slowing of heart beat and blood flow, reduction of circulating red blood cells, and delayed development of head and tail blood vessels. These defects could be a result of clethodim-induced oxidative stress and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which in turn affected the expression of neurodevelopmental genes, decreased ATPase activity, and ultimately led to developmental malformations. The swimming behaviour of zebrafish larvae was observed to decrease with increasing concentration of clethodim exposure, but the angular velocity and mobility increased. These could be due to reduced AChE activity and disturbed gene expression of GABA, dopamine and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, which thus altered the locomotor behaviour. In summary, we found that clethodim induces developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae.
ESTHER : Wang_2019_Environ.Pollut_255_113218
PubMedSearch : Wang_2019_Environ.Pollut_255_113218
PubMedID: 31541821

Title : Food up-take and reproduction performance of Daphnia magna under the exposure of Bisphenols - Liu_2018_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_170_47
Author(s) : Liu Y , Yan Z , Zhang L , Deng Z , Yuan J , Zhang S , Chen J , Guo R
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 170 :47 , 2018
Abstract : Because the application of Bisphenol A (BPA) was restricted, many substitutes, such as Bisphenol F (BPF) and Bisphenol S (BPS), were developed as BPA substitutes. Therefore, environmental impacts of BPA and its substitutes on aquatic organisms should be concerned, especially their combined toxicity. In this study, the impacts of BPA, BPF, BPS and their mixture on the feeding behavior, reproduction and physiological function of daphnids were synthetically evaluated, involving the duration and mode of exposure. In short-term exposure tests, feeding rates of D. magna decreased after exposure to BPA, BPF, BPS and their mixture, while the inhibition reversed into stimulation in the recovery period. It may benefit from overcompensation of D. magna. In long-term exposure tests, the inhibition effect on the reproduction and growth of the exposed D. magna was difficult to recover, and only some experimental groups have a certain recovery. In conclusion, environmental risk of BPA, BPF, BPS and their mixture on the behavior of D. magna increased with prolonged exposure time. Moreover, relative activities of trypsin, amylase (AMS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carbonic anhydrase (CA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and super oxidase dimutase (SOD) of the exposed daphnids decreased in most treatment groups, indicating the disorder of digestive, nervous and antioxidative system of D. magna. Interestingly, inhibition of enzymes activities decreased with the increase of the exposure time, which implied the tolerance may be occurred.
ESTHER : Liu_2018_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_170_47
PubMedSearch : Liu_2018_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_170_47
PubMedID: 30522006

Title : Perfluorododecanoic acid exposure induced developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos - Guo_2018_Environ.Pollut_241_1018
Author(s) : Guo X , Zhang S , Lu S , Zheng B , Xie P , Chen J , Li G , Liu C , Wu Q , Cheng H , Sang N
Ref : Environ Pollut , 241 :1018 , 2018
Abstract : Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), an artificial perfluorochemical, has been widely distributed in different ambient media and has been reported to have the potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity. However, the specific mechanism is largely unknown. In the current study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 0, 0.24, 1.2, and 6mg/L PFDoA for 120h. Exposure to PFDoA causes serious decreases in hatching delay, body length, as well as decreased locomotor speed in zebrafish larvae. Additionally, the acetylcholine (ACh) content as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined to be significantly downregulated in PFDoA treatment groups. The level of dopamine was upregulated significantly after treating with 1.2 and 6mg/L of PFDoA. Gene expressions related to the nervous system development were also analyzed, with the exception of the gene mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (manf), which is upregulated in the 6mg/L treatment group. All other genes were significantly downregulated in larvae in the PFDoA group in different degrees. In general, the results demonstrated that PFDoA exposure could result in the disruption of the cholinergic system, dopaminergic signaling, and the central nervous system.
ESTHER : Guo_2018_Environ.Pollut_241_1018
PubMedSearch : Guo_2018_Environ.Pollut_241_1018
PubMedID: 30029309

Title : Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality - Wei_2018_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_115_E4151
Author(s) : Wei C , Yang H , Wang S , Zhao J , Liu C , Gao L , Xia E , Lu Y , Tai Y , She G , Sun J , Cao H , Tong W , Gao Q , Li Y , Deng W , Jiang X , Wang W , Chen Q , Zhang S , Li H , Wu J , Wang P , Li P , Shi C , Zheng F , Jian J , Huang B , Shan D , Shi M , Fang C , Yue Y , Li F , Li D , Wei S , Han B , Jiang C , Yin Y , Xia T , Zhang Z , Bennetzen JL , Zhao S , Wan X
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 115 :E4151 , 2018
Abstract : Tea, one of the world's most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to approximately 0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred approximately 30 to 40 and approximately 90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties.
ESTHER : Wei_2018_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_115_E4151
PubMedSearch : Wei_2018_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_115_E4151
PubMedID: 29678829
Gene_locus related to this paper: camsi-a0a4s4dr18 , camsi-a0a4s4etg9 , camsi-a0a4s4e3j5 , camsi-a0a4s4d2s5 , camsi-a0a4s4duc4 , camsi-a0a4v3wr80 , camsi-a0a4v3wpu4

Title : Development and validation of a novel score for fibrosis staging in patients with chronic hepatitis B - Wu_2018_Liver.Int_38_1930
Author(s) : Wu D , Rao Q , Chen W , Ji F , Xie Z , Huang K , Chen E , Zhao Y , Ouyang X , Zhang S , Jiang Z , Zhang L , Xu L , Gao H , Li L
Ref : Liver Int , 38 :1930 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-invasive assessment methods for liver fibrosis are urgently needed. The present study aimed to develop a novel diagnostic model for fibrosis staging in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: A cross-sectional set of 417 chronic hepatitis B patients who underwent liver biopsy was enrolled and the METAVIR score was adopted as the reference of fibrosis staging. RESULTS: Among thyroid hormones, only the level of free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) decreased gradually with the METAVIR fibrosis score (P < .001). FibroStage, a novel diagnosis model that incorporates data on FT4, platelets, cholinesterase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and age, was developed using the deriving set (n = 219). For the diagnosis of significant fibrosis, the FibroStage model had a significantly higher area under the receiver operating curve than did the FibroIndex, Forn, and Lok models (all of P < .01) and tended to better than the fibrosis-4 (P = .0791) but comparable with the aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index model (P = .1694). For the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, FibroStage had a higher area under the receiver operating curve than did the aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index, FibroIndex, Forn, and Lok models (all of P < .05) and had a comparable area under the receiver operating curve with the fibrosis-4 model (P = .2109). For the diagnosis of cirrhosis, the area under the receiver operating curve of FibroStage was higher than those of the aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index, fibrosis-4, FibroIndex, and Lok (all of P < .05) models and was comparable with Forn (P = .1649). These results was validated by a validation set (n = 198). CONCLUSION: FT4 may be an indicator for fibrosis staging in chronic hepatitis B patients. FibroStage is a better model than aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index, fibrosis-4, FibroIndex, Forn, and Lok for the comprehensively diagnosis of significant and advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis.
ESTHER : Wu_2018_Liver.Int_38_1930
PubMedSearch : Wu_2018_Liver.Int_38_1930
PubMedID: 29654711

Title : Targeting de novo lipogenesis as a novel approach in anti-cancer therapy - Stoiber_2018_Br.J.Cancer_118_43
Author(s) : Stoiber K , Naglo O , Pernpeintner C , Zhang S , Koeberle A , Ulrich M , Werz O , Muller R , Zahler S , Lohmuller T , Feldmann J , Braig S
Ref : Br J Cancer , 118 :43 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Although altered membrane physiology has been discussed within the context of cancer, targeting membrane characteristics by drugs being an attractive therapeutic strategy has received little attention so far. METHODS: Various acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), and fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitors (like Soraphen A and Cerulenin) as well as genetic knockdown approaches were employed to study the effects of disturbed phospholipid composition on membrane properties and its functional impact on cancer progression. By using state-of-the-art methodologies such as LC-MS/MS, optical tweezers measurements of giant plasma membrane vesicles and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis, membrane characteristics were examined. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, proximity ligation assays, immunoblotting as well as migration, invasion and proliferation experiments unravelled the functional relevance of membrane properties in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: By disturbing the deformability and lateral fluidity of cellular membranes, the dimerisation, localisation and recycling of cancer-relevant transmembrane receptors is compromised. Consequently, impaired activation of growth factor receptor signalling cascades results in abrogated tumour growth and metastasis in different in vitro and in vivo models. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the field of membrane properties as a promising druggable cellular target representing an innovative strategy for development of anti-cancer agents.
ESTHER : Stoiber_2018_Br.J.Cancer_118_43
PubMedSearch : Stoiber_2018_Br.J.Cancer_118_43
PubMedID: 29112683

Title : Novel piperidine-derived amide sEH inhibitors as mediators of lipid metabolism with improved stability - Pecic_2018_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_136_90
Author(s) : Pecic S , Zeki AA , Xu X , Jin GY , Zhang S , Kodani S , Halim M , Morisseau C , Hammock BD , Deng SX
Ref : Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat , 136 :90 , 2018
Abstract : We have previously identified and reported several potent piperidine-derived amide inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme. The inhibition of this enzyme leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are known to possess anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory, and anti-fibrotic effects. Herein, we report the synthesis of 9 analogs of the lead sEH inhibitor and the follow-up structure-activity relationship and liver microsome stability studies. Our findings show that isosteric modifications that lead to significant alterations in the steric and electronic properties at a specific position in the molecule can reduce the efficacy by up to 75-fold. On the other hand, substituting hydrogen with deuterium produces a notable increase ( approximately 30%) in the molecules' half-lives in both rat and human microsomes, while maintaining sEH inhibition potency. These data highlight the utility of isosteric replacement for improving bioavailability, and the newly-synthesized inhibitor structures may thus, serve as a starting point for preclinical development. Our docking study reveals that in the catalytic pocket of sEH, these analogs are in proximity of the key amino acids involved in hydrolysis of EETs.
ESTHER : Pecic_2018_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_136_90
PubMedSearch : Pecic_2018_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_136_90
PubMedID: 29567338

Title : Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, t-AUCB, downregulated miR-133 in a mouse model of myocardial infarction - Gui_2018_Lipids.Health.Dis_17_129
Author(s) : Gui Y , Li D , Chen J , Wang Y , Hu J , Liao C , Deng L , Xiang Q , Yang T , Du X , Zhang S , Xu D
Ref : Lipids Health Dis , 17 :129 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) are protective against ischemia-induced lethal arrhythmias, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Previously, we showed that sEHIs might reduce the incidence of ischemic arrhythmias by suppressing microRNA-1 (miR-1) in the myocardium. As miR-1 and miR-133 have the same proarrhythmic effects in the heart, we assumed that the beneficial effects of sEHIs might also relate to the regulation of miR-133. METHODS: A mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI) was established by ligating the coronary artery. The sEHI t-AUCB (trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid) was administered daily for 7 days before MI. Myocardial infarct size and cardiac function was assessed at 24 h post-MI. The miRNA expression profiles of sham and MI mice treated with or without t-AUCB were determined by microarray and verified by real-time PCR. The incidence of arrhythmias was assessed by in vivo electrophysiologic studies. The mRNA levels of miR-133, its target genes (KCNQ1 [potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1] and KCNH2 [potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2]), and serum response factor (SRF) were measured by real-time PCR; KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SRF protein levels were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the treatment with sEHIs could reduce infarct size, improve cardia function, and prevent the development of cardiac arrhythmias in MI mice. The expression levels of 14 miRNAs differed between the sham and MI groups. t-AUCB treatment altered the expression of eight miRNAs: two were upregulated and six were downregulated. Of these, the muscle-specific miR-133 was downregulated in the ischemic myocardium. In line with this, up-regulation of miR-133 and down-regulation of KCNQ1 and KCNH2 mRNA/protein were observed in ischemic myocaridum, whereas administration of sEHIs produced an opposite effect. In addition, miR-133 overexpression inhibited expression of the target mRNA, whereas t-AUCB reversed the effects. Furthermore, SRF might participate in the negative regulation of miR-133 by t-AUCB. CONCLUSIONS: In MI mice, sEHI t-AUCB can repress miR-133, consequently stimulating KCNQ1 and KCNH2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting a possible mechanism for its potential therapeutic application in ischemic arrhythmias.
ESTHER : Gui_2018_Lipids.Health.Dis_17_129
PubMedSearch : Gui_2018_Lipids.Health.Dis_17_129
PubMedID: 29843720

Title : Structural Definition of a Unique Neutralization Epitope on the Receptor-Binding Domain of MERS-CoV Spike Glycoprotein - Zhang_2018_Cell.Rep_24_441
Author(s) : Zhang S , Zhou P , Wang P , Li Y , Jiang L , Jia W , Wang H , Fan A , Wang D , Shi X , Fang X , Hammel M , Wang S , Wang X , Zhang L
Ref : Cell Rep , 24 :441 , 2018
Abstract : The major mechanism of antibody-mediated neutralization of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) involves competition with the cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) for binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein. Here, we report a unique epitope and unusual neutralizing mechanism of the isolated human antibody MERS-4. Structurally, MERS-4 approached the RBD from the outside of the RBD-DPP4 binding interface. Such binding resulted in the folding of the beta5-beta6 loop toward a shallow groove on the RBD interface critical for accommodating DPP4. The key residues for binding are identified through site-directed mutagenesis. Structural modeling revealed that MERS-4 binds to RBD only in the "up" position in the S trimer. Furthermore, MERS-4 demonstrated synergy with several reported antibodies. These results indicate that MERS-4 neutralizes MERS-CoV by indirect rather than direct competition with DPP4. This mechanism provides a valuable addition for the combined use of antibodies against MERS-CoV infection.
ESTHER : Zhang_2018_Cell.Rep_24_441
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2018_Cell.Rep_24_441
PubMedID: 29996104

Title : Correlation between antibiotic-induced feeding depression and body size reduction in zooplankton (rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus): Neural response and digestive enzyme inhibition - Yan_2018_Chemosphere_218_376
Author(s) : Yan Z , Yang Q , Wang X , Torres OL , Tang S , Zhang S , Guo R , Chen J
Ref : Chemosphere , 218 :376 , 2018
Abstract : The study analyzed the correlation between the antibiotic-induced feeding depression and body size reduction in rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, involving exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure periods. The filtration and ingestion rates of the rotifers were inhibited in these three exposure periods at any given concentration of the antibiotic sulfamethazine (SMZ). As food for rotifer, the cell size of the green algae was unchanged, which indicated that it could not drive feeding depression. Secondly, several corresponding physiological responses were considered. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased in the post-exposure and the re-exposure; acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly decreased in the exposure and the re-exposure, whereas it was induced in the post-exposure. The activities of amylase and lipase were always inhibited in these three exposure periods. Additionally, significant decreases in lorica length, width and biovolume of rotifers occurred after the feeding depression. Statistical analysis indicated a positive correlation between the activity of the digestive enzyme and the body size. Our results demonstrated that SMZ could influence the neurotransmission, inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme, and finally result in body size reduction. These results provided an integrated perspective on assessing the toxicity effects of antibiotic in non-lethal dosage on the feeding behavior of non-target aquatic organisms.
ESTHER : Yan_2018_Chemosphere_218_376
PubMedSearch : Yan_2018_Chemosphere_218_376
PubMedID: 30476769

Title : Accumulation, tissue distribution, and biochemical effects of polystyrene microplastics in the freshwater fish red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) - Ding_2018_Environ.Pollut_238_1
Author(s) : Ding J , Zhang S , Razanajatovo RM , Zou H , Zhu W
Ref : Environ Pollut , 238 :1 , 2018
Abstract : While the presence of microplastics (MPs) in marine environments has been detected worldwide, the importance of MPs pollution in freshwater environments has also been emphasized in recent years. However, the body of knowledge regarding the biological effects of MPs on freshwater organisms is still much more limited than on marine organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accumulation and tissue distribution of MPs in the freshwater fish red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as well as the biochemical effects of MPs on O. niloticus. During 14 days of exposure to 0.1mum polystyrene-MPs at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100mugL(-1), the MPs concentrations in various tissues of O. niloticus generally increased over time following the order gut>gills>liver approximately brain. Moreover, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the fish brain was inhibited by MPs exposure, with a maximum inhibition rate of 37.7%, suggesting the potential neurotoxicity of MPs to freshwater fish. The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin O-dibenzyloxylase (BFCOD)] in the fish liver exhibited clear temporal variabilities, with significant decreases followed by elevations compared to the control. The alterations of the EROD and BFCOD activities indicate the potential involvement of CYP enzymes for the metabolism of MPs. The activity of antioxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the liver was significantly induced throughout the exposure period, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not vary with MPs exposure, suggesting that the antioxidative enzymatic system in O. niloticus could prevent oxidative damage. These results highlight the ingestion and accumulation of MPs in different tissues of freshwater fish, which lead to perturbations in fish biological systems and should be considered in environmental risk assessment.
ESTHER : Ding_2018_Environ.Pollut_238_1
PubMedSearch : Ding_2018_Environ.Pollut_238_1
PubMedID: 29529477

Title : Planarian cholinesterase: molecular and functional characterization of an evolutionarily ancient enzyme to study organophosphorus pesticide toxicity - Hagstrom_2018_Arch.Toxicol_92_1161
Author(s) : Hagstrom D , Zhang S , Ho A , Tsai ES , Radic Z , Jahromi A , Kaj KJ , He Y , Taylor P , Collins ES
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , 92 :1161 , 2018
Abstract : The asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has emerged as a medium-throughput alternative animal model for neurotoxicology. We have previously shown that D. japonica are sensitive to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and characterized the in vitro inhibition profile of planarian cholinesterase (DjChE) activity using irreversible and reversible inhibitors. We found that DjChE has intermediate features of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Here, we identify two candidate genes (Djche1 and Djche2) responsible for DjChE activity. Sequence alignment and structural homology modeling with representative vertebrate AChE and BChE sequences confirmed our structural predictions, and show that both DjChE enzymes have intermediate sized catalytic gorges and disrupted peripheral binding sites. Djche1 and Djche2 were both expressed in the planarian nervous system, as anticipated from previous activity staining, but with distinct expression profiles. To dissect how DjChE inhibition affects planarian behavior, we acutely inhibited DjChE activity by exposing animals to either an OP (diazinon) or carbamate (physostigmine) at 1 microM for 4 days. Both inhibitors delayed the reaction of planarians to heat stress. Simultaneous knockdown of both Djche genes by RNAi similarly resulted in a delayed heat stress response. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of DjChE activity increased the worms' ability to adhere to a substrate. However, increased substrate adhesion was not observed in Djche1/Djche2 (RNAi) animals or in inhibitor-treated day 11 regenerates, suggesting this phenotype may be modulated by other mechanisms besides ChE inhibition. Together, our study characterizes DjChE expression and function, providing the basis for future studies in this system to dissect alternative mechanisms of OP toxicity.
ESTHER : Hagstrom_2018_Arch.Toxicol_92_1161
PubMedSearch : Hagstrom_2018_Arch.Toxicol_92_1161
PubMedID: 29167930
Gene_locus related to this paper: dugja-CHE1 , dugja-CHE2

Title : A novel variant associated with HDL-C levels by modifying DAGLB expression levels: An annotation-based genome-wide association study - Zhou_2018_Eur.J.Hum.Genet_26_838
Author(s) : Zhou D , Zhang D , Sun X , Li Z , Ni Y , Shan Z , Li H , Liu C , Zhang S , Liu Y , Zheng R , Pan F , Zhu Y , Shi Y , Lai M
Ref : Eur J Hum Genet , 26 :838 , 2018
Abstract : Although numbers of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed for serum lipid levels, limited heritability has been explained. Studies showed that combining data from GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) signals can both enhance the discovery of trait-associated SNPs and gain a better understanding of the mechanism. We performed an annotation-based, multistage genome-wide screening for serum-lipid-level-associated loci in totally 6863 Han Chinese. A serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) associated variant rs1880118 (hg19 chr7:g. 6435220G>C) was replicated (Pcombined = 1.4E-10). rs1880118 was associated with DAGLB (diacylglycerol lipase, beta) expression levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 5.9E-42) and explained 47.7% of the expression variance. After the replication, an active segment covering variants tagged by rs1880118 near 5' of DAGLB was annotated using histone modification and transcription factor binding signals. The luciferase report assay revealed that the segment containing the minor alleles showed increased transcriptional activity compared with segment contains the major alleles, which was consistent with the eQTL analyses. The expression-trait association tests indicated the association between the DAGLB and serum HDL-C levels using gene-based approaches called "TWAS" (P = 3.0E-8), "SMR" (P = 1.1E-4), and "Sherlock" (P = 1.6E-6). To summarize, we identified a novel HDL-C-associated variant which explained nearly half of the expression variance of DAGLB. Integrated analyses established a genotype-gene-phenotype three-way association and expanded our knowledge of DAGLB in lipid metabolism.
ESTHER : Zhou_2018_Eur.J.Hum.Genet_26_838
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2018_Eur.J.Hum.Genet_26_838
PubMedID: 29476167

Title : An iridium complex-based probe for photoluminescence lifetime imaging of human carboxylesterase 2 in living cells - Yan_2018_Chem.Commun.(Camb)_54_9027
Author(s) : Yan Z , Wang J , Zhang Y , Zhang S , Qiao J , Zhang X
Ref : Chem Commun (Camb) , 54 :9027 , 2018
Abstract : A novel photoluminescence lifetime probe (Ir-TB) has been developed for the detection and imaging of hCE2 in living cells. A large lifetime increase by around 300 ns after the enzymatic reaction makes it an ideal tool to distinguish hCE2-hydrolyzed probes from those non-hydrolyzed ones via PLIM for the first time.
ESTHER : Yan_2018_Chem.Commun.(Camb)_54_9027
PubMedSearch : Yan_2018_Chem.Commun.(Camb)_54_9027
PubMedID: 30047956

Title : Deglucosylation of zearalenone-14-glucoside in animals and human liver leads to underestimation of exposure to zearalenone in humans - Yang_2018_Arch.Toxicol_92_2779
Author(s) : Yang S , Zhang H , Zhang J , Li Y , Jin Y , Zhang S , De Saeger S , Zhou J , Sun F , De Boevre M
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , 92 :2779 , 2018
Abstract : Zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN-14G), the modified mycotoxin of zearalenone (ZEN), has attracted considerable attention due to its high potential to be hydrolyzed into ZEN, which would exert toxicity. It has been confirmed that the microflora could metabolize ZEN-14G to ZEN. However, the metabolic profile of ZEN-14G and whether it could be deglucosidated in the liver are unknown. To thoroughly investigate the metabolism of ZEN-14G, in vitro metabolism including phase I and phase II metabolism was studied using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, in vivo metabolism of ZEN-14G was conducted in model animals, rats, by oral administration. As a result, 29 phase I metabolites and 6 phase II metabolites were identified and significant inter-species metabolic differences were observed as well. What is more, ZEN-14G could be considerably deglucosidated into its free form of ZEN after the incubation with animals and human liver microsomes in the absence of NADPH, which was mainly metabolized by human carboxylesterase CES-I and II. Furthermore, results showed that the major metabolic pathways of ZEN-14G were deglucosylation, hydroxylation, hydrogenation and glucuronidation. Although interspecies differences in the biotransformation of ZEN-14G were observed, ZEN, alpha-ZEL-14G, beta-ZEL-14G, alpha-ZEL, ZEN-14G-16GlcA and ZEN-14GlcA were the major metabolites of ZEN-14G. Additionally, a larger yield of 6-OH-ZEN-14G and 8-OH-ZEN-14G was also observed in human liver microsomes. The obtained data would be of great importance for the safety assessment of modified mycotoxin, ZEN-14G, and provide another perspective for risk assessment of mycotoxin.
ESTHER : Yang_2018_Arch.Toxicol_92_2779
PubMedSearch : Yang_2018_Arch.Toxicol_92_2779
PubMedID: 30019167

Title : Association between FASN gene polymorphisms ultrasound carcass traits and intramuscular fat in Qinchuan cattle - Raza_2018_Gene_645_55
Author(s) : Raza SHA , Gui L , Khan R , Schreurs NM , Xiaoyu W , Wu S , Mei C , Wang L , Ma X , Wei D , Guo H , Zhang S , Wang X , Kaleri HA , Zan L
Ref : Gene , 645 :55 , 2018
Abstract : Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme involved with fat deposition and fatty acid composition in cattle. This study was conducted to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FASN gene and explore their relationships with ultrasound carcass traits in order to assess the potential use of the FASN gene for the breeding selection of Qinchuan cattle for desirable carcass traits. The frequencies of SNP g.12740C>T, g.13192T>C and g.13232C>T were identified in 525 individual Qinchuan cattle which were also assessed for backfat depth, eye muscle area and intramuscular fat by ultrasound. According to the PIC values, g.13192T>C possessed an intermediate polymorphism (0.25T, g.12740C>T possessed low polymorphism (PIC<0.25). Chi-square tests showed that g.13192T>C were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (c2C was associated with a greater eye muscle area and the TT genotype at g.13232C>T was associated with greater intramuscular fat. When these genotypes were combined there was no difference in eye muscle area and intramuscular fat between the diplotypes. The H2H2 diplotype was associated with carcass traits that are likely to provide economic advantage in Qinchuan cattle. Variations in the FASN genes and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding.
ESTHER : Raza_2018_Gene_645_55
PubMedSearch : Raza_2018_Gene_645_55
PubMedID: 29273553
Gene_locus related to this paper: bovin-fas

Title : A water-assisted nucleophilic mechanism utilized by BphD, the meta-cleavage product hydrolase in biphenyl degradation - Dong_2017_J.Mol.Graph.Model_76_448
Author(s) : Dong L , Zhang S , Liu Y
Ref : J Mol Graph Model , 76 :448 , 2017
Abstract : As members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily, Meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases generally utilize a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad to hydrolyze the cleavage of CC bond during the aerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by bacteria. BphD is one kind of MCP hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) to 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoic acid (HPD) and benzoate. In this article, a combined quantum mechanics and molecule mechanics (QM/MM) approach has been employed to explore the reaction mechanism of BphD from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. On the basis of the recently resolved crystal structures, three computational models have been constructed. Our calculation results reveal that BphD utilizes a water-assisted nucleophilic mechanism, which contains acylation and deacylation stages. In acylation reaction, an active site water molecule assists the proton transfer from Ser112 to the carbanion intermediate (substrate) by forming hydrogen bonds with Ser112 and His265, and this proton transfer is in concert with the nucleophilic attack of deprotonated Ser112 on the C6-carbonyl of substrate to form the acylated intermediate. In deacylation, the Asp237-His265 dyad acts as a general base to activate the hydrolytic water, whose nucleophilic attack leads to the collapses of acyl-enzyme intermediate. The acylation and deacylation process correspond to the highest energy barriers of 21.0 and 23.9kcal/mol, respectively. During the catalytic reaction, the active site water and Asp237-His265 dyad play an important role for each elementary steps.
ESTHER : Dong_2017_J.Mol.Graph.Model_76_448
PubMedSearch : Dong_2017_J.Mol.Graph.Model_76_448
PubMedID: 28783597
Gene_locus related to this paper: burxl-bphD

Title : Two obesity susceptibility loci in LYPLAL1 and ETV5 independently associated with childhood hypertension in Chinese population - Lv_2017_Gene_627_284
Author(s) : Lv D , Zhou D , Zhang Y , Zhang S , Zhu YM
Ref : Gene , 627 :284 , 2017
Abstract : AIMS: Genome-wide association studies have identified novel obesity-associated susceptibility loci. Associations of these variants with childhood obesity have been studied in our previous research. The purpose of this study is to investigate if these loci are associated with hypertension being independent of obesity in Chinese children and adolescents.
METHODS: Nineteen candidate SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY platform among Chinese children (N=2954, 514 hypertension and 2440 controls, aged 7-17years). Dietary behaviors were assessed through face to face investigations.
RESULTS: Of the nineteen obese related SNPs, ten SNPs were found to be associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Chinese children. After adjusting for age, sex and WHtR, rs2605100 in LYPLAL1was found to be associated with high blood pressure (HBP) under dominant model (P=0.024) with the OR of 1.274 (95% CI =1.033-1.572, effect genotype=GG). The distribution of genotype of rs7647305 in ETV5 showed significant difference between HBP and non-HBP subjects under dominant model (P=0.011) with the OR of 0.654 (95% CI=0.471-0.909, effect genotype=CC). Using rs2605100 and rs7647305, the genetic risk score (GRS) analysis showed that, after adjusted for age, sex and WHtR, subjects carrying one or two risk alleles had the risks of hypertension with the ORs 1.797 (95% CI, 1.168-2.765), 2.149 (95% CI, 1.375-3.357) comparing with the subjects with non-risk-allele.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations of obesity-associated loci, LYPLAL1 rs2605100 and ETV5 rs7647305 independently associate with the risk of childhood hypertension in China.
ESTHER : Lv_2017_Gene_627_284
PubMedSearch : Lv_2017_Gene_627_284
PubMedID: 28645872
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LYPLAL1

Title : Characterization of Feruloyl Esterases Produced by the Four Lactobacillus Species: L. amylovorus, L. acidophilus, L. farciminis and L. fermentum, Isolated from Ensiled Corn Stover - Xu_2017_Front.Microbiol_8_941
Author(s) : Xu Z , He H , Zhang S , Guo T , Kong J
Ref : Front Microbiol , 8 :941 , 2017
Abstract : Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play important roles in silage fermentation, which depends on the production of sufficient organic acids to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms. However, LAB are not able to degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. Bacteria and fibrolytic enzymes are usually used as inoculants to improve the silage quality and digestibility. In the present study, we isolated four Lactobacillus strains (L. amylovorus CGMCC 11056, L. acidophilus CCTCC AB2010208, L. farciminis CCTCC AB2016237 and L. fermentum CCTCC AB2010204) with feruloyl esterase (FAE) activities from ensiled corn stover (CS) by a plate screening assay. The genes encoding FAEs were cloned and hetero-expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimal temperature and pH of these purified enzymes ranged from 45 to 50 degrees C and from 7.0 to 8.0, respectively. They could hydrolyze hydroxycinnamoyl esters in a substrate-specific manner when methyl ferulate, methyl caffeate, methyl rho-coumarate and methyl sinapinate were used as substrates. Moreover, these four FAEs were able to hydrolyze CS to release hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, these strains could degrade hydroxycinnamic esters, and L. amylovorus CGMCC 11056 was the most efficient strain among these four isolates. These results provided a new target for the development of inoculants to improve silage quality and digestibility.
ESTHER : Xu_2017_Front.Microbiol_8_941
PubMedSearch : Xu_2017_Front.Microbiol_8_941
PubMedID: 28626449

Title : NCEH-1 modulates cholesterol metabolism and protects against alpha-synuclein toxicity in a C. elegans model of Parkinson's disease - Zhang_2017_Hum.Mol.Genet_26_3823
Author(s) : Zhang S , Glukhova SA , Caldwell KA , Caldwell GA
Ref : Hum Mol Genet , 26 :3823 , 2017
Abstract : Parkinson's disease (PD) is an aging-associated neurodegenerative disease affecting millions worldwide. Misfolding, oligomerization and accumulation of the human alpha-synuclein protein is a key pathological hallmark of PD and is associated with the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons over the course of aging. Lifespan extension via the suppression of IGF-1/insulin-like signaling (IIS) offers a possibility to retard disease onset through induction of metabolic changes that provide neuroprotection. The nceh-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes an ortholog of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH-1), an IIS downstream protein that was identified in a screen as a modulator of alpha-synuclein accumulation in vivo. The mechanism whereby cholesterol metabolism functionally impacts neurodegeneration induced by alpha-synuclein is undefined. Here we report that NCEH-1 protects dopaminergic neurons from alpha-synuclein-dependent neurotoxicity in C. elegans via a mechanism that is independent of lifespan extension. We discovered that the presence of cholesterol, LDLR-mediated cholesterol endocytosis, and cholesterol efflux are all essential to NCEH-1-mediated neuroprotection. In protecting from alpha-synuclein neurotoxicity, NCEH-1 also stimulates cholesterol-derived neurosteroid formation and lowers cellular reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Collectively, this study augments our understanding of how cholesterol metabolism can modulate a neuroprotective mechanism that attenuates alpha-synuclein neurotoxicity, thereby pointing toward regulation of neuronal cholesterol turnover as a potential therapeutic avenue for PD.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Hum.Mol.Genet_26_3823
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Hum.Mol.Genet_26_3823
PubMedID: 28934392
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NCEH1

Title : Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on antioxidant capabilities of multiple generations of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) - Li_2017_J.Insect.Physiol_103_91
Author(s) : Li N , Li Y , Zhang S , Fan Y , Liu T
Ref : J Insect Physiol , 103 :91 , 2017
Abstract : A rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and a warming climate are two of the most conspicuous characteristics of global climate change in this century. However, studies addressing the combined impact of rising [CO2] and temperature on herbivore insect physiology are still limited. In this study we investigated the combined effects of elevated [CO2] and temperature on major antioxidative enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POD) and detoxification enzymes of glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in three consecutive generations of Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, commonly known as B biotype) adults. The results indicated that the antioxidant capabilities of B. tabaci differed significantly during different treatments across different generations. Elevated [CO2] markedly increased POD, GST and AChE activities in the first generation, and SOD, CAT and GST activities in the second generation, but reduced POD activity in the third generation at ambient temperature. Under elevated temperature, elevated [CO2] significantly increased GST and AChE activities in the first generation and CAT activity in the third generation, reduced SOD activity in the third generation and reduced AChE activity in the second generation. [CO2], temperature and insect generation interacted to affect the antioxidant capabilities of B. tabaci. These results suggest both that changes in antioxidant capabilities vary in response to either [CO2] or temperature, or a combination of both, leading to oxidative stress and also that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative damage in B. tabaci. Changes in the exposure of antioxidant compounds over the course of three generations suggest that acclimation and/or adaptation to elevated [CO2] and temperature may have occurred. This study represents the first comprehensive report on the antioxidant defense mechanism in successive multiple generations of an insect species under combined elevated [CO2] and temperature levels. These results offer further insights into the effects of elevated [CO2] and temperature on different generations of insect herbivores and provide more detailed information for population predictions.
ESTHER : Li_2017_J.Insect.Physiol_103_91
PubMedSearch : Li_2017_J.Insect.Physiol_103_91
PubMedID: 29056516

Title : Single and mixture toxicities of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 on the feeding activity of Daphnia magna: From behavior assessment to neurotoxicity - Liu_2017_Chemosphere_195_542
Author(s) : Liu Y , Guo R , Tang S , Zhu F , Zhang S , Yan Z , Chen J
Ref : Chemosphere , 195 :542 , 2017
Abstract : Although 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 6-methoxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-MeO-BDE-47) clearly disrupt the endocrine system, current knowledge of their single and/or mixture toxicities on other behaviors of aquatic organisms remains limited. In the present study, Daphnia magna was used to investigate the single and mixture toxicities of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 as measured by inhibition of feeding during exposure and post-exposure periods. Additionally, the biochemical performance, i.e., the activities of super oxidase dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of the test organism was studied to investigate the potential mechanisms of the toxicity of the target compounds. The three target compounds produced an obvious depressive effect on feeding behavior during the exposure period, and the effect increased with increasing concentrations. D. magna was most sensitive to 6-OH-BDE-47. The toxicity of the ternary mixture showed an obvious concentration-dependent effect, whereas the binary mixture toxicity showed the characteristics of hormesis. During the post-exposure period, overcompensation occurred, indicating a short-term effect of the target compounds on D. magna. Additionally, significant changes occurred in neurological responses, indicating that these compounds might have neurobehavioral toxicity in D. magna. The decrease in oxidative stress enzymes (SOD and GPx) indicated that the antioxidant response of D. magna was destroyed.
ESTHER : Liu_2017_Chemosphere_195_542
PubMedSearch : Liu_2017_Chemosphere_195_542
PubMedID: 29277034

Title : Bioconcentration of the antidepressant fluoxetine and its effects on the physiological and biochemical status in Daphnia magna - Ding_2017_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_142_102
Author(s) : Ding J , Zou H , Liu Q , Zhang S , Mamitiana Razanajatovo R
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 142 :102 , 2017
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioconcentration potential of fluoxetine and its biological effects in Daphnia magna. After 48h of waterborne exposure, the bioconcentration of fluoxetine in D. magna was determined to be 460.61 and 174.41Lkg-1 for nominal exposure concentrations of 0.5 and 5microgL-1, respectively. Moreover, various biological endpoints, including physiological responses (filtration and ingestion rates), enzymatic biomarkers related to neurotoxicity [acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] and antioxidant defense [superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and an oxidative stress damage marker [malondialdehyde (MDA)], were assessed. Fluoxetine exposure increased the filtration rate of daphnia, while the ingestion rate was not obviously modified. AChE activity was significantly inhibited, highlighting the neurotoxicity of fluoxetine on D. magna. However, with some alterations in the SOD activity and MDA content, no obvious oxidative damage was observed in D. magna exposed to fluoxetine at the tested concentrations. These results indicate that fluoxetine can be accumulated and consequently induce physiological and biochemical perturbations in D. magna.
ESTHER : Ding_2017_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_142_102
PubMedSearch : Ding_2017_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_142_102
PubMedID: 28395202

Title : Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert in Cigarette Smokers: Dependence Level and Gender Differences - Zhang_2017_Nicotine.Tob.Res_19_452
Author(s) : Zhang S , Hu S , Fucito LM , Luo X , Mazure CM , Zaborszky L , Li CR
Ref : Nicotine Tob Res , 19 :452 , 2017
Abstract : Introduction: Numerous studies have characterized impaired cerebral functioning in nicotine-addicted individuals. Whereas nicotine interacts with multiple neurotransmitters in cortical and subcortical circuits, it directly targets the cholinergic system, sourced primarily from the basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM). However, no studies have examined how this cholinergic system is influenced by cigarette smoking. Here, we addressed this gap of research. Methods: Using a dataset from the Functional Connectome Projects, we investigated this issue by contrasting seed-based BNM connectivity of 40 current smokers and 170 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers. We followed our data analytic routines in recent work and examined differences between smokers and nonsmokers in men and women combined as well as separately. Results: Compared to nonsmokers, female but not male smokers demonstrated greater positive BNM connectivity to the supplementary motor area, bilateral anterior insula, and right superior temporal/supramarginal gyri as well as greater negative connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Further, BNM connectivity to the supplementary motor area is negatively correlated to the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score in male but not female smokers. Conclusions: Along with a previous report of upregulated nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in male but not female smokers, these new findings highlight functional changes of the cholinergic systems in cigarette smokers. The results suggest sex-specific differences in cholinergic dysregulation and a need for multiple imaging modalities to capture the neural markers of nicotine addiction. Implications: Nicotine influences cognition via cholinergic projections of the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex. This study examined changes in resting-state whole-brain functional connectivity of the BNM in cigarette smokers. The new findings elucidate for the first time sex differences in BNM-cerebral connectivity in cigarette smoking.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Nicotine.Tob.Res_19_452
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Nicotine.Tob.Res_19_452
PubMedID: 27613921

Title : The Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert, Locus Coeruleus, and Ventral Tegmental Area in Healthy Adults - Kline_2016_Front.Hum.Neurosci_10_149
Author(s) : Kline RL , Zhang S , Farr OM , Hu S , Zaborszky L , Samanez-Larkin GR , Li CS
Ref : Front Hum Neurosci , 10 :149 , 2016
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH) influences catecholaminergic signaling. Extant work examined the effects of MPH on the neural circuits of attention and cognitive control, but few studies have investigated the effect of MPH on the brain's resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC).
METHODS: In this observational study, we compared rsFC of a group of 24 healthy adults who were administered an oral 45 mg dose of MPH with a group of 24 age and gender matched controls who did not receive MPH. We focused on three seed regions: basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM), locus coeruleus (LC), and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, pars compacta (VTA/SNc), each providing cholinergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic inputs to the cerebral cortex. Images were pre-processed and analyzed as in our recent work (Li et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). We used one-sample t-test to characterize group-specific rsFC of each seed region and two-sample t-test to compare rsFC between groups.
RESULTS: MPH reversed negative connectivity between BNM and precentral gyri. MPH reduced positive connectivity between LC and cerebellum, and induced positive connectivity between LC and right hippocampus. MPH decreased positive VTA/SNc connectivity to the cerebellum and putamen, and reduced negative connectivity to left middle occipital gyrus. CONCLUSION: MPH had distinct effects on the rsFC of BNM, LC, and VTA/SNc in healthy adults. These new findings may further our understanding of the role of catecholaminergic signaling in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease and provide insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of MPH in the treatment of clinical conditions that implicate catecholaminergic dysfunction.
ESTHER : Kline_2016_Front.Hum.Neurosci_10_149
PubMedSearch : Kline_2016_Front.Hum.Neurosci_10_149
PubMedID: 27148006

Title : The discovery of new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors derived from pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, docking simulation and bioassays - Zhang_2016_Mol.Biosyst_12_3734
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Zhang S , Xu G , Yan H , Pu Y , Zuo Z
Ref : Mol Biosyst , 12 :3734 , 2016
Abstract : Hyperactivity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain is the immediate cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is one of the most prevalent fatal diseases afflicting numerous older people. In this research, an in silico study was carried out to find potential AChE inhibitors from a large chemical library. With clustering and lots of comprehensive analysis, some molecules were screened using in vitro bioassays. The IC50 values against AChE ranged from 33.620 to 101.570 muM, while the inhibition ratios at 50 muM ranged from 11.37% to 77.35%. The binding mode between the inhibitor and the binding sites of AChE was studied. Four residues (Tyr133, Tyr124, Ser203 and Trp86) were suggested to be crucial because they can form hydrogen bonds with the ligand. Therefore, ZYQ1 and its derivatives might represent a promising starting point for the development of highly potent lead compounds for the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Zhang_2016_Mol.Biosyst_12_3734
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2016_Mol.Biosyst_12_3734
PubMedID: 27801451

Title : NDRG1 Controls Gastric Cancer Migration and Invasion through Regulating MMP-9 - Chang_2016_Pathol.Oncol.Res_22_789
Author(s) : Chang X , Xu X , Xue X , Ma J , Li Z , Deng P , Chen J , Zhang S , Zhi Y , Dai D
Ref : Pathol Oncol Res , 22 :789 , 2016
Abstract : The purpose of this study is to detect the clinical significance of NDRG1 and its relationship with MMP-9 in gastric cancer metastatic progression. 101 cases of gastric cancer specimens were utilized to identify the protein expression of NDRG1 and MMP-9 by immunohistochemistry, their clinical significance was also analyzed. The suppression by siRNA-NDRG1 was employed to detect the role of NDRG1 in gastric cancer progression and its relationship with MMP-9. NDRG1 expression was correlated inversely with the degree of tumor cell differentiation (p < 0.01), invasion depth (p < 0.05), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05) and TNM stage (p < 0.05), whereas MMP-9 was positive correlated with the degree of tumor cell differentiation (p < 0.01), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05) and TNM stage (p < 0.05), but not correlated with invasion depth (p>0.05). Furthermore, cell proliferation and invasion effect were remarkably enhanced when NDRG1 was silencing, but MMP-9 expression was increased. NDRG1 silencing enhances gastric cancer cells progression through upregulating MMP-9. It suggests that NDRG1 may inhibit the metastasis of gastric cancer via regulating MMP-9.
ESTHER : Chang_2016_Pathol.Oncol.Res_22_789
PubMedSearch : Chang_2016_Pathol.Oncol.Res_22_789
PubMedID: 27154576

Title : Thyroglobulin gene mutations in Chinese patients with congenital hypothyroidism - Hu_2016_Mol.Cell.Endocrinol_423_60
Author(s) : Hu X , Chen R , Fu C , Fan X , Wang J , Qian J , Yi S , Li C , Luo J , Su J , Zhang S , Xie B , Zheng H , Lai Y , Chen Y , Li H , Gu X , Chen S , Shen Y
Ref : Mol Cell Endocrinol , 423 :60 , 2016
Abstract : Mutations in Thyroglobulin (TG) are common genetic causes of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). But the TG mutation spectrum and its frequency in Chinese CH patients have not been investigated. Here we conducted a genetic screening of TG gene in a cohort of 382 Chinese CH patients. We identified 22 rare non-polymorphic variants including six truncating variants and 16 missense variants of unknown significance (VUS). Seven patients carried homozygous pathogenic variants, and three patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygous VUS. 48 out of 382 patients carried one of 18 heterozygous VUS which is significantly more often than their occurrences in control cohort (P < 0.0001). Unique to Asian population, the c.274+2T>G variant is the most common pathogenic variant with an allele frequency of 0.021. The prevalence of CH due to TG gene defect in Chinese population was estimated to be approximately 1/101,000. Our study uncovered ethnicity specific TG mutation spectrum and frequency.
ESTHER : Hu_2016_Mol.Cell.Endocrinol_423_60
PubMedSearch : Hu_2016_Mol.Cell.Endocrinol_423_60
PubMedID: 26777470
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-TG

Title : Increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall alpha-1,3-glucan synthase - Miyazawa_2016_Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem__1
Author(s) : Miyazawa K , Yoshimi A , Zhang S , Sano M , Nakayama M , Gomi K , Abe K
Ref : Biosci Biotechnol Biochem , :1 , 2016
Abstract : Under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. Previously, we found that loss of alpha-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. Therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus A. oryzae in which the three genes encoding alpha-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleDelta). Although the hyphae of the tripleDelta mutant were not fully dispersed, the mutant strain did form smaller pellets than the wild-type strain. We next examined enzyme productivity under liquid culture conditions by transforming the cutinase-encoding gene cutL1 into A. oryzae wild-type and the tripleDelta mutant (i.e. wild-type-cutL1, tripleDelta-cutL1). A. oryzae tripleDelta-cutL1 formed smaller hyphal pellets and showed both greater biomass and increased CutL1 productivity compared with wild-type-cutL1, which might be attributable to a decrease in the number of tripleDelta-cutL1 cells under anaerobic conditions.
ESTHER : Miyazawa_2016_Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem__1
PubMedSearch : Miyazawa_2016_Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem__1
PubMedID: 27442340

Title : First Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction in the presence of amides - Tian_2016_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_84_32
Author(s) : Tian X , Zhang S , Zheng L
Ref : Enzyme Microb Technol , 84 :32 , 2016
Abstract : The first Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction with amides as co-catalyst was realized. Results showed that neither Novozym 435 nor amide can independently catalyze the reaction. This co-catalytic system that used a catalytic amount of Novozym 435 with a corresponding amount of amide was established and optimized. The MBH reaction strongly depended on the structure of aldehyde substrate, amide co-catalyst, and reaction additives. The optimized reaction yield (43.4%) was achieved in the Novozym 435-catalyzed MBH reaction of 2, 4-dinitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexenone with isonicotinamide as co-catalyst and beta-cyclodextrin as additive only in 2 days. Although enantioselectivity of Novozym 435 was not found, the results were still significant because an MBH reaction using lipase as biocatalyst was realized for the first time.
ESTHER : Tian_2016_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_84_32
PubMedSearch : Tian_2016_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_84_32
PubMedID: 26827772

Title : Occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus esters in soils and wheat plants in a plastic waste treatment area in China - Wan_2016_Environ.Pollut_214_349
Author(s) : Wan W , Zhang S , Huang H , Wu T
Ref : Environ Pollut , 214 :349 , 2016
Abstract : This study for the first time reported the occurrence, distribution and concentrations of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in soils caused by plastic waste treatment, as well as their influence on OPE accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eight OPEs were detected with the total concentrations of 38-1250 ng/g dry weight in the soils from the treatment sites, and tributoxyethyl phosphate and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate present as the dominant OPEs. There were similar distribution patterns of OPEs and significant correlations between the total OPE concentrations in the soils from the plastic waste treatment sites with those in the nearby farmlands (P < 0.005), indicating that plastic waste treatment caused the OPE contamination of farmland soils. The uptake and translocation of OPEs by wheat were determined, with OPEs of high hydrophobicity more easily taken up from soils and OPEs with low hydrophobicity more liable to be translocated acropetally.
ESTHER : Wan_2016_Environ.Pollut_214_349
PubMedSearch : Wan_2016_Environ.Pollut_214_349
PubMedID: 27107259

Title : Design and prediction of new acetylcholinesterase inhibitor via quantitative structure activity relationship of huprines derivatives - Zhang_2016_Arch.Pharm.Res_39_591
Author(s) : Zhang S , Hou B , Yang H , Zuo Z
Ref : Arch Pharm Res , 39 :591 , 2016
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important enzyme in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Comparative quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses on some huprines inhibitors against AChE were carried out using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), and hologram QSAR (HQSAR) methods. Three highly predictive QSAR models were constructed successfully based on the training set. The CoMFA, CoMSIA, and HQSAR models have values of r (2) = 0.988, q (2) = 0.757, ONC = 6; r (2) = 0.966, q (2) = 0.645, ONC = 5; and r (2) = 0.957, q (2) = 0.736, ONC = 6. The predictabilities were validated using an external test sets, and the predictive r (2) values obtained by the three models were 0.984, 0.973, and 0.783, respectively. The analysis was performed by combining the CoMFA and CoMSIA field distributions with the active sites of the AChE to further understand the vital interactions between huprines and the protease. On the basis of the QSAR study, 14 new potent molecules have been designed and six of them are predicted to be more active than the best active compound 24 described in the literature. The final QSAR models could be helpful in design and development of novel active AChE inhibitors.
ESTHER : Zhang_2016_Arch.Pharm.Res_39_591
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2016_Arch.Pharm.Res_39_591
PubMedID: 26832327

Title : 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin suppress AChE activity in NGF treated PC12 cells - XuL_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_282
Author(s) : Xu L , Chen Y , Xie HQ , Xu T , Fu H , Zhang S , Tsim KWK , Bi CWC , Zhao B
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 259 :282 , 2016
Abstract : PC12 is a well studied cell model for neuronal differentiation. AChE is also considered as a marker for neuronal differentiation. In this study, we detected the change of AChE activity during the NGF induced differentiation of PC 12 cells, and targeted on the ratio of the activity of AChE on the cell surface, and found that NGF mainly increased the intracellular AChE activity. Dioxin is a kind of persistent organic pollutants which have extreme impact on human health and widely distributed all over the world. Recently, AChE was reported as a target of the toxicity of dioxin. Here we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on AChE activity in the PC12 cells, and found that at the later stage of differentiation, TCDD could decrease the AChE activity. This down regulation might not related to transcriptional regulation.
ESTHER : XuL_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_282
PubMedSearch : XuL_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_282
PubMedID: 27502150

Title : Metabolic engineering of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate - Zhang_2015_Metab.Eng_32_174
Author(s) : Zhang S , Liu Y , Bryant DA
Ref : Metab Eng , 32 :174 , 2015
Abstract : Cyanobacteria are an important group of photoautotrophic bacteria that have been engineered and used to produce a wide range of biomaterials and biofuels, which are usually derived from important intermediates of the central metabolic pathways. In this study, the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate in cyanobacteria was studied, and metabolic engineering strategies to improve the yields were also investigated. The genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from Chlorogloeopsis fritschii PCC 9212 were introduced into Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and the resulting strain was able to accumulate 2.77% of total cell dry weight as poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. When the ccmR gene was deleted in this strain, the yield of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate increased to 3.97% of total cell dry weight. A biosynthetic pathway for the production of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was also constructed and introduced into the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-producing strain. The resulting strain was able to produce ~4.5% of total cell dry weight as poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate, in which 4-hydroxybutyrate accounted for ~12% of the co-polymer. These results demonstrate that poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate can be produced in cyanobacteria and confirm that succinic semialdehyde is an important TCA cycle metabolite in cyanobacteria. This study also demonstrates the potential for future metabolic engineering in cyanobacteria that is based on recently discovered metabolites.
ESTHER : Zhang_2015_Metab.Eng_32_174
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2015_Metab.Eng_32_174
PubMedID: 26474789

Title : Effects of Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) on cotton-melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover lipid synthesis - Zhang_2015_Insect.Mol.Biol_24_348
Author(s) : Zhang S , Luo JY , Lv LM , Wang CY , Li CH , Zhu XZ , Cui JJ
Ref : Insect Molecular Biology , 24 :348 , 2015
Abstract : The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a major insect pest worldwide. The wasp Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is the predominant parasitoid of cotton-melon aphids in north China. Parasitization has been reported to affect host lipids in several systems, but the lipid synthesis-related genes and transcription changes in the cotton-melon aphid-parasitoid interaction are not clear. In this study, 36 lipid synthesis-related genes were cloned and their transcription changes in parasitized aphids were studied by quantitative real-time PCR. In parasitized cotton-melon aphids, almost all key genes in the glycerolipid synthesis pathway were up-regulated, the rate-limiting enzyme diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase by 3.24-fold. The rate-limiting enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase, and the pace-making enzyme in citrate synthesis were 1.69-fold and 1.75-fold less in parasitized aphids than in unparasitized aphids, respectively. These results suggest increased glycerolipid synthesis in parasitized aphids but that citrate production from sucrose was decreased. Aconitate hydratase (aco), in the pathway that converts amino acids into citrate, was up-regulated. The number of fragments per kilobase per million mapped reads of the mitochondrial aco2 gene was only 4.6, whereas that of the cytoplasmic aco1 was 41.5, indicating that the citrate comes from amino acids in the cytoplasm of parasitized cotton-melon aphids.
ESTHER : Zhang_2015_Insect.Mol.Biol_24_348
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2015_Insect.Mol.Biol_24_348
PubMedID: 25702953
Gene_locus related to this paper: aphgo-a0a0g3yj76

Title : Draft genome sequence of Cellulomonas carbonis T26(T) and comparative analysis of six Cellulomonas genomes - Zhuang_2015_Stand.Genomic.Sci_10_104
Author(s) : Zhuang W , Zhang S , Xia X , Wang G
Ref : Stand Genomic Sci , 10 :104 , 2015
Abstract : Most Cellulomonas strains are cellulolytic and this feature may be applied in straw degradation and bioremediation. In this study, Cellulomonas carbonis T26(T), Cellulomonas bogoriensis DSM 16987(T) and Cellulomonas cellasea 20108(T) were sequenced. Here we described the draft genomic information of C. carbonis T26(T) and compared it to the related Cellulomonas genomes. Strain T26(T) has a 3,990,666 bp genome size with a G + C content of 73.4 %, containing 3418 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. The results showed good correlation between the genotypes and the physiological phenotypes. The information are useful for the better application of the Cellulomonas strains.
ESTHER : Zhuang_2015_Stand.Genomic.Sci_10_104
PubMedSearch : Zhuang_2015_Stand.Genomic.Sci_10_104
PubMedID: 26587181
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9cell-a0a0a0bwd7

Title : Immobilization of feruloyl esterases on magnetic nanoparticles and its potential in production of ferulic acid - He_2015_J.Biosci.Bioeng_120_330
Author(s) : He F , Zhang S , Liu X
Ref : J Biosci Bioeng , 120 :330 , 2015
Abstract : Feruloyl esterase plays an indispensable role in hydrolyzing plant cell walls, and ferulic acid will be released as by-product, which has potential applications in food and medicine industry. This study presents immobilization of partially purified feruloyl esterases from the fermentation liquor of recombinant Pichia on magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the optimal conditions for the immobilization and some characteristics of immobilized enzyme were studied. The optimal immobilization conditions observed were enzyme 0.2 mg (1 mg/mL, 0.2 mL), magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles 4 mg, pH 6.0, immobilization time 3 h. The results showed that the optimal reaction temperature of immobilized enzyme was increased from 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Thermal stability of the immobilized enzyme also had an improvement, the residual activity retained 80% and 69% after 120 h at 40 degrees C and 50 degrees C, respectively, while free enzymes only showed 45% and 40% remnant activity at the same condition. The immobilized enzyme also exhibited good operational stability and 52.4% of its initial activity was observed during the fifth cycle. In terms of the thermal and operational stability, the immobilized enzyme could be better used in many more applications than the free enzymes. At last the destarched wheat bran was taken as substrate for immobilized and free feruloyl esterases to produce ferulic acid, the maximum ferulic acid yield was 11.2% and 12.3%, respectively, indicating a great potential in industrial application.
ESTHER : He_2015_J.Biosci.Bioeng_120_330
PubMedSearch : He_2015_J.Biosci.Bioeng_120_330
PubMedID: 25792184

Title : Pratensein attenuates Abeta-induced cognitive deficits in rats: Enhancement of synaptic plasticity and cholinergic function - Wei_2015_Fitoterapia_101C_208
Author(s) : Wei L , Lv S , Huang Q , Wei J , Zhang S , Huang R , Lu Z , Lin X
Ref : Fitoterapia , 101C :208 , 2015
Abstract : An isoflavone was isolated from Trifolium pratense using bioassay-guided screening. The structure of this natural compound was elucidated based on its spectral data, and it was identified as pratensein. The protective effect of pratensein was evaluated using a cognitive impairment model induced by injecting amyloid beta (1-42) (Abeta1-42) into the bilateral hippocampus of rats. The results showed that pratensein treatment significantly protected against Abeta1-42-induced cognitive impairments, as evidenced by the improvement in learning and memory and the attenuation of neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in hippocampus. Analysis of the potential mechanisms of action showed that pratensein significantly decreased inflammatory indicators such as MDA, NO, nNOS, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. Pratensein markedly decreased the content and deposition of beta-amyloid peptide through regulating the expressions of Abeta-related genes including APP, BACE1, CatB, NEP and IDE. Moreover, pratensein significantly increased the expressions of synapse plasticity-related proteins, i.e., PSD-95, p-NMDAR1, p-CaMKII, p-PKACbeta, PKCgamma, p-CREB and BDNF. In addition, pratensein significantly decreased the activity of cholinesterase, then subsequently elevated the level of acetylcholine. In summary, our study indicated that pratensein may have a likely protective effect against Alzheimer's disease (AD) via improving synaptic plasticity and increasing cholinesterase activity.
ESTHER : Wei_2015_Fitoterapia_101C_208
PubMedSearch : Wei_2015_Fitoterapia_101C_208
PubMedID: 25665942

Title : Freshwater Planarians as an Alternative Animal Model for Neurotoxicology - Hagstrom_2015_Toxicol.Sci_147_270
Author(s) : Hagstrom D , Cochet-Escartin O , Zhang S , Khuu C , Collins ES
Ref : Toxicol Sci , 147 :270 , 2015
Abstract : Traditional toxicology testing has relied on low-throughput, expensive mammalian studies; however, timely testing of the large number of environmental toxicants requires new in vitro and in vivo platforms for inexpensive medium- to high-throughput screening. Herein, we describe the suitability of the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new animal model for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. As these asexual animals reproduce by binary fission, followed by regeneration of missing body structures within approximately 1 week, development and regeneration occur through similar processes allowing us to induce neurodevelopment "at will" through amputation. This short time scale and the comparable sizes of full and regenerating animals enable parallel experiments in adults and developing worms to determine development-specific aspects of toxicity. Because the planarian brain, despite its simplicity, is structurally and molecularly similar to the mammalian brain, we are able to ascertain neurodevelopmental toxicity that is relevant to humans. As a proof of concept, we developed a 5-step semiautomatic screening platform to characterize the toxicity of 9 known neurotoxicants (consisting of common solvents, pesticides, and detergents) and a neutral agent, glucose, and quantified effects on viability, stimulated and unstimulated behavior, regeneration, and brain structure. Comparisons of our findings with other alternative toxicology animal models, such as zebrafish larvae and nematodes, demonstrated that planarians are comparably sensitive to the tested chemicals. In addition, we found that certain compounds induced adverse effects specifically in developing animals. We thus conclude that planarians offer new complementary opportunities for developmental neurotoxicology animal models.
ESTHER : Hagstrom_2015_Toxicol.Sci_147_270
PubMedSearch : Hagstrom_2015_Toxicol.Sci_147_270
PubMedID: 26116028
Gene_locus related to this paper: dugja-CHE1 , dugja-CHE2

Title : Genome sequencing of the perciform fish Larimichthys crocea provides insights into molecular and genetic mechanisms of stress adaptation - Ao_2015_PLoS.Genet_11_e1005118
Author(s) : Ao J , Mu Y , Xiang LX , Fan D , Feng M , Zhang S , Shi Q , Zhu LY , Li T , Ding Y , Nie L , Li Q , Dong WR , Jiang L , Sun B , Zhang X , Li M , Zhang HQ , Xie S , Zhu Y , Jiang X , Wang X , Mu P , Chen W , Yue Z , Wang Z , Wang J , Shao JZ , Chen X
Ref : PLoS Genet , 11 :e1005118 , 2015
Abstract : The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) is one of the most economically important marine fish in China and East Asian countries. It also exhibits peculiar behavioral and physiological characteristics, especially sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as hypoxia and air exposure. These traits may render L. crocea a good model for investigating the response mechanisms to environmental stress. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation and response of L. crocea to environmental stress, we sequenced and assembled the genome of L. crocea using a bacterial artificial chromosome and whole-genome shotgun hierarchical strategy. The final genome assembly was 679 Mb, with a contig N50 of 63.11 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.03 Mb, containing 25,401 protein-coding genes. Gene families underlying adaptive behaviours, such as vision-related crystallins, olfactory receptors, and auditory sense-related genes, were significantly expanded in the genome of L. crocea relative to those of other vertebrates. Transcriptome analyses of the hypoxia-exposed L. crocea brain revealed new aspects of neuro-endocrine-immune/metabolism regulatory networks that may help the fish to avoid cerebral inflammatory injury and maintain energy balance under hypoxia. Proteomics data demonstrate that skin mucus of the air-exposed L. crocea had a complex composition, with an unexpectedly high number of proteins (3,209), suggesting its multiple protective mechanisms involved in antioxidant functions, oxygen transport, immune defence, and osmotic and ionic regulation. Our results reveal the molecular and genetic basis of fish adaptation and response to hypoxia and air exposure. The data generated by this study will provide valuable resources for the genetic improvement of stress resistance and yield potential in L. crocea.
ESTHER : Ao_2015_PLoS.Genet_11_e1005118
PubMedSearch : Ao_2015_PLoS.Genet_11_e1005118
PubMedID: 25835551
Gene_locus related to this paper: larcr-a0a0f8ay25 , larcr-a0a0f8cf53 , larcr-a0a0f8cir1 , larcr-a0a0f8d1j2 , larcr-a0a0f8alq6 , larcr-a0a0f8bdu4 , larcr-a0a0f8abw1 , larcr-a0a0f8ahh1 , larcr-a0a0f8avc6 , larcr-a0a0f8al93 , larcr-a0a0f8aed8 , larcr-a0a0f7ir14 , larcr-a0a0f8aje8 , larcr-k9lsm3 , larcr-a0a0f8but5 , larcr-a0a0f8af44

Title : Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children - Wang_2015_J.Cell.Mol.Med_19_2296
Author(s) : Wang H , Zhang D , Ling J , Lu W , Zhang S , Zhu Y , Lai M
Ref : J Cell Mol Med , 19 :2296 , 2015
Abstract : Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender.
ESTHER : Wang_2015_J.Cell.Mol.Med_19_2296
PubMedSearch : Wang_2015_J.Cell.Mol.Med_19_2296
PubMedID: 26282880

Title : Immobilization of Aspergillus terreus lipase in self-assembled hollow nanospheres for enantioselective hydrolysis of ketoprofen vinyl ester - Hu_2015_J.Biotechnol_194_12
Author(s) : Hu C , Wang N , Zhang W , Zhang S , Meng Y , Yu X
Ref : J Biotechnol , 194 :12 , 2015
Abstract : The aim of this study was to improve the ability of Aspergillus terreus lipase to separate the racemic ketoprofen vinyl ester into individual enantiomers using hollow self-assembly alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)/alpha-cyclodextrins (Alg-g-PEG/alpha-CD) spheres as enzyme immobilization carriers. The morphology and size of the Alg-g-PEG/alpha-CD particles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and were found to be nanoscale. To facilitate recycling, calcium alginate (CA) beads were developed to encapsulate Alg-g-PEG/alpha-CD particles, thereby producing Alg-g-PEG/alpha-CD/CA composite beads. The influence of buffer pH and enzyme concentration during immobilization was studied along with the biocatalyst's kinetic parameters. When the immobilized enzyme was under optimal conditions in the resolution reaction, maximal conversion (approximately 45.9%) and enantioselectivity (approximately 128.8) were obtained. The immobilized A. terreus lipase maintained excellent performance even after 20 reuses and retained nearly 100% of its original activity after 24 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C.
ESTHER : Hu_2015_J.Biotechnol_194_12
PubMedSearch : Hu_2015_J.Biotechnol_194_12
PubMedID: 25483320

Title : Genomic information of the arsenic-resistant bacterium Lysobacter arseniciresistens type strain ZS79(T) and comparison of Lysobacter draft genomes - Liu_2015_Stand.Genomic.Sci_10_88
Author(s) : Liu L , Zhang S , Luo M , Wang G
Ref : Stand Genomic Sci , 10 :88 , 2015
Abstract : Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79(T) is a highly arsenic-resistant,rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. In this study, four Lysobacter type strains were sequenced and the genomic information of L. arseniciresistens ZS79(T) and the comparative genomics results of the Lysobacter strains were described. The draft genome sequence of the strain ZS79(T) consists of 3,086,721 bp and is distributed in 109 contigs. It has a G+C content of 69.5 % and contains 2,363 protein-coding genes including eight arsenic resistant genes.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_Stand.Genomic.Sci_10_88
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_Stand.Genomic.Sci_10_88
PubMedID: 26516404
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9gamm-a0a0a0f4f2

Title : Improved thermostability of esterase from Aspergillus fumigatus by site-directed mutagenesis - Zhang_2014_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_64-65_11
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wu G , Feng S , Liu Z
Ref : Enzyme Microb Technol , 64-65 :11 , 2014
Abstract : A 1.020-bp esterase gene, estQ, encoding for a protein of 339 amino acids, was cloned from Aspergillus fumigatus and expressed in E. coli. EstQ exhibited the optimal activity around 40 degrees C and pH 9.0. In order to obtain more thermostable esterases, three mutants (A134T, V160T, A134T-V160T) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and also characterized for further research. Compared to A134T and V160T displaying their optimum activity at 40 degrees C, A134T-V160T exhibited a 5 degrees C higher optimal temperature and a longer half-life more than 24 times than that of WT at 50 degrees C. All the mutants displayed favorable effects on thermostability and retained 53-76% activity after pre-incubation for 30min at 45 degrees C, about 20-40% higher than that of the WT. With an increase in Km of the three mutants, a decrease in catalytic efficiency in kcat/Km was observed in mutant V160T and A134T-V160T against p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Homology models of WT and A134T-V160T were built to understand the structure-function relationship. The analysis results showed that the improved thermostability may be due to the favorable interaction and additional hydrogen bonds formed in the mutants by substitution of hydrophobic residues with hydrophilic residues. This study provide useful theoretical reference for enzyme evolution in vitro.
ESTHER : Zhang_2014_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_64-65_11
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2014_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_64-65_11
PubMedID: 25152411

Title : Characterization of EstB, a novel cold-active and organic solvent-tolerant esterase from marine microorganism Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5(T) - Zhang_2014_Extremophiles_18_251
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wu G , Liu Z , Shao Z
Ref : Extremophiles , 18 :251 , 2014
Abstract : A novel esterase gene, estB, was cloned from the marine microorganism Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5(T) and overexpressed in E. coli DE3 (BL21). The expressed protein EstB with a predicted molecular weight of 45.1 kDa had a distinct catalytic triad (Ser(211)-Trp(353)-Gln(385)) and the classical consensus motif conserved in most lipases and esterases Gly(209)-X-Ser(211)-X-Gly(213). EstB showed very low similarity to any known proteins and displayed the highest similarity to the hypothetical protein (46%) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. EstB showed the optimal activity around pH 8.5 and 20 degrees C and was identified to be extremely cold-adaptative retaining more than 95% activity between 0 and 10 degrees C. The values of kinetic parameters on p-NP caproate (K m, K cat and K cat/K m) were 0.15 mM, 0.54 x 10(3) s(-1) and 3.6 x 10(3) s(-1) mM(-1), respectively. In addition, EstB showed remarkable stability in several studied organic solvents and detergents of high concentrations with the retention of more than 70% activity after treatment for 30 min. The cold activity and its tolerance towards organic solvents made it a promising biocatalyst for industrial applications under extreme conditions.
ESTHER : Zhang_2014_Extremophiles_18_251
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2014_Extremophiles_18_251
PubMedID: 24318107

Title : The complete genome sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with Citrus huanglongbing - Wulff_2014_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_27_163
Author(s) : Wulff NA , Zhang S , Setubal JC , Almeida NF , Martins EC , Harakava R , Kumar D , Rangel LT , Foissac X , Bove JM , Gabriel DW
Ref : Mol Plant Microbe Interact , 27 :163 , 2014
Abstract : Liberibacter spp. form a Rhizobiaceae clade of phloem-limited pathogens of limited host range. Two obligately parasitic species have been sequenced: 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', which causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB) worldwide, and 'Ca. L. solanacearum', which causes potato "zebra chip" disease. A third (proposed) species, Liberibacter crescens, was isolated from mountain papaya, grown in axenic culture, and sequenced. In an effort to identify common host determinants, the complete genomic DNA sequence of a second HLB species, 'Ca. L. americanus' strain 'Sao Paulo' was determined. The circular genome of 1,195,201 bp had an average 31.12% GC content and 983 predicted protein encoding genes, 800 (81.4%) of which had a predicted function. There were 658 genes common to all sequenced Liberibacter spp. and only 8 genes common to 'Ca. L. americanus' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' but not found in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. Surprisingly, most of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes were missing from the 'Ca. L. americanus' genome, as well as OmpA and a key regulator of flagellin, all indicating a 'Ca. L. americanus' strategy of avoiding production of major pathogen-associated molecular patterns present in 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. As with 'Ca. L. asiaticus', one of two 'Ca. L. americanus' prophages replicated as an excision plasmid and carried potential lysogenic conversion genes that appeared fragmentary or degenerated in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'.
ESTHER : Wulff_2014_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_27_163
PubMedSearch : Wulff_2014_Mol.Plant.Microbe.Interact_27_163
PubMedID: 24200077
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9rhiz-u6b5g7

Title : Protective effect of Millettia pulchra polysaccharide on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice - Lin_2014_Carbohydr.Polym_101_533
Author(s) : Lin X , Huang Z , Chen X , Rong Y , Zhang S , Jiao Y , Huang Q , Huang R
Ref : Carbohydr Polym , 101 :533 , 2014
Abstract : A polysaccharide (PMP) was isolated from Millettia pulchra and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results showed that PMP was composed of d-glucose and d-arabinose in a molar ratio of 90.79% and 9.21%, with an average molecular weight of about 14,301Da. Furthermore, the effect of PMP on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice was evaluated. Treatment with PMP significantly reversed d-galactose-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses. Furthermore, our results also showed that PMP markedly reduced the content and deposition of beta-amyloid peptide, improved the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity, increased the levels of acetylcholine, but decreased cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that PMP exerts an effective protection against d-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, and PMP may be a major bioactive ingredient in M. pulchra.
ESTHER : Lin_2014_Carbohydr.Polym_101_533
PubMedSearch : Lin_2014_Carbohydr.Polym_101_533
PubMedID: 24299809

Title : NDRG1 expression is related to the progression and prognosis of gastric cancer patients through modulating proliferation, invasion and cell cycle of gastric cancer cells - Chang_2014_Mol.Biol.Rep_41_6215
Author(s) : Chang X , Xu X , Ma J , Xue X , Li Z , Deng P , Zhang S , Zhi Y , Chen J , Dai D
Ref : Mol Biol Rep , 41 :6215 , 2014
Abstract : N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor gene in many different types of tumors, but its potential function and corresponding mechanism are not yet fully elucidated. This study aims to detect the possible function of NDRG1 in gastric cancer progression. In this study, 112 paired gastric cancer tissues and corresponding nonmalignant gastric tissues were utilized to identify the differential protein expression of NDRG1 by immunohistochemistry and its clinical significance was analyzed. Furthermore, 49 of 112 paired gastric specimens were used to detect the differential mRNA expression by real-time PCR. The over expression of NDRG1 in human gastric cancer cell line AGS by PcDNA3.1-NDRG1 transfection was utilized to detect the role of NDRG1 in regulating the biological behavior of gastric cancer. NDRG1 expression was significantly decreased in primary gastric cancer tissues, compared with its corresponding nonmalignant gastric tissues (p < 0.05), and its decreased expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01), invasion depth (p < 0.01) and differentiation (p < 0.05). Additionally, the overall survival rate of gastric cancer patients with high expression of NDRG1 was higher than those with low expression during the follow-up period. NDRG1 overexpression suppressed cells proliferation, invasion and induced a G1 cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer. Furthermore, the down-regulation of NDRG1 in gastric cancer metastatic progression was correlated to E-cadherin and MMP-9. Our results verify that NDRG1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene and may play an important role in the metastasis progression and prognosis of gastric cancer.
ESTHER : Chang_2014_Mol.Biol.Rep_41_6215
PubMedSearch : Chang_2014_Mol.Biol.Rep_41_6215
PubMedID: 24985974

Title : Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization - Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
Author(s) : Qin C , Yu C , Shen Y , Fang X , Chen L , Min J , Cheng J , Zhao S , Xu M , Luo Y , Yang Y , Wu Z , Mao L , Wu H , Ling-Hu C , Zhou H , Lin H , Gonzalez-Morales S , Trejo-Saavedra DL , Tian H , Tang X , Zhao M , Huang Z , Zhou A , Yao X , Cui J , Li W , Chen Z , Feng Y , Niu Y , Bi S , Yang X , Cai H , Luo X , Montes-Hernandez S , Leyva-Gonzalez MA , Xiong Z , He X , Bai L , Tan S , Liu D , Liu J , Zhang S , Chen M , Zhang L , Zhang Y , Liao W , Wang M , Lv X , Wen B , Liu H , Luan H , Yang S , Wang X , Xu J , Li X , Li S , Wang J , Palloix A , Bosland PW , Li Y , Krogh A , Rivera-Bustamante RF , Herrera-Estrella L , Yin Y , Yu J , Hu K , Zhang Z
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 111 :5135 , 2014
Abstract : As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people's spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded approximately 0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of approximately 81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs.
ESTHER : Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
PubMedSearch : Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
PubMedID: 24591624
Gene_locus related to this paper: capch-q75qh4 , capan-a0a1u8fuf5 , capan-a0a1u8gmz3 , capan-a0a1u8f879 , capan-a0a1u8ftr2 , capan-a0a1u8g8s6

Title : Resting state functional connectivity of the basal nucleus of Meynert in humans: in comparison to the ventral striatum and the effects of age - Li_2014_Neuroimage_97_321
Author(s) : Li CS , Ide JS , Zhang S , Hu S , Chao HH , Zaborszky L
Ref : Neuroimage , 97 :321 , 2014
Abstract : The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) provides the primary cholinergic inputs to the cerebral cortex. Loss of neurons in the BNM is linked to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative conditions. Numerous animal studies described cholinergic and non-cholinergic neuronal responses in the BNM; however, work in humans has been hampered by the difficulty of defining the BNM anatomically. Here, on the basis of a previous study that delineated the BNM of post-mortem human brains in a standard stereotaxic space, we sought to examine functional connectivity of the BNM, as compared to the nucleus accumbens (or ventral striatum, VS), in a large resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data set. The BNM and VS shared but also showed a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical connectivity. Compared to the VS, the BNM showed stronger positive connectivity with the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, amygdala and midbrain, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and pre-supplementary motor area, a network of brain regions that respond to salient stimuli and orchestrate motor behavior. In contrast, compared to the BNM, the VS showed stronger positive connectivity with the ventral caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex, areas implicated in reward processing and motivated behavior. Furthermore, the BNM and VS each showed extensive negative connectivity with visual and lateral prefrontal cortices. Together, the distinct cerebral functional connectivities support the role of the BNM in arousal, saliency responses and cognitive motor control and the VS in reward related behavior. Considering the importance of BNM in age-related cognitive decline, we explored the effects of age on BNM and VS connectivities. BNM connectivity to the visual and somatomotor cortices decreases while connectivity to subcortical structures including the midbrain, thalamus, and pallidum increases with age. These findings of age-related changes of cerebral functional connectivity of the BNM may facilitate research of the neural bases of cognitive decline in health and illness.
ESTHER : Li_2014_Neuroimage_97_321
PubMedSearch : Li_2014_Neuroimage_97_321
PubMedID: 24736176

Title : Contamination of bananas with beauvericin and fusaric acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense - Li_2013_PLoS.One_8_e70226
Author(s) : Li C , Zuo C , Deng G , Kuang R , Yang Q , Hu C , Sheng O , Zhang S , Ma L , Wei Y , Yang J , Liu S , Biswas MK , Viljoen A , Yi G
Ref : PLoS ONE , 8 :e70226 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak 'Guangfen #1' and 10 Cavendish 'Brazilian' plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNFICANCE: The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.
ESTHER : Li_2013_PLoS.One_8_e70226
PubMedSearch : Li_2013_PLoS.One_8_e70226
PubMedID: 23922960
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibf5-fub5

Title : Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation - Malmersjo_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_E1524
Author(s) : Malmersjo S , Rebellato P , Smedler E , Planert H , Kanatani S , Liste I , Nanou E , Sunner H , Abdelhady S , Zhang S , Andang M , El Manira A , Silberberg G , Arenas E , Uhlen P
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 110 :E1524 , 2013
Abstract : Coherent network activity among assemblies of interconnected cells is essential for diverse functions in the adult brain. However, cellular networks before formations of chemical synapses are poorly understood. Here, embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors were found to form networks exhibiting synchronous calcium ion (Ca(2+)) activity that stimulated cell proliferation. Immature neural cells established circuits that propagated electrical signals between neighboring cells, thereby activating voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels that triggered Ca(2+) oscillations. These network circuits were dependent on gap junctions, because blocking prevented electrotonic transmission both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting connexin 43 gap junctions abolished network activity, suppressed proliferation, and affected embryonic cortical layer formation. Cross-correlation analysis revealed highly correlated Ca(2+) activities in small-world networks that followed a scale-free topology. Graph theory predicts that such network designs are effective for biological systems. Taken together, these results demonstrate that immature cells in the developing brain organize in small-world networks that critically regulate neural progenitor proliferation.
ESTHER : Malmersjo_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_E1524
PubMedSearch : Malmersjo_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_E1524
PubMedID: 23576737

Title : EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis - Liu_2013_Tumour.Biol_34_155
Author(s) : Liu H , Li HY , Chen HJ , Huang YJ , Zhang S , Wang J
Ref : Tumour Biol , 34 :155 , 2013
Abstract : Microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) plays an important role in both the activation and the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. Polymorphisms at exon 4 of the EPHX1 gene have been reported to be associated with variations in EPHX1 activity. Many studies have investigated the association between EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk, but the impact of EPHX1 A139G polymorphism on lung cancer risk is not clear owing to the apparent inconsistence among those studies. This study aimed to identify the association between EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk by performing a meta-analysis. We used the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) to explore the association. Finally, 26 studies with a total of 14,494 subjects were included into this meta-analysis. Meta-analyses of total studies showed the EPHX1 A139G polymorphism was associated with lung cancer risk under three genetic models (OR (G versus A) = 1.17, 95 % CI 1.04-1.31, P (OR) = 0.01; OR (AG versus AA) = 1.21, 95 % CI 1.06-1.37, P (OR) = 0.004; OR (AG + GG versus AA) = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.06-1.39, P (OR) = 0.005). Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses further identified the significant association between the EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Meta-analyses of available data supported the concept of EPHX1 A139G polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility factor for lung cancer.
ESTHER : Liu_2013_Tumour.Biol_34_155
PubMedSearch : Liu_2013_Tumour.Biol_34_155
PubMedID: 23055191

Title : A novel esterase from a psychrotrophic bacterium Psychrobacter celer 3Pb1 showed cold-adaptation and salt-tolerance - Wu_2013_J.Mol.Catal.B.Enzym_98_119
Author(s) : Wu G , Zhang S , Zhang H , Zhang SS , Liu Z
Ref : J Mol Catal B Enzym , 98 :119 , 2013
Abstract : A genomic library of a psychrotrophic Psychrobacter celer 3Pb1 was constructed and screened for lipolytic proteins, and a novel esterase Est12 was cloned and characterized. The esterase gene, est12, contained an open reading frame of 990 bp that encoded a protein of 329 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 35,150 Da. Est12 displayed the highest amino acid identity (77%) with a hypothetical esterase from Psychrobacter sp. PAMC 21119 (WP_010200623.1). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the protein belonged to a new lipase/esterase family. Substrate specifity study showed that Est12 preferred short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters and was most active toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Est12 displayed the optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 35C, and remained 41% activity at 0C while being unstable at temperatures above 40C, indicating its cold-adaptation. Besides, Est12 was a salt-tolerant esterase as 4.5 M NaCl significantly declined Km from 0.069 to 0.033 mM and increased kcat from 4.20 to 9.21 s-1, resulting in the increased catalytic efficiency kcat/Km from 60.72 to 276.31 s-1 mM-11. The enzyme activity was also quite stable after 24 h incubation in 0-4.5 M NaCl solutions. In addition, Est12 was very active and stable in the presence of several detergents and organic solvents. This new cold-active and halotolerant esterase would be a potential candidate in industrial applications under extreme conditions (low temperatures, high salinity), and was valuable for studying other unknown esterases/lipases in this new family.
ESTHER : Wu_2013_J.Mol.Catal.B.Enzym_98_119
PubMedSearch : Wu_2013_J.Mol.Catal.B.Enzym_98_119
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9gamm-s5dq61

Title : Seasonally variable intestinal metagenomes of the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) - Jia_2013_Environ.Microbiol_15_3020
Author(s) : Jia S , Zhang X , Zhang G , Yin A , Zhang S , Li F , Wang L , Zhao D , Yun Q , Tala , Wang J , Sun G , Baabdullah M , Yu X , Hu S , Al-Mssallem IS , Yu J
Ref : Environ Microbiol , 15 :3020 , 2013
Abstract : The intestinal microbes residing in the red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) larva consume tender interior fibrous tissues of date palm trunks. The understanding of such microbiota at molecular level provides vital clues for the biological control of this devastating pest. Using pyrosequencing and shotgun strategy, we first study taxonomic profiles of the microbiota sampled at different months (March, July and November), and then confirm the impact of high-temperature stress on the microbial populations based on data from 16S rRNA amplicons using both field and laboratory samples. We further identify Klebsiella pneumoniae in November and Lactococcus lactis in July as the dominant species of the microbiota. We find that the RPW gut microbiota degrades polysaccharides and sucrose with hydrolases and that different active bacterial species in November and July are responsible for the symbiotic relationship between the microbiota and the host. Our results provide vital information for pest control and cellulolytic bacterial species characterization.
ESTHER : Jia_2013_Environ.Microbiol_15_3020
PubMedSearch : Jia_2013_Environ.Microbiol_15_3020
PubMedID: 24102776

Title : Association of NDRG1 gene promoter methylation with reduced NDRG1 expression in gastric cancer cells and tissue specimens - Chang_2013_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_66_93
Author(s) : Chang X , Zhang S , Ma J , Li Z , Zhi Y , Chen J , Lu Y , Dai D
Ref : Cell Biochem Biophys , 66 :93 , 2013
Abstract : NDRG1 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1) plays a role in cell differentiation and suppression of tumor metastasis. This study aims to determine the expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein in gastric cancer cell lines and tissue specimens and then assess the possible cause of its aberrant expression. Six gastric cancer cell lines and 20 pairs of normal and gastric cancer tissue samples were used to assess NDRG1 expression using Real-time PCR and Western blot. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) were performed to detect gene mutation and methylation, respectively, in cell lines and tissues samples. Expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein was downregulated in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues. Specifically, expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein was lower in all six gastric cancer cell lines than that of normal gastric cells, while 15 out of 20 cases of gastric cancer tissues had the reduced levels of NDRG1 mRNA and protein. HRM data showed that there was no mutation in NDRG1 gene, but MSP data showed high levels of NDRG1 gene promoter methylation in the CpG islands in both cell lines and tissue samples. Moreover, treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine upregulated NDRG1 expression in gastric cancer HGC27 cells, but not in the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A-treated HGC27 cells. In conclusion, this study has shown that expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein was reduced in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues, which is due to methylation of NDRG1 gene promoter. Further study will unearth the clinical significance of the reduced NDRG1 protein in gastric cancer.
ESTHER : Chang_2013_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_66_93
PubMedSearch : Chang_2013_Cell.Biochem.Biophys_66_93
PubMedID: 23099645

Title : Structure of MERS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain complexed with human receptor DPP4 - Wang_2013_Cell.Res_23_986
Author(s) : Wang N , Shi X , Jiang L , Zhang S , Wang D , Tong P , Guo D , Fu L , Cui Y , Liu X , Arledge KC , Chen YH , Zhang L , Wang X
Ref : Cell Res , 23 :986 , 2013
Abstract : The spike glycoprotein (S) of recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) targets the cellular receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). Sequence comparison and modeling analysis have revealed a putative receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the viral spike, which mediates this interaction. We report the 3.0 A-resolution crystal structure of MERS-CoV RBD bound to the extracellular domain of human DPP4. Our results show that MERS-CoV RBD consists of a core and a receptor-binding subdomain. The receptor-binding subdomain interacts with DPP4 beta-propeller but not its intrinsic hydrolase domain. MERS-CoV RBD and related SARS-CoV RBD share a high degree of structural similarity in their core subdomains, but are notably divergent in the receptor-binding subdomain. Mutagenesis studies have identified several key residues in the receptor-binding subdomain that are critical for viral binding to DPP4 and entry into the target cell. The atomic details at the interface between MERS-CoV RBD and DPP4 provide structural understanding of the virus and receptor interaction, which can guide development of therapeutics and vaccines against MERS-CoV infection.
ESTHER : Wang_2013_Cell.Res_23_986
PubMedSearch : Wang_2013_Cell.Res_23_986
PubMedID: 23835475
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP4

Title : Hopeahainol A attenuates memory deficits by targeting beta-amyloid in APP\/PS1 transgenic mice - Zhu_2013_Aging.Cell_12_85
Author(s) : Zhu X , Ye L , Ge H , Chen L , Jiang N , Qian L , Li L , Liu R , Ji S , Zhang S , Jin J , Guan D , Fang W , Tan R , Xu Y
Ref : Aging Cell , 12 :85 , 2013
Abstract : Increasing evidence demonstrates that amyloid beta (Abeta) elicits mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of the molecules targeting Abeta is thus of particular significance in the treatment of AD. Hopeahainol A (HopA), a polyphenol with a novel skeleton obtained from Hopea hainanensis, is potentially acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory and anti-oxidative in H(2) O(2) -treated PC12 cells. In this study, we reported that HopA might bind to Abeta(1-42) directly and inhibit the Abeta(1-42) aggregation using a combination of molecular dynamics simulation, binding assay, transmission electron microscopic analysis and staining technique. We also demonstrated that HopA decreased the interaction between Abeta(1-42) and Abeta-binding alcohol dehydrogenase, which in turn reduced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro. In addition, HopA was able to rescue the long-term potentiation induction by protecting synaptic function and attenuate memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Our data suggest that HopA might be a promising drug for therapeutic intervention in AD.
ESTHER : Zhu_2013_Aging.Cell_12_85
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2013_Aging.Cell_12_85
PubMedID: 23107435

Title : Thioesterase domains of fungal nonreducing polyketide synthases act as decision gates during combinatorial biosynthesis - Xu_2013_J.Am.Chem.Soc_135_10783
Author(s) : Xu Y , Zhou T , Zhang S , Xuan LJ , Zhan J , Molnar I
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , 135 :10783 , 2013
Abstract : A crucial step during the programmed biosynthesis of fungal polyketide natural products is the release of the final polyketide intermediate from the iterative polyketide synthases (iPKSs), most frequently by a thioesterase (TE) domain. Realization of combinatorial biosynthesis with iPKSs requires TE domains that can accept altered polyketide intermediates generated by hybrid synthase enzymes and successfully release "unnatural products" with the desired structure. Achieving precise control over product release is of paramount importance with O-C bond-forming TE domains capable of macrocyclization, hydrolysis, transesterification, and pyrone formation that channel reactive, pluripotent polyketide intermediates to defined structural classes of bioactive secondary metabolites. By exploiting chimeric iPKS enzymes to offer substrates with controlled structural variety to two orthologous O-C bond-forming TE domains in situ, we show that these enzymes act as nonequivalent decision gates, determining context-dependent release mechanisms and overall product flux. Inappropriate choice of a TE could eradicate product formation in an otherwise highly productive chassis. Conversely, a judicious choice of a TE may allow the production of a desired hybrid metabolite. Finally, a serendipitous choice of a TE may reveal the unexpected productivity of some chassis. The ultimate decision gating role of TE domains influences the observable outcome of combinatorial domain swaps, emphasizing that the deduced programming rules are context dependent. These factors may complicate engineering the biosynthesis of a desired "unnatural product" but may also open additional avenues to create biosynthetic novelty based on fungal nonreduced polyketides.
ESTHER : Xu_2013_J.Am.Chem.Soc_135_10783
PubMedSearch : Xu_2013_J.Am.Chem.Soc_135_10783
PubMedID: 23822773
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspte-curs2 , floch-rads2

Title : Bioassay- and liquid chromatography\/mass spectrometry-guided acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Picriafel-terrae - Wen_2013_Pharmacogn.Mag_9_S25
Author(s) : Wen L , Wei Q , Chen G , Liu F , Zhang S , You T
Ref : Pharmacogn Mag , 9 :S25 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Picria fel-terrae is a traditional Chinese medicine. MATERIALS AND
METHODS: A new approach to the search for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors from Picria fel-terrae is presented.
RESULTS: Bioassay- and LC-MS-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract was from traditional Chinese medicine P.fel-terrae. Following primary extraction, the ethyl acetate extracts fraction of P.fel-terrae showed strong AChE inhibitory activities. So the sample was separated using highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effluent was split towards two identical 96-well fraction collectors, and the presence of the biologically interesting portion and chromatographic fractions could be readily detected by analyzing selected ion chromatograms through an electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) system for accurate mass measurement. One 96-well plate was used for a bioassay (AChE-inhibitory assay) and detected the bioactivity and position of the relevant peak in the chromatogram. The positive well in the second 96-well plate was used for identification by LC-(+) ESIMS. CONCLUSION: As abovementioned, the AChE inhibitory constituents from P.fel-terrae by LC-bioassay-ESIMS were rapid identified. Liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS) screening detected the presence of six active compounds, identified as picfeltarraenin IA (1), picfeltarraenin IB (2), picfeltarraenin IV (3), picfeltarraenin X (4), picfeltarraenin XI (5), and one unknown compound. The structures were further determined by 13C NMR. The six compounds expressed stronger AChE inhibition than the known AChE inhibitorTacrine. Above all, the value of this LC-bioassay-ESIMS methodology is highlighted by the finding and structure elucidation of the active constituents from many other structural families of natural products.
ESTHER : Wen_2013_Pharmacogn.Mag_9_S25
PubMedSearch : Wen_2013_Pharmacogn.Mag_9_S25
PubMedID: 24143041

Title : mTORC2 controls actin polymerization required for consolidation of long-term memory - Huang_2013_Nat.Neurosci_16_441
Author(s) : Huang W , Zhu PJ , Zhang S , Zhou H , Stoica L , Galiano M , Krnjevic K , Roman G , Costa-Mattioli M
Ref : Nat Neurosci , 16 :441 , 2013
Abstract : A major goal of biomedical research is the identification of molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie memory storage. Here we report a previously unknown signaling pathway that is necessary for the conversion from short- to long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2), which contains the regulatory protein Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), was discovered only recently and little is known about its function. We found that conditional deletion of Rictor in the postnatal murine forebrain greatly reduced mTORC2 activity and selectively impaired both long-term memory (LTM) and the late phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation (L-LTP). We also found a comparable impairment of LTM in dTORC2-deficient flies, highlighting the evolutionary conservation of this pathway. Actin polymerization was reduced in the hippocampus of mTORC2-deficient mice and its restoration rescued both L-LTP and LTM. Moreover, a compound that promoted mTORC2 activity converted early LTP into late LTP and enhanced LTM. Thus, mTORC2 could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.
ESTHER : Huang_2013_Nat.Neurosci_16_441
PubMedSearch : Huang_2013_Nat.Neurosci_16_441
PubMedID: 23455608

Title : Genome sequence of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L - Al-Mssallem_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2274
Author(s) : Al-Mssallem IS , Hu S , Zhang X , Lin Q , Liu W , Tan J , Yu X , Liu J , Pan L , Zhang T , Yin Y , Xin C , Wu H , Zhang G , Ba Abdullah MM , Huang D , Fang Y , Alnakhli YO , Jia S , Yin A , Alhuzimi EM , Alsaihati BA , Al-Owayyed SA , Zhao D , Zhang S , Al-Otaibi NA , Sun G , Majrashi MA , Li F , Tala , Wang J , Yun Q , Alnassar NA , Wang L , Yang M , Al-Jelaify RF , Liu K , Gao S , Chen K , Alkhaldi SR , Liu G , Zhang M , Guo H , Yu J
Ref : Nat Commun , 4 :2274 , 2013
Abstract : Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. Here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (Khalas), which is 605.4 Mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671 Mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that P. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. Genetic diversity analysis indicates that its stress resistance and sugar metabolism-related genes tend to be enriched in the chromosomal regions where the density of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is relatively low. Using transcriptomic data, we also illustrate the date palm's unique sugar metabolism that underlies fruit development and ripening. Our large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data pave the way for further genomic studies not only on P. dactylifera but also other Arecaceae plants.
ESTHER : Al-Mssallem_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2274
PubMedSearch : Al-Mssallem_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2274
PubMedID: 23917264
Gene_locus related to this paper: phodc-a0a2h3y3d5 , phodc-a0a2h3z529 , phodc-a0a2h3y147 , phodc-a0a2h3xrz4 , phodc-a0a3q0ic37 , phodc-a0a2h3yxf0 , phodc-a0a2h3zh01 , phodc-a0a3q0hs32

Title : Clinical and genetic analysis of a compound heterozygous mutation in the thyroglobulin gene in a Chinese twin family with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism - Liu_2012_Twin.Res.Hum.Genet_15_126
Author(s) : Liu S , Zhang S , Li W , Zhang A , Qi F , Zheng G , Yan S , Ma X
Ref : Twin Res Hum Genet , 15 :126 , 2012
Abstract : Mutations in the thyroglobulin (TG) gene, which has an estimated incidence of approximately 1 in 100,000 new-borns, cause autosomal recessive congenital hypothyroidism. The mutational spectrum of the TG gene and the phenotype-genotype correlations have not yet fully been established. We report a compound heterozygous mutation in the TG gene in a Chinese twin family with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. We also describe the gene mutation associated with the genotype-phenotype of these children with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. The whole coding sequence of the TG gene was analyzed by direct sequence, and the identified changes in the sequence were tested for benign polymorphism by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography screening of the mutation and sequencing 200 chromosomes from normal controls. Analysis of the TG gene of the affected twin revealed a compound heterozygous mutation, including a novel missense mutation G2687A, which is predicted to result in a glutamine to arginine substitution at codon 877, and a known nonsense mutation C7006T, predicted to result in an arginine to stop codon at codon 2317. Analysis of 200 normal chromosomes did not identify the same change in healthy subjects. This is the first report of a TG gene mutation in the Chinese Han population. Our study provides further evidence that mutations in the TG gene cause congenital goiter and hypothyroidism, demonstrates genetic heterogeneity of the mutation, and increases our understanding of phenotype-genotype correlations in congenital hypothyroidism.
ESTHER : Liu_2012_Twin.Res.Hum.Genet_15_126
PubMedSearch : Liu_2012_Twin.Res.Hum.Genet_15_126
PubMedID: 22784463

Title : A multi-omic map of the lipid-producing yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides - Zhu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1112
Author(s) : Zhu Z , Zhang S , Liu H , Shen H , Lin X , Yang F , Zhou YJ , Jin G , Ye M , Zou H , Zhao ZK
Ref : Nat Commun , 3 :1112 , 2012
Abstract : Triacylglycerols are among the most attractive alternative raw materials for biofuel development. Current oil plant-based technologies are limited in terms of triacylglycerol production capacity and rate. These limitations may be circumvented by biotransformation of carbohydrates into lipids; however, our understanding of microbial oleaginicity remains limited. Here we present the results of a multi-omic analysis of Rhodosporidium toruloides, a robust triacylglycerol-producing fungus. The assembly of genome and transcriptome sequencing data reveals a genome of 20.2 Mb containing 8,171 protein-coding genes, the majority of which have multiple introns. Genes including a novel fatty acid synthase are predicted to participate in metabolic pathways absent in non-oleaginous yeasts. Transcriptomic and proteomic data suggest that lipid accumulation under nitrogen-limited conditions correlates with the induction of lipogenesis, nitrogenous compound recycling, macromolecule metabolism and autophagy. The multi-omic map of R. toruloides therefore provides a valuable resource for efforts to rationally engineer lipid-production pathways.
ESTHER : Zhu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1112
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1112
PubMedID: 23047670
Gene_locus related to this paper: rhot1-m7wd80 , rhot1-m7x154 , rhot1-m7xfd0 , rhot1-m7wh41 , rhot1-m7x3p3 , rhot1-m7x835 , rhoto-a0a061bfj5

Title : Identification of lipases involved in PBAN stimulated pheromone production in Bombyx mori using the DGE and RNAi approaches - Du_2012_PLoS.One_7_e31045
Author(s) : Du M , Yin X , Zhang S , Zhu B , Song Q , An S
Ref : PLoS ONE , 7 :e31045 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is a neurohormone that regulates sex pheromone synthesis in female moths. Bombyx mori is a model organism that has been used to explore the signal transduction pattern of PBAN, which is mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Although significant progress has been made in elucidating PBAN-regulated lipolysis that releases the precursor of the sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular components involved in this step. To better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PBAN-stimulated lipolysis of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs), the associated lipase genes involved in PBAN- regulated sex pheromone biosynthesis were identified using digital gene expression (DGE) and subsequent RNA interference (RNAi). RESULTS: Three DGE libraries were constructed from pheromone glands (PGs) at different developed stages, namely, 72 hours before eclosion (-72 h), new emergence (0 h) and 72 h after eclosion (72 h), to investigate the gene expression profiles during PG development. The DGE evaluated over 5.6 million clean tags in each PG sample and revealed numerous genes that were differentially expressed at these stages. Most importantly, seven lipases were found to be richly expressed during the key stage of sex pheromone synthesis and release (new emergence). RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed for the first time that four of these seven lipases play important roles in sex pheromone synthesis. CONCLUSION: This study has identified four lipases directly involved in PBAN-stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis, which improve our understanding of the lipases involved in releasing bombykol precursors from triacylglycerols (TAGs) within the cytoplasmic LDs.
ESTHER : Du_2012_PLoS.One_7_e31045
PubMedSearch : Du_2012_PLoS.One_7_e31045
PubMedID: 22359564

Title : The oyster genome reveals stress adaptation and complexity of shell formation - Zhang_2012_Nature_490_49
Author(s) : Zhang G , Fang X , Guo X , Li L , Luo R , Xu F , Yang P , Zhang L , Wang X , Qi H , Xiong Z , Que H , Xie Y , Holland PW , Paps J , Zhu Y , Wu F , Chen Y , Wang J , Peng C , Meng J , Yang L , Liu J , Wen B , Zhang N , Huang Z , Zhu Q , Feng Y , Mount A , Hedgecock D , Xu Z , Liu Y , Domazet-Loso T , Du Y , Sun X , Zhang S , Liu B , Cheng P , Jiang X , Li J , Fan D , Wang W , Fu W , Wang T , Wang B , Zhang J , Peng Z , Li Y , Li N , Chen M , He Y , Tan F , Song X , Zheng Q , Huang R , Yang H , Du X , Chen L , Yang M , Gaffney PM , Wang S , Luo L , She Z , Ming Y , Huang W , Huang B , Zhang Y , Qu T , Ni P , Miao G , Wang Q , Steinberg CE , Wang H , Qian L , Liu X , Yin Y
Ref : Nature , 490 :49 , 2012
Abstract : The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.
ESTHER : Zhang_2012_Nature_490_49
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2012_Nature_490_49
PubMedID: 22992520
Gene_locus related to this paper: cragi-k1qzk7 , cragi-k1rad0 , cragi-k1p6v9 , cragi-k1pa46 , cragi-k1pga2 , cragi-k1pp63 , cragi-k1pwa8 , cragi-k1q0b1.1 , cragi-k1q0b1.2 , cragi-k1q1h2 , cragi-k1q2z6 , cragi-k1qaj8 , cragi-k1qaw5 , cragi-k1qhl5 , cragi-k1qly1 , cragi-k1qqb1.1 , cragi-k1qqb1.2 , cragi-k1qs61 , cragi-k1qs99 , cragi-k1qwl6 , cragi-k1r068 , cragi-k1r0n3.1 , cragi-k1r0n3.2 , cragi-k1r0r4 , cragi-k1r1i9 , cragi-k1r8q9 , cragi-k1rgi1 , cragi-k1rig4 , cragi-k1s0a7.1 , cragi-k1s0a7.2 , cragi-k1s0a7.3 , cragi-k1q6q0 , cragi-k1rru1 , cragi-k1qfi4 , cragi-k1qvm5 , cragi-k1qq58 , cragi-k1qdc0 , cragi-k1r754 , cragi-k1pje5 , cragi-k1qca6 , cragi-k1qdt5 , cragi-k1qkz7 , cragi-k1rgd2 , cragi-k1puh6 , cragi-k1raz4 , cragi-k1qqj4 , cragi-k1rbs1

Title : High level expression and characterization of a thermostable lysophospholipase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 - Cui_2012_Extremophiles_16_619
Author(s) : Cui Z , Wang Y , Pham BP , Ping F , Pan H , Cheong GW , Zhang S , Jia B
Ref : Extremophiles , 16 :619 , 2012
Abstract : Phospholipases can catalyze the hydrolysis of one or more ester and phosphodiester bonds and have a considerable interest in the food, oil leather and pharmaceutical industries. In this report, a lysophospholipase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (LysoPL-tk) was cloned. The gene of 783 bp encodes a 260-amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa. LysoPL-tk has a consensus motif (GxSxG) and a catalytic triad (S, D, H) of esterases in the deduced amino acid sequence. LysoPL-tk was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme can degrade substrates with both short and long acyl chain lengths. The apparent K (m) value for p-nitrophenyl butyrate was 607.1 microM with V (max) values of 95.5 U/mg. The enzyme was active at a broad range of pH (5-8) and temperatures (70-95 degreesC) with the optimum pH and temperature being 8.0 and 85 degreesC, respectively. The high yield, broad substrate range along with its thermo-stability indicates that LysoPL-tk is a potential enzyme in industrial application.
ESTHER : Cui_2012_Extremophiles_16_619
PubMedSearch : Cui_2012_Extremophiles_16_619
PubMedID: 22622648
Gene_locus related to this paper: pyrko-q5jie9

Title : The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry - de Wit_2012_PLoS.Genet_8_E1003088
Author(s) : de Wit PJ , van der Burgt A , Okmen B , Stergiopoulos I , Abd-Elsalam KA , Aerts AL , Bahkali AH , Beenen HG , Chettri P , Cox MP , Datema E , de Vries RP , Dhillon B , Ganley AR , Griffiths SA , Guo Y , Hamelin RC , Henrissat B , Kabir MS , Jashni MK , Kema G , Klaubauf S , Lapidus A , Levasseur A , Lindquist E , Mehrabi R , Ohm RA , Owen TJ , Salamov A , Schwelm A , Schijlen E , Sun H , van den Burg HA , van Ham RC , Zhang S , Goodwin SB , Grigoriev IV , Collemare J , Bradshaw RE
Ref : PLoS Genet , 8 :e1003088 , 2012
Abstract : We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an alpha-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.
ESTHER : de Wit_2012_PLoS.Genet_8_E1003088
PubMedSearch : de Wit_2012_PLoS.Genet_8_E1003088
PubMedID: 23209441
Gene_locus related to this paper: mycpj-q30dw8 , mycp1-n1pnd6 , mycp1-n1per0 , mycp1-n1pg49 , mycp1-n1pwj1 , mycp1-n1pcl8 , mycp1-m2y2b1 , mycp1-n1pwu7 , mycp1-n1ppa8 , mycp1-m2yk59 , mycp1-n1pps5 , mycp1-n1pw13 , mycp1-n1pe19 , mycp1-m2xhl1 , mycp1-n1pnh6 , mycp1-n1psn5 , mycp1-n1puh9 , mycp1-n1phf7 , mycp1-m2y2h4 , mycp1-n1q523 , dotsn-n1q1b1 , dotsn-n1q415 , dotsn-est1

Title : The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude - Qiu_2012_Nat.Genet_44_946
Author(s) : Qiu Q , Zhang G , Ma T , Qian W , Wang J , Ye Z , Cao C , Hu Q , Kim J , Larkin DM , Auvil L , Capitanu B , Ma J , Lewin HA , Qian X , Lang Y , Zhou R , Wang L , Wang K , Xia J , Liao S , Pan S , Lu X , Hou H , Wang Y , Zang X , Yin Y , Ma H , Zhang J , Wang Z , Zhang Y , Zhang D , Yonezawa T , Hasegawa M , Zhong Y , Liu W , Huang Z , Zhang S , Long R , Yang H , Lenstra JA , Cooper DN , Wu Y , Shi P , Liu J
Ref : Nat Genet , 44 :946 , 2012
Abstract : Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of a female domestic yak generated using Illumina-based technology at 65-fold coverage. Genomic comparisons between yak and cattle identify an expansion in yak of gene families related to sensory perception and energy metabolism, as well as an enrichment of protein domains involved in sensing the extracellular environment and hypoxic stress. Positively selected and rapidly evolving genes in the yak lineage are also found to be significantly enriched in functional categories and pathways related to hypoxia and nutrition metabolism. These findings may have important implications for understanding adaptation to high altitude in other animal species and for hypoxia-related diseases in humans.
ESTHER : Qiu_2012_Nat.Genet_44_946
PubMedSearch : Qiu_2012_Nat.Genet_44_946
PubMedID: 22751099
Gene_locus related to this paper: bosmu-l8ic43 , bovin-2neur , bovin-balip , bovin-BCHE , bovin-e1bbv2 , bovin-e1bn79 , bovin-est8 , bovin-f1mi11 , bovin-f1n385 , bovin-g3mxp5 , bovin-lipli , bovin-lipr2 , bovin-q2kj30 , bovin-q3sz79 , bovin-q3t0r6 , bovin-ABHDA , bovin-q08dw9 , bovin-ABHD16B , bovin-SPG21 , bovin-TEX30 , 9ceta-l8iwv2 , 9ceta-l8idy3 , 9ceta-l8hsi3 , bovin-e1bjq9 , bovin-f1mc21 , 9ceta-l8hyl8 , bovin-LIPG , bovin-a0a3q1nm09 , bovin-f1n2i5

Title : A novel Escherichia coli O157:H7 clone causing a major hemolytic uremic syndrome outbreak in China - Xiong_2012_PLoS.One_7_e36144
Author(s) : Xiong Y , Wang P , Lan R , Ye C , Wang H , Ren J , Jing H , Wang Y , Zhou Z , Bai X , Cui Z , Luo X , Zhao A , Zhang S , Sun H , Wang L , Xu J
Ref : PLoS ONE , 7 :e36144 , 2012
Abstract : An Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in China in 1999 caused 177 deaths due to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Sixteen outbreak associated isolates were found to belong to a new clone, sequence type 96 (ST96), based on multilocus sequence typing of 15 housekeeping genes. Whole genome sequencing of an outbreak isolate, Xuzhou21, showed that the isolate is phylogenetically closely related to the Japan 1996 outbreak isolate Sakai, both of which share the most recent common ancestor with the US outbreak isolate EDL933. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by Xuzhou21 and Sakai were significantly higher than that induced by EDL933. Xuzhou21 also induced a significantly higher level of IL-8 than Sakai while both induced similar levels of IL-6. The expression level of Shiga toxin 2 in Xuzhou21 induced by mitomycin C was 68.6 times of that under non-inducing conditions, twice of that induced in Sakai (32.7 times) and 15 times higher than that induced in EDL933 (4.5 times). Our study shows that ST96 is a novel clone and provided significant new insights into the evolution of virulence of E. coli O157:H7.
ESTHER : Xiong_2012_PLoS.One_7_e36144
PubMedSearch : Xiong_2012_PLoS.One_7_e36144
PubMedID: 22558360
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-Z1341

Title : Genomic perspectives on the evolution of fungal entomopathogenicity in Beauveria bassiana - Xiao_2012_Sci.Rep_2_483
Author(s) : Xiao G , Ying SH , Zheng P , Wang ZL , Zhang S , Xie XQ , Shang Y , St Leger RJ , Zhao GP , Wang C , Feng MG
Ref : Sci Rep , 2 :483 , 2012
Abstract : The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. We sequenced the genome of B. bassiana and a phylogenomic analysis confirmed that ascomycete entomopathogenicity is polyphyletic, but also revealed convergent evolution to insect pathogenicity. We also found many species-specific virulence genes and gene family expansions and contractions that correlate with host ranges and pathogenic strategies. These include B. bassiana having many more bacterial-like toxins (suggesting an unsuspected potential for oral toxicity) and effector-type proteins. The genome also revealed that B. bassiana resembles the closely related Cordyceps militaris in being heterothallic, although its sexual stage is rarely observed. A high throughput RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis revealed that B. bassiana could sense and adapt to different environmental niches by activating well-defined gene sets. The information from this study will facilitate further development of B. bassiana as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide.
ESTHER : Xiao_2012_Sci.Rep_2_483
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2012_Sci.Rep_2_483
PubMedID: 22761991
Gene_locus related to this paper: beab2-j4kp85 , beab2-j4kq23 , beab2-j4ugv0 , beab2-j4ujz3 , beab2-j4urc2 , beab2-j4ut21 , beab2-j4uti2 , beab2-j4vvv1 , beab2-j4wbg2 , beab2-j5jde3 , beab2-j5jzt0 , beab2-j4wjh2 , beaba-a0a2s7xwt2 , 9hypo-a0a167hq40 , beab2-ops1

Title : Cloning and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of the bacterial RNA polymerase inhibitor tirandamycin from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO1666 - Mo_2011_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_406_341
Author(s) : Mo X , Wang Z , Wang B , Ma J , Huang H , Tian X , Zhang S , Zhang C , Ju J
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 406 :341 , 2011
Abstract : Tirandamycins are bacterial RNA polymerase inhibitors holding great potential for antibacterial agent design. To elucidate the biosynthetic machinery and generate new derivatives, the tirandamycin biosynthetic gene cluster was cloned and sequenced from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO1666. The biosynthetic gene cluster of tirandamycin spans a DNA region of ~56kb and consists of 15 open reading frames (ORFs) which encode three type I polyketide synthases (TrdAI, AII, AIII), one non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (TrdD), one phosphopantetheinyl transferase (TrdM), one Type II thioesterase (TrdB), one FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (TrdL), one cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (TrdI), three proteins related to resistance and regulations (TrdHJK), and four proteins with unknown function (TrdCEFG). To investigate the roles of the genes played in the biosynthetic machinery, seven genes (trdAI and trdBDFHIK) were inactivated via in frame replacement with an apramycin gene cassette using -RED recombination technology. The trdAI and trdD mutants targeting the ketosynthase and adenylation domain of TrdAI and TrdD, respectively, abolished the production of tirandamycins, confirming their involvement in the tirandamycin biosynthesis. TrdH showed high homology to LuxR family transcriptional regulatory proteins, disruption of which abolished the production of tirandamycins, indicating that TrdH is a positive regulator for tirandamycin biosynthesis. On the other hand, TrdK showed high homology to TetR-family transcriptional regulatory proteins, disruption of which significantly increased the yields of tirandamycins almost one-fold, implicating that TrdK is a negative regulator for tirandamycin biosynthesis. Disruption of the gene trdI resulted in the accumulation of the intermediate tirandamycin C (3) and a trace amount of new product tirandamycin C2 (5). A model of tirandamycin biosynthesis was proposed based on bioinformatics analyses, gene inactivation experiments and intermediates isolated from the mutants. These findings set the stage for further study of the tirandamycin biosynthetic mechanism and rationally engineer new tirandamycin analogues.
ESTHER : Mo_2011_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_406_341
PubMedSearch : Mo_2011_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_406_341
PubMedID: 21329667
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9actn-f1di35

Title : Genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain F2, a bioflocculant-producing bacterium - Li_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5531
Author(s) : Li A , Geng J , Cui D , Shu C , Zhang S , Yang J , Xing J , Wang J , Ma F , Hu S
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :5531 , 2011
Abstract : Agrobacterium tumefaciens F2 is an efficient bioflocculant-producing bacterium. But the genes related to the metabolic pathway of bioflocculant biosynthesis in strain F2 are unknown. We present the draft genome of A. tumefaciens F2. It could provide further insight into the biosynthetic mechanism of polysaccharide-like bioflocculant in strain F2.
ESTHER : Li_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5531
PubMedSearch : Li_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5531
PubMedID: 21914861
Gene_locus related to this paper: rhird-f7u6g7

Title : The Xylella fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 genome is very similar and syntenic to Pierce's disease strains - Zhang_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5576
Author(s) : Zhang S , Flores-Cruz Z , Kumar D , Chakrabarty P , Hopkins DL , Gabriel DW
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :5576 , 2011
Abstract : Xylella fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 is infectious to grapevines but does not cause symptoms. The draft genome of EB92-1 reveals that it may be missing 10 potential pathogenicity effectors.
ESTHER : Zhang_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5576
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5576
PubMedID: 21914886
Gene_locus related to this paper: xylfa-pip

Title : Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional Chinese medicine - Zheng_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R116
Author(s) : Zheng P , Xia Y , Xiao G , Xiong C , Hu X , Zhang S , Zheng H , Huang Y , Zhou Y , Wang S , Zhao GP , Liu X , St Leger RJ , Wang C
Ref : Genome Biol , 12 :R116 , 2011
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined.
RESULTS: Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated.
CONCLUSIONS: The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.
ESTHER : Zheng_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R116
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R116
PubMedID: 22112802
Gene_locus related to this paper: cormm-g3jhe4 , cormm-g3j5w5 , cormm-g3jjs8 , cormm-g3jj84 , cormm-g3j580 , cormm-g3jkl0 , cormi-a0a2h4sj63 , cormm-g3jpf2

Title : Complete genome sequence of Bordetella pertussis CS, a Chinese pertussis vaccine strain - Zhang_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_4017
Author(s) : Zhang S , Xu Y , Zhou Z , Wang S , Yang R , Wang J , Wang L
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :4017 , 2011
Abstract : Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis. Here, we report the genome sequence of Bordetella pertussis strain CS, isolated from an infant patient in Beijing and widely used as a vaccine strain for production of an acellular pertussis vaccine in China.
ESTHER : Zhang_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_4017
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_4017
PubMedID: 21622744
Gene_locus related to this paper: borpe-CATD2

Title : The oligopeptidase B of Leishmania regulates parasite enolase and immune evasion - Swenerton_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_429
Author(s) : Swenerton RK , Zhang S , Sajid M , Medzihradszky KF , Craik CS , Kelly BL , McKerrow JH
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 286 :429 , 2011
Abstract : Proteases are a ubiquitous group of enzymes that play key roles in the life cycle of parasites, in the host-parasite relationship, and in the pathogenesis of parasitic diseases. Furthermore, proteases are targets for the development of new anti-parasitic therapy. Protozoan parasites like Leishmania predominantly express Clan CA cysteine proteases for key life cycle functions. It was therefore unexpected to find a high level of serine protease activity expressed by Leishmania donovani. Purification of this activity followed by mass spectrometry identified oligopeptidase B (OPB; Clan SC, family S9A) as the responsible enzyme. This was confirmed by gene knock-out of OPB, which resulted in the disappearance of the detected serine protease activity of Leishmania extracts. To delineate the specific role of OPB in parasite physiology, proteomic analysis was carried out on OPB(-/-) versus wild type parasites. Four protein species were significantly elevated in OPB(-/-) parasites, and all four were identified by mass spectrometry as enolase. This increased enolase was enzymatically inactive and associated with the parasite membrane. Aside from its classic role in carbohydrate metabolism, enolase was recently found to localize to membranes, where it binds host plasminogen and functions as a virulence factor for several pathogens. As expected, there was a striking alteration in macrophage responses to Leishmania when OPB was deleted. Whereas wild type parasites elicited little, if any, response from infected macrophages, OPB(-/-) parasites induced a massive up-regulation in gene transcription. Additionally, these OPB(-/-) parasites displayed decreased virulence in the murine footpad infection model.
ESTHER : Swenerton_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_429
PubMedSearch : Swenerton_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_429
PubMedID: 20961853
Gene_locus related to this paper: leima-OPB

Title : The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa - Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
Author(s) : Wang X , Wang H , Wang J , Sun R , Wu J , Liu S , Bai Y , Mun JH , Bancroft I , Cheng F , Huang S , Li X , Hua W , Freeling M , Pires JC , Paterson AH , Chalhoub B , Wang B , Hayward A , Sharpe AG , Park BS , Weisshaar B , Liu B , Li B , Tong C , Song C , Duran C , Peng C , Geng C , Koh C , Lin C , Edwards D , Mu D , Shen D , Soumpourou E , Li F , Fraser F , Conant G , Lassalle G , King GJ , Bonnema G , Tang H , Belcram H , Zhou H , Hirakawa H , Abe H , Guo H , Jin H , Parkin IA , Batley J , Kim JS , Just J , Li J , Xu J , Deng J , Kim JA , Yu J , Meng J , Min J , Poulain J , Hatakeyama K , Wu K , Wang L , Fang L , Trick M , Links MG , Zhao M , Jin M , Ramchiary N , Drou N , Berkman PJ , Cai Q , Huang Q , Li R , Tabata S , Cheng S , Zhang S , Sato S , Sun S , Kwon SJ , Choi SR , Lee TH , Fan W , Zhao X , Tan X , Xu X , Wang Y , Qiu Y , Yin Y , Li Y , Du Y , Liao Y , Lim Y , Narusaka Y , Wang Z , Li Z , Xiong Z , Zhang Z
Ref : Nat Genet , 43 :1035 , 2011
Abstract : We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of the genes expected to have been present in its ancestor. Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.
ESTHER : Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
PubMedSearch : Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
PubMedID: 21873998
Gene_locus related to this paper: braol-Q8GTM3 , braol-Q8GTM4 , brarp-m4ei94 , brarp-m4c988 , brana-a0a078j4a9 , brana-a0a078e1m0 , brana-a0a078cd75 , brarp-m4dwa6 , brana-a0a078j4f0 , brana-a0a078cus4 , brana-a0a078f8c2 , brana-a0a078jql1 , brana-a0a078dgj3 , brana-a0a078hw50 , brana-a0a078cuu0 , brana-a0a078dfa9 , brana-a0a078ic91 , brarp-m4ctw3 , brana-a0a078ca65 , brana-a0a078ctc8 , brana-a0a078h021 , brana-a0a078jx23 , brarp-m4da84 , brarp-m4dwr7 , brana-a0a078dh94 , brana-a0a078h612 , brana-a0a078j2t3 , braol-a0a0d3dpb2 , braol-a0a0d3dx76 , brana-a0a078jxa8 , brana-a0a078i2k3 , brarp-m4cwq4 , brarp-m4dcj8 , brarp-m4eh17 , brarp-m4eey4 , brarp-m4dnj8 , brarp-m4ey83 , brarp-m4ey84

Title : Emergence of a new multidrug-resistant serotype X variant in an epidemic clone of Shigella flexneri - Ye_2010_J.Clin.Microbiol_48_419
Author(s) : Ye C , Lan R , Xia S , Zhang J , Sun Q , Zhang S , Jing H , Wang L , Li Z , Zhou Z , Zhao A , Cui Z , Cao J , Jin D , Huang L , Wang Y , Luo X , Bai X , Wang P , Xu Q , Xu J
Ref : J Clin Microbiol , 48 :419 , 2010
Abstract : Shigella spp. are the causative agent of shigellosis with Shigella flexneri serotype 2a being the most prevalent in developing countries. Epidemiological surveillance in China found that a new serotype of S. flexneri appeared in 2001 and replaced serotype 2a in 2003 as the most prevalent serotype in Henan Province. The new serotype also became the dominant serotype in 7 of the 10 other provinces under surveillance in China by 2007. The serotype was identified as a variant of serotype X. It differs from serotype X by agglutination to the monovalent anti-IV type antiserum and the group antigen-specific monoclonal antibody MASF IV-I. Genome sequencing of a serotype X variant isolate, 2002017, showed that it acquired a Shigella serotype conversion island, also as an SfX bacteriophage, containing gtr genes for type X-specific glucosylation. Multilocus sequence typing of 15 genes from 37 serotype X variant isolates and 69 isolates of eight other serotypes, 1a, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5b, X, and Y, found that all belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST91. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 154 pulse types with 655 S. flexneri isolates analyzed and identified 57 serotype switching events. The data suggest that S. flexneri epidemics in China have been caused by a single epidemic clone, ST91, with frequent serotype switching to evade infection-induced immunity to serotypes to which the population was exposed previously. The clone has also acquired resistance to multiple antibiotics. These findings underscore the challenges to the current vaccine development and control strategies for shigellosis.
ESTHER : Ye_2010_J.Clin.Microbiol_48_419
PubMedSearch : Ye_2010_J.Clin.Microbiol_48_419
PubMedID: 19955273
Gene_locus related to this paper: shifl-AES , shifl-BIOH , shifl-entf , shifl-FES , shifl-PLDB , shifl-PTRB , shifl-S2753 , shifl-SF1808 , shifl-SF3046 , shifl-SF3908 , shifl-yafa , shifl-YBFF , shifl-YCDJ , shifl-ycfp , shifl-YFBB , shifl-YHET , shifl-YJFP , shifl-YPFH , shiss-yqia

Title : Clicked bivalent ligands containing curcumin and cholesterol as multifunctional abeta oligomerization inhibitors: design, synthesis, and biological characterization - Lenhart_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_6198
Author(s) : Lenhart JA , Ling X , Gandhi R , Guo TL , Gerk PM , Brunzell DH , Zhang S
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 53 :6198 , 2010
Abstract : In our effort to develop multifunctional compounds that cotarget beta-amyloid oligomers (AbetaOs), cell membrane/lipid rafts (CM/LR), and oxidative stress, a series of bivalent multifunctional Abeta oligomerization inhibitors (BMAOIs) containing cholesterol and curcumin were designed, synthesized, and biologically characterized as potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The in vitro assay results established that the length of spacer that links cholesterol and curcumin and the attaching position of the spacer on curcumin are important structural determinants for their biological activities. Among the BMAOIs tested, 14 with a 21-atom-spacer was identified to localize to the CM/LR of human neuroblastoma MC65 cells, to inhibit the formation of AbetaOs in MC65 cells, to protect cells from AbetaOs-induced cytotoxicity, and to retain antioxidant properties of curcumin. Furthermore, 14 was confirmed to have the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as demonstrated in a Caco-2 cell model. Collectively, these results strongly encourage further optimization of 14 as a new hit to develop more potent BMAOIs.
ESTHER : Lenhart_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_6198
PubMedSearch : Lenhart_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_6198
PubMedID: 20666513

Title : Inhibition or deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents hyperglycemia, promotes insulin secretion, and reduces islet apoptosis - Luo_2010_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_334_430
Author(s) : Luo P , Chang HH , Zhou Y , Zhang S , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Wang CY , Inscho EW , Hammock BD , Wang MH
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 334 :430 , 2010
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of endogenous inflammatory and antiapoptotic mediators. However, the roles of sEH in diabetes and the pancreas are unknown. Our aims were to determine whether sEH is involved in the regulation of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and to investigate the reasons for the regulation of insulin secretion by sEH deletion or inhibition in islets. We used two separate approaches, targeted disruption of Ephx2 gene [sEH knockout (KO)] and a selective inhibitor of sEH [trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB)], to assess the role of sEH in glucose and insulin homeostasis in streptozotocin (STZ) mice. We also examined the effects of sEH KO or t-AUCB on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and intracellular calcium levels in islets. Hyperglycemia in STZ mice was prevented by both sEH KO and t-AUCB. In addition, STZ mice with sEH KO had improved glucose tolerance. More important, when insulin levels were assessed by hyperglycemic clamp study, sEH KO was found to promote insulin secretion. In addition, sEH KO and t-AUCB treatment augmented islet GSIS. Islets with sEH KO had a greater intracellular calcium influx when challenged with high glucose or KCl in the presence of diazoxide. Moreover, sEH KO reduced islet cell apoptosis in STZ mice. These results show not only that sEH KO and its inhibition prevent hyperglycemia in diabetes, but also that sEH KO enhances islet GSIS through the amplifying pathway and decreases islet cell apoptosis in diabetes.
ESTHER : Luo_2010_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_334_430
PubMedSearch : Luo_2010_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_334_430
PubMedID: 20439437

Title : [Effects of exercise on spatial learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in brain aging mice] - Ren_2010_Wei.Sheng.Yan.Jiu_39_239
Author(s) : Ren S , He X , Yun S , Zhang S , Xiao Z , Wei S
Ref : Wei Sheng Yan Jiu , 39 :239 , 2010
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects and mechanism of exercise on resisting brain aging from the aspect of synaptic plasticity. METHODS: Forty male ICR mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: the D-galactose-induced brain aging, brain aging plus exercise, exercise only and normal controls. Mice were subjected to treadmill running at intensity (25 m/min for 20 min daily, 6 days a week) level of exercise and were given 100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) subcutaneous injection of D-galactose to prepare brain aging model for 9 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to determine their spatial learning and memory ability. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the amount of hippocampal synaptosomes. Membrane fluidity of synaptosomes was measured by fluorescence polarization technique. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain was determined by hydroxylamine colorimetric assay. RESULTS: (1) In Morris water maze test, brain aging mice showed a significant longer escape latency (EL) than the normal control mice (P < 0.05). Brain aging mice plus exercise exhibited a significant shorter EL than brain aging mice (P < 0.05), but no difference was found when compared with normal control mice (P > 0.05). There were no statistical difference in EL between the controls and exercise group (P > 0.05). (2) The number of synaptosomes in brain aging mice and brain aging mice plus exercise were less than those in non-brain aging mice (the exercise and the control mice) (P < 0.05). The number of synaptosomes in brain aging mice plus exercise was more than brain aging mice (P < 0.05). There were no statistical difference in the number of synaptosomes between the controls and exercise group (P > 0.05). (3) Membrane fluidity of synaptosomes: the viscosity of membrane in brain aging group was higher than in non-brain aging group, and higher than brain aging plus exercise group (P < 0.05). There were no statistical difference in viscosity of membrane between brain aging group and non-brain aging group, and between the controls and exercise group (P > 0.05). (4) The AChE activity in brain aging and brain aging plus exercise group were higher than those in control and exercise group (P < 0.05). There were no statistical difference in AChE activity between the controls and exercise group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exercise can effectively protect against decline in the capacity of learning and memory in brain aging mice.
ESTHER : Ren_2010_Wei.Sheng.Yan.Jiu_39_239
PubMedSearch : Ren_2010_Wei.Sheng.Yan.Jiu_39_239
PubMedID: 20459047

Title : The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L - Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
Author(s) : Huang S , Li R , Zhang Z , Li L , Gu X , Fan W , Lucas WJ , Wang X , Xie B , Ni P , Ren Y , Zhu H , Li J , Lin K , Jin W , Fei Z , Li G , Staub J , Kilian A , van der Vossen EA , Wu Y , Guo J , He J , Jia Z , Tian G , Lu Y , Ruan J , Qian W , Wang M , Huang Q , Li B , Xuan Z , Cao J , Asan , Wu Z , Zhang J , Cai Q , Bai Y , Zhao B , Han Y , Li Y , Li X , Wang S , Shi Q , Liu S , Cho WK , Kim JY , Xu Y , Heller-Uszynska K , Miao H , Cheng Z , Zhang S , Wu J , Yang Y , Kang H , Li M , Liang H , Ren X , Shi Z , Wen M , Jian M , Yang H , Zhang G , Yang Z , Chen R , Ma L , Liu H , Zhou Y , Zhao J , Fang X , Fang L , Liu D , Zheng H , Zhang Y , Qin N , Li Z , Yang G , Yang S , Bolund L , Kristiansen K , Li S , Zhang X , Wang J , Sun R , Zhang B , Jiang S , Du Y
Ref : Nat Genet , 41 :1275 , 2009
Abstract : Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequencing technologies to obtain 72.2-fold genome coverage. The absence of recent whole-genome duplication, along with the presence of few tandem duplications, explains the small number of genes in the cucumber. Our study establishes that five of the cucumber's seven chromosomes arose from fusions of ten ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides a valuable resource for developing elite cultivars and for studying the evolution and function of the plant vascular system.
ESTHER : Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
PubMedSearch : Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
PubMedID: 19881527
Gene_locus related to this paper: cucsa-a0a0a0ktw5 , cucsa-a0a0a0lnt6 , cucsa-a0a0a0kpn7 , cucsa-a0a0a0lvt9 , cucsa-a0a0a0kdx8 , cucsa-a0a0a0m228 , cucsa-a0a0a0kz31 , cucsa-a0a0a0k5t5 , cucsa-a0a0a0kfs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kjj7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kzs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0l0a6 , cucsa-a0a0a0l4w4 , cucsa-a0a0a0lpz0 , cucsa-a0a0a0ls66

Title : Seprase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in dysplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. A study of 229 cases from Anyang Tumor Hospital, Henan Province, China - Goscinski_2008_Oncology_75_49
Author(s) : Goscinski MA , Suo ZH , Nesland JM , Chen WT , Zakrzewska M , Wang J , Zhang S , Florenes VA , Giercksky KE
Ref : Oncology , 75 :49 , 2008
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Seprase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) play a crucial role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and in the progression of various human tumors. However, their pathophysiologic significance in esophageal carcinoma has not yet been fully elucidated.
METHODS: The expression of seprase, DPPIV and uPA in esophageal dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal epithelium was examined by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Seprase, DPPIV and uPA immunoreactivity was found in dysplastic and cancer cells as well as in stromal cells adjacent to dysplasia and cancer sites, but not in normal epithelium. We found a significant association between uPA expression and sex, tumor size and histological classification in carcinomas. High expression of DPPIV in cancer cells correlated with longer survival of the patients. No significant associations between seprase and clinicopathological features either in dysplasia or in carcinomas were found. Finally, we demonstrated higher levels of seprase, DPPIV and uPA in SCC cell lines than in normal esophageal epithelial cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that seprase, DPPIV and uPA are expressed in both premalignant and malignant forms of SCC, but are lacking in normal esophageal epithelia, suggesting that they are involved in SCC neoplastic progression.
ESTHER : Goscinski_2008_Oncology_75_49
PubMedSearch : Goscinski_2008_Oncology_75_49
PubMedID: 18787344

Title : Early expression of aflatoxin-like dothistromin genes in the forest pathogen Dothistroma septosporum - Schwelm_2008_Mycol.Res_112_138
Author(s) : Schwelm A , Barron NJ , Zhang S , Bradshaw RE
Ref : Mycol Res , 112 :138 , 2008
Abstract : The forest pathogen Dothistroma septosporum produces the polyketide dothistromin, a mycotoxin very similar in structure to versicolorin B, a precursor of aflatoxin (AF). Dothistromin is a broad-range toxin and possibly involved in red-band needle blight disease. As the role of dothistromin in the disease is unknown the expression of dothistromin genes was studied to reveal clues to its function. Although the genes of AF and dothistromin biosynthesis are very similar, this study revealed remarkable differences in the timing of their expression. Secondary metabolites, like AF, are usually produced during late exponential phase. Previously identified dothistromin genes, as well as a newly reported versicolorin B synthase gene, vbsA, showed high levels of expression during the onset of exponential growth. This unusual early expression was also seen in transformants containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene regulated by a dothistromin gene promoter, where the highest GFP expression occurred in young mycelium. Two hypotheses for the biological role of dothistromin are proposed based on these results. The study of dothistromin genes will improve current knowledge about secondary metabolite genes, their putative biological roles, and their regulation.
ESTHER : Schwelm_2008_Mycol.Res_112_138
PubMedSearch : Schwelm_2008_Mycol.Res_112_138
PubMedID: 18262779
Gene_locus related to this paper: mycpj-q30dw8

Title : Genome biology of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae JL03, an isolate of serotype 3 prevalent in China - Xu_2008_PLoS.One_3_e1450
Author(s) : Xu Z , Zhou Y , Li L , Zhou R , Xiao S , Wan Y , Zhang S , Wang K , Li W , Jin H , Kang M , Dalai B , Li T , Liu L , Cheng Y , Zhang L , Xu T , Zheng H , Pu S , Wang B , Gu W , Zhang XL , Zhu GF , Wang S , Zhao GP , Chen H
Ref : PLoS ONE , 3 :e1450 , 2008
Abstract : Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a cause of considerable world wide economic losses in the swine industry. We sequenced the complete genome of A. pleuropneumoniae, JL03, an isolate of serotype 3 prevalent in China. Its genome is a single chromosome of 2,242,062 base pairs containing 2,097 predicted protein-coding sequences, six ribosomal rRNA operons, and 63 tRNA genes. Preliminary analysis of the genomic sequence and the functions of the encoded proteins not only confirmed the present physiological and pathological knowledge but also offered new insights into the metabolic and virulence characteristics of this important pathogen. We identified a full spectrum of genes related to its characteristic chemoheterotrophic catabolism of fermentation and respiration with an incomplete TCA system for anabolism. In addition to confirming the lack of ApxI toxin, identification of a nonsense mutation in apxIVA and a 5'-proximal truncation of the flp operon deleting both its promoter and the flp1flp2tadV genes have provided convincing scenarios for the low virulence property of JL03. Comparative genomic analysis using the available sequences of other serotypes, probable strain (serotype)-specific genomic islands related to capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosyntheses were identified in JL03, which provides a foundation for future research into the mechanisms of serotypic diversity of A. pleuropneumoniae.
ESTHER : Xu_2008_PLoS.One_3_e1450
PubMedSearch : Xu_2008_PLoS.One_3_e1450
PubMedID: 18197260
Gene_locus related to this paper: actp2-a3n347 , actp7-b3h2v1 , actp7-b3h2x2 , actpj-b0bpm3 , actpj-b0bqd8 , actpj-b0brq2

Title : Dietary and in utero exposure to a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture did not affect cholinergic parameters in the cerebral cortex of ranch mink (Mustela vison) - Bull_2007_Toxicol.Sci_96_115
Author(s) : Bull K , Basu N , Zhang S , Martin JW , Bursian S , Martin P , Chan LH
Ref : Toxicol Sci , 96 :115 , 2007
Abstract : Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that are recognized as global environmental contaminants and a potential health risk. They have been shown to elicit neurodevelopmental toxicity through disruption of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in rodent models, but the effects of environmentally relevant exposures in wildlife species are unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the commercial pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 on cholinergic parameters in ranch mink (Mustela vison) following dietary exposure of adult females and in utero, lactational, and dietary exposure of their offspring. Adult females were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 microg DE-71/g feed from four weeks prior to breeding through weaning of their kits at six weeks of age. A portion of the weaned kits were maintained on their respective diets through 27 weeks of age. Cholinergic parameters, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, cholinesterase (ChE) activity, and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration, were assayed in the cerebral cortex, and ChE activity was measured in the plasma. In the cerebral cortex, results indicated a significant exposure-dependent increase in PBDE concentrations, but no significant effects of DE-71 on cholinergic parameters. There was a threefold increase in ChE activity in the plasma of adult females in the 2.5 microg DE-71/g feed group, but was likely due to effects on liver function. This study demonstrated that environmentally relevant exposures to DE-71 did not affect key parameters of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the brain of ranch mink.
ESTHER : Bull_2007_Toxicol.Sci_96_115
PubMedSearch : Bull_2007_Toxicol.Sci_96_115
PubMedID: 17150973

Title : A fragmented aflatoxin-like gene cluster in the forest pathogen Dothistroma septosporum - Zhang_2007_Fungal.Genet.Biol_44_1342
Author(s) : Zhang S , Schwelm A , Jin H , Collins LJ , Bradshaw RE
Ref : Fungal Genet Biol , 44 :1342 , 2007
Abstract : The polyketide toxin dothistromin is very similar in structure to the aflatoxin precursor, versicolorin B. Dothistromin is made by a pine needle pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, both in culture and in planta. Orthologs of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes have been identified that are required for dothistromin biosynthesis in D. septosporum. In contrast to the situation in aflatoxin-producing fungi where 25 aflatoxin biosynthetic and regulatory genes are tightly clustered in one region of the genome, the dothistromin gene cluster is fragmented. Three mini-clusters of dothistromin genes have been identified, each located on a 1.3-Mb chromosome and each grouped with non-dothistromin genes. There are no obvious patterns of repeated sequences or transposon relics to suggest recent recombination events. Most dothistromin genes within the mini-clusters are co-regulated, suggesting that coordinate control of gene expression is achieved despite this unusual arrangement of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes.
ESTHER : Zhang_2007_Fungal.Genet.Biol_44_1342
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2007_Fungal.Genet.Biol_44_1342
PubMedID: 17683963
Gene_locus related to this paper: mycpj-q30dw8 , dotsn-est1

Title : A polyketide synthase gene required for biosynthesis of the aflatoxin-like toxin, dothistromin - Bradshaw_2006_Mycopathologia_161_283
Author(s) : Bradshaw RE , Jin H , Morgan BS , Schwelm A , Teddy OR , Young CA , Zhang S
Ref : Mycopathologia , 161 :283 , 2006
Abstract : Dothistromin is a polyketide toxin, produced by a fungal forest pathogen, with structural similarity to the aflatoxin precursor versicolorin B. Biochemical and genetic studies suggested that there are common steps in the biosynthetic pathways for these metabolites and showed similarities between some of the genes. A polyketide synthase gene (pksA) was isolated from dothistromin-producing Dothistroma septosporum by hybridization with an aflatoxin ortholog from Aspergillus parasiticus. Inactivation of this gene in D. septosporum resulted in mutants that could not produce dothistromin but that could convert exogenous aflatoxin precursors, including norsolorinic acid, into dothistromin. The mutants also had reduced asexual sporulation compared to the wild type. So far four other genes are known to be clustered immediately alongside pksA. Three of these (cypA, moxA, avfA) are predicted to be orthologs of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. The other gene (epoA), located between avfA and moxA, is predicted to encode an epoxide hydrolase, for which there is no homolog in either the aflatoxin or sterigmatocystin gene clusters. The pksA gene is located on a small chromosome of approximately 1.3 Mb in size, along with the dothistromin ketoreductase (dotA) gene.
ESTHER : Bradshaw_2006_Mycopathologia_161_283
PubMedSearch : Bradshaw_2006_Mycopathologia_161_283
PubMedID: 16649078
Gene_locus related to this paper: mycpj-q30dw8 , dotsn-est1

Title : A mediator-free screen-printed amperometric biosensor for screening of organophosphorus pesticides with flow-injection analysis (FIA) system - Shi_2006_Talanta_68_1089
Author(s) : Shi M , Xu J , Zhang S , Liu B , Kong J
Ref : Talanta , 68 :1089 , 2006
Abstract : A mediator-free amperometric biosensor for screening organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in flow-injection analysis (FIA) system based on anticholinesterase activity of OPs to immobilized acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) has been developed. The enzyme biosensor is prepared by entrapping AChE in Al(2)O(3) sol-gel matrix screen-printed on an integrated 3-electrode plastic chip. This strategy is found not only increase the stability of the embedded AChE, but also effectively catalyze the oxidative reaction of thiocholine, making the Al(2)O(3)-AChE biosensor detects the substrate at 0.25V (versus Ag/AgCl), hundreds mini-volt lower than other reported mediator-free ones. The Al(2)O(3)-AChE biosensor is thus coupled to FIA system to build up a simple and low-cost FIA-EC system for screening OPs in real samples. A wide linear inhibition response for dichlorvos, typical OP, is observed in the range of 0.1-80muM, corresponding to 7.91-84.94% inhibition for AChE. The detection limit for dichlorvos is achieved at 10nM in the simulated seawater for 15min inhibiting time, which allows the biosensor quantitatively detects the ecotoxicological effect of the real samples from the seaports in eastern China, where the OPs pollution is confirmed by GC-MS.
ESTHER : Shi_2006_Talanta_68_1089
PubMedSearch : Shi_2006_Talanta_68_1089
PubMedID: 18970436

Title : Genome sequence of a serotype M28 strain of group a streptococcus: potential new insights into puerperal sepsis and bacterial disease specificity - Green_2005_J.Infect.Dis_192_760
Author(s) : Green NM , Zhang S , Porcella SF , Nagiec MJ , Barbian KD , Beres SB , LeFebvre RB , Musser JM
Ref : J Infect Dis , 192 :760 , 2005
Abstract : Puerperal sepsis, a major cause of death of young women in Europe in the 1800s, was due predominantly to the gram-positive pathogen group A Streptococcus. Studies conducted during past decades have shown that serotype M28 strains are the major group A Streptococcus organisms responsible for many of these infections. To begin to increase our understanding of their enrichment in puerperal sepsis, we sequenced the genome of a genetically representative strain. This strain has genes encoding a novel array of prophage virulence factors, cell-surface proteins, and other molecules likely to contribute to host-pathogen interactions. Importantly, genes for 7 inferred extracellular proteins are encoded by a 37.4-kb foreign DNA element that is shared with group B Streptococcus and is present in all serotype M28 strains. Proteins encoded by the 37.4-kb element were expressed extracellularly and in human infections. Acquisition of foreign genes has helped create a disease-specialist clone of this pathogen.
ESTHER : Green_2005_J.Infect.Dis_192_760
PubMedSearch : Green_2005_J.Infect.Dis_192_760
PubMedID: 16088825
Gene_locus related to this paper: strpm-q48rv0 , strpy-ESTA , strpy-PEPXP , strpy-SPY1308

Title : Indole-diterpene gene cluster from Aspergillus flavus - Zhang_2004_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_70_6875
Author(s) : Zhang S , Monahan BJ , Tkacz JS , Scott B
Ref : Applied Environmental Microbiology , 70 :6875 , 2004
Abstract : Aflatrem is a potent tremorgenic mycotoxin produced by the soil fungus Aspergillus flavus and is a member of a large structurally diverse group of secondary metabolites known as indole-diterpenes. By using degenerate primers for conserved domains of fungal geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, we cloned two genes, atmG and ggsA (an apparent pseudogene), from A. flavus. Adjacent to atmG are two other genes, atmC and atmM. These three genes have 64 to 70% amino acid sequence similarity and conserved synteny with a cluster of orthologous genes, paxG, paxC, and paxM, from Penicillium paxilli which are required for indole-diterpene biosynthesis. atmG, atmC, and atmM are coordinately expressed, with transcript levels dramatically increasing at the onset of aflatrem biosynthesis. A genomic copy of atmM can complement a paxM deletion mutant of P. paxilli, demonstrating that atmM is a functional homolog of paxM. Thus, atmG, atmC, and atmM are necessary, but not sufficient, for aflatrem biosynthesis by A. flavus. This provides the first genetic evidence for the biosynthetic pathway of aflatrem in A. flavus.
ESTHER : Zhang_2004_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_70_6875
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2004_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_70_6875
PubMedID: 15528556
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspor-q2u5f5

Title : [Determination of buprofezin, methamidophos, acephate, and triazophos residues in Chinese tea samples by gas chromatography] - Zhang_2004_Se.Pu_22_154
Author(s) : Zhang S , Yi J , Ye J , Zheng W , Cai X , Gong Z
Ref : Se Pu , 22 :154 , 2004
Abstract : A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of buprofezin, methamidophos, acephate and triazophos residues in Chinese tea samples. The pesticide residues were extracted from tea samples with a mixture of ethyl acetate and n-hexane (50:50, v/v) at 45 degrees C. The extracts were subsequently treated with a column packed with 40 mg of active carbon by gradient elution with ethyl acetate and n-hexane. Buprofenzin and the three organophosphorus pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography using a DB-210 capillary column and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The recoveries for spiked standards were 73.4%-96.9%. The relative standard deviations were all within 4.63%. The limits of quantitation (3sigma) in the tea samples were about 7.0-12.0 microg/kg.
ESTHER : Zhang_2004_Se.Pu_22_154
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2004_Se.Pu_22_154
PubMedID: 15712876

Title : Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells deficient in triacylglycerols synthesis undergo apoptosis upon entry into the stationary phase. - Zhang_2003_J.Biol.Chem_278_47145
Author(s) : Zhang Q , Chieu HK , Low CP , Zhang S , Heng CK , Yang H
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 278 :47145\ , 2003
Abstract : Triacylglycerols (TAG) are important energy storage molecules for nearly all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we found that two gene products (Plh1p and Dga1p) are responsible for the terminal step of TAG synthesis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe through two different mechanisms: Plh1p is a phospholipid diacylglycerol acyltransferase, whereas Dga1p is an acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Cells with both dga1+ and plh1+ deleted (DKO cells) lost viability upon entry into the stationary phase and demonstrated prominent apoptotic markers. Exponentially growing DKO cells also underwent dramatic apoptosis when briefly treated with diacylglycerols (DAGs) or free fatty acids. We provide strong evidence suggesting that DAG, not sphingolipids, mediates fatty acids-induced lipoapoptosis in yeast. Lastly, we show that generation of reactive oxygen species is essential to lipoapoptosis.
ESTHER : Zhang_2003_J.Biol.Chem_278_47145
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2003_J.Biol.Chem_278_47145
PubMedID: 12963726
Gene_locus related to this paper: schpo-pdat

Title : Development of a quantitative relationship between inhibition percentage and both incubation time and inhibitor concentration for inhibition biosensors-theoretical and practical considerations - Zhang_2001_Biosens.Bioelectron_16_1119
Author(s) : Zhang S , Zhao H , John R
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 16 :1119 , 2001
Abstract : Theoretical and practical insights into the design and development of immobilised enzyme inhibition biosensors are reported. A general mathematical expression relating the percent of enzyme inhibition (i.e. the analytical signal) to both the inhibitor concentration and the incubation time is presented. The relevant physical, chemical and biochemical parameters required by the model are developed and discussed in terms of the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the organophosphorous pesticide, paraoxon. A second enzyme, choline oxidase and an amperometric transducer are used to facilitate the determination acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
ESTHER : Zhang_2001_Biosens.Bioelectron_16_1119
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2001_Biosens.Bioelectron_16_1119
PubMedID: 11679297

Title : The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 - Wood_2001_Science_294_2317
Author(s) : Wood DW , Setubal JC , Kaul R , Monks DE , Kitajima JP , Okura VK , Zhou Y , Chen L , Wood GE , Almeida NF, Jr. , Woo L , Chen Y , Paulsen IT , Eisen JA , Karp PD , Bovee D, Sr. , Chapman P , Clendenning J , Deatherage G , Gillet W , Grant C , Kutyavin T , Levy R , Li MJ , McClelland E , Palmieri A , Raymond C , Rouse G , Saenphimmachak C , Wu Z , Romero P , Gordon D , Zhang S , Yoo H , Tao Y , Biddle P , Jung M , Krespan W , Perry M , Gordon-Kamm B , Liao L , Kim S , Hendrick C , Zhao ZY , Dolan M , Chumley F , Tingey SV , Tomb JF , Gordon MP , Olson MV , Nester EW
Ref : Science , 294 :2317 , 2001
Abstract : The 5.67-megabase genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, a linear chromosome, and two plasmids. Extensive orthology and nucleotide colinearity between the genomes of A. tumefaciens and the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest a recent evolutionary divergence. Their similarities include metabolic, transport, and regulatory systems that promote survival in the highly competitive rhizosphere; differences are apparent in their genome structure and virulence gene complement. Availability of the A. tumefaciens sequence will facilitate investigations into the molecular basis of pathogenesis and the evolutionary divergence of pathogenic and symbiotic lifestyles.
ESTHER : Wood_2001_Science_294_2317
PubMedSearch : Wood_2001_Science_294_2317
PubMedID: 11743193
Gene_locus related to this paper: agrt5-a9cf94 , agrt5-a9cfa9 , agrt5-a9cfs8 , agrt5-a9cfu7 , agrt5-a9cie7 , agrt5-a9cj11 , agrt5-a9cjp2 , agrt5-a9cki2 , agrt5-a9ckr2 , agrt5-a9ckt2 , agrt5-a9cle4 , agrt5-a9clq8 , agrt5-a9clq9 , agrt5-q7cx24 , agrt5-q7d1j0 , agrt5-q7d1j3 , agrt5-q7d3m5 , agrt5-y5261 , agrtu-ACVB , agrtu-ATTS , agrtu-ATU0253 , agrtu-ATU0403 , agrtu-ATU0841 , agrtu-ATU1045 , agrtu-ATU1102 , agrtu-ATU1572 , agrtu-ATU1617 , agrtu-ATU1826 , agrtu-ATU1842 , agrtu-ATU2061 , agrtu-ATU2126 , agrtu-ATU2171 , agrtu-ATU2409 , agrtu-ATU2452 , agrtu-ATU2481 , agrtu-ATU2497 , agrtu-ATU2576 , agrtu-ATU3428 , agrtu-ATU3651 , agrtu-ATU3652 , agrtu-ATU4238 , agrtu-ATU5190 , agrtu-ATU5193 , agrtu-ATU5275 , agrtu-ATU5296 , agrtu-ATU5348 , agrtu-ATU5389 , agrtu-ATU5446 , agrtu-ATU5495 , agrtu-CPO , agrtu-DHAA , agrtu-DLHH , agrtu-EPHA , agrtu-GRST , agrtu-PCA , agrtu-PCAD , agrtu-PHBC , agrtu-PTRB , agrt5-a9cji8

Title : In vitro cytotoxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide parathion to FG-9307 cells - Li_2001_Toxicol.In.Vitro_15_643
Author(s) : Li H , Zhang S
Ref : Toxicol In Vitro , 15 :643 , 2001
Abstract : FG-9307, a cell line derived from a gill of the flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide parathion. Cytotoxicity was measured by three endpoint systems: neutral red (NR) uptake assay, tetrazolium (MTT) assay and cell protein assay. The lowest concentration of parathion tested (1 microg/ml) was toxic and there was no significant difference in cytotoxic effects among the three assays. The FG-9307 cell line is a suitable bioindicator for the screening of the acute toxicities of parathion. The fine structures of the cells were also studied. Ultrastructures were markedly altered by parathion, as evidenced by dilation of nuclear membranes and mitochondrial cristae and by the presence of lysosomes with engulfed particles. With the increase of the parathion concentration, the damage degree of the cellular structures was more serious. At the highest concentration tested (15 microg/ml), there were few visible organelles, although such changes in cell morphology were not observed under a light microscope. Apparently, this is the unnoted report of marine fish cell line used for the evaluation of the acute in vitro cytotoxicity of parathion.
ESTHER : Li_2001_Toxicol.In.Vitro_15_643
PubMedSearch : Li_2001_Toxicol.In.Vitro_15_643
PubMedID: 11698164

Title : O-ethyl and o-methyl n-(2,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)thiocarbamate - Zhang_2001_Acta.Crystallogr.C_57_566
Author(s) : Zhang S , Wang Z , Li M , Jiao K , Razak IA , Shanmuga Sundara Raj S , Fun HK
Ref : Acta Crystallographica C , 57 :566 , 2001
Abstract : In both the title structures, O-ethyl N-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)thiocarbamate, C(17)H(25)NO(10)S, and O-methyl N-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)thiocarbamate, C(16)H(23)NO(10)S, the hexopyranosyl ring adopts the (4)C(1) conformation. All the ring substituents are in equatorial positions. The acetoxymethyl group is in a gauche-gauche conformation. The S atom is in a synperiplanar conformation, while the C-N-C-O linkage is antiperiplanar. N-H.O intermolecular hydrogen bonds link the molecules into infinite chains and these are connected by C-H.O interactions.
ESTHER : Zhang_2001_Acta.Crystallogr.C_57_566
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2001_Acta.Crystallogr.C_57_566
PubMedID: 11353253

Title : In vitro polymerization and copolymerization of 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA with the PHB synthase from Ralstonia eutropha - Song_2000_Biomacromolecules_1_433
Author(s) : Song JJ , Zhang S , Lenz RW , Goodwin S
Ref : Biomacromolecules , 1 :433 , 2000
Abstract : The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase of Ralstonia eutropha, which was produced by a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli and purified in one step with a methyl-HIC column to a purity of more than 90%, was used to polymerize 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA (3HPCoA) and to copolymerize 3HPCoA with 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HBCoA). A Km of 189 microM and a kcat of 10 s-1 were determined for the activity of the enzyme in the polymerization reaction of 3HPCoA based on the assumption that the dimer form of PHB synthase was the active form. Free coenzyme A was found to be a very effective competitive inhibitor for the polymerization of 3HPCoA with a Ki of 85 microM. The maximum degree of conversion of 3HPCoA to polymer was less than 40%. In the simultaneous copolymerization reactions of these two monomers, both the turnover number for the copolymerization reaction and the maximum degree of conversion of 3HPCoA and 3HBCoA to copolymers increased with an increase in the amount of 3HBCoA in the monomer mixture. However, the maximum conversion of 3HPCoA to copolymer was always less than 35%, regardless of the ratio of 3HPCoA to 3HBCoA. Block copolymers were obtained by the sequential copolymerization of the two monomers and these copolymers had a much narrower molecular weight distribution than those obtained by the simultaneous copolymerization for the same molar ratio of 3HPCoA to 3HBCoA.
ESTHER : Song_2000_Biomacromolecules_1_433
PubMedSearch : Song_2000_Biomacromolecules_1_433
PubMedID: 11710134
Gene_locus related to this paper: alceu-phbc

Title : [The effect of detrusor instability secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy on the density of acetylcholinesterase-containing nerves] - Cao_1998_Zhonghua.Wai.Ke.Za.Zhi_36_424
Author(s) : Cao R , Peng S , Zhang S , Qi F
Ref : Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi , 36 :424 , 1998
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of detrusor instability secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) on the density of cholinesterase-containing nerve in detrusor samples. METHOD: Our present study included 3 groups confirmed by urodynamic evaluation. They were control group (8 cases), obstructive detrusor stability group (7), and obstructive instability group (12). The specimens were obtained from the dome of bladder. The AchE-containing nerves were demonstrated by the method of Karnovsky-Roots staining and AchE silver staining. The density of AchE containing detrusor nerves in specimens was examined with sterologic techniques. RESULT: The density of AchE-containing nerves in the obstructive detrusor instability group and the stability group was significantly decreased as compared with the control group (P < 0.01). The density of AchE positive nerves were also significantly decreased in the obstructive instability group as compared with the obstructive stability group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Detrusor instability secondary to BPH obstruction is related to the decrease of cholinergic innervation density in the detrusor muscles.
ESTHER : Cao_1998_Zhonghua.Wai.Ke.Za.Zhi_36_424
PubMedSearch : Cao_1998_Zhonghua.Wai.Ke.Za.Zhi_36_424
PubMedID: 11825431

Title : A C-terminal mutant of the G protein beta subunit deficient in the activation of phospholipase C-beta - Zhang_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_20208
Author(s) : Zhang S , Coso OA , Collins R , Gutkind JS , Simonds WF
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 271 :20208 , 1996
Abstract : The molecular mechanism by which the G protein betagamma complex modulates multiple mammalian effector pathways is unknown. Homolog-scanning mutagenesis of the G protein beta subunit was employed to identify residues critical for the activation of phospholipase C-beta2 (PLC-beta2). A series of chimeras was made by introducing small segments of the Dictyostelium beta subunit into a background of mammalian beta1 and tested in COS cell cotransfection assays for their ability to activate PLC-beta2 and assemble with mammalian gamma2. A chimera that contained four Dictyostelium beta substitutions within the C-terminal 14 residues was unable to activate PLC-beta2 when cotransfected with gamma, despite its demonstrable expression in a gamma-dependent manner. Cotransfection of the mutant blocked m2 muscarinic receptor activation of PLC by a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway. This C-terminal mutant retained the ability, however, to stimulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These results imply that activation of different betagamma-responsive effectors is mediated by distinct domains.
ESTHER : Zhang_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_20208
PubMedSearch : Zhang_1996_J.Biol.Chem_271_20208
PubMedID: 8702747

Title : Anticholinesterase drugs stimulate phosphatidylinositol response in rat tracheal slices - Shibata_1996_Anesth.Analg_82_1211
Author(s) : Shibata O , Kanairo M , Zhang S , Hasuo H , Morooka H , Fujie T , Sumikawa K
Ref : Anesthesia & Analgesia , 82 :1211 , 1996
Abstract : Some anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) drugs induce airway smooth muscle contraction. Whether anti-ChE drugs stimulate muscarinic receptors in airway smooth muscle as well as nicotinic receptors in neuromuscular junction is unknown. Since there is a direct relationship between phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and airway smooth muscle contraction induced by muscarinic agonists, we examined the effects of neostigmine, physostigmine, pyridostigmine, and edrophonium on PI response in the airway smooth muscle. The rat tracheal slices were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing LiCl and [3H]myo-inositol in the presence of carbachol, anti-ChE, or none of them. [3H]inositol monophosphate (IP1), which is a degradation product of PI response, was counted with a liquid scintillation counter. Inositol monophosphate accumulation was stimulated by neostigmine, physostigmine, and pyridostigmine in a dose-dependent manner, but was not affected by edrophonium. These increases were completely inhibited by atropine. The results suggest that neostigmine, physostigmine, and pyridostigmine stimulate PI response in the airway smooth muscle, which would cause bronchoconstriction, while edrophonium does not affect PI response.
ESTHER : Shibata_1996_Anesth.Analg_82_1211
PubMedSearch : Shibata_1996_Anesth.Analg_82_1211
PubMedID: 8638793

Title : Characteristics of the beta-galactosidase-carboxypeptidase complex in GM1-gangliosidosis and beta-galactosialidosis fibroblasts - D'Agrosa_1992_Biochem.J_285 ( Pt 3)_833
Author(s) : D'Agrosa RM , Hubbes M , Zhang S , Shankaran R , Callahan JW
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 285 ( Pt 3) :833 , 1992
Abstract : Lysosomal beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) occurs either alone in monomeric and dimeric forms, or in a high-M(r) complex with at least two additional proteins. One is neuraminidase and the second is the protective protein, which has also been shown to possess carboxypeptidase activity. beta-Gal activity is deficient in GM1-gangliosidosis as a primary defect, and is secondarily affected in galactosialidosis (GS), where the primary defect is the absence of protective protein activity. Fibroblasts from three patients with GM1-gangliosidosis, type 1, showed markedly reduced amounts of beta-Gal cross-reacting material (CRM), and a fourth appeared to have normal levels. A patient with type 2 GM1-gangliosidosis was also found to be CRM-normal. These findings demonstrate that patients with GM1-gangliosidosis type 1 are heterogeneous with respect to the level of residual beta-Gal protein. Fibroblasts from four patients with GS were strongly CRM-positive with an anti-beta-Gal antibody, as was a sample of brain from one of these patients, suggesting that the loss of beta-Gal activity is linked to a subtler change in the primary structure of the enzyme than has been previously thought. While three GS cell lines displayed reduced carboxypeptidase activity (to 32-42% of the control), one cell line was completely devoid of activity, demonstrating that while carboxypeptidase activity is a property of the protective protein this action is distinct and separate from its protective role. On direct immunoprecipitation with anti-beta-Gal antibody, a portion of the total carboxypeptidase activity co-precipitated with beta-Gal from extracts of normal and GM1-gangliosidosis cells, consistent with the presence of the complex in these cells. However, no carboxypeptidase activity was precipitable with this antibody from GS fibroblasts, suggesting the absence of complex from these cells. To examine this further, the various forms of beta-Gal were resolved by h.p.l.c. molecular-sieve chromatography. Three forms of beta-Gal activity were resolved in normal cells: a complex, a dimer and a monomer. Residual beta-Gal activity of GS cells resolved into two of these forms, the complex and the monomer. In normal and GM1-gangliosidosis cells a portion of the total carboxypeptidase activity co-chromatographed with the complex while the bulk of the activity occurred in a single 36,000-M(r) peak. Only the low-M(r) carboxypeptidase activity was detected in GS cells. This confirms our results on immunoprecipitation indicating that portions of the beta-Gal and the carboxypeptidase activities exist outside the complex in normal, GM1-gangliosidosis and GS cells. In summary, the loss of protective protein function from GS cells results in disproportionate loss of the dimeric and monomeric forms of beta-Gal activity, but does not result in the complete degradation of the protein.
ESTHER : D'Agrosa_1992_Biochem.J_285 ( Pt 3)_833
PubMedSearch : D'Agrosa_1992_Biochem.J_285 ( Pt 3)_833
PubMedID: 1497621
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CTSA