Zhu S

References (34)

Title : Acetylcholine triggered enzymatic cascade reaction based on Fe(7)S(8) nanoflakes catalysis for organophosphorus pesticides visual detection - Zhu_2024_Anal.Chim.Acta_1301_342464
Author(s) : Zhu S , Qin S , Wei C , Cen L , Xiong L , Luo X , Wang Y
Ref : Anal Chim Acta , 1301 :342464 , 2024
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) play important roles in the natural environment, agricultural fields, and biological prevention. The development of OPs detection has gradually become an effective strategy to avoid the dangers of pesticides abuse and solve the severe environmental and health problems in humans. Although conventional assays for OPs analysis such as the bulky instrument required analytical methods have been well-developed, it still remains the limitation of inconvenient, inefficient and lab-dependence analysis in real samples. Hence, there is an urgent demand to develop efficient detection methods for OPs analysis in real scenarios. RESULTS: Here, by virtue of the highly efficient catalytic performance in Fe(7)S(8) nanoflakes (Fe(7)S(8) NFs), we propose an OPs detection method that rationally integrated Fe(7)S(8) NFs into the acetylcholine (ACh) triggered enzymatic cascade reaction (ATECR) for proceeding better detection performances. In this method, OPs serve as the enzyme inhibitors for inhibiting ATECR among ACh, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and choline oxidase (CHO), then reduce the generation of H(2)O(2) to suppress the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) that catalyzed by Fe(7)S(8) NFs. Benefiting from the integration of Fe(7)S(8) NFs and ATECR, it enables a sensitive detection for OPs (e.g. dimethoate). The proposed method has presented good linear ranges of OPs detection ranging from 0.1 to 10 microg mL(-1). Compared to the other methods, the comparable limits of detection (LOD) of OPs are as low as 0.05 microg mL(-1). SIGNIFICANCE: Furthermore, the proposed method has also achieved a favorable visual detection performance of revealing OPs analysis in real samples. The visual signals of OPs can be transformed into RGB values and gathered by using smartphones, indicating the great potential in simple, sensitive, instrument-free and on-site analysis of pesticide residues in environmental monitoring and biosecurity research.
ESTHER : Zhu_2024_Anal.Chim.Acta_1301_342464
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2024_Anal.Chim.Acta_1301_342464
PubMedID: 38553122

Title : Microbiome dynamics during anaerobic digestion of food waste and the genetic potential for poly (lactic acid) co-digestion - Zhu_2023_Chem.Eng.J__145194
Author(s) : Zhu X , Zhu S , Zhao Z , Kang X , Ju F
Ref : Chemical Engineering Journal , :145194 , 2023
Abstract : Anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) and potential co-digestion with biodegradable packaging material (i.e., bioplastics) have been promising resource recovery strategies. Unveiling the microbiome dynamics involved in the digestion process and exploring the genetic potential for poly (lactic acid) hydrolysis therein provide the fundamental basis for further process control and optimization. The current study has shown that the FW-digesting microbiome changed in both composition and activity-dormancy status while consuming available substrates. The microbiome assembly was mainly driven by homogeneous selection (36.7% on average) and drift (59.5% on average), and the homogeneous selection effect scaled with the availability of substrates. Based on the ratio between the relative activity and abundance, the microbiome was clustered into four groups. The Group (1) microbes, including Bacterioidetes_vadinHA17 and Syntrophomonadaceae, accumulated high relative abundance during the early stage of the digestion process but entered dormancy after the preferred substrate was consumed. Other members, i.e., the Group 4 Syntrophobacteraceae and Pseudomonadaceae, showed low abundance but disproportional activity during the later stage of the digestion process. The genome-centric metagenomics revealed that inherent AD microbes, especially the Group (1) microbes, harbored robust hydrolase genes, facilitating the PLA degradation. In fact, PLA addition to FW digestor led to significant methane production enhancement (14%) but negligible changes in microbiome composition. The outcome of this study provided the theoretical basis for developing microbiome management and engineering strategies that prospect efficient FW and PLA co-digestion processes.
ESTHER : Zhu_2023_Chem.Eng.J__145194
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2023_Chem.Eng.J__145194
PubMedID:

Title : PGC 1alpha-Mediates Mitochondrial Damage in the Liver by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain as a Non-cholinergic Mechanism of Repeated Low-Level Soman Exposure - Jin_2023_Biol.Pharm.Bull_46_563
Author(s) : Jin Q , Zhang Y , Cui Y , Shi M , Shi J , Zhu S , Shi T , Zhang R , Chen X , Zong X , Wang C , Li L
Ref : Biol Pharm Bull , 46 :563 , 2023
Abstract : This work aimed to assess whether mitochondrial damage in the liver induced by subacute soman exposure is caused by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1alpha) and whether PGC-1alpha regulates mitochondrial respiratory chain damage. Toxicity mechanism research may provide theoretical support for developing anti-toxic drugs in the future. First, a soman animal model was established in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by subcutaneous soman injection. Then, liver damage was biochemically evaluated, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to examine liver mitochondrial damage, and high-resolution respirometry was carried out for assessing mitochondrial respiration function. In addition, complex I-IV levels were quantitatively evaluated in isolated liver mitochondria by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PGC-1alpha levels were detected with a Jess capillary-based immunoassay device. Finally, oxidative stress was analyzed by quantifying superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Repeated low-level soman exposure did not alter AChE activity, while increasing morphological damage of liver mitochondria and liver enzyme levels in rat homogenates. Complex I, II and I + II activities were 2.33, 4.95, and 5.22 times lower after treatment compared with the control group, respectively. Among complexes I-IV, I-III decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and PGC-1alpha levels were 1.82 times lower after soman exposure than in the control group. Subacute soman exposure significantly increased mitochondrial ROS production, which may cause oxidate stress. These findings indicated dysregulated mitochondrial energy metabolism involves PGC-1alpha protein expression imbalance, revealing non-cholinergic mechanisms for soman toxicity.
ESTHER : Jin_2023_Biol.Pharm.Bull_46_563
PubMedSearch : Jin_2023_Biol.Pharm.Bull_46_563
PubMedID: 37005300

Title : Bladder epithelial cell phosphate transporter inhibition protects mice against uropathogenic Escherichia coli infection - Pang_2022_Cell.Rep_39_110698
Author(s) : Pang Y , Cheng Z , Zhang S , Li S , Li X , Zhang X , Feng Y , Cui H , Chen Z , Liu L , Li Q , Huang J , Zhang M , Zhu S , Wang L , Feng L
Ref : Cell Rep , 39 :110698 , 2022
Abstract : Urinary tract infections are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC infects bladder epithelial cells (BECs) via fusiform vesicles, escapes into the cytosol to evade exocytosis, and establishes intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) for the next round of infection. The UPEC vesicle escape mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that UPEC senses host immune responses and initiates escape by upregulating a key phospholipase. The UPEC phospholipase PldA disrupts the vesicle membrane, and pldA expression is activated by phosphate reduction in vesicles. The host phosphate transporter PIT1 is located on the fusiform vesicle membrane, transporting phosphate into the cytosol. UPEC infection upregulates PIT1 via nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), resulting in phosphate reduction. Silencing PIT1 blocks UPEC vesicle escape in BECs, inhibits IBC formation in mouse bladders, and protects mice from UPEC infection. Our results shed light on pathogenic bacteria responding to intracellular phosphate shortage and tackling host defense and provide insights for development of new therapeutic agents to treat UPEC infection.
ESTHER : Pang_2022_Cell.Rep_39_110698
PubMedSearch : Pang_2022_Cell.Rep_39_110698
PubMedID: 35443182

Title : Dwarf and High Tillering1 represses rice tillering through mediating the splicing of D14 pre-mRNA - Liu_2022_Plant.Cell_34_3301
Author(s) : Liu T , Zhang X , Zhang H , Cheng Z , Liu J , Zhou C , Luo S , Luo W , Li S , Xing X , Chang Y , Shi C , Ren Y , Zhu S , Lei C , Guo X , Wang J , Zhao Z , Wang H , Zhai H , Lin Q , Wan J
Ref : Plant Cell , 34 :3301 , 2022
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) constitute a class of plant hormones that regulate many aspects of plant development, including repressing tillering in rice (Oryza sativa). However, how SL pathways are regulated is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a rice mutant dwarf and high tillering1 (dht1), which exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes (such as dwarfism and increased tiller numbers) similar to those of mutants defective in SL signaling. We show that DHT1 encodes a monocotyledon-specific hnRNP-like protein that acts as a previously unrecognized intron splicing factor for many precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs), including for the SL receptor gene D14. We find that the dht1 (DHT1I232F) mutant protein is impaired in its stability and RNA binding activity, causing defective splicing of D14 pre-mRNA and reduced D14 expression, and consequently leading to the SL signaling-defective phenotypes. Overall, our findings deepen our understanding of the functional diversification of hnRNP-like proteins and establish a connection between posttranscriptional splicing and SL signaling in the regulation of plant development.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Plant.Cell_34_3301
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Plant.Cell_34_3301
PubMedID: 35670739

Title : Identification and Antioxidant Abilities of Enzymatic-Transesterification (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate Stearyl Derivatives in Non-Aqueous Systems - Jiang_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
Author(s) : Jiang C , Wang L , Huang X , Zhu S , Ma C , Wang H
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : Vinyl stearate was added to enzymatic transesterification of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) to enhance its lipophilicity and antioxidant ability in a non-aqueous system. The lipase DF "Amano" 15 was used as the catalyst. The optimal reaction conditions were: acetonitrile as the solvent, the molar ratio of vinyl stearate: EGCG as 3:1, an enzyme amount of 4.0% (ratio of substrate mass), and a reaction temperature and time of 50 degreesC and 96 h, respectively, achieving 65.2% EGCG conversion. HPLC-MS and NMR were used to determine the structure of EGCG stearyl derivative (3'',5''-2-O-stearyl-EGCG). The lipophilicity of EGCG stearyl derivatives (3.49 +/- 0.34) was higher (5.06 times) than that of the parent EGCG (0.69 +/- 0.08). Furthermore, EGCG stearyl derivatives had excellent lipid oxidation compared with BHT, BHA, and parent EGCG. The POVs of soybean oil with EGCG stearyl derivatives (18.17 +/- 0.92 mEq/kg) were significantly reduced (by 62.5%) at 21 d compared with those of EGCG (48.50 +/- 1.23 mEq/kg). These results indicate that EGCG derivatives have broad antioxidant application prospects in lipophilic environments/high-fat food.
ESTHER : Jiang_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedID: 34439530

Title : Structural characterization and antioxidant property of enzymatic-transesterification derivatives of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate and vinyl laurate - Jiang_2021_J.Food.Sci__
Author(s) : Jiang C , Wang L , Huang X , Zhu S , Ma C , Wang H
Ref : J Food Sci , : , 2021
Abstract : (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate(EGCG) was enzymatically modified to enhance the lipophilicity and the antioxidant property. The determination of optimal reaction conditions are as follows: Lipase DF "Amano" 15 and acetone were used as catalyst and solvent, respectively. Equal molar of EGCG and vinyl laurate (1:1); lipase addition of 6.0% (w/w of total substrates); reaction temperature of 50 degreesC and reaction time of 96 h, which obtained the conversion rate of EGCG at 80.1%. The structure of EGCG lauroyl derivatives were 5''-O-lauroyl-EGCG, 3'',5''-2-O-lauroyl-EGCG, and 5',3'',5''-3-O-lauroyl-EGCG, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compared with the logP of precursor EGCG (0.69 +/- 0.03), the logP of EGCG lauroyl derivatives was 1.37 +/- 0.19, 2.27 +/- 0.33, and 3.28 +/- 0.37, increasing by 0.98, 2.28, and 3.75 times, respectively (p < 0.05), suggesting the grafted fatty acid chains make EGCG derivatives more lipophilic, and the lipid solubility gradually increased as the number of substituents increased. Furthermore, EGCG lauroyl derivatives had excellent lipid oxidation than that of EGCG. The POVs (peroxide values) of soybean oil with mono-, di-, tri-lauroyl EGCG were significantly reduced by 42%, 47%, and 57% than that of EGCG at 21 days, respectively, indicating the antioxidative inhibition of these derivatives decreased with the increase in substituents. This indicates that these derivatives have broad prospects of the antioxidant application while improving their solubility properties in lipophilic environments/high-fat food. Practical Application: The lipophilic esterification reaction of EGCG catalyzed by new catalytic lipase DF "Amano" 15 was carried out in a non-aqueous solvent.Various reaction factors on a higher conversion rate of EGCG lauroyl derivatives were evaluated. The lipophilicity and antioxidant properties of EGCG lauroyl derivatives were much excellent than that of parent EGCG.
ESTHER : Jiang_2021_J.Food.Sci__
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2021_J.Food.Sci__
PubMedID: 34553787

Title : An Epoxide Intermediate in Glycosidase Catalysis - Sobala_2020_ACS.Cent.Sci_6_760
Author(s) : Sobala LF , Speciale G , Zhu S , Raich L , Sannikova N , Thompson AJ , Hakki Z , Lu D , Shamsi Kazem Abadi S , Lewis AR , Rojas-Cervellera V , Bernardo-Seisdedos G , Zhang Y , Millet O , Jimenez-Barbero J , Bennet AJ , Sollogoub M , Rovira C , Davies GJ , Williams SJ
Ref : ACS Cent Sci , 6 :760 , 2020
Abstract : Retaining glycoside hydrolases cleave their substrates through stereochemical retention at the anomeric position. Typically, this involves two-step mechanisms using either an enzymatic nucleophile via a covalent glycosyl enzyme intermediate or neighboring-group participation by a substrate-borne 2-acetamido neighboring group via an oxazoline intermediate; no enzymatic mechanism with participation of the sugar 2-hydroxyl has been reported. Here, we detail structural, computational, and kinetic evidence for neighboring-group participation by a mannose 2-hydroxyl in glycoside hydrolase family 99 endo-alpha-1,2-mannanases. We present a series of crystallographic snapshots of key species along the reaction coordinate: a Michaelis complex with a tetrasaccharide substrate; complexes with intermediate mimics, a sugar-shaped cyclitol beta-1,2-aziridine and beta-1,2-epoxide; and a product complex. The 1,2-epoxide intermediate mimic displayed hydrolytic and transfer reactivity analogous to that expected for the 1,2-anhydro sugar intermediate supporting its catalytic equivalence. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling of the reaction coordinate predicted a reaction pathway through a 1,2-anhydro sugar via a transition state in an unusual flattened, envelope (E 3) conformation. Kinetic isotope effects (k cat/K M) for anomeric-(2)H and anomeric-(13)C support an oxocarbenium ion-like transition state, and that for C2-(18)O (1.052 +/- 0.006) directly implicates nucleophilic participation by the C2-hydroxyl. Collectively, these data substantiate this unprecedented and long-imagined enzymatic mechanism.
ESTHER : Sobala_2020_ACS.Cent.Sci_6_760
PubMedSearch : Sobala_2020_ACS.Cent.Sci_6_760
PubMedID: 32490192

Title : Integration of lipidomic and transcriptomic profiles reveals novel genes and regulatory mechanisms of Schizochytrium sp. in response to salt stress - Jiang_2019_Bioresour.Technol_294_122231
Author(s) : Jiang JY , Zhu S , Zhang Y , Sun X , Hu X , Huang H , Ren LJ
Ref : Bioresour Technol , 294 :122231 , 2019
Abstract : In this study, the effects of salt stress on the physiological, lipidomic and transcriptomic profiles of halophilic microalga Schizochytrium sp. were investigated. In general, Schizochytrium sp. could survive under high osmotic fermentation medium containing 30g/L NaCl, and showed a significant increase in C14:0 percentage in total fatty acids. In lipidomic analysis, C14:0 was specifically enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC), and membrane phospholipids participated in the salt stress response mostly. Specially, one novel signal lipid N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) (18:0/20:3/14:0) was upregulated significantly. Transcriptomic analysis revealed glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and phospholipase ABHD3 (PLABDH3) were involved in C14:0 metabolism and NAPE biosynthesis. Signalling pathways they mediated were activated as evident by high expression level of Myristoyl-CoA: protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) and NAPE-hydrolyzing PLD (NAPE-PLD). This study gives us an insight in specific responses to salt stress in Schizochytrium sp. and provides a considerable proportion of novel genes that could commendably be used for engineering modification.
ESTHER : Jiang_2019_Bioresour.Technol_294_122231
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2019_Bioresour.Technol_294_122231
PubMedID: 31606596

Title : Structural and functional characterization of polyethylene terephthalate hydrolase from Ideonella sakaiensis - Liu_2019_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_508_289
Author(s) : Liu C , Shi C , Zhu S , Wei R , Yin CC
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 508 :289 , 2019
Abstract : Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) hydrolase from Ideonella sakaiensis (IsPETase) can be used to degrade PET. In order to use IsPETase in industry, we studied the enzymatic activity of IsPETase in different conditions containing environmental and physicochemical factors commonly found in nature. We observed that salts and glycerol enhanced the enzymatic activity, while detergents and organic solvents reduced the enzymatic activity. IsPETase hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters instead of naphthyl esters. To make IsPETase an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing naphthyl esters, site-directed mutagenesis was carried out based on the structural information provided by the crystal structure. We found that the IsPETase(S93M), IsPETase(W159F), and IsPETase(N241F) mutants can hydrolyze naphthyl esters. IsPETase engineering can direct researchers to use this alpha/beta-hydrolase protein scaffold to design enzymes that can hydrolyze a variety of polyesters.
ESTHER : Liu_2019_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_508_289
PubMedSearch : Liu_2019_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_508_289
PubMedID: 30502092
Gene_locus related to this paper: idesa-peth

Title : Structure of a human synaptic GABAA receptor - Zhu_2018_Nature_559_67
Author(s) : Zhu S , Noviello CM , Teng J , Walsh RM, Jr. , Kim JJ , Hibbs RE
Ref : Nature , 559 :67 , 2018
Abstract : Fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain is principally mediated by the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and its synaptic target, the type A GABA receptor (GABAA receptor). Dysfunction of this receptor results in neurological disorders and mental illnesses including epilepsy, anxiety and insomnia. The GABAA receptor is also a prolific target for therapeutic, illicit and recreational drugs, including benzodiazepines, barbiturates, anaesthetics and ethanol. Here we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the human alpha1beta2gamma2 GABAA receptor, the predominant isoform in the adult brain, in complex with GABA and the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil, the first-line clinical treatment for benzodiazepine overdose. The receptor architecture reveals unique heteromeric interactions for this important class of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor. This work provides a template for understanding receptor modulation by GABA and benzodiazepines, and will assist rational approaches to therapeutic targeting of this receptor for neurological disorders and mental illness.
ESTHER : Zhu_2018_Nature_559_67
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2018_Nature_559_67
PubMedID: 29950725

Title : Three-dimensional visualization of the functional fascicular groups of a long-segment peripheral nerve - Qi_2018_Neural.Regen.Res_13_1465
Author(s) : Qi J , Wang WY , Zhong YC , Zhou JM , Luo P , Tang P , He CF , Zhu S , Liu XL , Zhang Y
Ref : Neural Regen Res , 13 :1465 , 2018
Abstract : The three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the functional bundles in the peripheral nerve provides direct and detailed intraneural spatial information. It is useful for selecting suitable surgical methods to repair nerve defects and in optimizing the construction of tissue-engineered nerve grafts. However, there remain major technical hurdles in obtaining, registering and interpreting 2D images, as well as in establishing 3D models. Moreover, the 3D models are plagued by poor accuracy and lack of detail and cannot completely reflect the stereoscopic microstructure inside the nerve. To explore and help resolve these key technical problems of 3D reconstruction, in the present study, we designed a novel method based on re-imaging techniques and computer image layer processing technology. A 20-cm ulnar nerve segment from the upper arm of a fresh adult cadaver was used for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining. Then, 2D panoramic images were obtained before and after AChE staining under the stereomicroscope. Using layer processing techniques in Photoshop, a space transformation method was used to fulfill automatic registration. The contours were outlined, and the 3D rendering of functional fascicular groups in the long-segment ulnar nerve was performed with Amira 4.1 software. The re-imaging technique based on layer processing in Photoshop produced an image that was detailed and accurate. The merging of images was accurate, and the whole procedure was simple and fast. The least square support vector machine was accurate, with an error rate of only 8.25%. The 3D reconstruction directly revealed changes in the fusion of different nerve functional fascicular groups. IN CONCLUSION: The technique is fast with satisfactory visual reconstruction.
ESTHER : Qi_2018_Neural.Regen.Res_13_1465
PubMedSearch : Qi_2018_Neural.Regen.Res_13_1465
PubMedID: 30106060

Title : Dynamic kinetic resolution of Vince lactam catalyzed by gamma-lactamases: a mini-review - Zhu_2018_J.Ind.Microbiol.Biotechnol_45_1017
Author(s) : Zhu S , Zheng G
Ref : J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol , 45 :1017 , 2018
Abstract : gamma-Lactamases are versatile enzymes used for enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic Vince lactam (2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one) in the industry. Optically pure enantiomers and their hydrolytic products are widely employed as key chemical intermediates for developing a wide range of carbocyclic nucleoside medicines, including US FDA-approved drugs peramivir and abacavir. Owing to the broad applications in the healthcare industry, the resolution process of Vince lactam has witnessed tremendous progress during the past decades. Some of the most important advances are the enzymatic strategies involving gamma-lactamases. The strong industrial demand drives the progress in various strategies for discovering novel biocatalysts. In the past few years, several new scientific breakthroughs, including the genome-mining strategy and elucidation of several crystal structures, boosted the research on gamma-lactamases. So far, several families of gamma-lactamases for resolution of Vince lactam have been discovered, and their number is continuously increasing. The purpose of this mini-review is to describe the discovery strategy and classification of these intriguing enzymes and to cover our current knowledge on their potential biological functions. Moreover, structural properties are described in addition to their possible catalytic mechanisms. Additionally, recent advances in the newest approaches, such as immobilization to increase stability, and other engineering efforts are introduced.
ESTHER : Zhu_2018_J.Ind.Microbiol.Biotechnol_45_1017
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2018_J.Ind.Microbiol.Biotechnol_45_1017
PubMedID: 30353294

Title : Genome assembly with in vitro proximity ligation data and whole-genome triplication in lettuce - Reyes-Chin-Wo_2017_Nat.Commun_8_14953
Author(s) : Reyes-Chin-Wo S , Wang Z , Yang X , Kozik A , Arikit S , Song C , Xia L , Froenicke L , Lavelle DO , Truco MJ , Xia R , Zhu S , Xu C , Xu H , Xu X , Cox K , Korf I , Meyers BC , Michelmore RW
Ref : Nat Commun , 8 :14953 , 2017
Abstract : Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a major crop and a member of the large, highly successful Compositae family of flowering plants. Here we present a reference assembly for the species and family. This was generated using whole-genome shotgun Illumina reads plus in vitro proximity ligation data to create large superscaffolds; it was validated genetically and superscaffolds were oriented in genetic bins ordered along nine chromosomal pseudomolecules. We identify several genomic features that may have contributed to the success of the family, including genes encoding Cycloidea-like transcription factors, kinases, enzymes involved in rubber biosynthesis and disease resistance proteins that are expanded in the genome. We characterize 21 novel microRNAs, one of which may trigger phasiRNAs from numerous kinase transcripts. We provide evidence for a whole-genome triplication event specific but basal to the Compositae. We detect 26% of the genome in triplicated regions containing 30% of all genes that are enriched for regulatory sequences and depleted for genes involved in defence.
ESTHER : Reyes-Chin-Wo_2017_Nat.Commun_8_14953
PubMedSearch : Reyes-Chin-Wo_2017_Nat.Commun_8_14953
PubMedID: 28401891
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacsa-a0a2j6jnd3 , lacsa-a0a2j6l6y4 , lacsa-a0a2j6mjs5 , lacsa-a0a2j6mk82 , lacsa-a0a2j6k5z4 , lacsa-a0a2j6mk08 , lacsa-a0a2j6mhc5 , lacsa-a0a2j6m8d0 , lacsa-a0a2j6mdb6 , lacsa-a0a2j6mdh6 , lacsa-a0a2j6jnf0 , lacsa-a0a2j6mji4 , lacsa-a0a2j6ke81 , lacsa-a0a2j6jip3 , lacsa-a0a2j6jir5 , lacsa-a0a2j6ksa7 , lacsa-a0a2j6l4a3

Title : Identification of the key amino acid sites of the carbendazim hydrolase (MheI) from a novel carbendazim-degrading strain Mycobacterium sp. SD-4 - Zhang_2017_J.Hazard.Mater_331_55
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Wang H , Wang X , Hu B , Zhang C , Jin W , Zhu S , Hu G , Hong Q
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 331 :55 , 2017
Abstract : A novel carbendazim (methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate, or MBC) degrading strain SD-4 was isolated and identified preliminarily as Mycobacterium sp. according to its phenotypic features and phylogenetic analysis. This strain could utilize MBC as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and degrade 50mgL(-1) MBC at the average degradation rate of 0.63mgL(-1)h(-1). Strain SD-4 degraded MBC through the typical pathway, in which MBC was first hydrolyzed by MheI to 2-aminobenzimidazole (2-AB) and then converted to 2-hydroxybenzimidazole (2-HB). The MBC hydrolase encoding gene mheI was cloned from strain SD-4 and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli by codon optimization. The sulfhydryl-blocking assay revealed that the activity of MheI was closely related to cysteine, and the site-directed mutation experiment showed that Cys16 and Cys222 played important roles during the hydrolysis of MBC by MheI. Therefore they affected its activity directly and were defined as the key amino acid sites.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_J.Hazard.Mater_331_55
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_J.Hazard.Mater_331_55
PubMedID: 28242529
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9acto-c8cp46

Title : Synergistic toxicity of zno nanoparticles and dimethoate in mice: Enhancing their biodistribution by synergistic binding of serum albumin and dimethoate to zno nanoparticles - Yan_2017_Environ.Toxicol_32_1202
Author(s) : Yan X , Xu X , Guo M , Wang S , Gao S , Zhu S , Rong R
Ref : Environ Toxicol , 32 :1202 , 2017
Abstract : The extensive applications of ZnO nanoparticles (nano ZnO) and dimethoate (DM) have increased the risk of humans' co-exposure to nano ZnO and DM. Here, we report the synergistic effect of nano ZnO and DM on their biodistribution and subacute toxicity in mice. Nano ZnO and DM had a synergistic toxicity in mice. In contrast, bulk ZnO and DM did not cause an obvious synergistic toxicity in mice. Although nano ZnO was low toxic to mice, coexposure to nano ZnO and DM significantly enhanced DM-induced oxidative damage in the liver. Coadministration of nano ZnO with DM significantly increased Zn accumulation by 30.9 +/- 1.9% and DM accumulation by 45.6 +/- 2.2% in the liver, respectively. The increased accumulations of DM and Zn in the liver reduced its cholinesterase activity from 5.65 +/- 0.32 to 4.37 +/- 0.49 U/mg protein and induced hepatic oxidative stress. Nano ZnO had 3-fold or 2.4-fold higher binding capability for serum albumin or DM, respectively, than bulk ZnO. In addition, serum albumin significantly increased the binding capability of nano ZnO for DM by approximately four times via the interaction of serum albumin and DM. The uptake of serum albumin- and DM-bound nano ZnO by the macrophages significantly increased DM accumulation in mice. Serum albumins play an important role in the synergistic toxicity of nano ZnO and DM. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1202-1212, 2017.
ESTHER : Yan_2017_Environ.Toxicol_32_1202
PubMedSearch : Yan_2017_Environ.Toxicol_32_1202
PubMedID: 27441385

Title : Degradation of methomyl by the combination of Aminobacter sp. MDW-2 and Afipia sp. MDW-3 - Zhang_2017_Lett.Appl.Microbiol_64_289
Author(s) : Zhang C , Yang Z , Jin W , Wang X , Zhang Y , Zhu S , Yu X , Hu G , Hong Q
Ref : Lett Appl Microbiol , 64 :289 , 2017
Abstract : Methomyl (S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate) is a kind of oxime carbamate insecticide. It is considered to be extremely toxic to nontarget organism. To date, no pure culture or consortium has been reported to have the ability to degrade methomyl completely. In this study, a methomyl-degrading enrichment E1 was obtained by using the sludge from the wastewater-treating system of a pesticide manufacturer as the original inoculant. Two bacterial strains named MDW-2 and MDW-3 were isolated from this enrichment, and they were preliminarily identified as Aminobacter sp. and Afipia sp. respectively. Strains MDW-2 and MDW-3 could coexist and degrade 50smgsl(-1) methomyl completely within 3sdays by the cooperative metabolism. Methomyl was first converted to methomyl oxime and methylcarbamic acid by strain MDW-2, and the latter could be used as the carbon source for the growth of strain MDW-2. But methomyl oxime could not be sequentially degraded by strain MDW-2. However, it could be degraded and used as the carbon source by strain MDW-3. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study presents a bacterial combination of Aminobacter sp. MDW-2 and Afipia sp. MDW-3, which could degrade methomyl completely by biochemical cooperation. This study also proposes the biodegradation pathway of methomyl for the first time and highlights the application potential of a bacterial combination in the remediation of methomyl-contaminated environments.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Lett.Appl.Microbiol_64_289
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Lett.Appl.Microbiol_64_289
PubMedID: 28083911

Title : Structure and Mechanism of the Sphingopyxin I Lasso Peptide Isopeptidase - Fage_2016_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl_55_12717
Author(s) : Fage CD , Hegemann JD , Nebel AJ , Steinbach RM , Zhu S , Linne U , Harms K , Bange G , Marahiel MA
Ref : Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , 55 :12717 , 2016
Abstract : Lasso peptides are natural products that assume a unique lariat knot topology. Lasso peptide isopeptidases (IsoPs) eliminate this topology through isopeptide bond cleavage. To probe how these enzymes distinguish between substrates and hydrolyze only isopeptide bonds, we examined the structure and mechanism of a previously uncharacterized IsoP from the proteobacterium Sphingopyxis alaskensis RB2256 (SpI-IsoP). We demonstrate that SpI-IsoP efficiently and specifically linearizes the lasso peptide sphingopyxin I (SpI) and variants thereof. We also present crystal structures of SpI and SpI-IsoP, revealing a threaded topology for the former and a prolyl oligopeptidase (POP)-like fold for the latter. Subsequent structure-guided mutational analysis allowed us to propose roles for active-site residues. Our study sheds light on lasso peptide catabolism and expands the engineering potential of these fascinating molecules.
ESTHER : Fage_2016_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl_55_12717
PubMedSearch : Fage_2016_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl_55_12717
PubMedID: 27611791
Gene_locus related to this paper: sphal-q1gq33

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. B7740, a Carotenoid-Producing Bacterium Isolated from the Arctic Sea - Zhang_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00333
Author(s) : Zhang D , Li L , Zhu S , Zhang N , Yang J , Ma X , Chen J
Ref : Genome Announc , 3 : , 2015
Abstract : Rhodococcus sp. B7740 was isolated from Arctic seawater and selected for its capacity to synthesize carotenoids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Rhodococcus sp. B7740 to provide the genetic basis for a better understanding of its carotenoid-accumulating capabilities, and we describe the major features of the genome.
ESTHER : Zhang_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00333
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00333
PubMedID: 25931596
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9noca-a0a0d5a5c6 , 9noca-a0a0d5abf5 , 9noca-a0a0d5ae28 , 9noca-a0a0d5ahw4

Title : Genome sequence of cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum TM-1) provides insights into genome evolution - Li_2015_Nat.Biotechnol_33_524
Author(s) : Li F , Fan G , Lu C , Xiao G , Zou C , Kohel RJ , Ma Z , Shang H , Ma X , Wu J , Liang X , Huang G , Percy RG , Liu K , Yang W , Chen W , Du X , Shi C , Yuan Y , Ye W , Liu X , Zhang X , Liu W , Wei H , Wei S , Zhu S , Zhang H , Sun F , Wang X , Liang J , Wang J , He Q , Huang L , Cui J , Song G , Wang K , Xu X , Yu JZ , Zhu Y , Yu S
Ref : Nat Biotechnol , 33 :524 , 2015
Abstract : Gossypium hirsutum has proven difficult to sequence owing to its complex allotetraploid (AtDt) genome. Here we produce a draft genome using 181-fold paired-end sequences assisted by fivefold BAC-to-BAC sequences and a high-resolution genetic map. In our assembly 88.5% of the 2,173-Mb scaffolds, which cover 89.6% approximately 96.7% of the AtDt genome, are anchored and oriented to 26 pseudochromosomes. Comparison of this G. hirsutum AtDt genome with the already sequenced diploid Gossypium arboreum (AA) and Gossypium raimondii (DD) genomes revealed conserved gene order. Repeated sequences account for 67.2% of the AtDt genome, and transposable elements (TEs) originating from Dt seem more active than from At. Reduction in the AtDt genome size occurred after allopolyploidization. The A or At genome may have undergone positive selection for fiber traits. Concerted evolution of different regulatory mechanisms for Cellulose synthase (CesA) and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase1 and 3 (ACO1,3) may be important for enhanced fiber production in G. hirsutum.
ESTHER : Li_2015_Nat.Biotechnol_33_524
PubMedSearch : Li_2015_Nat.Biotechnol_33_524
PubMedID: 25893780
Gene_locus related to this paper: gosra-a0a0d2rxs2 , gosra-a0a0d2tng2 , gosra-a0a0d2twz7 , goshi-a0a1u8hr03 , gosra-a0a0d2vdc5 , goshi-a0a1u8ljh5 , gosra-a0a0d2vj24 , goshi-a0a1u8pxd3 , gosra-a0a0d2sr31 , goshi-a0a1u8knd1 , goshi-a0a1u8nhw9 , goshi-a0a1u8mt09 , goshi-a0a1u8kis4 , goshi-a0a1u8ibk3 , goshi-a0a1u8ieg2 , goshi-a0a1u8iki6 , goshi-a0a1u8jvp4 , goshi-a0a1u8jw35 , gosra-a0a0d2pzd7 , goshi-a0a1u8ied7

Title : Effects of ZnO Nanoparticles on Dimethoate-Induced Toxicity in Mice - Yan_2015_J.Agric.Food.Chem_63_8292
Author(s) : Yan X , Rong R , Zhu S , Guo M , Gao S , Wang S , Xu X
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 63 :8292 , 2015
Abstract : The extensive applications of ZnO nanoparticles (nano ZnO) and dimethoate have increased the risk of people's coexposure to nano ZnO and dimethoate. Therefore, we evaluated in this study the effects of nano or bulk ZnO on dimethoate-induced toxicity in mice. The serum biochemical parameters, biodistributions, oxidative stress responses, and histopathological changes in mice were measured after intragastric administration of nano or bulk ZnO and/or dimethoate for 14 days. Oral administration of nano or bulk ZnO at a dose of 50 mg/kg did not cause obvious injury in mice. In contrast, oral administration of dimethoate at a dose of 15 mg/kg induced observable oxidative damage in mice. Co-administration of nano or bulk ZnO with dimethoate significantly increased Zn accumulation by 30.7 +/- 1.7% or 29.7 +/- 2.4% and dimethoate accumulation by 42.8 +/- 2.1% or 46.6 +/- 2.9% in the liver, respectively. The increased accumulations of dimethoate and Zn in the liver reduced its cholinesterase activity from 5.64 +/- 0.45 U/mg protein to 4.67 +/- 0.42 U/mg protein or 4.76 +/- 0.45 U/mg protein for nano or bulk ZnO, respectively. Furthermore, the accumulations of dimethoate and Zn in liver also increased hepatic oxidative stress, resulting in severe liver damage. Both nano and bulk ZnO dissolved quickly in acidic gastric fluid, regardless of particle size; therefore, they had nearly identical enhanced effects on dimethoate-induced toxicity in mice.
ESTHER : Yan_2015_J.Agric.Food.Chem_63_8292
PubMedSearch : Yan_2015_J.Agric.Food.Chem_63_8292
PubMedID: 26335275

Title : Enzymatic preparation of optically pure (+)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one by (-)-gamma-lactamase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6 - Zhu_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_24_4899
Author(s) : Zhu S , Ren L , Yu S , Gong C , Song D , Zheng G
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 24 :4899 , 2014
Abstract : Whole cells of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6 showed both (+)-gamma-lactamase activity and (-)-gamma-lactamase activity. Insight into the genome of B. japonicum USDA 6 revealed two potential gamma-lactamases: a type I (+)-gamma-lactamase and a (-)-gamma-lactamase, making it the first strain to contain two totally different enantioselective lactamases. Both recombinant enzymes could easily be used to prepare either optically pure (+)-gamma-lactam ((+)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one) or optically pure (-)-gamma-lactam ((-)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one), which are versatile synthetic building blocks for the synthesis of various carbocyclic nucleosides and carbocyclic sugar analogues. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the type I (+)-gamma-lactamase belongs to the amidase signature family, with 504 amino acids; the (-)-gamma-lactamase, which consists of 274 amino acids, belongs to the hydrolase family. Here, we report that B. japonicum USDA contains a (-)-gamma-lactamase in addition to a (+)-gamma-lactamase, and it is the (-)-gamma-lactamase from this strain that is examined in detail in this Letter. Enzymatic synthesis of optically pure (+)-gamma-lactam with nearly 50% isolated yield and >99% ee was achieved.
ESTHER : Zhu_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_24_4899
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_24_4899
PubMedID: 25240615
Gene_locus related to this paper: brajp-BAL06612

Title : Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated structured lipids by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate with castor oil - Sun_2014_Food.Chem_158_292
Author(s) : Sun S , Zhu S , Bi Y
Ref : Food Chem , 158 :292 , 2014
Abstract : A novel enzymatic route of feruloylated structured lipids synthesis by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with castor oil, in solvent-free system, was investigated. The transesterification reactions were catalysed by Novozym 435, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme TLIM, among which Novozym 435 showed the best catalysis performance. Effects of feruloyl donors, reaction variables, and ethanol removal on the transesterification were also studied. High EF conversion (~100%) was obtained under the following conditions: enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates), reaction temperature 90 degreeC, substrate molar ratio 1:1 (EF/castor oil), 72 h, vacuum pressure 10 mmHg, and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the transesterification product consisted of 62.6% lipophilic feruloylated structured lipids and 37.3% hydrophilic feruloylated lipids.
ESTHER : Sun_2014_Food.Chem_158_292
PubMedSearch : Sun_2014_Food.Chem_158_292
PubMedID: 24731344

Title : Sequencing the genome of Marssonina brunnea reveals fungus-poplar co-evolution - Zhu_2012_BMC.Genomics_13_382
Author(s) : Zhu S , Cao YZ , Jiang C , Tan BY , Wang Z , Feng S , Zhang L , Su XH , Brejova B , Vinar T , Xu M , Wang MX , Zhang SG , Huang MR , Wu R , Zhou Y
Ref : BMC Genomics , 13 :382 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The fungus Marssonina brunnea is a causal pathogen of Marssonina leaf spot that devastates poplar plantations by defoliating susceptible trees before normal fall leaf drop.
RESULTS: We sequence the genome of M. brunnea with a size of 52 Mb assembled into 89 scaffolds, representing the first sequenced Dermateaceae genome. By inoculating this fungus onto a poplar hybrid clone, we investigate how M. brunnea interacts and co-evolves with its host to colonize poplar leaves. While a handful of virulence genes in M. brunnea, mostly from the LysM family, are detected to up-regulate during infection, the poplar down-regulates its resistance genes, such as nucleotide binding site domains and leucine rich repeats, in response to infection. From 10,027 predicted proteins of M. brunnea in a comparison with those from poplar, we identify four poplar transferases that stimulate the host to resist M. brunnea. These transferas-encoding genes may have driven the co-evolution of M. brunnea and Populus during the process of infection and anti-infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results from the draft sequence of the M. brunnea genome provide evidence for genome-genome interactions that play an important role in poplar-pathogen co-evolution. This knowledge could help to design effective strategies for controlling Marssonina leaf spot in poplar.
ESTHER : Zhu_2012_BMC.Genomics_13_382
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2012_BMC.Genomics_13_382
PubMedID: 22876864
Gene_locus related to this paper: marbu-k1wj37 , marbu-k1xt94 , marbu-k1wdc0 , marbu-k1wht2 , marbu-k1wj82 , marbu-k1wkk6 , marbu-k1wnk8 , marbu-k1wpc4 , marbu-k1wrg1 , marbu-k1wsf4 , marbu-k1wtx1 , marbu-k1x087 , marbu-k1x383 , marbu-k1x3g3 , marbu-k1x464 , marbu-k1x8c9 , marbu-k1xi08 , marbu-k1xzh8 , marbu-k1y283 , marbu-k1x918 , marbu-k1wzc0 , marbu-k1xu92 , marbu-k1xws5 , marbu-k1wxv8

Title : The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads - Wang_2012_Plant.J_72_461
Author(s) : Wang Z , Hobson N , Galindo L , Zhu S , Shi D , McDill J , Yang L , Hawkins S , Neutelings G , Datla R , Lambert G , Galbraith DW , Grassa CJ , Geraldes A , Cronk QC , Cullis C , Dash PK , Kumar PA , Cloutier S , Sharpe AG , Wong GK , Wang J , Deyholos MK
Ref : Plant J , 72 :461 , 2012
Abstract : Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp to 10 kb were sequenced using an Illumina genome analyzer. A de novo assembly, comprised exclusively of deep-coverage (approximately 94x raw, approximately 69x filtered) short-sequence reads (44-100 bp), produced a set of scaffolds with N(50) =694 kb, including contigs with N(50)=20.1 kb. The contig assembly contained 302 Mb of non-redundant sequence representing an estimated 81% genome coverage. Up to 96% of published flax ESTs aligned to the whole-genome shotgun scaffolds. However, comparisons with independently sequenced BACs and fosmids showed some mis-assembly of regions at the genome scale. A total of 43384 protein-coding genes were predicted in the whole-genome shotgun assembly, and up to 93% of published flax ESTs, and 86% of A. thaliana genes aligned to these predicted genes, indicating excellent coverage and accuracy at the gene level. Analysis of the synonymous substitution rates (K(s) ) observed within duplicate gene pairs was consistent with a recent (5-9 MYA) whole-genome duplication in flax. Within the predicted proteome, we observed enrichment of many conserved domains (Pfam-A) that may contribute to the unique properties of this crop, including agglutinin proteins. Together these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species.
ESTHER : Wang_2012_Plant.J_72_461
PubMedSearch : Wang_2012_Plant.J_72_461
PubMedID: 22757964
Gene_locus related to this paper: linus-i6xnh8

Title : Donepezil attenuates hippocampal neuronal damage and cognitive deficits after global cerebral ischemia in gerbils - Min_2012_Neurosci.Lett_510_29
Author(s) : Min D , Mao X , Wu K , Cao Y , Guo F , Zhu S , Xie N , Wang L , Chen T , Shaw C , Cai J
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 510 :29 , 2012
Abstract : Decreased cerebral blood flow causes cognitive impairments and neuronal injury in vascular dementia. In the present study, we reported that donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, improved transient global cerebral ischemia-induced spatial memory impairment in gerbils. Treatment with 5mg/kg of donepezil for 21 consecutive days following a 10-min period of ischemia significantly inhibited delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In Morris water maze test, memory impairment was significantly improved by donepezil treatment. Western blot analysis showed that donepezil treatment prevented reductions in p-CaMKII and p-CREB protein levels in the hippocampus. These results suggest that donepezil attenuates the memory deficit induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and this neuroprotection may be associated with the phosphorylation of CaMKII and CERB in the hippocampus.
ESTHER : Min_2012_Neurosci.Lett_510_29
PubMedSearch : Min_2012_Neurosci.Lett_510_29
PubMedID: 22240104

Title : SAG101 forms a ternary complex with EDS1 and PAD4 and is required for resistance signaling against turnip crinkle virus - Zhu_2011_PLoS.Pathog_7_e1002318
Author(s) : Zhu S , Jeong RD , Venugopal SC , Lapchyk L , Navarre D , Kachroo A , Kachroo P
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 7 :e1002318 , 2011
Abstract : EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 are common regulators of plant immunity against many pathogens. EDS1 interacts with both PAD4 and SAG101 but direct interaction between PAD4 and SAG101 has not been detected, leading to the suggestion that the EDS1-PAD4 and EDS1-SAG101 complexes are distinct. We show that EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 are present in a single complex in planta. While this complex is preferentially nuclear localized, it can be redirected to the cytoplasm in the presence of an extranuclear form of EDS1. PAD4 and SAG101 can in turn, regulate the subcellular localization of EDS1. We also show that the Arabidopsis genome encodes two functionally redundant isoforms of EDS1, either of which can form ternary complexes with PAD4 and SAG101. Simultaneous mutations in both EDS1 isoforms are essential to abrogate resistance (R) protein-mediated defense against turnip crinkle virus (TCV) as well as avrRps4 expressing Pseudomonas syringae. Interestingly, unlike its function as a PAD4 substitute in bacterial resistance, SAG101 is required for R-mediated resistance to TCV, thus implicating a role for the ternary complex in this defense response. However, only EDS1 is required for HRT-mediated HR to TCV, while only PAD4 is required for SA-dependent induction of HRT. Together, these results suggest that EDS1, PAD4 and SAG101 also perform independent functions in HRT-mediated resistance.
ESTHER : Zhu_2011_PLoS.Pathog_7_e1002318
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2011_PLoS.Pathog_7_e1002318
PubMedID: 22072959
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-PAD4 , arath-T17F15.50

Title : Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and salicylic acid act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling - Venugopal_2009_PLoS.Genet_5_e1000545
Author(s) : Venugopal SC , Jeong RD , Mandal MK , Zhu S , Chandra-Shekara AC , Xia Y , Hersh M , Stromberg AJ , Navarre D , Kachroo A , Kachroo P
Ref : PLoS Genet , 5 :e1000545 , 2009
Abstract : Resistance (R) protein-associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non-race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101), and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulfill redundant functions in defense signaling mediated by R proteins, which were thought to function independent of EDS1 and/or SA. Simultaneous mutations in EDS1 and the SA-synthesizing enzyme SID2 compromised hypersensitive response and/or resistance mediated by R proteins that contain coiled coil domains at their N-terminal ends. Furthermore, the expression of R genes and the associated defense signaling induced in response to a reduction in the level of oleic acid were also suppressed by compromising SA biosynthesis in the eds1 mutant background. The functional redundancy with SA was specific to EDS1. Results presented here redefine our understanding of the roles of EDS1 and SA in plant defense.
ESTHER : Venugopal_2009_PLoS.Genet_5_e1000545
PubMedSearch : Venugopal_2009_PLoS.Genet_5_e1000545
PubMedID: 19578402

Title : Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid\/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4 - Brodersen_2006_Plant.J_47_532
Author(s) : Brodersen P , Petersen M , Bjorn Nielsen H , Zhu S , Newman MA , Shokat KM , Rietz S , Parker J , Mundy J
Ref : Plant J , 47 :532 , 2006
Abstract : Arabidopsis MPK4 has been implicated in plant defense regulation because mpk4 knockout plants exhibit constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, but fail to induce jasmonic acid (JA) defense marker genes in response to JA. We show here that mpk4 mutants are also defective in defense gene induction in response to ethylene (ET), and that they are more susceptible than wild-type (WT) to Alternaria brassicicola that induces the ET/JA defense pathway(s). Both SA-repressing and ET/JA-(co)activating functions depend on MPK4 kinase activity and involve the defense regulators EDS1 and PAD4, as mutations in these genes suppress de-repression of the SA pathway and suppress the block of the ET/JA pathway in mpk4. EDS1/PAD4 thus affect SA-ET/JA signal antagonism as activators of SA but as repressors of ET/JA defenses, and MPK4 negatively regulates both of these functions. We also show that the MPK4-EDS1/PAD4 branch of ET defense signaling is independent of the ERF1 transcription factor, and use comparative microarray analysis of ctr1, ctr1/mpk4, mpk4 and WT to show that MPK4 is required for induction of a small subset of ET-regulated genes. The regulation of some, but not all, of these genes involves EDS1 and PAD4.
ESTHER : Brodersen_2006_Plant.J_47_532
PubMedSearch : Brodersen_2006_Plant.J_47_532
PubMedID: 16813576

Title : The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome - Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
Author(s) : Carninci P , Kasukawa T , Katayama S , Gough J , Frith MC , Maeda N , Oyama R , Ravasi T , Lenhard B , Wells C , Kodzius R , Shimokawa K , Bajic VB , Brenner SE , Batalov S , Forrest AR , Zavolan M , Davis MJ , Wilming LG , Aidinis V , Allen JE , Ambesi-Impiombato A , Apweiler R , Aturaliya RN , Bailey TL , Bansal M , Baxter L , Beisel KW , Bersano T , Bono H , Chalk AM , Chiu KP , Choudhary V , Christoffels A , Clutterbuck DR , Crowe ML , Dalla E , Dalrymple BP , de Bono B , Della Gatta G , di Bernardo D , Down T , Engstrom P , Fagiolini M , Faulkner G , Fletcher CF , Fukushima T , Furuno M , Futaki S , Gariboldi M , Georgii-Hemming P , Gingeras TR , Gojobori T , Green RE , Gustincich S , Harbers M , Hayashi Y , Hensch TK , Hirokawa N , Hill D , Huminiecki L , Iacono M , Ikeo K , Iwama A , Ishikawa T , Jakt M , Kanapin A , Katoh M , Kawasawa Y , Kelso J , Kitamura H , Kitano H , Kollias G , Krishnan SP , Kruger A , Kummerfeld SK , Kurochkin IV , Lareau LF , Lazarevic D , Lipovich L , Liu J , Liuni S , McWilliam S , Madan Babu M , Madera M , Marchionni L , Matsuda H , Matsuzawa S , Miki H , Mignone F , Miyake S , Morris K , Mottagui-Tabar S , Mulder N , Nakano N , Nakauchi H , Ng P , Nilsson R , Nishiguchi S , Nishikawa S , Nori F , Ohara O , Okazaki Y , Orlando V , Pang KC , Pavan WJ , Pavesi G , Pesole G , Petrovsky N , Piazza S , Reed J , Reid JF , Ring BZ , Ringwald M , Rost B , Ruan Y , Salzberg SL , Sandelin A , Schneider C , Schonbach C , Sekiguchi K , Semple CA , Seno S , Sessa L , Sheng Y , Shibata Y , Shimada H , Shimada K , Silva D , Sinclair B , Sperling S , Stupka E , Sugiura K , Sultana R , Takenaka Y , Taki K , Tammoja K , Tan SL , Tang S , Taylor MS , Tegner J , Teichmann SA , Ueda HR , van Nimwegen E , Verardo R , Wei CL , Yagi K , Yamanishi H , Zabarovsky E , Zhu S , Zimmer A , Hide W , Bult C , Grimmond SM , Teasdale RD , Liu ET , Brusic V , Quackenbush J , Wahlestedt C , Mattick JS , Hume DA , Kai C , Sasaki D , Tomaru Y , Fukuda S , Kanamori-Katayama M , Suzuki M , Aoki J , Arakawa T , Iida J , Imamura K , Itoh M , Kato T , Kawaji H , Kawagashira N , Kawashima T , Kojima M , Kondo S , Konno H , Nakano K , Ninomiya N , Nishio T , Okada M , Plessy C , Shibata K , Shiraki T , Suzuki S , Tagami M , Waki K , Watahiki A , Okamura-Oho Y , Suzuki H , Kawai J , Hayashizaki Y
Ref : Science , 309 :1559 , 2005
Abstract : This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.
ESTHER : Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
PubMedSearch : Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
PubMedID: 16141072
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-abhd1 , mouse-abhd3 , mouse-abhd4 , mouse-acot4 , mouse-adcl4 , mouse-DGLB , mouse-ephx3 , mouse-Kansl3 , mouse-lipli , mouse-LIPN , mouse-Ppgb , mouse-q3uuq7 , mouse-srac1 , mouse-Tex30 , mouse-tmco4 , mouse-tmm53 , mouse-f172a

Title : Purification and cloning of cysteine-rich proteins from Trimeresurus jerdonii and Naja atra venoms - Jin_2003_Toxicon_42_539
Author(s) : Jin Y , Lu Q , Zhou X , Zhu S , Li R , Wang W , Xiong Y
Ref : Toxicon , 42 :539 , 2003
Abstract : Three 26 kDa proteins, named as TJ-CRVP, NA-CRVP1 and NA-CRVP2, were isolated from the venoms of Trimeresurus jerdonii and Naja atra, respectively. The N-terminal sequences of TJ-CRVP and NA-CRVPs were determined. These components were devoid of the enzymatic activities tested, such as phospholipase A(2), arginine esterase, proteolysis, L-amino acid oxidase, 5'nucleotidase, acetylcholinesterase. Furthermore, these three components did not have the following biological activities: coagulant and anticoagulant activities, lethal activity, myotoxicity, hemorrhagic activity, platelet aggregation and platelet aggregation-inhibiting activities. These proteins are named as cysteine-rich venom protein (CRVP) because their sequences showed high level of similarity with mammalian cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family. Recently, some CRISP-like proteins were also isolated from several different snake venoms, including Agkistrodon blomhoffi, Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Lanticauda semifascita and king cobra. We presumed that CRVP might be a common component in snake venoms. Of particular interest, phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignment showed that NA-CRVP1 and ophanin, both from elapid snakes, share higher similarity with CRVPs from Viperidae snakes.
ESTHER : Jin_2003_Toxicon_42_539
PubMedSearch : Jin_2003_Toxicon_42_539
PubMedID: 14529736

Title : The sequence of the human genome - Venter_2001_Science_291_1304
Author(s) : Venter JC , Adams MD , Myers EW , Li PW , Mural RJ , Sutton GG , Smith HO , Yandell M , Evans CA , Holt RA , Gocayne JD , Amanatides P , Ballew RM , Huson DH , Wortman JR , Zhang Q , Kodira CD , Zheng XH , Chen L , Skupski M , Subramanian G , Thomas PD , Zhang J , Gabor Miklos GL , Nelson C , Broder S , Clark AG , Nadeau J , McKusick VA , Zinder N , Levine AJ , Roberts RJ , Simon M , Slayman C , Hunkapiller M , Bolanos R , Delcher A , Dew I , Fasulo D , Flanigan M , Florea L , Halpern A , Hannenhalli S , Kravitz S , Levy S , Mobarry C , Reinert K , Remington K , Abu-Threideh J , Beasley E , Biddick K , Bonazzi V , Brandon R , Cargill M , Chandramouliswaran I , Charlab R , Chaturvedi K , Deng Z , Di Francesco V , Dunn P , Eilbeck K , Evangelista C , Gabrielian AE , Gan W , Ge W , Gong F , Gu Z , Guan P , Heiman TJ , Higgins ME , Ji RR , Ke Z , Ketchum KA , Lai Z , Lei Y , Li Z , Li J , Liang Y , Lin X , Lu F , Merkulov GV , Milshina N , Moore HM , Naik AK , Narayan VA , Neelam B , Nusskern D , Rusch DB , Salzberg S , Shao W , Shue B , Sun J , Wang Z , Wang A , Wang X , Wang J , Wei M , Wides R , Xiao C , Yan C , Yao A , Ye J , Zhan M , Zhang W , Zhang H , Zhao Q , Zheng L , Zhong F , Zhong W , Zhu S , Zhao S , Gilbert D , Baumhueter S , Spier G , Carter C , Cravchik A , Woodage T , Ali F , An H , Awe A , Baldwin D , Baden H , Barnstead M , Barrow I , Beeson K , Busam D , Carver A , Center A , Cheng ML , Curry L , Danaher S , Davenport L , Desilets R , Dietz S , Dodson K , Doup L , Ferriera S , Garg N , Gluecksmann A , Hart B , Haynes J , Haynes C , Heiner C , Hladun S , Hostin D , Houck J , Howland T , Ibegwam C , Johnson J , Kalush F , Kline L , Koduru S , Love A , Mann F , May D , McCawley S , McIntosh T , McMullen I , Moy M , Moy L , Murphy B , Nelson K , Pfannkoch C , Pratts E , Puri V , Qureshi H , Reardon M , Rodriguez R , Rogers YH , Romblad D , Ruhfel B , Scott R , Sitter C , Smallwood M , Stewart E , Strong R , Suh E , Thomas R , Tint NN , Tse S , Vech C , Wang G , Wetter J , Williams S , Williams M , Windsor S , Winn-Deen E , Wolfe K , Zaveri J , Zaveri K , Abril JF , Guigo R , Campbell MJ , Sjolander KV , Karlak B , Kejariwal A , Mi H , Lazareva B , Hatton T , Narechania A , Diemer K , Muruganujan A , Guo N , Sato S , Bafna V , Istrail S , Lippert R , Schwartz R , Walenz B , Yooseph S , Allen D , Basu A , Baxendale J , Blick L , Caminha M , Carnes-Stine J , Caulk P , Chiang YH , Coyne M , Dahlke C , Mays A , Dombroski M , Donnelly M , Ely D , Esparham S , Fosler C , Gire H , Glanowski S , Glasser K , Glodek A , Gorokhov M , Graham K , Gropman B , Harris M , Heil J , Henderson S , Hoover J , Jennings D , Jordan C , Jordan J , Kasha J , Kagan L , Kraft C , Levitsky A , Lewis M , Liu X , Lopez J , Ma D , Majoros W , McDaniel J , Murphy S , Newman M , Nguyen T , Nguyen N , Nodell M , Pan S , Peck J , Peterson M , Rowe W , Sanders R , Scott J , Simpson M , Smith T , Sprague A , Stockwell T , Turner R , Venter E , Wang M , Wen M , Wu D , Wu M , Xia A , Zandieh A , Zhu X
Ref : Science , 291 :1304 , 2001
Abstract : A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.
ESTHER : Venter_2001_Science_291_1304
PubMedSearch : Venter_2001_Science_291_1304
PubMedID: 11181995
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-AADAC , human-ABHD1 , human-ABHD10 , human-ABHD11 , human-ACHE , human-BCHE , human-LDAH , human-ABHD18 , human-CMBL , human-ABHD17A , human-KANSL3 , human-LIPA , human-LYPLAL1 , human-NDRG2 , human-NLGN3 , human-NLGN4X , human-NLGN4Y , human-PAFAH2 , human-PREPL , human-RBBP9 , human-SPG21

Title : The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster - Adams_2000_Science_287_2185
Author(s) : Adams MD , Celniker SE , Holt RA , Evans CA , Gocayne JD , Amanatides PG , Scherer SE , Li PW , Hoskins RA , Galle RF , George RA , Lewis SE , Richards S , Ashburner M , Henderson SN , Sutton GG , Wortman JR , Yandell MD , Zhang Q , Chen LX , Brandon RC , Rogers YH , Blazej RG , Champe M , Pfeiffer BD , Wan KH , Doyle C , Baxter EG , Helt G , Nelson CR , Gabor GL , Abril JF , Agbayani A , An HJ , Andrews-Pfannkoch C , Baldwin D , Ballew RM , Basu A , Baxendale J , Bayraktaroglu L , Beasley EM , Beeson KY , Benos PV , Berman BP , Bhandari D , Bolshakov S , Borkova D , Botchan MR , Bouck J , Brokstein P , Brottier P , Burtis KC , Busam DA , Butler H , Cadieu E , Center A , Chandra I , Cherry JM , Cawley S , Dahlke C , Davenport LB , Davies P , de Pablos B , Delcher A , Deng Z , Mays AD , Dew I , Dietz SM , Dodson K , Doup LE , Downes M , Dugan-Rocha S , Dunkov BC , Dunn P , Durbin KJ , Evangelista CC , Ferraz C , Ferriera S , Fleischmann W , Fosler C , Gabrielian AE , Garg NS , Gelbart WM , Glasser K , Glodek A , Gong F , Gorrell JH , Gu Z , Guan P , Harris M , Harris NL , Harvey D , Heiman TJ , Hernandez JR , Houck J , Hostin D , Houston KA , Howland TJ , Wei MH , Ibegwam C , Jalali M , Kalush F , Karpen GH , Ke Z , Kennison JA , Ketchum KA , Kimmel BE , Kodira CD , Kraft C , Kravitz S , Kulp D , Lai Z , Lasko P , Lei Y , Levitsky AA , Li J , Li Z , Liang Y , Lin X , Liu X , Mattei B , McIntosh TC , McLeod MP , McPherson D , Merkulov G , Milshina NV , Mobarry C , Morris J , Moshrefi A , Mount SM , Moy M , Murphy B , Murphy L , Muzny DM , Nelson DL , Nelson DR , Nelson KA , Nixon K , Nusskern DR , Pacleb JM , Palazzolo M , Pittman GS , Pan S , Pollard J , Puri V , Reese MG , Reinert K , Remington K , Saunders RD , Scheeler F , Shen H , Shue BC , Siden-Kiamos I , Simpson M , Skupski MP , Smith T , Spier E , Spradling AC , Stapleton M , Strong R , Sun E , Svirskas R , Tector C , Turner R , Venter E , Wang AH , Wang X , Wang ZY , Wassarman DA , Weinstock GM , Weissenbach J , Williams SM , WoodageT , Worley KC , Wu D , Yang S , Yao QA , Ye J , Yeh RF , Zaveri JS , Zhan M , Zhang G , Zhao Q , Zheng L , Zheng XH , Zhong FN , Zhong W , Zhou X , Zhu S , Zhu X , Smith HO , Gibbs RA , Myers EW , Rubin GM , Venter JC
Ref : Science , 287 :2185 , 2000
Abstract : The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes approximately 13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity.
ESTHER : Adams_2000_Science_287_2185
PubMedSearch : Adams_2000_Science_287_2185
PubMedID: 10731132
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-1vite , drome-2vite , drome-3vite , drome-a1z6g9 , drome-abhd2 , drome-ACHE , drome-b6idz4 , drome-BEM46 , drome-CG5707 , drome-CG5704 , drome-CG1309 , drome-CG1882 , drome-CG1986 , drome-CG2059 , drome-CG2493 , drome-CG2528 , drome-CG2772 , drome-CG3160 , drome-CG3344 , drome-CG3523 , drome-CG3524 , drome-CG3734 , drome-CG3739 , drome-CG3744 , drome-CG3841 , drome-CG4267 , drome-CG4382 , drome-CG4390 , drome-CG4572 , drome-CG4582 , drome-CG4851 , drome-CG4979 , drome-CG5068 , drome-CG5162 , drome-CG5355 , drome-CG5377 , drome-CG5397 , drome-CG5412 , drome-CG5665 , drome-CG5932 , drome-CG5966 , drome-CG6018 , drome-CG6113 , drome-CG6271 , drome-CG6283 , drome-CG6295 , drome-CG6296 , drome-CG6414 , drome-CG6431 , drome-CG6472 , drome-CG6567 , drome-CG6675 , drome-CG6753 , drome-CG6847 , drome-CG7329 , drome-CG7367 , drome-CG7529 , drome-CG7632 , drome-CG8058 , drome-CG8093 , drome-CG8233 , drome-CG8424 , drome-CG8425 , drome-CG9059 , drome-CG9186 , drome-CG9287 , drome-CG9289 , drome-CG9542 , drome-CG9858 , drome-CG9953 , drome-CG9966 , drome-CG10116 , drome-CG10163 , drome-CG10175 , drome-CG10339 , drome-CG10357 , drome-CG10982 , drome-CG11034 , drome-CG11055 , drome-CG11309 , drome-CG11319 , drome-CG11406 , drome-CG11598 , drome-CG11600 , drome-CG11608 , drome-CG11626 , drome-CG11935 , drome-CG12108 , drome-CG12869 , drome-CG13282 , drome-CG13562 , drome-CG13772 , drome-CG14034 , drome-nlg3 , drome-CG14717 , drome-CG15101 , drome-CG15102 , drome-CG15106 , drome-CG15111 , drome-CG15820 , drome-CG15821 , drome-CG15879 , drome-CG17097 , drome-CG17099 , drome-CG17101 , drome-CG17191 , drome-CG17192 , drome-CG17292 , drome-CG18258 , drome-CG18284 , drome-CG18301 , drome-CG18302 , drome-CG18493 , drome-CG18530 , drome-CG18641 , drome-CG18815 , drome-CG31089 , drome-CG31091 , drome-CG32333 , drome-CG32483 , drome-CG33174 , drome-dnlg1 , drome-este4 , drome-este6 , drome-GH02384 , drome-GH02439 , drome-glita , drome-KRAKEN , drome-lip1 , drome-LIP2 , drome-lip3 , drome-MESK2 , drome-nrtac , drome-OME , drome-q7k274 , drome-Q9VJN0 , drome-Q8IP31 , drome-q9vux3

Title : Rhodamine-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin allows visualization of end plates in congenital end plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency (CEAD) -
Author(s) : Agius MA , Maselli RA , Zhu S , Fairclough RH , Lin MY , Ellis W
Ref : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 841 :207 , 1998
PubMedID: 9668242