Valis M

References (14)

Title : The measured CSF\/plasma donepezil concentration ratio but not individually measured CSF and plasma concentrations significantly increase over 24h after donepezil treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease - Valis_2023_Biomed.Pharmacother_159_114223
Author(s) : Valis M , Dlabkova A , Hort J , Angelucci F , Pejchal J , Kuca K , Pavelek Z , Karasova JZ , Novotny M
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 159 :114223 , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil is administered as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the appropriate donepezil dosage is still a matter of debate. METHODS: Forty AD patients receiving 10smg/day of donepezil were randomly divided into four groups based on the time of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling: 6sh (n = 5), 12sh (n = 12), 18sh (n = 6) and 24sh (n = 17) after donepezil administration. High-performance liquid chromatography measured the donepezil concentration in plasma samples and CSF samples collected at 4-time points. RESULTS: Plasma and CSF levels among the groups were not significantly different. Conversely, the CSF/plasma donepezil concentration ratio considerably increased in the 24sh group compared to the 6sh (ps<s0.005) and 12sh (ps<s0.05) groups. CONCLUSION: The measurement of the CSF/plasma donepezil concentration ratio could be used to better evaluate the optimal dose of donepezil.
ESTHER : Valis_2023_Biomed.Pharmacother_159_114223
PubMedSearch : Valis_2023_Biomed.Pharmacother_159_114223
PubMedID: 36630846

Title : The effect of single and repeated doses of rivastigmine on gastric myoelectric activity in experimental pigs - Tsianou_2023_PLoS.One_18_e0286386
Author(s) : Tsianou CC , Kvetina J , Radochova V , Kohoutova D , Rejchrt S , Valis M , Karasova JZ , Tacheci I , Knoblochova V , Soukup O , Bures J
Ref : PLoS ONE , 18 :e0286386 , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Rivastigmine is a pseudo-irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used for therapy of Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer dementia syndromes. In humans, rivastigmine can cause significant gastrointestinal side effects that can limit its clinical use. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of rivastigmine on gastric motor function by means of electrogastrography (EGG) in experimental pigs. METHODS: Six experimental adult female pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica, hybrids of Czech White and Landrace breeds; 3-month-old; mean weight 30.7 +/- 1.2 kg) were enrolled into the study twice and created two experimental groups. In group A, a single intragastric dose of 6 mg rivastigmine hydrogen tartate was administered in the morning to fasting pigs before EGG recording. In group B, rivastigmine was administered to overnight fasting animals in a dietary bolus in the morning for 7 days (6 mg per day). On day 8, an intragastric dose of 12 mg rivastigmine was given in the morning to fasting pigs before EGG. EGG recording was accomplished by means of an EGG standalone system. Recordings from both groups were evaluated in dominant frequency and EGG power (areas of amplitudes). RESULTS: In total, 1,980 one-minute EGG intervals were evaluated. In group A, basal EGG power (median 1290.5; interquartile range 736.5-2330 microV2) was significantly higher in comparison with the power of intervals T6 (882; 577-1375; p = 0.001) and T10 (992.5; 385-2859; p = 0.032). In group B, the dominant frequency increased significantly from basal values (1.97 +/- 1.57 cycles per minute) to intervals T9 (3.26 +/- 2.16; p < 0.001) and T10 (2.14 +/- 1.16; p = 0.012), respectively. In group B, basal EGG power (median 1030.5; interquartile range 549-5093) was significantly higher in comparison with the power of intervals T7 (692.5; 434-1476; p = 0.002) and T8 (799; 435-1463 microV2; p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Both single as well as repeated intragastric administration of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate caused a significant decrease of EGG power (areas of amplitudes) in experimental pigs. EGG power may serve as an indirect indicator of gastric motor competence. These findings might provide a possible explanation of rivastigmine-associated dyspepsia in humans.
ESTHER : Tsianou_2023_PLoS.One_18_e0286386
PubMedSearch : Tsianou_2023_PLoS.One_18_e0286386
PubMedID: 37262057

Title : Pralidoxime-like reactivator with increased lipophilicity - Molecular modeling and in vitro study - Kuca_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact_14ChEPon_110734
Author(s) : Kuca K , Valle da Silva JA , Nepovimova E , Pham NL , Wu W , Valis M , Wu Q , Franca TCC
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , :110734 , 2023
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) reactivators (2-PAM, trimedoxime, obidoxime, asoxime) have become an integral part of antidotal treatment in cases of nerve agent and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisonings. They are often referred to as specific antidotes due to their ability to restore AChE function when it has been covalently inhibited by an OP compound. Currently available commercial reactivators exhibit limited ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, where reactivation of inhibited AChE is crucial. Consequently, there have been numerous efforts to discover more brain-penetrating AChE reactivators. In this study, we examined a derivative of 2-PAM designed to possess increased lipophilicity. This enhanced lipophilicity was achieved through the incorporation of a benzyl group into its molecular structure. Initially, a molecular modeling study was conducted, followed by a comparison of its reactivation efficacy with that of 2-PAM against 10 different AChE inhibitors in vitro. Unfortunately, this relatively significant structural modification of 2-PAM resulted in a decrease in its reactivation potency. Consequently, this derivative cannot be considered as a broad-spectrum AChE reactivator.
ESTHER : Kuca_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact_14ChEPon_110734
PubMedSearch : Kuca_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact_14ChEPon_110734
PubMedID: 37788753

Title : Privileged multi-target directed propargyl-tacrines combining cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibition activities - Chrienova_2022_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_37_2605
Author(s) : Chrienova Z , Nepovimova E , Andrys R , Dolezal R , Janockova J , Muckova L , Fabova L , Soukup O , Oleksak P , Valis M , Korabecny J , Marco-Contelles J , Kuca K
Ref : J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem , 37 :2605 , 2022
Abstract : Twenty-four novel compounds bearing tetrahydroacridine and N-propargyl moieties have been designed, synthesised, and evaluated in vitro for their anti-cholinesterase and anti-monoamine oxidase activities. Propargyltacrine 23 (IC(50) = 21 nM) was the most potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, compound 20 (IC(50) = 78 nM) showed the best inhibitory human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) profile, and ligand 21 afforded equipotent and significant values on both ChEs (human AChE [hAChE]: IC(50) = 0.095 +/- 0.001 microM; hBChE: IC(50) = 0.093 +/- 0.003 microM). Regarding MAO inhibition, compounds 7, 15, and 25 demonstrated the highest inhibitory potential towards hMAO-B (IC(50) = 163, 40, and 170 nM, respectively). In all, compounds 7, 15, 20, 21, 23, and 25 exhibiting the most balanced pharmacological profile, were submitted to permeability and cell viability tests. As a result, 7-phenoxy-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine hydrochloride (15) has been identified as a permeable agent that shows a balanced pharmacological profile [IC(50) (hAChE) = 1.472 +/- 0.024 microM; IC(50) (hBChE) = 0.659 +/- 0.077 microM; IC(50) (hMAO-B) = 40.39 +/- 5.98 nM], and consequently, as a new hit-ligand that deserves further investigation, in particular in vivo analyses, as the preliminary cell viability test results reported here suggest that this is a relatively safe therapeutic agent.
ESTHER : Chrienova_2022_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_37_2605
PubMedSearch : Chrienova_2022_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_37_2605
PubMedID: 36131624

Title : Dextran Sodium Sulphate-Induced Gastrointestinal Injury Further Aggravates the Impact of Galantamine on the Gastric Myoelectric Activity in Experimental Pigs - Bures_2021_Pharmaceuticals.(Basel)_14_
Author(s) : Bures J , Tacheci I , Kvetina J , Radochova V , Kohoutova D , Valis M , Rejchrt S , Knoblochova V , Karasova JZ
Ref : Pharmaceuticals (Basel) , 14 : , 2021
Abstract : Galantamine has been used as a treatment for Alzheimer disease. It has a unique, dual mode of action (inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors). Nausea (in about 20%), vomiting (10%) and diarrhoea (5-7%) are the most common side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of galantamine on porcine gastric myoelectric activity without (Group A) and with (Group B) dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced gastrointestinal injury. Galantamine hydrobromide was administrated to twelve pigs as a single intragastric dose (24 mg). Gastric myoelectric activity was investigated by electrogastrography (EGG). Basal (15 min before galantamine administration) and study recordings after galantamine administration (300 min) were evaluated using a running spectral analysis. Results were expressed as dominant frequency of gastric slow waves and power analysis (areas of amplitudes). Altogether, 3780 one-minute EGG recordings were evaluated. In Group A, power was steady from basal values for 180 min, then gradually decreased till 270 min (p = 0.007). In Group B, there was a rapid gradual fall from basal values to those after 120 min (p = 0.007) till 300 min (p 0.001). In conclusion, galantamine alone revealed an unfavourable effect on porcine myoelectric activity assessed by gastric power. It can be a plausible explanation of galantamine-associated dyspepsia in humans. DSS caused further profound decrease of EGG power. That may indicate that underlying inflammatory, ischaemic or NSAIDs-induced condition of the intestine in humans can have aggravated the effect of galantamine on gastric myoelectric activity.
ESTHER : Bures_2021_Pharmaceuticals.(Basel)_14_
PubMedSearch : Bures_2021_Pharmaceuticals.(Basel)_14_
PubMedID: 34207410

Title : Ligand-Based Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics, and MM-PBSA Calculations towards the Identification of Potential Novel Ricin Inhibitors - Botelho_2020_Toxins.(Basel)_12_
Author(s) : Botelho FD , Dos Santos MC , Goncalves ADS , Kuca K , Valis M , LaPlante SR , Franca TCC , de Almeida J
Ref : Toxins (Basel) , 12 : , 2020
Abstract : Ricin is a toxin found in the castor seeds and listed as a chemical weapon by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) due to its high toxicity combined with the easiness of obtention and lack of available antidotes. The relatively frequent episodes of usage or attempting to use ricin in terrorist attacks reinforce the urge to develop an antidote for this toxin. In this sense, we selected in this work the current RTA (ricin catalytic subunit) inhibitor with the best experimental performance, as a reference molecule for virtual screening in the PubChem database. The selected molecules were then evaluated through docking studies, followed by drug-likeness investigation, molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) calculations. In every step, the selection of molecules was mainly based on their ability to occupy both the active and secondary sites of RTA, which are located right next to each other, but are not simultaneously occupied by the current RTA inhibitors. Results show that the three PubChem compounds 18309602, 18498053, and 136023163 presented better overall results than the reference molecule itself, showing up as new hits for the RTA inhibition, and encouraging further experimental evaluation.
ESTHER : Botelho_2020_Toxins.(Basel)_12_
PubMedSearch : Botelho_2020_Toxins.(Basel)_12_
PubMedID: 33256167

Title : Tacrine - Benzothiazoles: Novel class of potential multitarget anti-Alzheimes drugs dealing with cholinergic, amyloid and mitochondrial systems - Nepovimova_2020_Bioorg.Chem_107_104596
Author(s) : Nepovimova E , Svobodova L , Dolezal R , Hepnarova V , Junova L , Jun D , Korabecny J , Kucera T , Gazova Z , Motykova K , Kubackova J , Bednarikova Z , Janockova J , Jesus C , Cortes L , Pina J , Rostohar D , Serpa C , Soukup O , Aitken L , Hughes RE , Musilek K , Muckova L , Jost P , Chvojkova M , Vales K , Valis M , Chrienova Z , Chalupova K , Kuca K
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 107 :104596 , 2020
Abstract : A series of tacrine - benzothiazole hybrids incorporate inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), amyloid beta (Abeta) aggregation and mitochondrial enzyme ABAD, whose interaction with Abeta leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, into a single molecule. In vitro, several of 25 final compounds exerted excellent anti-AChE properties and interesting capabilities to block Abeta aggregation. The best derivative of the series could be considered 10w that was found to be highly potent and selective towards AChE with the IC(50) value in nanomolar range. Moreover, the same drug candidate exerted absolutely the best results of the series against ABAD, decreasing its activity by 23% at 100 microM concentration. Regarding the cytotoxicity profile of highlighted compound, it roughly matched that of its parent compound - 6-chlorotacrine. Finally, 10w was forwarded for in vivo scopolamine-induced amnesia experiment consisting of Morris Water Maze test, where it demonstrated mild procognitive effect. Taking into account all in vitro and in vivo data, highlighted derivative 10w could be considered as the lead structure worthy of further investigation.
ESTHER : Nepovimova_2020_Bioorg.Chem_107_104596
PubMedSearch : Nepovimova_2020_Bioorg.Chem_107_104596
PubMedID: 33421953

Title : Novel tacrine-tryptophan hybrids: Multi-target directed ligands as potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease - Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
Author(s) : Chalupova K , Korabecny J , Bartolini M , Monti B , Lamba D , Caliandro R , Pesaresi A , Brazzolotto X , Gastellier AJ , Nachon F , Pejchal J , Jarosova M , Hepnarova V , Jun D , Hrabinova M , Dolezal R , Karasova JZ , Mzik M , Kristofikova Z , Misik J , Muckova L , Jost P , Soukup O , Benkova M , Setnicka V , Habartova L , Chvojkova M , Kleteckova L , Vales K , Mezeiova E , Uliassi E , Valis M , Nepovimova E , Bolognesi ML , Kuca K
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 168 :491 , 2019
Abstract : A combination of tacrine and tryptophan led to the development of a new family of heterodimers as multi-target agents with potential to treat Alzheimer's disease. Based on the in vitro biological profile, compound S-K1035 was found to be the most potent inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE), demonstrating balanced IC50 values of 6.3 and 9.1nM, respectively. For all the tacrine-tryptophan heterodimers, favorable inhibitory effect on hAChE as well as on hBChE was coined to the optimal spacer length ranging from five to eight carbon atoms between these two pharmacophores. S-K1035 also showed good ability to inhibit Abeta42 self-aggregation (58.6+/-5.1% at 50muM) as well as hAChE-induced Abeta40 aggregation (48.3+/-6.3% at 100muM). The X-ray crystallographic analysis of TcAChE in complex with S-K1035 pinpointed the utility of the hybridization strategy applied and the structures determined with the two K1035 enantiomers in complex with hBChE could explain the higher inhibition potency of S-K1035. Other in vitro evaluations predicted the ability of S-K1035 to cross blood-brain barrier and to exert a moderate inhibition potency against neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Based on the initial promising biochemical data and a safer in vivo toxicity compared to tacrine, S-K1035 was administered to scopolamine-treated rats being able to dose-dependently revert amnesia.
ESTHER : Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
PubMedSearch : Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
PubMedID: 30851693
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : N-alkylated Tacrine Derivatives as Potential Agents in Alzheimer's Disease Therapy - Nepovimova_2019_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_16_333
Author(s) : Nepovimova E , Korabecny J , Hepnarova V , Jun D , Dolezal R , Muckova L , Jost P , Soukup O , Janockova J , Pham NL , Nguyen TD , Valis M , Kuca K
Ref : Curr Alzheimer Res , 16 :333 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Based on the prevalence studies, the number of people suffering from dementia will almost double every 20 years, to 65.7 million in 2030 and 115.4 million in 2050, assuming no changes in mortality, effective preventative measures, definitive diagnostic guidelines or curative treatment. From the abovementioned epidemiological data, it is obvious that dementia constitutes a major public health problem not only at present, but unfortunately also in the future. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Several N-alkylated tacrine (THA) derivatives have already been synthesized by Pomponi et al., in 1997. However, these compounds were tested for their anti-AChE activity using enzyme isolated from Electrophorus electricus. For this reason, we have decided to extend the previously reported series of THA derivatives and consequently test them in the battery of experiments, the results of which have served to more relevant evaluation of these compounds from the perspective of Alzeimer s disease compared to that published by Pomponi. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In summary, all compounds of interest effectively inhibited ChEs in vitro. One of the most promising derivatives 8 bearing an N-octyl chain showed 2.5-fold higher AChE inhibitory activity in relation to tacrine. With respect to blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, it can be claimed that synthesized analogues are presumably able to cross the BBB. From the point of view of hepatotoxicity, selected Nalkylated tacrine derivatives exerted worse results compared to tacrine. However, in vitro results are only illustrative, therefore, only in vivo experiments could determine the real value of selected N-alkylated THA derivatives.
ESTHER : Nepovimova_2019_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_16_333
PubMedSearch : Nepovimova_2019_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_16_333
PubMedID: 30873921

Title : Molecular Modeling and In Vitro Studies of a Neutral Oxime as a Potential Reactivator for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibited by Paraoxon - de Paula_2018_Molecules_23_
Author(s) : de Paula RL , de Almeida JSFD , Cavalcante SFA , Goncalves AS , Simas ABC , Franca TCC , Valis M , Kuca K , Nepovimova E , Granjeiro JM
Ref : Molecules , 23 : , 2018
Abstract : The present work aimed to compare the small, neutral and monoaromatic oxime, isatin-3-oxime (isatin-O), to the commercial ones, pralidoxime (2-PAM) and obidoxime, in a search for a new potential reactivator for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by the pesticide paraoxon (AChE/POX) as well as a novel potential scaffold for further synthetic modifications. The multicriteria decision methods (MCDM) allowed the identification of the best docking poses of those molecules inside AChE/POX for further molecular dynamic (MD) studies, while Ellman's modified method enabled in vitro inhibition and reactivation assays. In corroboration with the theoretical studies, our experimental results showed that isatin-O have a reactivation potential capable of overcoming 2-PAM at the initial moments of the assay. Despite not achieving better results than obidoxime, this molecule is promising for being an active neutral oxime with capacity of crossing the blood(-)brain barrier (BBB), to reactivate AChE/POX inside the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, the fact that isatin-O can also act as anticonvulsant makes this molecule a possible multipotent reactivator. Besides, the MCDM method showed to be an accurate method for the selection of the best docking poses generated in the docking studies.
ESTHER : de Paula_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedSearch : de Paula_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedID: 30424582

Title : A newly developed oxime K203 is the most effective reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase - Kuca_2018_BMC.Pharmacol.Toxicol_19_8
Author(s) : Kuca K , Musilek K , Jun D , Karasova JZ , Nepovimova E , Soukup O , Hrabinova M , Mikler J , Franca TCC , da Cunha EFF , de Castro AA , Valis M , Ramalho TC
Ref : BMC Pharmacol Toxicol , 19 :8 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Based on in vitro and in vivo rat experiments, the newly developed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator, K203, appears to be much more effective in the treatment of tabun poisonings than currently fielded oximes. METHODS: To determine if this reactivating efficacy would extend to humans, studies were conducted in vitro using human brain homogenate as the source of AChE. The efficacy of K203 was compared with commercially available oximes; pralidoxime, obidoxime and asoxime (HI-6). RESULTS: Reactivation studies showed that K203 was the most effective reactivator with a second order kinetic constant (kr) of 2142 min(- 1). M(- 1), which was 51 times higher than that obtained for obidoxime (kr = 42 min(- 1). M(- 1)). Both pralidoxime and asoxime (HI-6) failed to significantly reactivate tabun-inhibited human AChE. DISCUSSION: According to these results and previous studies, using K203, it appears that oxime K203 is the most effective reactivator of tabun-inhibited cholinesterase in several species including humans and should be considered as a possible medical countermeasure to tabun exposure.
ESTHER : Kuca_2018_BMC.Pharmacol.Toxicol_19_8
PubMedSearch : Kuca_2018_BMC.Pharmacol.Toxicol_19_8
PubMedID: 29467029

Title : Development of small bisquaternary cholinesterase inhibitors as drugs for pre-treatment of nerve agent poisonings - Kuca_2018_Drug.Des.Devel.Ther_12_505
Author(s) : Kuca K , Karasova JZ , Soukup O , Kassa J , Novotna E , Sepsova V , Horova A , Pejchal J , Hrabinova M , Vodakova E , Jun D , Nepovimova E , Valis M , Musilek K
Ref : Drug Des Devel Ther , 12 :505 , 2018
Abstract : Background: Intoxication by nerve agents could be prevented by using small acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (eg, pyridostigmine) for potentially exposed personnel. However, the serious side effects of currently used drugs led to research of novel potent molecules for prophylaxis of organophosphorus intoxication. Methods: The molecular design, molecular docking, chemical synthesis, in vitro methods (enzyme inhibition, cytotoxicity, and nicotinic receptors modulation), and in vivo methods (acute toxicity and prophylactic effect) were used to study bispyridinium, bisquinolinium, bisisoquinolinium, and pyridinium-quinolinium/isoquinolinium molecules presented in this study. Results: The studied molecules showed non-competitive inhibitory ability towards human acetylcholinesterase in vitro that was further confirmed by molecular modelling studies. Several compounds were selected for further studies. First, their cytotoxicity, nicotinic receptors modulation, and acute toxicity (lethal dose for 50% of laboratory animals [LD50]; mice and rats) were tested to evaluate their safety with promising results. Furthermore, their blood levels were measured to select the appropriate time for prophylactic administration. Finally, the protective ratio of selected compounds against soman-induced toxicity was determined when selected compounds were found similarly potent or only slightly better to standard pyridostigmine. Conclusion: The presented small bisquaternary molecules did not show overall benefit in prophylaxis of soman-induced in vivo toxicity.
ESTHER : Kuca_2018_Drug.Des.Devel.Ther_12_505
PubMedSearch : Kuca_2018_Drug.Des.Devel.Ther_12_505
PubMedID: 29563775

Title : Treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementias with psychopharmaceuticals: a review - Masopust_2018_Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat_14_1211
Author(s) : Masopust J , Protopopova D , Valis M , Pavelek Z , Klimova B
Ref : Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat , 14 :1211 , 2018
Abstract : Behavioral and psychological symptoms represent common complications in patients with different types of dementia. Predominantly, they comprise psychosis, agitation and mood disorders, disinhibited behavior, impairment of the sleep and wakefulness rhythm, wandering, perseveration, pathological collecting, or shouting. Their appearance is related to more rapid progression of the disease, earlier institutionalization, use of physical restraints, and higher risk of mortality. Consequently, appearance of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia leads to higher costs of care provided and greater distress for caregivers. Clinical guidelines recommend nonpharmacological approaches as the first choice in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms. Pharmacological therapy should be initiated only if the symptoms were not the result of somatic causes, did not respond to nonpharmacological interventions, or were not caused by the prior medication. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and benzodiazepines are used. This review summarizes the current findings about the efficacy and safety of the treatment of the neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementias with psychopharmaceuticals. Recommendations for treatment with antipsychotics for this indication are described in detail as this drug group is prescribed most often and, at the same time, is related to the highest risk of adverse effects and increased mortality.
ESTHER : Masopust_2018_Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat_14_1211
PubMedSearch : Masopust_2018_Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat_14_1211
PubMedID: 29785112

Title : Effect of donepezil in Alzheimer disease can be measured by a computerized human analog of the Morris water maze - Hort_2014_Neurodegener.Dis_13_192
Author(s) : Hort J , Andel R , Mokrisova I , Gazova I , Amlerova J , Valis M , Coulson EJ , Harrison J , Windisch M , Laczo J
Ref : Neurodegener Dis , 13 :192 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Drug development for Alzheimer disease (AD) is challenged by the success in animal models tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and the subsequent failures to meet primary outcome measures in phase II or III clinical trials in patients. The human variant of MWM (hMWM) enables us to examine allocentric and egocentric navigation as in the MWM. OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of this study to examine the utility of a computerized hMWM to assess the effects of donepezil in mild AD.
METHODS: Donepezil 5 mg/day was started after initial hMWM testing in the treated group (n = 12), and after 28 days, the dose was increased to 10 mg/day. The performance after 3 months was compared to that of a non-treated group (n = 12).
RESULTS: Donepezil stabilized or improved the spatial navigation performance after 3 months, especially in the allocentric delayed recall subtask (p = 0.014).
CONCLUSIONS: The computerized hMWM has the potential to measure the effects of donepezil in mild AD. It is a sensitive cognitive outcome measure in AD clinical trials.
ESTHER : Hort_2014_Neurodegener.Dis_13_192
PubMedSearch : Hort_2014_Neurodegener.Dis_13_192
PubMedID: 24192578