Lushchekina SV


Full name : Lushchekina Sofya V

First name : Sofya V

Mail : Institute of Biochemical Physic, Modeling of Biomolecules, 4, Kosygina, Moscow, 117465

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Country : Russia

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Phone : +74959397180

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References (66)

Title : Combining Experimental and Computational Methods to Produce Conjugates of Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Pharmacophores with Linker Chemistries Affecting Biological Activities Related to Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease - Makhaeva_2024_Molecules_29_321
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Rudakova EV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Astakhova TY , Timokhina EN , Serkov IV , Proshin AN , Soldatova YV , Poletaeva DA , Faingold, II , Mumyatova VA , Terentiev AA , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Molecules , 29 :321 , 2024
Abstract : Effective therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are in great demand worldwide. In our previous work, we responded to this need by synthesizing novel drug candidates consisting of 4-amino-2,3-polymethylenequinolines conjugated with butylated hydroxytoluene via fixed-length alkylimine or alkylamine linkers (spacers) and studying their bioactivities pertaining to AD treatment. Here, we report significant extensions of these studies, including the use of variable-length spacers and more detailed biological characterizations. Conjugates were potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, the most active was 17d IC(50) 15.1 +/- 0.2 nM) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, the most active was 18d: IC(50) 5.96 +/- 0.58 nM), with weak inhibition of off-target carboxylesterase. Conjugates with alkylamine spacers were more effective cholinesterase inhibitors than alkylimine analogs. Optimal inhibition for AChE was exhibited by cyclohexaquinoline and for BChE by cycloheptaquinoline. Increasing spacer length elevated the potency against both cholinesterases. Structure-activity relationships agreed with docking results. Mixed-type reversible AChE inhibition, dual docking to catalytic and peripheral anionic sites, and propidium iodide displacement suggested the potential of hybrids to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid (Abeta) aggregation. Hybrids also exhibited the inhibition of Abeta self-aggregation in the thioflavin test; those with a hexaquinoline ring and C8 spacer were the most active. Conjugates demonstrated high antioxidant activity in ABTS and FRAP assays as well as the inhibition of luminol chemiluminescence and lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates. Quantum-chemical calculations explained antioxidant results. Computed ADMET profiles indicated favorable blood-brain barrier permeability, suggesting the CNS activity potential. Thus, the conjugates could be considered promising multifunctional agents for the potential treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2024_Molecules_29_321
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2024_Molecules_29_321
PubMedID: 38257233

Title : Derivatives of 9-phosphorylated acridine as butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors with antioxidant activity and the ability to inhibit beta-amyloid self-aggregation: potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease - Makhaeva_2023_Front.Pharmacol_14_1219980
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Rudakova EV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Astakhova TY , Timokhina EN , Serebryakova OG , Shchepochkin AV , Averkov MA , Utepova IA , Demina NS , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Fisenko VP , Bachurin SO , Chupakhin ON , Charushin VN , Richardson RJ
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 14 :1219980 , 2023
Abstract : We investigated the inhibitory activities of novel 9-phosphoryl-9,10-dihydroacridines and 9-phosphorylacridines against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and carboxylesterase (CES). We also studied the abilities of the new compounds to interfere with the self-aggregation of beta-amyloid (Abeta(42)) in the thioflavin test as well as their antioxidant activities in the ABTS and FRAP assays. We used molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and quantum-chemical calculations to explain experimental results. All new compounds weakly inhibited AChE and off-target CES. Dihydroacridines with aryl substituents in the phosphoryl moiety inhibited BChE; the most active were the dibenzyloxy derivative 1d and its diphenethyl bioisostere 1e (IC(50) = 2.90 +/- 0.23 microM and 3.22 +/- 0.25 microM, respectively). Only one acridine, 2d, an analog of dihydroacridine, 1d, was an effective BChE inhibitor (IC(50) = 6.90 +/- 0.55 microM), consistent with docking results. Dihydroacridines inhibited Abeta(42) self-aggregation; 1d and 1e were the most active (58.9% +/- 4.7% and 46.9% +/- 4.2%, respectively). All dihydroacridines 1 demonstrated high ABTS(+)-scavenging and iron-reducing activities comparable to Trolox, but acridines 2 were almost inactive. Observed features were well explained by quantum-chemical calculations. ADMET parameters calculated for all compounds predicted favorable intestinal absorption, good blood-brain barrier permeability, and low cardiac toxicity. Overall, the best results were obtained for two dihydroacridine derivatives 1d and 1e with dibenzyloxy and diphenethyl substituents in the phosphoryl moiety. These compounds displayed high inhibition of BChE activity and Abeta(42) self-aggregation, high antioxidant activity, and favorable predicted ADMET profiles. Therefore, we consider 1d and 1e as lead compounds for further in-depth studies as potential anti-AD preparations.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2023_Front.Pharmacol_14_1219980
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2023_Front.Pharmacol_14_1219980
PubMedID: 37654616

Title : Conjugates of Tacrine and Salicylic Acid Derivatives as New Promising Multitarget Agents for Alzheimer's Disease - Makhaeva_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_2285
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Rudakova EV , Boltneva NP , Grishchenko MV , Lushchekina SV , Astakhova TY , Serebryakova OG , Timokhina EN , Zhilina EF , Shchegolkov EV , Ulitko MV , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Burgart YV , Saloutin VI , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 24 :2285 , 2023
Abstract : A series of previously synthesized conjugates of tacrine and salicylamide was extended by varying the structure of the salicylamide fragment and using salicylic aldehyde to synthesize salicylimine derivatives. The hybrids exhibited broad-spectrum biological activity. All new conjugates were potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with selectivity toward BChE. The structure of the salicylamide moiety exerted little effect on anticholinesterase activity, but AChE inhibition increased with spacer elongation. The most active conjugates were salicylimine derivatives: IC(50) values of the lead compound 10c were 0.0826 microM (AChE) and 0.0156 microM (BChE), with weak inhibition of the off-target carboxylesterase. The hybrids were mixed-type reversible inhibitors of both cholinesterases and displayed dual binding to the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites of AChE in molecular docking, which, along with experimental results on propidium iodide displacement, suggested their potential to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation. All conjugates inhibited Abeta(42) self-aggregation in the thioflavin test, and inhibition increased with spacer elongation. Salicylimine 10c and salicylamide 5c with (CH(2))(8) spacers were the lead compounds for inhibiting Abeta(42) self-aggregation, which was corroborated by molecular docking to Abeta(42). ABTS(+)-scavenging activity was highest for salicylamides 5a-c, intermediate for salicylimines 10a-c, low for F-containing salicylamides 7, and non-existent for methoxybenzoylamides 6 and difluoromethoxybenzoylamides 8. In the FRAP antioxidant (AO) assay, the test compounds displayed little or no activity. Quantum chemical analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with QM/MM potentials explained the AO structure-activity relationships. All conjugates were effective chelators of Cu(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+), with molar compound/metal (Cu(2+)) ratios of 2:1 (5b) and ~1:1 (10b). Conjugates exerted comparable or lower cytotoxicity than tacrine on mouse hepatocytes and had favorable predicted intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier permeability. The overall results indicate that the synthesized conjugates are promising new multifunctional agents for the potential treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_2285
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_2285
PubMedID: 36768608

Title : Conjugates of amiridine and thiouracil derivatives as effective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase with the potential to block beta-amyloid aggregation - Khudina_2023_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300447
Author(s) : Khudina OG , Grishchenko MV , Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Boltneva NP , Rudakova EV , Lushchekina SV , Shchegolkov EV , Borisevich SS , Burgart YV , Saloutin VI , Charushin VN
Ref : Arch Pharm (Weinheim) , :e2300447 , 2023
Abstract : New amiridine-thiouracil conjugates with different substituents in the pyrimidine fragment (R = CH(3) , CF(2) , CF(3) , (CF(2) )(2) H) and different spacer lengths (n = 1-3) were synthesized. The conjugates rather weakly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and exhibit high inhibitory activity (IC(50) up to 0.752 +/- 0.021 microM) and selectivity to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which increases with spacer elongation; the lead compounds are 11c, 12c, and 13c. The conjugates are mixed-type reversible inhibitors of both cholinesterases and practically do not inhibit the structurally related off-target enzyme carboxylesterase. The results of molecular docking to AChE and BChE are consistent with the experiment on enzyme inhibition and explain the structure-activity relationships, including the rather low anti-AChE activity and the high anti-BChE activity of long-chain conjugates. The lead compounds displace propidium from the AChE peripheral anion site (PAS) at the level of the reference compound donepezil, which agrees with the mixed-type mechanism of AChE inhibition and the main mode of binding of conjugates in the active site of AChE due to the interaction of the pyrimidine moiety with the PAS. This indicates the ability of the studied conjugates to block AChE-induced aggregation of beta-amyloid, thereby exerting a disease-modifying effect. According to computer calculations, all synthesized conjugates have an ADME profile acceptable for drugs.
ESTHER : Khudina_2023_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300447
PubMedSearch : Khudina_2023_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)__e2300447
PubMedID: 38072670

Title : New Multifunctional Agents for Potential Alzheimer's Disease Treatment Based on Tacrine Conjugates with 2-Arylhydrazinylidene-1,3-Diketones - Elkina_2022_Biomolecules_12_
Author(s) : Elkina NA , Grishchenko MV , Shchegolkov EV , Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Rudakova EV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Astakhova TY , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Zhilina EF , Perminova AN , Lapshin LS , Burgart YV , Saloutin VI , Richardson RJ
Ref : Biomolecules , 12 : , 2022
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a modern epidemic because of its increasing prevalence worldwide and serious medico-social consequences, including the economic burden of treatment and patient care. The development of new effective therapeutic agents for AD is one of the most urgent and challenging tasks. To address this need, we used an aminoalkylene linker to combine the well-known anticholinesterase drug tacrine with antioxidant 2-tolylhydrazinylidene-1,3-diketones to create 3 groups of hybrid compounds as new multifunctional agents with the potential for AD treatment. Lead compounds of the new conjugates effectively inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE, IC(50) 0.24-0.34 M) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, IC(50) 0.036-0.0745 M), with weak inhibition of off-target carboxylesterase. Anti-AChE activity increased with elongation of the alkylene spacer, in agreement with molecular docking, which showed compounds binding to both the catalytic active site and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE, consistent with mixed type reversible inhibition. PAS binding along with effective propidium displacement suggest the potential of the hybrids to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation, a disease-modifying effect. All of the conjugates demonstrated metal chelating ability for Cu(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+), as well as high antiradical activity in the ABTS test. Non-fluorinated hybrid compounds 6 and 7 also showed Fe(3+) reducing activity in the FRAP test. Predicted ADMET and physicochemical properties of conjugates indicated good CNS bioavailability and safety parameters acceptable for potential lead compounds at the early stages of anti-AD drug development.
ESTHER : Elkina_2022_Biomolecules_12_
PubMedSearch : Elkina_2022_Biomolecules_12_
PubMedID: 36358901

Title : Conjugates of Methylene Blue with Cycloalkaneindoles as New Multifunctional Agents for Potential Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disease - Bachurin_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
Author(s) : Bachurin SO , Shevtsova EF , Makhaeva GF , Aksinenko AY , Grigoriev VV , Goreva TV , Epishina TA , Kovaleva NV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Rudakova EV , Vinogradova DV , Shevtsov PN , Pushkareva EA , Dubova LG , Serkova TP , Veselov IM , Fisenko VP , Richardson RJ
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 23 : , 2022
Abstract : The development of multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) would provide effective therapy of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) with complex and nonclear pathogenesis. A promising method to create such potential drugs is combining neuroactive pharmacophoric groups acting on different biotargets involved in the pathogenesis of ND. We developed a synthetic algorithm for the conjugation of indole derivatives and methylene blue (MB), which are pharmacophoric ligands that act on the key stages of pathogenesis. We synthesized hybrid structures and performed a comprehensive screening for a specific set of biotargets participating in the pathogenesis of ND (i.e., cholinesterases, NMDA receptor, mitochondria, and microtubules assembly). The results of the screening study enabled us to find two lead compounds (4h and 4i) which effectively inhibited cholinesterases and bound to the AChE PAS, possessed antioxidant activity, and stimulated the assembly of microtubules. One of them (4i) exhibited activity as a ligand for the ifenprodil-specific site of the NMDA receptor. In addition, this lead compound was able to bypass the inhibition of complex I and prevent calcium-induced mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting a neuroprotective property that was confirmed using a cellular calcium overload model of neurodegeneration. Thus, these new MB-cycloalkaneindole conjugates constitute a promising class of compounds for the development of multitarget neuroprotective drugs which simultaneously act on several targets, thereby providing cognitive stimulating, neuroprotective, and disease-modifying effects.
ESTHER : Bachurin_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
PubMedSearch : Bachurin_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
PubMedID: 36430413

Title : Conjugates of Tacrine with Salicylamide as Promising Multitarget Agents for Alzheimer's Disease - Grishchenko_2022_ChemMedChem__e202200080
Author(s) : Grishchenko MV , Makhaeva GF , Burgart YV , Rudakova EV , Boltneva NP , Kovaleva NV , Serebryakova OG , Lushchekina SV , Astakhova TY , Zhilina EF , Shchegolkov EV , Richardson RJ , Saloutin VI
Ref : ChemMedChem , :e202200080 , 2022
Abstract : New conjugates of tacrine and salicylamide with alkylene spacers were synthesized and evaluated as potential multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The compounds exhibited high acetylcholinesterase (AChE, IC(50) to 0.224microM) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, IC(50) to 0.0104microM) inhibitory activities. They were also rather poor inhibitors of carboxylesterase, suggesting a low tendency to exert potential unwanted drug-drug interactions in clinical use. The conjugates were mixed-type reversible inhibitors of both cholinesterases and demonstrated dual binding to the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites of AChE in molecular docking that, along with experimental results on propidium iodide displacement, suggest their potential to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation. The new conjugates exhibited high ABTS(.+) -scavenging activity. N-(6-(1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroacridin-9-ylamino)hexyl)salicylamide is a lead compound that also demonstrates metal chelating ability toward Cu(2+) , Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) . Thus, the new conjugates have displayed the potential to be multifunctional anti-AD agents for further development.
ESTHER : Grishchenko_2022_ChemMedChem__e202200080
PubMedSearch : Grishchenko_2022_ChemMedChem__e202200080
PubMedID: 35322571

Title : Bis-Amiridines as Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors: N-Functionalization Determines the Multitarget Anti-Alzheimer's Activity Profile - Makhaeva_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Boltneva NP , Rudakova EV , Lushchekina SV , Astakhova TY , Serkov IV , Proshin AN , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Korabecny J , Soukup O , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : Using two ways of functionalizing amiridine-acylation with chloroacetic acid chloride and reaction with thiophosgene-we have synthesized new homobivalent bis-amiridines joined by two different spacers-bis-N-acyl-alkylene (3) and bis-N-thiourea-alkylene (5) -as potential multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). All compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with selectivity for BChE. These new agents displayed negligible carboxylesterase inhibition, suggesting a probable lack of untoward drug-drug interactions arising from hydrolytic biotransformation. Compounds 3 with bis-N-acyl-alkylene spacers were more potent inhibitors of both cholinesterases compared to compounds 5 and the parent amiridine. The lead compounds 3a-c exhibited an IC(50)(AChE) = 2.9-1.4 microM, IC(50)(BChE) = 0.13-0.067 microM, and 14-18% propidium displacement at 20 microM. Kinetic studies of compounds 3a and 5d indicated mixed-type reversible inhibition. Molecular docking revealed favorable poses in both catalytic and peripheral AChE sites. Propidium displacement from the peripheral site by the hybrids suggests their potential to hinder AChE-assisted Abeta(42) aggregation. Conjugates 3 had no effect on Abeta(42) self-aggregation, whereas compounds 5c-e (m = 4, 5, 6) showed mild (13-17%) inhibition. The greatest difference between conjugates 3 and 5 was their antioxidant activity. Bis-amiridines 3 with N-acylalkylene spacers were nearly inactive in ABTS and FRAP tests, whereas compounds 5 with thiourea in the spacers demonstrated high antioxidant activity, especially in the ABTS test (TEAC = 1.2-2.1), in agreement with their significantly lower HOMO-LUMO gap values. Calculated ADMET parameters for all conjugates predicted favorable blood-brain barrier permeability and intestinal absorption, as well as a low propensity for cardiac toxicity. Thus, it was possible to obtain amiridine derivatives whose potencies against AChE and BChE equaled (5) or exceeded (3) that of the parent compound, amiridine. Overall, based on their expanded and balanced pharmacological profiles, conjugates 5c-e appear promising for future optimization and development as multitarget anti-AD agents.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 35164325

Title : Novel Uracil-Based Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase with Potency for Treating Memory Impairment in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease - Semenov_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Semenov VE , Zueva IV , Lushchekina SV , Suleimanov EG , Gubaidullina LM , Shulaeva MM , Lenina OA , Petrov KA
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : Novel derivatives based on 6-methyluracil and condensed uracil, 2,4-quinazoline-2,4-dione, were synthesized with terminal meta- and para-benzoate moieties in polymethylene chains at the N atoms of the pyrimidine ring. In the synthesized compounds, the polymethylene chains were varied from having tris- to hexamethylene chains and quaternary ammonium groups; varying substituents (ester, salt, acid) at benzene ring were introduced into the chains and benzoate moieties. In vivo biological experiments demonstrated the potency of these compounds in decreasing the number of beta-amyloid plaques and their suitability for the treatment of memory impairment in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Semenov_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Semenov_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 36431954

Title : Steady-state kinetic analysis of human cholinesterases over wide concentration ranges of competing substrates - Mukhametgalieva_2021_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Proteins.Proteom__140733
Author(s) : Mukhametgalieva AR , Lushchekina SV , Aglyamova AR , Masson P
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta Proteins Proteom , :140733 , 2021
Abstract : Substrate competition for human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was studies under steady-state conditions using wide range of substrate concentrations. Competing couples of substates were acetyl-(thio)esters. Phenyl acetate (PhA) was the reporter substrate and competitor were either acetylcholine (ACh) or acetylthiocholine (ATC). The common point between investigated substrates is that the acyl moiety is acetate, i.e. same deacylation rate constant for reporter and competitor substrate. Steady-state kinetics of cholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of PhA in the presence of ACh or ATC revealed 3 phases of inhibition as concentration of competitor increased: a) competitive inhibition, b) partially mixed inhibition, c) partially uncompetitive inhibition for AChE and partially uncompetitive activation for BChE. This sequence reflects binding of competitor in the active centrer at low concentration and on the peripheral anionic site (PAS) at high concentration. In particular, it showed that binding of a competing ligand on PAS may affect the catalytic behavior of AChE and BChE in an opposite way, i.e. inhibition of AChE and activation of BChE, regardless the nature of the reporter substrate. For both enzymes, progress curves for hydrolysis of PhA at very low concentration (<
ESTHER : Mukhametgalieva_2021_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Proteins.Proteom__140733
PubMedSearch : Mukhametgalieva_2021_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Proteins.Proteom__140733
PubMedID: 34662731

Title : Amiridine-piperazine hybrids as cholinesterase inhibitors and potential multitarget agents for Alzheimer's disease treatment - Makhaeva_2021_Bioorg.Chem_112_104974
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Lushchekina SV , Kovaleva NV , Yu Astakhova T , Boltneva NP , Rudakova EV , Serebryakova OG , Proshin AN , Serkov IV , Trofimova TP , Tafeenko VA , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Fisenko VP , Korabecny J , Soukup O , Richardson RJ
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 112 :104974 , 2021
Abstract : We synthesized eleven new amiridine-piperazine hybrids 5a-j and 7 as potential multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment by reacting N-chloroacetylamiridine with piperazines. The compounds displayed mixed-type reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Conjugates were moderate inhibitors of equine and human BChE with negligible fluctuation in anti-BChE activity, whereas anti-AChE activity was substantially dependent on N4-substitution of the piperazine ring. Compounds with para-substituted aromatic moieties (5g, 5h, and bis-amiridine 7) had the highest anti-AChE activity in the low micromolar range. Top-ranked compound 5h, N-(2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinolin-9-yl)-2-[4-(4-nitro-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-acetamide, had an IC(50) for AChE = 1.83 +/- 0.03 microM (K(i) = 1.50 +/- 0.12 and alphaK(i) = 2.58 +/- 0.23 microM). The conjugates possessed low activity against carboxylesterase, indicating a likely absence of unwanted drug-drug interactions in clinical use. In agreement with analysis of inhibition kinetics and molecular modeling studies, the lead compounds were found to bind effectively to the peripheral anionic site of AChE and displace propidium, indicating their potential to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation. Similar propidium displacement activity was first shown for amiridine. Two compounds, 5c (R = cyclohexyl) and 5e (R = 2-MeO-Ph), exhibited appreciable antioxidant capability with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values of 0.47 +/- 0.03 and 0.39 +/- 0.02, respectively. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations provided insights into the structure-activity relationships for AChE and BChE inhibition, including the observation that inhibitory potencies and computed pK(a) values of hybrids were generally lower than those of the parent molecules. Predicted ADMET and physicochemical properties of conjugates indicated good CNS bioavailability and safety parameters comparable to those of amiridine and therefore acceptable for potential lead compounds at the early stages of anti-AD drug development.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2021_Bioorg.Chem_112_104974
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2021_Bioorg.Chem_112_104974
PubMedID: 34029971

Title : Novel potent bifunctional carboxylesterase inhibitors based on a polyfluoroalkyl-2-imino-1,3-dione scaffold - Makhaeva_2021_Eur.J.Med.Chem_218_113385
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Lushchekina SV , Boltneva NP , Serebryakova OG , Kovaleva NV , Rudakova EV , Elkina NA , Shchegolkov EV , Burgart YV , Stupina TS , Terentiev AA , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Saloutin VI , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 218 :113385 , 2021
Abstract : An expanded series of alkyl 2-arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxo-3-polyfluoroalkylpropionates (HOPs) 3 was obtained via Cu(OAc)(2)-catalyzed azo coupling. All were nanomolar inhibitors of carboxylesterase (CES), while moderate or weak inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Steady-state kinetics studies showed that HOPs 3 are mixed type inhibitors of the three esterases. Molecular docking studies demonstrated that two functional groups in the structure of HOPs, trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK) and ester groups, bind to the CES active site suggesting subsequent reactions: formation of a tetrahedral adduct, and a slow hydrolysis reaction. The results of molecular modeling allowed us to explain some structure-activity relationships of CES inhibition by HOPs 3: their selectivity toward CES in comparison with cholinesterases and the high selectivity of pentafluoroethyl-substituted HOP 3p to hCES1 compared to hCES2. All compounds were predicted to have good intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier permeability, low cardiac toxicity, good lipophilicity and aqueous solubility, and reasonable overall drug-likeness. HOPs with a TFK group and electron-donor substituents in the arylhydrazone moiety were potent antioxidants. All compounds possessed low cytotoxicity and low acute toxicity. Overall, a new promising type of bifunctional CES inhibitors has been found that are able to interact with the active site of the enzyme with the participation of two functional groups. The results indicate that HOPs have the potential to be good candidates as human CES inhibitors for biomedicinal applications.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2021_Eur.J.Med.Chem_218_113385
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2021_Eur.J.Med.Chem_218_113385
PubMedID: 33831780

Title : Conjugation of Aminoadamantane and gamma-Carboline Pharmacophores Gives Rise to Unexpected Properties of Multifunctional Ligands - Bachurin_2021_Molecules_26_
Author(s) : Bachurin SO , Makhaeva GF , Shevtsova EF , Aksinenko AY , Grigoriev VV , Shevtsov PN , Goreva TV , Epishina TA , Kovaleva NV , Pushkareva EA , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Gabrelyan AV , Zamoyski VL , Dubova LG , Rudakova EV , Fisenko VP , Bovina EV , Richardson RJ
Ref : Molecules , 26 : , 2021
Abstract : A new series of conjugates of aminoadamantane and gamma-carboline, which are basic scaffolds of the known neuroactive agents, memantine and dimebon (Latrepirdine) was synthesized and characterized. Conjugates act simultaneously on several biological structures and processes involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and some other neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, these compounds inhibit enzymes of the cholinesterase family, exhibiting higher inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), but having almost no effect on the activity of carboxylesterase (anti-target). The compounds serve as NMDA-subtype glutamate receptor ligands, show mitoprotective properties by preventing opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, and act as microtubule stabilizers, stimulating the polymerization of tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins. Structure-activity relationships were studied, with particular attention to the effect of the spacer on biological activity. The synthesized conjugates showed new properties compared to their prototypes (memantine and dimebon), including the ability to bind to the ifenprodil-binding site of the NMDA receptor and to occupy the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which indicates that these compounds can act as blockers of AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation. These new attributes of the conjugates represent improvements to the pharmacological profiles of the separate components by conferring the potential to act as neuroprotectants and cognition enhancers with a multifunctional mode of action.
ESTHER : Bachurin_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedSearch : Bachurin_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedID: 34576998

Title : Slow-binding inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase of medical interest - Lushchekina_2020_Neuropharmacol__108236
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Masson P
Ref : Neuropharmacology , :108236 , 2020
Abstract : Certain ligands slowly bind to acetylcholinesterase. As a result, there is a slow establishment of enzyme-inhibitor equilibrium characterized by a slow onset of inhibition prior reaching steady state. Three mechanisms account for slow-binding inhibition: a) slow binding rate constant k(on), b) slow ligand induced-fit following a fast binding step, c) slow conformational selection of an enzyme form. The slow equilibrium may be followed by a chemical step. This later that can be irreversible has been observed with certain alkylating agents and substrate transition state analogs. Slow-binding inhibitors present long residence times on target. This results in prolonged pharmacological or toxicological action. Through several well-known molecules (e.g. huperzine) and new examples (tocopherol, trifluoroacetophenone and a 6-methyluracil alkylammonium derivative), we show that slow-binding inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase are promising drugs for treatment of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer disease and myasthenia gravis. Moreover, they may be of interest for neuroprotection (prophylaxis) against organophosphorus poisoning.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2020_Neuropharmacol__108236
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2020_Neuropharmacol__108236
PubMedID: 32712274

Title : Steady-State Kinetics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Echothiophate, a P-S Bonded Organophosphorus as Monitored by Spectrofluorimetry - Zueva_2020_Molecules_25_
Author(s) : Zueva IV , Lushchekina SV , Daude D , Chabriere E , Masson P
Ref : Molecules , 25 : , 2020
Abstract : Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of echothiophate, a P-S bonded organophosphorus (OP) model, was spectrofluorimetrically monitored, using Calbiochem Probe IV as the thiol reagent. OP hydrolases were: the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase capable of hydrolyzing OPs, and a multiple mutant of Brevundimonas diminuta phosphotriesterase, GG1, designed to hydrolyze a large spectrum of OPs at high rate, including V agents. Molecular modeling of interaction between Probe IV and OP hydrolases (G117H butyrylcholinesterase, GG1, wild types of Brevundimonas diminuta and Sulfolobus solfataricus phosphotriesterases, and human paraoxonase-1) was performed. The high sensitivity of the method allowed steady-state kinetic analysis of echothiophate hydrolysis by highly purified G117H butyrylcholinesterase concentration as low as 0.85 nM. Hydrolysis was michaelian with Km = 0.20 +/- 0.03 mM and kcat = 5.4 +/- 1.6 min(-1). The GG1 phosphotriesterase hydrolyzed echothiophate with a high efficiency (Km = 2.6 +/- 0.2 mM; kcat = 53400 min(-1)). With a kcat/Km = (2.6 +/- 1.6) x 10(7) M(-1)min(-1), GG1 fulfills the required condition of potential catalytic bioscavengers. quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and molecular docking indicate that Probe IV does not interact significantly with the selected phosphotriesterases. Moreover, results on G117H mutant show that Probe IV does not inhibit butyrylcholinesterase. Therefore, Probe IV can be recommended for monitoring hydrolysis of P-S bonded OPs by thiol-free OP hydrolases.
ESTHER : Zueva_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedSearch : Zueva_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedID: 32192230

Title : Arachidonoylcholine and Other Unsaturated Long-Chain Acylcholines Are Endogenous Modulators of the Acetylcholine Signaling System - Akimov_2020_Biomolecules_10_
Author(s) : Akimov MG , Kudryavtsev DS , Kryukova EV , Fomina-Ageeva EV , Zakharov SS , Gretskaya NM , Zinchenko GN , Serkov IV , Makhaeva GF , Boltneva NP , Kovaleva NV , Serebryakova OG , Lushchekina SV , Palikov VA , Palikova Y , Dyachenko IA , Kasheverov IE , Tsetlin VI , Bezuglov VV
Ref : Biomolecules , 10 : , 2020
Abstract : Cholines acylated with unsaturated fatty acids are a recently discovered family of endogenous lipids. However, the data on the biological activity of acylcholines remain very limited. We hypothesized that acylcholines containing residues of arachidonic (AA-CHOL), oleic (Ol-CHOL), linoleic (Ln-CHOL), and docosahexaenoic (DHA-CHOL) acids act as modulators of the acetylcholine signaling system. In the radioligand binding assay, acylcholines showed inhibition in the micromolar range of both alpha7 neuronal nAChR overexpressed in GH4C1 cells and muscle type nAChR from Torpedo californica, as well as Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine binding protein. Functional response was checked in two cell lines endogenously expressing alpha7 nAChR. In SH-SY5Y cells, these compounds did not induce Ca(2+) rise, but inhibited the acetylcholine-evoked Ca(2+) rise with IC50 9 to 12 muM. In the A549 lung cancer cells, where alpha7 nAChR activation stimulates proliferation, Ol-CHOL, Ln-CHOL, and AA-CHOL dose-dependently decreased cell viability by up to 45%. AA-CHOL inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by a mixed type mechanism with Ki = 16.7 +/- 1.5 muM and alphaKi = 51.4 +/- 4.1 muM for AChE and Ki = 70.5 +/- 6.3 muM and alphaKi = 214 +/- 17 muM for BChE, being a weak substrate of the last enzyme only, agrees with molecular docking results. Thus, long-chain unsaturated acylcholines could be viewed as endogenous modulators of the acetylcholine signaling system.
ESTHER : Akimov_2020_Biomolecules_10_
PubMedSearch : Akimov_2020_Biomolecules_10_
PubMedID: 32059521

Title : 1-(3-Tert-Butylphenyl)-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanone as a Potent Transition-State Analogue Slow-Binding Inhibitor of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Kinetic, MD and QM\/MM Studies - Zueva_2020_Biomolecules_10_1608
Author(s) : Zueva IV , Lushchekina SV , Pottie IR , Darvesh S , Masson P
Ref : Biomolecules , 10 : , 2020
Abstract : Kinetic studies and molecular modeling of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by a fluorinated acetophenone derivative, 1-(3-tert-butylphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (TFK), were performed. Fast reversible inhibition of AChE by TFK is of competitive type with K(i) = 5.15 nM. However, steady state of inhibition is reached slowly. Kinetic analysis showed that TFK is a slow-binding inhibitor (SBI) of type B with K(i)* = 0.53 nM. Reversible binding of TFK provides a long residence time, = 20 min, on AChE. After binding, TFK acylates the active serine, forming an hemiketal. Then, disruption of hemiketal (deacylation) is slow. AChE recovers full activity in approximately 40 min. Molecular docking and MD simulations depicted the different steps. It was shown that TFK binds first to the peripheral anionic site. Then, subsequent slow induced-fit step enlarged the gorge, allowing tight adjustment into the catalytic active site. Modeling of interactions between TFK and AChE active site by QM/MM showed that the "isomerization" step of enzyme-inhibitor complex leads to a complex similar to substrate tetrahedral intermediate, a so-called "transition state analog", followed by a labile covalent intermediate. SBIs of AChE show prolonged pharmacological efficacy. Thus, this fluoroalkylketone intended for neuroimaging, could be of interest in palliative therapy of Alzheimer's disease and protection of central AChE against organophosphorus compounds.
ESTHER : Zueva_2020_Biomolecules_10_1608
PubMedSearch : Zueva_2020_Biomolecules_10_1608
PubMedID: 33260981

Title : New Multifunctional Agents Based on Conjugates of 4-Amino-2,3-polymethylenequinoline and Butylated Hydroxytoluene for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment - Makhaeva_2020_Molecules_25_5891
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Rudakova EV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Faingold, II , Poletaeva DA , Soldatova YV , Kotelnikova RA , Serkov IV , Ustinov AK , Proshin AN , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Richardson RJ
Ref : Molecules , 25 :5891 , 2020
Abstract : New hybrids of 4-amino-2,3-polymethylenequinoline with different sizes of the aliphatic ring linked to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) by enaminoalkyl (7) or aminoalkyl (8) spacers were synthesized as potential multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment. All compounds were potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with selectivity toward BChE. Lead compound 8c, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-{[2-(7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6H-cyclohepta[b]quinolin-11-ylamino)-ethylimino]-methyl}-phenol exhibited an IC(50)(AChE) = 1.90 +/- 0.16 microM, IC(50)(BChE) = 0.084 +/- 0.008 microM, and 13.6 +/- 1.2% propidium displacement at 20 M. Compounds possessed low activity against carboxylesterase, indicating likely absence of clinically unwanted drug-drug interactions. Kinetics were consistent with mixed-type reversible inhibition of both cholinesterases. Docking indicated binding to catalytic and peripheral AChE sites; peripheral site binding along with propidium displacement suggest the potential of the hybrids to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation, a disease-modifying effect. Compounds demonstrated high antioxidant activity in ABTS and FRAP assays as well as inhibition of luminol chemiluminescence and lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates. Conjugates 8 with amine-containing spacers were better antioxidants than those with enamine spacers 7. Computational ADMET profiles for all compounds predicted good blood-brain barrier distribution (permeability), good intestinal absorption, and medium cardiac toxicity risk. Overall, based on their favorable pharmacological and ADMET profiles, conjugates 8 appear promising as candidates for AD therapeutics.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2020_Molecules_25_5891
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2020_Molecules_25_5891
PubMedID: 33322783

Title : Bi-functional sterically hindered phenol lipid-based delivery systems as potential multi-target agents against Alzheimer's disease via an intranasal route - Burilova_2020_Nanoscale_12_13757
Author(s) : Burilova EA , Pashirova TN , Zueva IV , Gibadullina EM , Lushchekina SV , Sapunova AS , Kayumova RM , Rogov AM , Evtjugin VG , Sudakov IA , Vyshtakalyuk AB , Voloshina AD , Bukharov SV , Burilov AR , Petrov KA , Zakharova LY , Sinyashin OG
Ref : Nanoscale , 12 :13757 , 2020
Abstract : New lipid-based nanomaterials and multi-target directed ligands (MTDLs) based on sterically hindered phenol, containing a quaternary ammonium moiety (SHP-s-R, with s = 2,3) of varying hydrophobicity (R = CH2Ph and CnH2n+1, with n = 8, 10, 12, 16), have been prepared as potential drugs against Alzheimer's disease (AD). SHP-s-R are inhibitors of human cholinesterases with antioxidant properties. The inhibitory potency of SHP-s-R and selectivity ratio of cholinesterase inhibition were found to significantly depend on the length of the methylene spacer (s) and alkyl chain length. The compound SHP-2-16 showed the best IC50 for human AChE and the highest selectivity, being 30-fold more potent than for human BChE. Molecular modeling of SHP-2-16 binding to human AChE suggests that this compound is a dual binding site inhibitor that interacts with both the peripheral anionic site and catalytic active site. The relationship between self-assembly parameters (CMC, solubilization capacity, aggregation number), antioxidant activity and a toxicological parameter (hemolytic action on human red blood cells) was investigated. Two sterically hindered phenols (SHP-2-Bn and SHP-2-R) were loaded into L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (PC) nanoparticles by varying the SHP alkyl chain length. For the brain AChE inhibition assay, PC/SHP-2-Bn/SHP-2-16 nanoparticles were administered to rats intranasally at a dose of 8 mg kg-1. The Morris water maze experiment showed that scopolamine-induced AD-like dementia in rats treated with PC/SHP-2-Bn/SHP-2-16 nanoparticles was significantly reduced. This is the first example of cationic SHP-phospholipid nanoparticles for inhibition of brain cholinesterases realized by the use of intranasal administration. This route has promising potential for the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Burilova_2020_Nanoscale_12_13757
PubMedSearch : Burilova_2020_Nanoscale_12_13757
PubMedID: 32573587

Title : New Hybrids of 4-Amino-2,3-polymethylene-quinoline and p-Tolylsulfonamide as Dual Inhibitors of Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase and Potential Multifunctional Agents for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment - Makhaeva_2020_Molecules_25_3915
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Astakhova TY , Rudakova EV , Proshin AN , Serkov IV , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Molecules , 25 :3915 , 2020
Abstract : New hybrid compounds of 4-amino-2,3-polymethylene-quinoline containing different sizes of the aliphatic ring and linked to p-tolylsulfonamide with alkylene spacers of increasing length were synthesized as potential drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). All compounds were potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with selectivity toward BChE. The lead compound 4-methyl-N-(5-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-acridin-9-ylamino)-pentyl)-benzenesulfonamide (7h) exhibited an IC(50) (AChE) = 0.131 +/- 0.01 muM (five times more potent than tacrine), IC(50)(BChE) = 0.0680 +/- 0.0014 muM, and 17.5 +/- 1.5% propidium displacement at 20 muM. The compounds possessed low activity against carboxylesterase, indicating a likely absence of unwanted drug-drug interactions in clinical use. Kinetics studies were consistent with mixed-type reversible inhibition of both cholinesterases. Molecular docking demonstrated dual binding sites of the conjugates in AChE and clarified the differences in the structure-activity relationships for AChE and BChE inhibition. The conjugates could bind to the AChE peripheral anionic site and displace propidium, indicating their potential to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation, thereby exerting a disease-modifying effect. All compounds demonstrated low antioxidant activity. Computational ADMET profiles predicted that all compounds would have good intestinal absorption, medium blood-brain barrier permeability, and medium cardiac toxicity risk. Overall, the results indicate that the novel conjugates show promise for further development and optimization as multitarget anti-AD agents.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2020_Molecules_25_3915
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2020_Molecules_25_3915
PubMedID: 32867324

Title : Novel Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Based on Uracil Moiety for Possible Treatment of Alzheimer Disease - Semenov_2020_Molecules_25_
Author(s) : Semenov VE , Zueva IV , Mukhamedyarov MA , Lushchekina SV , Petukhova EO , Gubaidullina LM , Krylova ES , Saifina LF , Lenina OA , Petrov KA
Ref : Molecules , 25 : , 2020
Abstract : In this study, novel derivatives based on 6-methyluracil and condensed uracil were synthesized, namely, 2,4-quinazoline-2,4-dione with w-(ortho-nitrilebenzylethylamino) alkyl chains at the N atoms of the pyrimidine ring. In this series of synthesized compounds, the polymethylene chains were varied from having tetra- to hexamethylene chains, and secondary NH, tertiary ethylamino, and quaternary ammonium groups were introduced into the chains. The molecular modeling of the compounds indicated that they could function as dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, binding to both the peripheral anionic site and active site. The data from in vitro experiments show that the most active compounds exhibit affinity toward acetylcholinesterase within a nanomolar range, with selectivity for acetylcholinesterase over butyrylcholinesterase reaching four orders of magnitude. In vivo biological assays demonstrated the potency of these compounds in the treatment of memory impairment using an animal model of Alzheimer disease.
ESTHER : Semenov_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedSearch : Semenov_2020_Molecules_25_
PubMedID: 32932702

Title : Impact of Sucrose as Osmolyte on Molecular Dynamics of Mouse Acetylcholinesterase - Lushchekina_2020_Biomolecules_10_
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Inidjel G , Martinez N , Masson P , Trovaslet-Leroy M , Nachon F , Koza MM , Seydel T , Peters J
Ref : Biomolecules , 10 : , 2020
Abstract : The enzyme model, mouse acetylcholinesterase, which exhibits its active site at the bottom of a narrow gorge, was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of sucrose to shed light on the protein and water dynamics in cholinesterases. The study was conducted by incoherent neutron scattering, giving access to molecular dynamics within the time scale of sub-nano to nanoseconds, in comparison with molecular dynamics simulations. With increasing sucrose concentration, we found non-linear effects, e.g., first a decrease in the dynamics at 5 wt% followed by a gain at 10 wt% sucrose. Direct comparisons with simulations permitted us to understand the following findings: at 5 wt%, sugar molecules interact with the protein surface through water molecules and damp the motions to reduce the overall protein mobility, although the motions inside the gorge are enhanced due to water depletion. When going to 10 wt% of sucrose, some water molecules at the protein surface are replaced by sugar molecules. By penetrating the protein surface, they disrupt some of the intra-protein contacts, and induce new ones, creating new pathways for correlated motions, and therefore, increasing the dynamics. This exhaustive study allowed for an explanation of the detail interactions leading to the observed non-linear behavior.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2020_Biomolecules_10_
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2020_Biomolecules_10_
PubMedID: 33322722

Title : 6-Methyluracil derivatives as peripheral site ligand-hydroxamic acid conjugates: Reactivation for paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase - Semenov_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_185_111787
Author(s) : Semenov VE , Zueva IV , Lushchekina SV , Lenina OA , Gubaidullina LM , Saifina LF , Shulaeva MM , Kayumova RM , Saifina AF , Gubaidullin AT , Kondrashova SA , Latypov SK , Masson P , Petrov KA
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 185 :111787 , 2019
Abstract : New uncharged conjugates of 6-methyluracil derivatives with imidazole-2-aldoxime and 1,2,4-triazole-3-hydroxamic acid units were synthesized and studied as reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterase. Using paraoxon (POX) as a model organophosphate, it was shown that 6-methyluracil derivatives linked with hydroxamic acid are able to reactivate POX-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. The reactivating efficacy of one compound (5b) is lower than that of pyridinium-2-aldoxime (2-PAM). Meanwhile, unlike 2-PAM, in vivo study showed that the lead compound 5b is able: (1) to reactivate POX-inhibited AChE in the brain; (2) to decrease death of neurons and, (3) to prevent memory impairment in rat model of POX-induced neurodegeneration.
ESTHER : Semenov_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_185_111787
PubMedSearch : Semenov_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_185_111787
PubMedID: 31675511

Title : Overview of novel multifunctional agents based on conjugates of gamma-carbolines, carbazoles, tetrahydrocarbazoles, phenothiazines, and aminoadamantanes for treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Makhaeva_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_308_224
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Shevtsova EF , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Kovaleva NV , Rudakova EV , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 308 :224 , 2019
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative process whose effective treatment will require drugs that can act simultaneously on multiple pathogenic targets. Here, we present an overview of our previous multitarget studies of five groups of novel hybrid structures that combine, through spacers, five pharmacophores that have been found promising for AD treatment: gamma-carbolines, carbazoles, tetrahydrocarbazoles, phenothiazines, and aminoadamantanes. Biological activity of the compounds was assessed by a battery of assays. These included inhibitory potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as indicators of potential for cognition enhancement and against carboxylesterase (CaE) to exclude unwanted inhibition of this biotransformation pathway. Displacement of propidium from the peripheral anionic site of AChE was determined as a predictor of anti-aggregation activity. Binding to the two sites of the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor was conducted as an additional indicator of potential cognition enhancement and neuroprotection. Propensity to protect against mitochondrial triggers of cell death was evaluated by tests of mitochondrial potential and calcium-induced swelling as indicators of mitochondrial permeability transition. Antioxidant potential was measured to evaluate the tendency to prevent oxidative stress. Potential for disease modification was gauged by the ability to stimulate microtubule assembly. Finally, binding modes of conjugates to AChE and BChE were studied using quantum mechanical-assisted molecular docking. We found selective BChE inhibitors (conjugates of gamma-carbolines and phenothiazine I, gamma-carbolines and carbazoles II, and aminoadamantanes and carbazoles III) as well as inhibitors of both cholinesterases (conjugates of gamma-carbolines and methylene blue IV and bis-gamma-carbolines with ditriazole-containing spacers V). These compounds combined potentials for cognition enhancement, neuroprotection, and disease modification. None of the conjugates exhibited high potency against CaE, thereby precluding potential drug-drug interactions from CaE inhibition. Thus, the studied compounds exhibited positive characteristics of multitarget drugs, indicating their potential for the next generation of AD therapeutics.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_308_224
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_308_224
PubMedID: 31100279

Title : Computer-designed active human butyrylcholinesterase double mutant with a new catalytic triad - Grigorenko_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_306_138
Author(s) : Grigorenko BL , Novichkova DA , Lushchekina SV , Zueva IV , Schopfer LM , Nemukhin AV , Varfolomeev SD , Lockridge O , Masson P
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 306 :138 , 2019
Abstract : A computer-designed mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), N322E/E325G, with a novel catalytic triad was made. The catalytic triad of the wild-type enzyme (S198.H438.E325) was replaced by S198.H438.N322E in silico. Molecular dynamics for 1.5 mus and Markov state model analysis showed that the new catalytic triad should be operative in the mutant enzyme, suggesting functionality. QM/MM modeling performed for the reaction of wild-type BChE and double mutant with echothiophate showed high reactivity of the mutant towards the organophosphate. A truncated monomeric (L530 stop) double mutant was expressed in Expi293cells. Non-purified transfected cell culture medium was analyzed. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native conditions followed by activity staining with BTC as the substrate provided evidence that the monomeric BChE mutant was active. Inhibition of the double mutant by echothiophate followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining showed that this enzyme slowly self-reactivated. However, because Expi293cells secrete an endogenous BChE tetramer and several organophosphate-reacting enzymes, catalytic parameters and self-reactivation constants after phosphorylation of the new mutant were not determined in the crude cell culture medium. The study shows that the computer-designed double mutant (N322E/E325G) with a new catalytic triad (S198.H438.N322E) is a suitable template for design of novel active human BChE mutants that display an organophosphate hydrolase activity.
ESTHER : Grigorenko_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_306_138
PubMedSearch : Grigorenko_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_306_138
PubMedID: 31009643

Title : Water-soluble betaines and amines based on thiacalix[4]arene scaffold as new cholinesterase inhibitors - Padnya_2019_Bioorg.Chem__103455
Author(s) : Padnya PL , Bayarashov EE , Zueva IV , Lushchekina SV , Lenina OA , Evtugyn VG , Osin YN , Petrov KA , Stoikov, II
Ref : Bioorg Chem , :103455 , 2019
Abstract : Novel ammonium and betaine derivatives of p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene in cone and 1,3-alternate conformation were synthesized with high yields for the first time. The obtained compounds form in water spherical nanoparticles. It was shown by molecular docking calculations and in vitro experiments that amino and betaine derivatives can inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase on the level of pyridostigmine while the toxicity of the obtained compounds is much lower than that of pyridostigmine.
ESTHER : Padnya_2019_Bioorg.Chem__103455
PubMedSearch : Padnya_2019_Bioorg.Chem__103455
PubMedID: 31791680

Title : Synthesis of 2-arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxo-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoic acids as new selective carboxylesterase inhibitors and radical scavengers - Khudina_2019_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__126716
Author(s) : Khudina OG , Makhaeva GF , Elkina NA , Boltneva NP , Serebryakova OG , Shchegolkov EV , Rudakova EV , Lushchekina SV , Burgart YV , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ , Saloutin VI
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , :126716 , 2019
Abstract : A series of 2-arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxo-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoic acids was synthesized via dealkylation of ethyl 2-arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxo-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoates under the action of a Lewis acid. Under the same conditions, ethyl 2-arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxobutanoates were also found to undergo dealkylation rather than the previously described cyclization into cinnolones. Study of the esterase profile of these compounds showed that trifluoromethyl-containing acids, in contrast to non-fluorinated analogs, were effective and selective inhibitors of carboxylesterase (CES), without substantially inhibiting structurally related cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase). Moreover, both 3-oxo-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoic and 3-oxobutanoic acids having methyl or methoxy substituent in the arylhydrazinylidene fragment showed high antioxidant activity in the ABTS test. Thus, 2-arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxo-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoic acids were found to constitute a new class of effective and selective CES inhibitors that also possess high radical-scavenging activity.
ESTHER : Khudina_2019_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__126716
PubMedSearch : Khudina_2019_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__126716
PubMedID: 31640885

Title : The four-helix bundle in cholinesterase dimers: Structural and energetic determinants of stability - Novichkova_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_309_108699
Author(s) : Novichkova DA , Lushchekina SV , Dym O , Masson P , Silman I , Sussman JL
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 309 :108699 , 2019
Abstract : The crystal structures of truncated forms of cholinesterases provide good models for assessing the role of non-covalent interactions in dimer assembly in the absence of cross-linking disulfide bonds. These structures identify the four-helix bundle that serves as the interface for formation of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase dimers. Here we performed a theoretical comparison of the structural and energetic factors governing dimerization. This included identification of inter-subunit and intra-subunit hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, evaluation of solvent-accessible surfaces, and estimation of electrostatic contributions to dimerization. To reveal the contribution to dimerization of individual amino acids within the contact area, free energy perturbation alanine screening was performed. Markov state modelling shows that the loop between the alpha13 and alpha14 helices in BChE is unstable, and occupies 4 macro-states. The order of magnitude of mean first passage times between these macrostates is ~10(-8)s. Replica exchange molecular dynamics umbrella sampling calculations revealed that the free energy of human BChE dimerization is -15.5kcal/mol, while that for human AChE is -26.4kcal/mol. Thus, the C-terminally truncated human butyrylcholinesterase dimer is substantially less stable than that of human acetylcholinesterase. An animated Interactive 3D Complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at
ESTHER : Novichkova_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_309_108699
PubMedSearch : Novichkova_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_13ChEPon_309_108699
PubMedID: 31202688

Title : Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase inhibitors as pharmacological agents - Makhaeva_2019_Russ Chem Bull_68_967
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Rudakova EV , Kovaleva NV , Lushchekina SV , Boltneva NP , Proshin AN , Shchegolkov EV , Burgart YV , Saloutin VI
Ref : Russ Chem Bull , 68 :967 , 2019
Abstract : Literature data and authors' own results on the role of serine hydrolases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), as drug targets for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and carboxylesterase (CaE) inhibitors as modulators of CaE-hydrolysis of ester-containing drugs are analyzed. Today, a promising approach is the development of cholinesterase inhibitors with additional neuroprotective and disease-modifying properties. The developed esterase profile approach, that is, comparative assessment of the inhibitory activity against AChE, BChE, and CaE, can be used to evaluate both the main potential pharmacological effect and possible side effects of a new compound. Analysis of the esterase profile, in combination with computer modeling and assessment of radical-scavenging ability of the synthesized compounds and their potential ability to block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation revealed highly active multifunctional compounds for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: selective inhibitors of BChE and inhibitors of both cholinesterases without potential side effects associated with CaE inhibition. A number of effective and selective inhibitors of CaE, free from cholinergic side effects, were also found for modulation of the rate of hydrolytic metabolism and for rational use of ester-containing drugs.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2019_Russ Chem Bull_68_967
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2019_Russ Chem Bull_68_967

Title : Time-course of human cholinesterases-catalyzed competing substrate kinetics - Mukhametgalieva_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_310_108702
Author(s) : Mukhametgalieva AR , Aglyamova AR , Lushchekina SV , Golicnik M , Masson P
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 310 :108702 , 2019
Abstract : Competing substrate kinetic analysis of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the time-course of enzyme-catalyzed substrate hydrolysis, using spectrophotometric assays is described. This study is based on the use of a chromogenic reporter "visible" substrate (substrate A), whose complete hydrolysis time course is retarded by a competing "invisible" substrate (substrate B). For BChE, four visible substrates were used, two thiocholine esters, benzoylthiocholine and butyrylthiocholine, and two aryl-acylamides, o-nitro trifluoro acetaminide and 3-(acetamido)-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium. Three different competing invisible substrates were used, phenyl acetate, acetylcholine and butyrylcholine. For AChE, two visible substrates were used, acetylthiocholine and 3-(acetamido)-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium. For AChE, acetylcholine was competing with visible substrates. The ratio (R) of bimolecular rate constants, kcat/Km, for all couples of substrates, invisible/visible (B/A) covered all possible limit situations, R << 1, R approximately 1 and R >> 1. The kinetic approach, based on the method developed by Golicnik and Masson allowed determination of binding and catalytic parameters of cholinesterases for both visible and invisible substrates. This analysis was applied to michaelian and non-michaelian catalytic behaviors (activation and inhibition by excess substrate). Reevaluation of catalytic parameters obtained for acetylcholine and butyrylcholine more than 50 years ago was made. The method is fast, reliable, and particularly suitable for poorly soluble substrates and for substrates B when no direct spectrophotometric assays exist. Moreover, replacing substrate B by a reversible inhibitor, mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition was possible to study. It is therefore, useful for screening libraries of new substrates and inhibitors, and/or screening of new cholinesterase mutants. This method can be applied to any other enzymes.
ESTHER : Mukhametgalieva_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_310_108702
PubMedSearch : Mukhametgalieva_2019_Chem.Biol.Interact_310_108702
PubMedID: 31247192

Title : Conjugates of tacrine and 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives as new potential multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease treatment: Synthesis, quantum-chemical characterization, molecular docking, and biological evaluation - Makhaeva_2019_Bioorg.Chem__103387
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Rudakova EV , Stupina TS , Terentiev AA , Serkov IV , Proshin AN , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VV , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Bioorg Chem , :103387 , 2019
Abstract : We synthesized conjugates of tacrine with 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives linked by two different spacers, pentylaminopropene (compounds 4) and pentylaminopropane (compounds 5), as potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The conjugates effectively inhibited cholinesterases with a predominant effect on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). They were also effective at displacing propidium from the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), suggesting that they could block AChE-induced beta-amyloid aggregation. In addition, the compounds exhibited high radical-scavenging capacity. Conjugates 5 had higher anti-BChE activity and greater anti-aggregant potential as well relatively lower potency against carboxylesterase than compounds 4. Quantum-mechanical (QM) characterization agreed with NMR data to identify the most stable forms of conjugates for docking studies, which showed that the compounds bind to both CAS and PAS of AChE consistent with mixed reversible inhibition. Conjugates 4 were more potent radical scavengers, in agreement with HOMO localization in the enamine-thiadiazole system. Computational studies showed that all of the conjugates were expected to have good intestinal absorption, whereas conjugates 4 and 5 were predicted to have medium and high blood-brain barrier permeability, respectively. All conjugates were predicted to have medium cardiac toxicity risks. Overall, the results indicated that the conjugates are promising candidates for further development and optimization as multifunctional therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2019_Bioorg.Chem__103387
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2019_Bioorg.Chem__103387
PubMedID: 31735356

Title : Synthesis, molecular docking, and biological evaluation of 3-oxo-2-tolylhydrazinylidene-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoates bearing higher and natural alcohol moieties as new selective carboxylesterase inhibitors - Makhaeva_2019_Bioorg.Chem_91_103097
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Elkina NA , Shchegolkov EV , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Serebryakova OG , Rudakova EV , Kovaleva NV , Radchenko EV , Palyulin VA , Burgart YV , Saloutin VI , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 91 :103097 , 2019
Abstract : To search for effective and selective inhibitors of carboxylesterase (CES), a series of 3-oxo-2-tolylhydrazinylidene-4,4,4-trifluorobutanoates bearing higher or natural alcohol moieties was synthesized via pre-transesterification of ethyl trifluoroacetylacetate with alcohols to isolate transesterificated oxoesters as lithium salts, which were then subjected to azo coupling with tolyldiazonium chloride. Inhibitory activity against porcine liver CES, along with two structurally related serine hydrolases, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, were investigated using enzyme kinetics and molecular docking. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the tested keto-esters are reversible and selective mixed-type CES inhibitors. Analysis of X-ray crystallographic data together with our IR and NMR spectra and QM calculations indicated that the Z-isomers were the most stable. The kinetic data were well explained by the molecular docking results of the Z-isomers, which showed specific binding of the compounds in the CES catalytic active site with carbonyl oxygen atoms in the oxyanion hole and non-specific binding outside it. Some compounds were studied as inhibitors of the main human isozymes involved in biotransformation of ester-containing drugs, hCES1 and hCES2. Esters of geraniol (3d) and adamantol (3e) proved to be highly active and selective inhibitors of hCES2, inhibiting the enzyme in the nanomolar range, whereas esters of borneol (3f) and isoborneol (3g) were more active and selective against hCES1. Computational ADMET studies revealed that all test compounds had excellent intestinal absorption, medium blood-brain barrier permeability, and low hERG liability risks. Moreover, all test compounds possessed radical-scavenging properties and low acute toxicity. Overall, the results indicate that members of this novel series of esters have the potential to be good candidates as hCES1 or hCES2 inhibitors for biomedicinal applications.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2019_Bioorg.Chem_91_103097
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2019_Bioorg.Chem_91_103097
PubMedID: 31323527

Title : Conjugates of methylene blue with gamma-carboline derivatives as new multifunctional agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases - Bachurin_2019_Sci.Rep_9_4873
Author(s) : Bachurin SO , Makhaeva GF , Shevtsova EF , Boltneva NP , Kovaleva NV , Lushchekina SV , Rudakova EV , Dubova LG , Vinogradova DV , Sokolov VB , Aksinenko AY , Fisenko VP , Richardson RJ , Aliev G
Ref : Sci Rep , 9 :4873 , 2019
Abstract : We studied the inhibitory activity of methylene blue (MB) gamma-carbolines (gC) conjugates (MB-gCs) against human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE), equine serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and a structurally related enzyme, porcine liver carboxylesterase (CaE). In addition, we determined the ability of MB-gCs to bind to the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of Electrophorus electricus AChE (EeAChE) and competitively displace propidium iodide from this site. Moreover, we examined the ability of MB-gCs to scavenge free radicals as well as their influence on mitochondrial potential and iron-induced lipid peroxidation. We found that MB-gCs effectively inhibited AChE and BChE with IC50 values in the range 1.73-10.5 muM and exhibited low potencies against CaE (9.8-26% inhibition at 20 muM). Kinetic studies showed that MB-gCs were mixed-type reversible inhibitors of both cholinesterases. Molecular docking results showed that the MB-gCs could bind both to the catalytic active site and to the PAS of human AChE and BChE. Accordingly, MB-gCs effectively displaced propidium from the peripheral anionic site of EeAChE. In addition, MB-gCs were extremely active in both radical scavenging tests. Quantum mechanical DFT calculations suggested that free radical scavenging was likely mediated by the sulfur atom in the MB fragment. Furthermore, the MB-gCs, in like manner to MB, can restore mitochondrial membrane potential after depolarization with rotenone. Moreover, MB-gCs possess strong antioxidant properties, preventing iron-induced lipid peroxidation in mitochondria. Overall, the results indicate that MB-gCs are promising candidates for further optimization as multitarget therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases.
ESTHER : Bachurin_2019_Sci.Rep_9_4873
PubMedSearch : Bachurin_2019_Sci.Rep_9_4873
PubMedID: 30890752

Title : New evidence for dual binding site inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase as improved drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Zueva_2019_Neuropharmacol_155_131
Author(s) : Zueva IV , Dias J , Lushchekina SV , Semenov VE , Mukhamedyarov MA , Pashirova TN , Babaev VM , Nachon F , Petrova N , Nurullin LF , Zakharova LY , Ilyin VI , Masson P , Petrov KA
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 155 :131 , 2019
Abstract : Profound synaptic dysfunction contributes to early loss of short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. This study was set up to analyze possible neuroprotective effects of two dual binding site inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a new 6-methyluracil derivative, C-35, and the clinically used inhibitor donepezil. Crystal structure of the complex between human AChE and C-35 revealed tight contacts of ligand along the enzyme active site gorge. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the external flexible part of the ligand establishes multiple transient interactions with the enzyme peripheral anionic site. Thus, C-35 is a dual binding site inhibitor of AChE. In transgenic mice, expressing a chimeric mouse/human amyloid precursor protein and a human presenilin-1 mutant, C-35 (5mg/kg, i.p) and donepezil (0.75mg/kg, i.p) partially reversed synapse loss, decreased the number of amyloid plaques, and restored learning and memory. To separate temporal symptomatic therapeutic effects, associated with the increased lifetime of acetylcholine in the brain, from possible disease-modifying effect, an experimental protocol based on drug withdrawal from therapy was performed. When administration of C-35 and donepezil was terminated three weeks after the trial started, animals that were receiving C-35 showed a much better ability to learn than those who received vehicle or donepezil. Our results provide additional evidence that dual binding site inhibitors of AChE have Alzheimer's disease-modifying action.
ESTHER : Zueva_2019_Neuropharmacol_155_131
PubMedSearch : Zueva_2019_Neuropharmacol_155_131
PubMedID: 31132435
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE

Title : A new sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for measurement of activity and kinetic study of cholinesterases - Mukhametgalieva_2019_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Proteins.Proteom__140270
Author(s) : Mukhametgalieva AR , Zueva IV , Aglyamova AR , Lushchekina SV , Masson P
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta Proteins Proteom , :140270 , 2019
Abstract : A new spectrofluorimetric method more sensitive than the Ellman method was developed for determination of both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity and for kinetic analysis of these enzymes and their mutants. Two selected mutants of human butyrylcholinesterase (E197Q and E197G) were included in this work. As for the Ellman's method, substrates are thiocholine esters, but the chromogenic reagent, DTNB (dithio-bisnitro benzoic acid) is replaced by a fluorogenic probe, "Calbiochem Probe IV", (3-(7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylcarbamoyl)acrylic acid methylester). Compared to the classical Ellman's method, the sensitivity of this new spectrofluorimetric assay is 2 orders of magnitude higher. The method allows measurement of activity in media containing <10(-11)M of cholinesterase active sites at low substrate concentrations, either under first order conditions, [S]<
ESTHER : Mukhametgalieva_2019_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Proteins.Proteom__140270
PubMedSearch : Mukhametgalieva_2019_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Proteins.Proteom__140270
PubMedID: 31518689

Title : C-547, a 6-methyluracil derivative with long-lasting binding and rebinding on acetylcholinesterase: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies - Petrov_2018_Neuropharmacol_131_304
Author(s) : Petrov KA , Zueva IV , Kovyazina IV , Sedov I , Lushchekina SV , Kharlamova AD , Lenina O , Koshkin S , Shtyrlin Y , Nikolsky EE , Masson P
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 131 :304 , 2018
Abstract : C-547, a potent slow-binding inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was intravenously administered to rat (0.05mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic profiles were determined in blood and different organs: extensor digitorum longus muscle, heart, liver, lungs and kidneys as a function of time. Pharmacokinetics (PK) was studied using non-compartmental and compartmental analyses. A 3-compartment model describes PK in blood. Most of injected C-547 binds to albumin in the bloodstream. The steady-state volume of distribution (3800ml/kg) is 15 times larger than the distribution volume, indicating a good tissue distribution. C-547 is slowly eliminated (kel=0.17 h(-1); T1/2=4h) from the bloodstream. Effect of C-547 on animal model of myasthenia gravis persists for more than 72h, even though the drug is not analytically detectable in the blood. A PK/PD model was built to account for such a pharmacodynamical (PD) effect. Long-lasting effect results from micro-PD mechanisms: the slow-binding nature of inhibition, high affinity for AChE and long residence time on target at neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In addition, NMJ spatial constraints i.e. high concentration of AChE in a small volume, and slow diffusion rate of free C-547 out of NMJ, make possible effective rebinding of ligand. Thus, compared to other cholinesterase inhibitors used for palliative treatment of myasthenia gravis, C-547 is the most selective drug, displays a slow pharmacokinetics, and has the longest duration of action. This makes C-547 a promising drug leader for treatment of myasthenia gravis, and a template for development of other drugs against neurological diseases and for neuroprotection.
ESTHER : Petrov_2018_Neuropharmacol_131_304
PubMedSearch : Petrov_2018_Neuropharmacol_131_304
PubMedID: 29277489

Title : 3D structure of the natural tetrameric form of human butyrylcholinesterase as revealed by cryoEM, SAXS and MD - Boyko_2018_Biochimie_156_196
Author(s) : Boyko KM , Baymukhametov TN , Chesnokov YM , Hons M , Lushchekina SV , Konarev PV , Lipkin AV , Vasiliev AL , Masson P , Popov VO , Kovalchuk MV
Ref : Biochimie , 156 :196 , 2018
Abstract : Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an endogenous bioscavenger that hydrolyzes numerous medicamentous and poisonous esters and scavenges potent organophosphorus nerve agents. BChE is thus a marker for the diagnosis of OP poisoning. It is also considered a therapeutic target against Alzheimer's disease. Although the X-ray structure of a partially deglycosylated monomer of human BChE was solved 15 years ago, all attempts to determine the 3D structure of the natural full-length glycosylated tetrameric human BChE have been unsuccessful so far. Here, a combination of three complementary structural methods-single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, molecular dynamics and small-angle X-ray scattering-were implemented to elucidate the overall structural and spatial organization of the natural tetrameric human plasma BChE. A 7.6A cryoEM map clearly shows the major features of the enzyme: a dimer of dimers with a nonplanar monomer arrangement, in which the interconnecting super helix complex PRAD-(WAT)4-peptide C-terminal tail is located in the center of the tetramer, nearly perpendicular to its plane, and is plunged deep between the four subunits. Molecular dynamics simulations allowed optimization of the geometry of the molecule and reconstruction of the structural features invisible in the cryoEM density, i.e., glycan chains and glycan interdimer contact areas, as well as intermonomer disulfide bridges at the C-terminal tail. Finally, SAXS data were used to confirm the consistency of the obtained model with the experimental data. The tetramer organization of BChE is unique in that the four subunits are joined at their C-termini through noncovalent contacts with a short polyproline-rich peptide. This tetramer structure could serve as a model for the design of highly stable glycosylated tetramers.
ESTHER : Boyko_2018_Biochimie_156_196
PubMedSearch : Boyko_2018_Biochimie_156_196
PubMedID: 30385318

Title : Optimization of Cholinesterase-Based Catalytic Bioscavengers Against Organophosphorus Agents - Lushchekina_2018_Front.Pharmacol_9_211
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Schopfer LM , Grigorenko BL , Nemukhin AV , Varfolomeev SD , Lockridge O , Masson P
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 9 :211 , 2018
Abstract : Organophosphorus agents (OPs) are irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). OP poisoning causes major cholinergic syndrome. Current medical counter-measures mitigate the acute effects but have limited action against OP-induced brain damage. Bioscavengers are appealing alternative therapeutic approach because they neutralize OPs in bloodstream before they reach physiological targets. First generation bioscavengers are stoichiometric bioscavengers. However, stoichiometric neutralization requires administration of huge doses of enzyme. Second generation bioscavengers are catalytic bioscavengers capable of detoxifying OPs with a turnover. High bimolecular rate constants (kcat/Km > 10(6) M(-1)min(-1)) are required, so that low enzyme doses can be administered. Cholinesterases (ChE) are attractive candidates because OPs are hemi-substrates. Moderate OP hydrolase (OPase) activity has been observed for certain natural ChEs and for G117H-based human BChE mutants made by site-directed mutagenesis. However, before mutated ChEs can become operational catalytic bioscavengers their dephosphylation rate constant must be increased by several orders of magnitude. New strategies for converting ChEs into fast OPase are based either on combinational approaches or on computer redesign of enzyme. The keystone for rational conversion of ChEs into OPases is to understand the reaction mechanisms with OPs. In the present work we propose that efficient OP hydrolysis can be achieved by re-designing the configuration of enzyme active center residues and by creating specific routes for attack of water molecules and proton transfer. Four directions for nucleophilic attack of water on phosphorus atom were defined. Changes must lead to a novel enzyme, wherein OP hydrolysis wins over competing aging reactions. Kinetic, crystallographic, and computational data have been accumulated that describe mechanisms of reactions involving ChEs. From these studies, it appears that introducing new groups that create a stable H-bonded network susceptible to activate and orient water molecule, stabilize transition states (TS), and intermediates may determine whether dephosphylation is favored over aging. Mutations on key residues (L286, F329, F398) were considered. QM/MM calculations suggest that mutation L286H combined to other mutations favors water attack from apical position. However, the aging reaction is competing. Axial direction of water attack is not favorable to aging. QM/MM calculation shows that F329H+F398H-based multiple mutants display favorable energy barrier for fast reactivation without aging.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2018_Front.Pharmacol_9_211
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2018_Front.Pharmacol_9_211
PubMedID: 29593539

Title : Water structure changes in oxime-mediated reactivation process of phosphorylated human acetylcholinesterase - Zueva_2018_Biosci.Rep_38_
Author(s) : Zueva IV , Lushchekina SV , Masson P
Ref : Bioscience Reports , 38 : , 2018
Abstract : The role of water in oxime-mediated reactivation of phosphylated cholinesterases (ChEs) has been asked with recurrence. To investigate oximate water structure changes in this reaction, reactivation of paraoxon-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was performed by the oxime asoxime (HI-6) at different pH in the presence and absence of lyotropic salts: a neutral salt (NaCl), a strong chaotropic salt (LiSCN) and strong kosmotropic salts (ammonium sulphate and phosphate HPO(4)(2-)). At the same time, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of enzyme reactivation under the same conditions were performed over 100 ns. Reactivation kinetics showed that the low concentration of chaotropic salt up to 75 mM increased the percentage of reactivation of diethylphosphorylated AChE whereas kosmotropic salts lead only to a small decrease in reactivation. This indicates that water-breaker salt induces destructuration of water molecules that are electrostricted around oximate ions. Desolvation of oximate favors nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom. Effects observed at high salt concentrations (>100 mM) result either from salting-out of the enzyme by kosmotropic salts (phosphate and ammonium sulphate) or denaturing action of chaotropic LiSCN. MDs simulations of diethylphosphorylated hAChE complex with HI-6 over 100 ns were performed in the presence of 100 mM (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and 50 mM LiSCN. In the presence of LiSCN, it was found that protein and water have a higher mobility, i.e. water is less organized, compared with the ammonium sulphate system. LiSCN favors protein solvation (hydrophobic hydration) and breakage of elelectrostricted water molecules around of oximate ion. As a result, more free water molecules participated to reaction steps accompanying oxime-mediated dephosphorylation.
ESTHER : Zueva_2018_Biosci.Rep_38_
PubMedSearch : Zueva_2018_Biosci.Rep_38_
PubMedID: 29773682

Title : Synthesis, molecular docking, and biological activity of 2-vinyl chromones: Toward selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors for potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutics - Makhaeva_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem_26_4716
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Rudakova EV , Serebryakova OG , Kulikova LN , Beloglazkin AA , Borisov RS , Richardson RJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 26 :4716 , 2018
Abstract : We investigated the biological activity of a series of substituted chromeno[3,2-c]pyridines, including compounds previously synthesized by our group and novel compounds whose syntheses are reported here. Tandem transformation of their tetrahydropyridine ring under the action of activated alkynes yielding 2-vinylsubstituted chromones was used to prepare nitrogen-containing derivatives of a biologically active chromone system. The inhibitory activity of these chromone derivatives against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CaE) was investigated using the methods of enzyme kinetics and molecular docking. Antioxidant (antiradical) activity of the compounds was assessed in the ABTS assay. The results demonstrated that a subset of the studied chromone derivatives selectively inhibit BChE but do not exhibit antiradical activity. In addition, the results of molecular docking effectively explained the observed features in the efficacy, selectivity, and mechanism of BChE inhibition by the chromone derivatives.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem_26_4716
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem_26_4716
PubMedID: 30104121

Title : Conjugates of Tacrine and Its Cyclic Homologues with p-Toluenesulfonamide as Novel Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors - Makhaeva_2018_Dokl.Biochem.Biophys_483_369
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Lushchekina SV , Rudakova EV , Boltneva NP , Proshin AN , Lednev BV , Serkov IV , Bachurin SO
Ref : Dokl Biochem Biophys , 483 :369 , 2018
Abstract : Using the acylation reaction with tosyl chloride of N-aminopropyl analogues of tacrine and its cyclic homologues with different size of the aliphatic cycle (5-8), we synthesized a number of new derivatives of p-toluenesulfonamide. It is shown that the synthesized hybrid compounds of tacrine and p-toluenesulfonamide are effective inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with the preferential inhibition of BChE. They also displace propidium from the peripheral anionic site of the electric eel AChE (Electrophorus electricus). The characteristics of the efficiency and selectivity of cholinesterase inhibition by the test compounds were confirmed by the results of molecular docking.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2018_Dokl.Biochem.Biophys_483_369
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2018_Dokl.Biochem.Biophys_483_369
PubMedID: 30607741

Title : Synthesis, molecular docking, and biological activity of polyfluoroalkyl dihydroazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazines as selective carboxylesterase inhibitors - Shchegol'kov_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_3997
Author(s) : Shchegol'kov EV , Makhaeva GF , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Serebryakova OG , Rudakova EV , Kovaleva NV , Burgart YV , Saloutin VI , Chupakhin ON , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 25 :3997 , 2017
Abstract : To search for effective and selective inhibitors of carboxylesterase (CaE), a series of 7-hydroxy-7-polyfluoroalkyl-4,7-dihydroazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazines has been synthesized. Their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and CaE were investigated using the methods of enzyme kinetics and molecular docking. It was shown that the tested compounds are reversible selective CaE inhibitors of mixed type. Elongation of the polyfluoroalkyl substituent and the presence of an ester, preferably the ethoxycarbonyl group, enhance inhibitory activity toward CaE. Furthermore, the compounds with a tetrazole ring are more active against CaE than their triazole analogues. The obtained kinetic data are well explained by the results of molecular docking, according to which there is a similar orientation of triazolo- and tetrazolotriazines in the active site of CaE and the opposite one for pyrazolotriazines. In the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, all of the studied tetrazolotriazines and some pyrazolotriazines demonstrated good antiradical activity comparable with a standard antioxidant, Trolox. The leading compounds were nonafluorobutyl substituted tetrazolo- and 7-phenylpyrazolotriazines, which possess effective and selective CaE inhibitory activity as well as additional useful radical-scavenging properties.
ESTHER : Shchegol'kov_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_3997
PubMedSearch : Shchegol'kov_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_3997
PubMedID: 28578994

Title : Novel conjugates of aminoadamantanes with carbazole derivatives as potential multitarget agents for AD treatment - Bachurin_2017_Sci.Rep_7_45627
Author(s) : Bachurin SO , Shevtsova EF , Makhaeva GF , Grigoriev VV , Boltneva NP , Kovaleva NV , Lushchekina SV , Shevtsov PN , Neganova ME , Redkozubova OM , Bovina EV , Gabrelyan AV , Fisenko VP , Sokolov VB , Aksinenko AY , Echeverria V , Barreto GE , Aliev G
Ref : Sci Rep , 7 :45627 , 2017
Abstract : A new group of compounds, promising for the design of original multitarget therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases, based on conjugates of aminoadamantane and carbazole derivatives was synthesized and investigated. Compounds of these series were found to interact with a group of targets that play an important role in the development of this type of diseases. First of all, these compounds selectively inhibit butyrylcholinesterase, block NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits while maintaining the properties of MK-801 binding site blockers, exert microtubules stabilizing properties, and possess the ability to protect nerve cells from death at the calcium overload conditions. The leading compound C-2h has been shown the most promising effects on all analyzed parameters. Thus, these compounds can be regarded as promising candidates for the design of multi-target disease-modifying drugs for treatment of AD and/or similar neuropathologies.
ESTHER : Bachurin_2017_Sci.Rep_7_45627
PubMedSearch : Bachurin_2017_Sci.Rep_7_45627
PubMedID: 28358144

Title : 9-Substituted acridine derivatives as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors possessing antioxidant activity for Alzheimer's disease treatment - Makhaeva_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_5981
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Lushchekina SV , Boltneva NP , Serebryakova OG , Rudakova EV , Ustyugov AA , Bachurin SO , Shchepochkin AV , Chupakhin ON , Charushin VN , Richardson RJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 25 :5981 , 2017
Abstract : We investigated the inhibitory activity of 4 groups of novel acridine derivatives against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CaE) using the methods of enzyme kinetics and molecular docking. Antioxidant activity of the compounds was determined using the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical decolorization assay as their ability to scavenge free radicals. Analysis of the esterase profiles and antiradical activities of the acridine derivatives showed that 9-aryl(heteroaryl)-N-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridines have a high radical-scavenging activity but low potency as AChE and BChE inhibitors, whereas 9-aryl(heteroaryl)-N-methyl-acridinium tetrafluoroborates effectively inhibit cholinesterases but do not exhibit antiradical activity. In contrast, a group of derivatives of 9-heterocyclic amino-N-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine has been found that combine effective inhibition of AChE and BChE with rather high radical-scavenging activity. The results of molecular docking well explain the observed features in the efficacy, selectivity, and mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition by the acridine derivatives. Thus, in a series of acridine derivatives we have found compounds possessing dual properties of effective and selective cholinesterase inhibition together with free radical scavenging, which makes promising the use of the acridine scaffold to create multifunctional drugs for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_5981
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2017_Bioorg.Med.Chem_25_5981
PubMedID: 28986116

Title : Characterization of butyrylcholinesterase in bovine serum - Dafferner_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_266_17
Author(s) : Dafferner AJ , Lushchekina SV , Masson P , Xiao G , Schopfer LM , Lockridge O
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 266 :17 , 2017
Abstract : Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) protects from nerve agent toxicity. Our goal was to determine whether bovine serum could be used as a source of BChE. Bovine BChE (BoBChE) was immunopurified from 100 mL fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 380 mL adult bovine serum by binding to immobilized monoclonal mAb2. Bound proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results proved that FBS and adult bovine serum contain BoBChE. The concentration of BoBChE was estimated to be 0.04 mug/mL in FBS, and 0.03 mug/mL in adult bovine serum, values lower than the 4 mug/mL BChE in human serum. Nondenaturing gel electrophoresis showed that monoclonal mAb2 bound BoBChE but not bovine acetylcholinesterase (BoAChE) and confirmed that FBS contains BoBChE and BoAChE. Recombinant bovine BChE (rBoBChE) expressed in serum-free culture medium spontaneously reactivated from inhibition by chlorpyrifos oxon at a rate of 0.0023 min-1 (t1/2 = 301 min-1) and aged at a rate of 0.0138 min-1 (t1/2 = 50 min-1). Both BoBChE and HuBChE have 574 amino acids per subunit and 90% sequence identity. However, the apparent size of serum BoBChE and rBoBChE tetramers was much greater than the 340,000 Da of HuBChE tetramers. Whereas HuBChE tetramers include short polyproline rich peptides derived from lamellipodin, no polyproline peptides have been identified in BoBChE. We hypothesize that BoBChE tetramers use a large polyproline-rich protein to organize subunits into a tetramer and that the low concentration of BoBChE in serum is explained by limited quantities of an unidentified polyproline-rich protein.
ESTHER : Dafferner_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_266_17
PubMedSearch : Dafferner_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_266_17
PubMedID: 28189703
Gene_locus related to this paper: bovin-BCHE

Title : Esterase profiles of organophosphorus compounds in vitro predict their behavior in vivo - Makhaeva_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_332
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Rudakova EV , Serebryakova OG , Aksinenko AY , Lushchekina SV , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 259 :332 , 2016
Abstract : We studied 4 serine esterases (EOHs) that are associated with the following consequences from their inhibition by organophosphorus compounds (OPCs): acetylcholinesterase (AChE: acute neurotoxicity; cognition enhancement), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE: inhibition of drug metabolism and/or stoichiometric scavenging of EOH inhibitors; cognition enhancement), carboxylesterase (CaE; inhibition of drug metabolism and/or stoichiometric scavenging of EOH inhibitors), and neuropathy target esterase (NTE: delayed neurotoxicity, OPIDN). The relative degree of inhibition of these EOHs constitutes the "esterase profile" of an OPC, which we hypothesize can serve as a predictor of its overall physiological effects. To test this hypothesis, we selected 3 OPCs known from previous work on reference enzymes to span a wide range of esterase profiles, neuropathic potential, and acute cholinergic toxicity. For each compound, we determined in vitro IC50 and in vivo ED50 values for inhibition of AChE, BChE, CaE, and NTE in mouse brain and blood. The results showed good correlations between in vitro and in vivo measures of potency and selectivity except for brain CaE, a tissue-specific isoform of the enzyme that was less sensitive to the test compounds than expected. Thus, this synthesis of new and previously published results indicates that the concept of the esterase profile of OPCs is useful for the prediction of therapeutic and toxic effects in vivo.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_332
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_332
PubMedID: 27154493

Title : Emergence of catalytic bioscavengers against organophosphorus agents - Masson_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_319
Author(s) : Masson P , Lushchekina SV
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 259 :319 , 2016
Abstract : Bioscavengers are an effective alternative approach for pre- and post-exposure treatments of nerve agent (NA) poisoning. Bioscavengers are natural or recombinant enzymes, reactive proteins, and antibodies that neutralize NAs before they reach their physiological targets. They are administered by injection (protein or gene delivery vector) and react with NAs in the bloodstream. Other ways of delivery can be used: inhalation for pulmonary delivery, topical creams for skin protection, etc. Operational bioscavengers must be producible at low cost, not susceptible to induce immune response and adverse effects, and stable in the bloodstream, upon storage, and under field conditions. First generation bioscavengers, cholinesterases and carboxylesterases, are stoichiometric bioscavengers. However, stoichiometric neutralization of NAs needs administration of huge doses of costly biopharmaceuticals. Second generation bioscavengers are catalytic bioscavengers. These are capable of detoxifying organophosphates regeneratively. By virtue of high turnover, much lower doses are needed for rapid neutralization of toxicants. The most promising catalytic bioscavengers are evolved mutants of phosphotriesterases (bacterial enzymes, mammalian paraoxonases), displaying enantiomeric preference for toxic NA isomers. However, engineering of cholinesterases, carboxylesterases, prolidases and other enzymes, e.g. phosphotriesterases-lactonases from extremophiles is of interest. In particular, association of cholinesterase mutants (not susceptible to age after phosphylation) with fast-reactivating oximes leads to pseudocatalytic bioscavengers. Thus, catalytic and pseudocatalytic bioscavengers are an improvement of bioscavenger-based medical countermeasures in terms of efficacy and cost.
ESTHER : Masson_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_319
PubMedSearch : Masson_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_319
PubMedID: 26899146

Title : Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of N,N-disubstituted 2-aminothiazolines as a new class of butyrylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase inhibitors - Makhaeva_2016_Bioorg.Med.Chem_24_1050
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Boltneva NP , Lushchekina SV , Serebryakova OG , Stupina TS , Terentiev AA , Serkov IV , Proshin AN , Bachurin SO , Richardson RJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 24 :1050 , 2016
Abstract : A series of 31 N,N-disubstituted 2-amino-5-halomethyl-2-thiazolines was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CaE). The compounds did not inhibit AChE; the most active compounds inhibited BChE and CaE with IC50 values of 0.22-2.3muM. Pyridine-containing compounds were more selective toward BChE; compounds with the para-OMe substituent in one of the two dibenzyl fragments were more selective toward CaE. Iodinated derivatives were more effective BChE inhibitors than brominated ones, while there was no influence of halogen type on CaE inhibition. Inhibition kinetics for the 9 most active compounds indicated non-competitive inhibition of CaE and varied mechanisms (competitive, non-competitive, or mixed-type) for inhibition of BChE. Docking simulations predicted key binding interactions of compounds with BChE and CaE and revealed that the best docked positions in BChE were at the bottom of the gorge in close proximity to the catalytic residues in the active site. In contrast, the best binding positions for CaE were clustered rather far from the active site at the top of the gorge. Thus, the docking results provided insight into differences in kinetic mechanisms and inhibitor activities of the tested compounds. A cytotoxicity test using the MTT assay showed that within solubility limits (<30muM), none of the tested compounds significantly affected viability of human fetal mesenchymal stem cells. The results indicate that a new series of N,N-disubstituted 2-aminothiazolines could serve as BChE and CaE inhibitors for potential medicinal applications.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2016_Bioorg.Med.Chem_24_1050
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2016_Bioorg.Med.Chem_24_1050
PubMedID: 26827140

Title : Understanding the non-catalytic behavior of human butyrylcholinesterase silent variants: comparison of wild-type enzyme, catalytically active Ala328Cys mutant, and silent Ala328Asp variant - Lushchekina_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_223
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Nemukhin AV , Varfolomeev SD , Masson P
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 259 :223 , 2016
Abstract : Conformational dynamics of wild-type human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), two mutants of residue Ala328, the catalytically active Ala328Cys, and the catalytically inactive (silent) Ala328Asp, and their interactions with butyrylcholine were studied. The aim was to understand the molecular mechanisms by which point mutations may lead to silent BChE variant or alter catalytic activity. Importance of BChE natural variants is due to medical consequences, i.e. prolonged apnea, following administration of the myorelaxant esters, succinylcholine and mivacurium. Comparison of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the three model systems showed that: 1) the active mutant Ala328Cys mutant has some changes in configuration of catalytic residues, which do not prevent binding of butyrylcholine to the active site; 2) in the naturally-occurring silent variant Ala328Asp, the Asp328 carboxylate may either form a salt bridge with Lys339 or a H-bond with His438. In the first case, the Omega-loop swings off the gorge, disrupting the pi-cation binding site and the catalytic triad. In the second case, binding of cationic substrates in the catalytic center is also impaired. MD simulations carried out in 0.15 M NaCl, close to physiological ionic strength conditions, favored the second situation. It was seen that Asp328 forms a H-bond with the catalytic triad His438, which in turn disrupts the catalytic machinery. Therefore, we concluded that the Ala328Asp variant is not catalytically active because of that dramatic event. Computational results, consistent with in vitro biochemical data and clinical observations, validate our MD approach.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_223
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_223
PubMedID: 27062896

Title : Slow-binding inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by an alkylammonium derivative of 6-methyluracil: mechanism and possible advantages for myasthenia gravis treatment - Kharlamova_2016_Biochem.J_473_1225
Author(s) : Kharlamova AD , Lushchekina SV , Petrov KA , Kots ED , Nachon F , Villard-Wandhammer M , Zueva IV , Krejci E , Reznik VS , Zobov VV , Nikolsky EE , Masson P
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 473 :1225 , 2016
Abstract : Inhibition of human AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and BChE (butyrylcholinesterase) by an alkylammonium derivative of 6-methyluracil, C-547, a potential drug for the treatment of MG (myasthenia gravis) was studied. Kinetic analysis of AChE inhibition showed that C-547 is a slow-binding inhibitor of type B, i.e. after formation of the initial enzyme.inhibitor complex (Ki=140 pM), an induced-fit step allows establishment of the final complex (Ki*=22 pM). The estimated koff is low, 0.05 min(-1) On the other hand, reversible inhibition of human BChE is a fast-binding process of mixed-type (Ki=1.77 muM; Ki'=3.17 muM). The crystal structure of mouse AChE complexed with C-547 was solved at 3.13 A resolution. The complex is stabilized by cation-pi, stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Molecular dynamics simulations of the binding/dissociation processes of C-547 and C-35 (a non-charged analogue) to mouse and human AChEs were performed. Molecular modelling on mouse and human AChE showed that the slow step results from an enzyme conformational change that allows C-547 to cross the bottleneck in the active-site gorge, followed by formation of tight complex, as observed in the crystal structure. In contrast, the related non-charged compound C-35 is not a slow-binding inhibitor. It does not cross the bottleneck because it is not sensitive to the electrostatic driving force to reach the bottom of the gorge. Thus C-547 is one of the most potent and selective reversible inhibitors of AChE with a long residence time, tau=20 min, longer than for other reversible inhibitors used in the treatment of MG. This makes C-547 a promising drug for the treatment of this disease.
ESTHER : Kharlamova_2016_Biochem.J_473_1225
PubMedSearch : Kharlamova_2016_Biochem.J_473_1225
PubMedID: 26929400
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : 6-Methyluracil Derivatives as Bifunctional Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease - Semenov_2015_ChemMedChem_10_1863
Author(s) : Semenov VE , Zueva IV , Mukhamedyarov MA , Lushchekina SV , Kharlamova AD , Petukhova EO , Mikhailov AS , Podyachev SN , Saifina LF , Petrov KA , Minnekhanova OA , Zobov VV , Nikolsky EE , Masson P , Reznik VS
Ref : ChemMedChem , 10 :1863 , 2015
Abstract : Novel 6-methyluracil derivatives with omega-(substituted benzylethylamino)alkyl chains at the nitrogen atoms of the pyrimidine ring were designed and synthesized. The numbers of methylene groups in the alkyl chains were varied along with the electron-withdrawing substituents on the benzyl rings. The compounds are mixed-type reversible inhibitors of cholinesterases, and some of them show remarkable selectivity for human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), with inhibitory potency in the nanomolar range, more than 10 000-fold higher than that for human butyrylcholinesterase (hBuChE). Molecular modeling studies indicate that these compounds are bifunctional AChE inhibitors, spanning the enzyme active site gorge and binding to its peripheral anionic site (PAS). In vivo experiments show that the 6-methyluracil derivatives are able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inhibiting brain-tissue AChE. The most potent AChE inhibitor, 3 d (1,3-bis[5-(o-nitrobenzylethylamino)pentyl]-6-methyluracil), was found to improve working memory in scopolamine and transgenic APP/PS1 murine models of Alzheimer's disease, and to significantly decrease the number and area of beta-amyloid peptide plaques in the brain.
ESTHER : Semenov_2015_ChemMedChem_10_1863
PubMedSearch : Semenov_2015_ChemMedChem_10_1863
PubMedID: 26412714

Title : Alkyl 2-arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxo-3-polyfluoroalkylpropionates as new effective and selective inhibitors of carboxylesterase - Boltneva_2015_Dokl.Biochem.Biophys_465_381
Author(s) : Boltneva NP , Makhaeva GF , Kovaleva NV , Lushchekina SV , Burgart YV , Shchegol'kov EV , Saloutin VI , Chupakhin ON
Ref : Dokl Biochem Biophys , 465 :381 , 2015
Abstract : A series of alkyl 2-Arylhydrazinylidene-3-oxo-3-polyfluoroalkylpropionates was synthesized and their inhibitory activity with respect to porcine liver carboxylesterase (CaE, EC, human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC, and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC was studied. The molecular docking method was used to study the binding mode of the compounds in the active site of CaE. It was found that compounds containing the trifluoromethyl group in the third position of carbonyl chain are highly effective and selective inhibitors of CaE with nanomolar IC50 values, which agrees well with the results of molecular docking.
ESTHER : Boltneva_2015_Dokl.Biochem.Biophys_465_381
PubMedSearch : Boltneva_2015_Dokl.Biochem.Biophys_465_381
PubMedID: 26728730

Title : Human butyrylcholinesterase polymorphism: Molecular modeling - Lushchekina_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S80
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Delacour H , Lockridge O , Masson P
Ref : Int J Risk Saf Med , 27 Suppl 1 :S80 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Prolonged apnoea following injection of ester-containing myoralaxants was first described in 1953. Because a large part of administered succinylcholine is shortly hydrolyzed by plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) under normal conditions, prolonged apnoea was attributed to deficiency in BChE. It was found that BChE deficiency was due to genetic variations. Human BChE gene shows a large polyallelism. About 75 natural mutations of the BCHE gene have been documented so far [1]. Most of them cause alteration in BChE activity through point mutation effect on catalytic activity. Frame shifts and stop codons may also affect expression, or cause truncations in the sequence. OBJECTIVE: Recently, two novel BChE "silent" variants, Val204Asp [2] and Ala34Val [3], causing prolonged neuromuscular block after administration of mivacurium, were discovered. Mutations were genetically and kinetically characterized. The aim of the current study was to understand how these mutations determine "silent" phenotype.
METHODS: Molecular dynamics studies were carried out with NAMD 2.9 software at the Lomonosov supercomputer. Charmm 36 force field was used, periodical boundary conditions, 1 atm pressure, 298 K. 100 ns molecular dynamics runs were performed for the wild-type BChE and its mutants Val204Asp and Ala34Val.
RESULTS: Unlike wild-type BChE, which retained its operative catalytic triad through the whole MD simulation, the catalytic triad of mutants was disrupted, making chemical step impossible. Val204Asp mutation leads to reorganization of hydrogen bonding network around the catalytic triad, which in turn increases the distance between catalytic residue main chains. Mutation Ala34Val, located on the protein surface, leads to increased fluctuations in the Omega-loop and subsequent disruption of the gorge structure, including disruption of the catalytic triad and formation of new hydrogen bonds involving catalytic center residues.
CONCLUSIONS: Comparative study of the "silent" Ala328Asp mutant and the catalytically active mutant Ala328Cys shows that MD approach can discriminate between the differential effects of point mutations at a same position.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S80
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S80
PubMedID: 26639724

Title : Molecular modeling of mechanism of action of anti-myasthenia gravis slow-binding inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase - Lushchekina_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S74
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Kots ED , Kharlamova AD , Petrov KA , Masson P
Ref : Int J Risk Saf Med , 27 Suppl 1 :S74 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by fluctuating weakness of voluntary skeletal muscles. The cause of autoimmune response is unknown and only symptomatic therapies for MG are currently available. Pharmacological correction of synaptic failure underlying MG, involves partial inhibition acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. Effectiveness of cholinesterase inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of MG is based on their ability to potentiate the effects of acetylcholine by decreasing the rate of its enzymatic hydrolysis at neuromuscular junctions. Several new inhibitors of AChE were tested in animal model of MG and may be considered as valuable candidates for the treatment of pathological muscle weakness syndromes. In this study, we have investigated mechanisms of ChE inhibition by one of the most active 6-methyluracil derivatives (C547), as well as the possible benefits of using this compound for MG treatment compared to traditionally used pyridostigmine bromide.It was experimentally shown that C547 is a <<pseudo-irreversible>> slow-binding inhibitor of human AChE. Human BChE is reversibly inhibited by C547 with an affinity about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of human AChE. Slow-binding inhibition of AChE leads to a lasting (over 24 hours) effect on the symptoms of muscle weakness in animal model of MG after a single administration of C547. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present molecular modeling study was to reveal mechanism of AChE inhibition by C547 and elucidate its apparent <<pseudo-irreversibility>>.
METHODS: Two principle methods used in the present study were molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD). Molecular docking was performed with Autodock 4.2.6 software, Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm to obtain structure of protein inhibitor complexes and Local Search for MD snapshots to compare relative binding affinity. For MD simulations NAMD 2.10 software with Charrm 36 force field was used, for the ligand C547 Charmm General Force Field was used, and missing parameters were obtained with quantum mechanical calculations. Unconstrained MD, steered MD (SMD) and free energy calculations with adaptive biasing force were performed.
RESULTS: During unconstrained MD, C547 very rapidly binded to the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. To pass the bottleneck, application of the external force was required (SMD). Both SMD modelling and free energy calculation revealed that after crossing the AChE bottleneck, C547 falls into very favorable position. At the same time the rupture of interactions as well as overcoming the bottleneck gates in the course of pulling out procedure requires application of much higher force than during the pulling-in process. This difference between binding and dissociating processes explains apparent <<pseudo-irreversibility>> of the inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings are in good agreement with kinetics study showing that C-547 is a slow-binding inhibitor of type B, i.e. after rapid initial binding of inhibitor, the enzyme-inhibitor complex undergoes an isomerization step. Position obtained by SMD is in good agreement with X-ray data obtained by F. Nachon, IBS, France.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S74
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S74
PubMedID: 26639721

Title : 6-Methyluracil derivatives as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Zueva_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S69
Author(s) : Zueva IV , Semenov VE , Mukhamedyarov MA , Lushchekina SV , Kharlamova AD , Petukhova EO , Mikhailov AS , Podyachev SN , Saifina LF , Petrov KA , Minnekhanova OA , Zobov VV , Nikolsky EE , Masson P , Reznik VS
Ref : Int J Risk Saf Med , 27 Suppl 1 :S69 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The brain of AD patients suffers from loss of cholinergic neurons and decreased number of synapses [1]. AD is caused by an imbalance between Abeta production and clearance, resulting in increased amount of Abeta in various forms [2]. Reduction of Abeta production and increasing clearance of Abeta pathogenic forms are key targets in the development of potential therapeutic agents for AD treatment. Unfortunately, only nosotropic approaches for treatment of AD are currently effective in humans. These approaches mainly focus on the inhibition of brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) to increase lifetime of cerebral acetylcholine [3]. It is important to emphasize that AChE itself promotes the formation of Abeta fibrils in vitro and Abeta plaques in the cerebral cortex of transgenic mouse models of AD [4]. This property of AChE results from interaction between Abeta and the peripheral anionic site of the enzyme (PAS) [5]. Dual binding site inhibitors of both catalytic active site (CAS) and PAS can simultaneously improve cognition and slow down the rate of Abeta-induced neural degeneration. Unfortunately, the assortment of AChE PAS ligands is still extremely limited. OBJECTIVE: To study putative advantages of AChE non-charged PAS inhibitors based on 6-methyluracil derivatives for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
METHODS: In vitro studies. Concentration of drug producing 50% of AChE/BuChE activity inhibition (IC50) was measured using the method of Ellman et al. [6]. Toxicological experiments were performed using IP injection of the different compounds in mice. LD50, dose (in mg/kg) causing lethal effects in 50% of animals was taken as a criterion of toxicity [7]. The ability of compound to block in vitro AChE-induced Abeta1-40 aggregation was studied using a thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescent probe [8].In vivo biological assays. For in vivo blood-brain barrier permeation assay brains were removed 30 min after IP injection of LD50 dose of tested compound injection. The inhibitory potency was measured using the method of Ellman.Scopolamine and transgenic models of AD were used to evaluate the influence of compound 35 on spatial memory performance.Water solution of scopolamine was injected to mice (ip) 20 minutes before starting memory test during 14 days [9]. Mice were assigned to 7 groups, including 4 groups receiving injection (ip) of compound in different dosages, donepezil-treated mice (donepezil is conventionally used to treat Alzheimer's disease), positive and negative control groups. Double transgenic (APP/PS1) mice expressing a chimeric mouse/human amyloid precursor protein and a mutant of human presenilin-1 [10] were assigned to 4 groups, including transgenic animals injected (ip) with compound 35 or donepezil solution, positive (transgenes injected with water) and negative (wild-type mice) controls.To evaluate spatial memory performance, mice were trained on a reward alternation task using a conventional T-maze [11]. The criterion for a mouse having learned the rewarded alternation task was 3 consecutive days of at least 5 correct responses out of the 6 free trials.For beta-amyloid peptide load was evaluated quantitatively as a number and summary area of Thioflavine S fluorescent spots in cerebral cortex and hippocampal images using Image J program. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney test.
RESULTS: We evaluated the acute toxicity of the most active compounds. The most potent AChE inhibitor compound 35 (IC50 (AChE) = 5 +/- 0.5 nM) exhibited the lowest LD50 values (51 mg/kg) and inhibited brain AChE by more than 71 +/- 1%. Compound 35 at 10 nM, exhibited a significant (35 +/- 9%) inhibitory activity toward human AChE-induced Abeta aggregation.Scopolamine injection induced significant decrease in correct choice percentage in T-maze, as well as decrease in percentage of mice reaching criterion for learning the task by day 14. This memory deficit was relieved to some extent either by compound 35 (5 mg/kg) or donepezil (reference compound) treatment (0.75 mg/kg). Interestingly, higher doses of compound 35 (10 and 15 mg/kg) produced less therapeutic effect on spatial memory deficit.Group of APP/PS1 mice showed 3 times lower percentage of reaching behavioral criterion and lower percentage of correct choice in T-maze alternation task comparing to WT mice, whereas compound 35 (5 mg/kg) or Donepezil treatment effectively improved these parameters in APP/PS1 mice.Compound 35 treatment (5 mg/kg) during 14 days significantly reduced percentage of summary area and number of beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP) deposits visualized in sections of cerebral cortex, dentate gyrus, and hippocampal CA3 area in APP/PS1 mice. The most prominent reduction of betaAP load by compound 35 treatment was found in CA3 area and cerebral cortex. Meanwhile, Donepezil treatment (1 mg/kg) during 14 days significantly reduced betaAP load in cerebral cortex but not in dentate gyrus and CA3 area.
CONCLUSIONS: Experiments showed that the most potent AChE inhibitor compound 35 (6-methyluracil derivative) permeated the blood-brain barrier, improved working memory in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice and significantly reduced the number and area of Abeta plaques in the brain. Thus, compound 35 is a promising candidate as a bi-functional inhibitor of AChE for treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Zueva_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S69
PubMedSearch : Zueva_2015_Int.J.Risk.Saf.Med_27 Suppl 1_S69
PubMedID: 26639718

Title : Conjugates of gamma-Carbolines and Phenothiazine as new selective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase and blockers of NMDA receptors for Alzheimer Disease - Makhaeva_2015_Sci.Rep_5_13164
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Lushchekina SV , Boltneva NP , Sokolov VB , Grigoriev VV , Serebryakova OG , Vikhareva EA , Aksinenko AY , Barreto GE , Aliev G , Bachurin SO
Ref : Sci Rep , 5 :13164 , 2015
Abstract : Alzheimer disease is a multifactorial pathology and the development of new multitarget neuroprotective drugs is promising and attractive. We synthesized a group of original compounds, which combine in one molecule gamma-carboline fragment of dimebon and phenothiazine core of methylene blue (MB) linked by 1-oxo- and 2-hydroxypropylene spacers. Inhibitory activity of the conjugates toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and structurally close to them carboxylesterase (CaE), as well their binding to NMDA-receptors were evaluated in vitro and in silico. These newly synthesized compounds showed significantly higher inhibitory activity toward BChE with IC50 values in submicromolar and micromolar range and exhibited selective inhibitory action against BChE over AChE and CaE. Kinetic studies for the 9 most active compounds indicated that majority of them were mixed-type BChE inhibitors. The main specific protein-ligand interaction is pi-pi stacking of phenothiazine ring with indole group of Trp82. These compounds emerge as promising safe multitarget ligands for the further development of a therapeutic approach against aging-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and/or other pathological conditions.
ESTHER : Makhaeva_2015_Sci.Rep_5_13164
PubMedSearch : Makhaeva_2015_Sci.Rep_5_13164
PubMedID: 26281952

Title : Characterization of a Novel BCHE Silent Allele: Point Mutation (p.Val204Asp) Causes Loss of Activity and Prolonged Apnea with Suxamethonium - Delacour_2014_PLoS.One_9_e101552
Author(s) : Delacour H , Lushchekina SV , Mabboux I , Bousquet A , Ceppa F , Schopfer LM , Lockridge O , Masson P
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e101552 , 2014
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase deficiency is characterized by prolonged apnea after the use of muscle relaxants (suxamethonium or mivacurium) in patients who have mutations in the BCHE gene. Here, we report a case of prolonged neuromuscular block after administration of suxamethonium leading to the discovery of a novel BCHE variant (c.695T>A, p.Val204Asp). Inhibition studies, kinetic analysis and molecular dynamics were undertaken to understand how this mutation disrupts the catalytic triad and determines a "silent" phenotype. Low activity of patient plasma butyrylcholinesterase with butyrylthiocholine (BTC) and benzoylcholine, and values of dibucaine and fluoride numbers fit with heterozygous atypical silent genotype. Electrophoretic analysis of plasma BChE of the proband and his mother showed that patient has a reduced amount of tetrameric enzyme in plasma and that minor fast-moving BChE components: monomer, dimer, and monomer-albumin conjugate are missing. Kinetic analysis showed that the p.Val204Asp/p.Asp70Gly-p.Ala539Thr BChE displays a pure Michaelian behavior with BTC as the substrate. Both catalytic parameters Km = 265 microM for BTC, two times higher than that of the atypical enzyme, and a low Vmax are consistent with the absence of activity against suxamethonium. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations showed that the overall effect of the mutation p.Val204Asp is disruption of hydrogen bonding between Gln223 and Glu441, leading Ser198 and His438 to move away from each other with subsequent disruption of the catalytic triad functionality regardless of the type of substrate. MD also showed that the enzyme volume is increased, suggesting a pre-denaturation state. This fits with the reduced concentration of p.Ala204Asp/p.Asp70Gly-p.Ala539Thr tetrameric enzyme in the plasma and non-detectable fast moving-bands on electrophoresis gels.
ESTHER : Delacour_2014_PLoS.One_9_e101552
PubMedSearch : Delacour_2014_PLoS.One_9_e101552
PubMedID: 25054547

Title : Characterization of a novel butyrylcholinesterase point mutation (p.Ala34Val), silent with mivacurium - Delacour_2014_Biochem.Pharmacol_92_476
Author(s) : Delacour H , Lushchekina SV , Mabboux I , Ceppa F , Masson P , Schopfer LM , Lockridge O
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 92 :476 , 2014
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase deficiency is characterized by prolonged apnea after the use of muscle relaxants (suxamethonium or mivarcurium) in patients who have mutations in the BCHE gene. Here, we report a case of prolonged neuromuscular block after administration of mivacurium leading to the discovery of a novel BCHE variant (c.185C>T, p.Ala34Val). Inhibition studies, kinetic analysis and molecular dynamics were undertaken to understand how this mutation remote from the active center determines the "silent" phenotype. Low activity of patient plasma butyrylcholinesterase with butyrylthiocholine (BTC) and benzoylcholine, and values of dibucaine and fluoride numbers fit with a heterozygous enzyme of type atypical/silent. Kinetic analysis with succinyldithiocholine (SCdTC) as the substrate showed that Ala34Val BChE was inactive against this substrate. However, with BTC, the mutant enzyme was active, displaying an unexpected activation by excess substrate. Competitive inhibition of BTC by mivacurium gave a Ki=1.35mM consistent with the lack of activity with the related substrate SCdTC, and with the clinical data. Molecular dynamic simulations revealed the mechanism by which mutation Ala34Val determines the silent phenotype: a chain of intramolecular events leads to disruption of the catalytic triad, so that His438 no longer interacts with Ser198, but instead forms hydrogen bonds either with residues Glu197 and Trp82, or peripheral site residue Tyr332. However, at high BTC concentration, initial binding of substrate to the peripheral site triggers restoration of a functional catalytic triad, and activity with BTC.
ESTHER : Delacour_2014_Biochem.Pharmacol_92_476
PubMedSearch : Delacour_2014_Biochem.Pharmacol_92_476
PubMedID: 25264279

Title : Molecular Modeling Evidence for His438 Flip in the Mechanism of Butyrylcholinesterase Hysteretic Behavior - Lushchekina_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_44
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Nemukhin AV , Varfolomeev SD , Masson P
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 52 :434 , 2014
Abstract : Cholinesterases display a hysteretic behavior with certain substrates and irreversible inhibitors. For years, this behavior has remained puzzling. However, several lines of evidence indicated that it is caused by perturbation of the catalytic triad and its water environment. In the present study, using molecular dynamics simulations of Ala328Cys BCHE mutant and wild-type BCHE in the absence and presence of a co-solvent (sucrose, glycerol), we provide evidence that hysteresis originates in a flip of the catalytic triad histidine (His438). This event is controlled by water molecules that interact with active site residues. The physiological significance of this phenomenon is still an issue.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_44
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_44
PubMedID: 24310732

Title : Research on cholinesterases in the Soviet Union and Russia: a historical perspective - Rozengart_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_3
Author(s) : Rozengart EV , Basova NE , Moralev SN , Lushchekina SV , Masson P , Varfolomeev SD
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 203 :3 , 2013
Abstract : Research on cholinesterases and effects of their inhibition in the USSR and Russia since 1930-1940s till present is exposed in historical aspects. The first physiological and toxicological effects of cholinesterase inhibition were reported by Alexander Ginetsinsky during World War II, when academic institutions were evacuated from Leningrad to Kazan. The main scientific schools that initiated research on chemistry, enzymology and physiology of cholinesterases and their inhibitors were leaded by Alexandr and Boris Arbuzovs, Victor Rozengart, Viktor Yakovlev, Michael Michelson, Martin Kabachnik, Mikhail Voronkov, Ivan Knunyants, Alexandr Bretskin and others. They investigated the main physiological effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, and analyzed the catalytic mechanisms of cholinesterases and related enzymes. Their contributions are landmarks in the history of cholinesterase research. At the present time revival of research on cholinesterases in different universities and institutes is vivid, in particular at the Moscow State University, research institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences and Kazan Scientific Center.
ESTHER : Rozengart_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_3
PubMedSearch : Rozengart_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_3
PubMedID: 23485591

Title : Effects of viscosity and osmotic stress on the reaction of human butyrylcholinesterase with cresyl saligenin phosphate, a toxicant related to aerotoxic syndrome: kinetic and molecular dynamics studies - Masson_2013_Biochem.J_454_387
Author(s) : Masson P , Lushchekina SV , Schopfer LM , Lockridge O
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 454 :387 , 2013
Abstract : CSP (cresyl saligenin phosphate) is an irreversible inhibitor of human BChE (butyrylcholinesterase) that has been involved in the aerotoxic syndrome. Inhibition under pseudo-first-order conditions is biphasic, reflecting a slow equilibrium between two enzyme states E and E'. The elementary constants for CSP inhibition of wild-type BChE and D70G mutant were determined by studying the dependence of inhibition kinetics on viscosity and osmotic pressure. Glycerol and sucrose were used as viscosogens. Phosphorylation by CSP is sensitive to viscosity and is thus strongly diffusion-controlled (kon approximately 108 M-1.min-1). Bimolecular rate constants (ki) are about equal to kon values, making CSP one of the fastest inhibitors of BChE. Sucrose caused osmotic stress because it is excluded from the active-site gorge. This depleted the active-site gorge of water. Osmotic activation volumes, determined from the dependence of ki on osmotic pressure, showed that water in the gorge of the D70G mutant is more easily depleted than that in wild-type BChE. This demonstrates the importance of the peripheral site residue Asp70 in controlling the active-site gorge hydration. MD simulations provided new evidence for differences in the motion of water within the gorge of wild-type and D70G enzymes. The effect of viscosogens/osmolytes provided information on the slow equilibrium Eright harpoon over left harpoonE', indicating that alteration in hydration of a key catalytic residue shifts the equilibrium towards E'. MD simulations showed that glycerol molecules that substitute for water molecules in the enzyme active-site gorge induce a conformational change in the catalytic triad residue His438, leading to the less reactive form E'.
ESTHER : Masson_2013_Biochem.J_454_387
PubMedSearch : Masson_2013_Biochem.J_454_387
PubMedID: 23782236

Title : On quantum mechanical - molecular mechanical (QM\/MM) approaches to model hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase - Nemukhin_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_51
Author(s) : Nemukhin AV , Grigorenko BL , Morozov DI , Kochetov MS , Lushchekina SV , Varfolomeev SD
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 203 :51 , 2013
Abstract : We re-visited the results of quantum mechanics - molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approaches aiming to construct the reaction energy profile for the acylation stage of acetylcholine hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. The main emphasis of this study was on the energy of the first tetrahedral intermediate (TI) relative to the level of the enzyme-substrate (ES) complex for which contradictory data from different works had been reported. A new series of stationary points on the potential energy surface was calculated by using electronically embedding QM/MM schemes when starting from the crystal structure mimicking features of the reaction intermediate (PDB ID: 2VJA). A thoughtful analysis allows us to conclude that the energy of TI should be lower than that of ES, and a proper treatment of contributions from the oxyanion hole residues accounts for their relative positions.
ESTHER : Nemukhin_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_51
PubMedSearch : Nemukhin_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_51
PubMedID: 22982775

Title : Kinetics and mechanism of inhibition of serine esterases by fluorinated carbethoxy 1-aminophosphonates -
Author(s) : Makhaeva GF , Lushchekina SV , Serebryakova OG , Aksinenko AY , Goreva TV , Richardson RJ , Martynov IV
Ref : Dokl Biochem Biophys , 451 :203 , 2013
PubMedID: 23975401

Title : This special Issue of Chemico-Biological Interactions comprises 70 manuscripts from lectures and short talks given at the 11th International Meeting on Cholinesterases. Preface -
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Masson P , Rosenberry TL
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 203 :1 , 2013
PubMedID: 23558087

Title : Correlation between the substrate structure and the rate of acetylcholinesterase hydrolysis modeled with the combined quantum mechanical\/molecular mechanical studies - Lushchekina_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_59
Author(s) : Lushchekina SV , Nemukhin AV , Morozov DI , Varfolomeev SD
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 187 :59 , 2010
Abstract : The combined quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) based computational scheme for modeling the structure-reaction rate correlations was elaborated for the hydrolysis of the set of neutral esters in the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The energy barriers of hydrolysis were estimated on the basis of the equilibrium geometry configurations of the enzyme-substrate (ES) complexes. The obtained correlation between the rate of hydrolysis and the hydrophobicity of the substrate leaving group is consistent with experimental data. The developed method can be used to predict the substrate reactivity and to interpret the specific nature of the enzyme catalysis.
ESTHER : Lushchekina_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_59
PubMedSearch : Lushchekina_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_59
PubMedID: 20398640

Title : Characterization of a complete cycle of acetylcholinesterase catalysis by ab initio QM\/MM modeling - Nemukhin_2008_J.Mol.Model_14_409
Author(s) : Nemukhin AV , Lushchekina SV , Bochenkova AV , Golubeva AA , Varfolomeev SD
Ref : J Mol Model , 14 :409 , 2008
Abstract : The reaction mechanism of acetylcholine hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase, including both acylation and deacylation stages from the enzyme-substrate (ES) to the enzyme-product (EP) molecular complexes, is examined by using an ab initio type quantum mechanical - molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach. The density functional theory PBE0/aug-6-31+G* method for a fairly large quantum part trapped inside the native protein environment, and the AMBER force field parameters in the molecular mechanical part are employed in computations. All reaction steps, including the formation of the first tetrahedral intermediate (TI1), the acylenzyme (EA) complex, the second tetrahedral intermediate (TI2), and the EP complex, are modeled at the same theoretical level. In agreement with the experimental rate constants, the estimated activation energy barrier of the deacylation stage is slightly higher than that for the acylation phase. The critical role of the non-triad Glu202 amino acid residue in orienting lytic water molecule and in stabilizing the second tetrahedral intermediate at the deacylation stage of the enzymatic process is demonstrated.
ESTHER : Nemukhin_2008_J.Mol.Model_14_409
PubMedSearch : Nemukhin_2008_J.Mol.Model_14_409
PubMedID: 18343962