Pesaresi A

References (11)

Title : Disentangling the formation, mechanism, and evolvement of the covalent methanesulfonyl fluoride acetylcholinesterase adduct: Insights into an aged-like inactive complex susceptible to reactivation by a combination of nucleophiles - Stojan_2024_Protein.Sci_33_e4977
Author(s) : Stojan J , Pesaresi A , Meden A , Lamba D
Ref : Protein Science , 33 :e4977 , 2024
Abstract : Chemical warfare nerve agents and pesticides, known as organophosphorus compounds inactivate cholinesterases (ChEs) by phosphorylating the serine hydroxyl group located at the active site of ChEs. Over the course of time, phosphorylation is followed by loss of an organophosphate-leaving group and the bond with ChEs becomes irreversible, a process known as aging. Differently, structurally related irreversible catalytic poisons bearing sulfur instead of phosphorus convert ChEs in its aged form only by covalently binding to the key catalytic serine. Kinetic and crystallographic studies of the interaction between Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) and a small organosulfonate, methanesulfonyl fluoride (MSF), indeed revealed irreversibly methylsulfonylated serine 200, to be isosteric with the bound aged sarin/soman analogues. The potent bulky reversible inhibitor 7-bis-tacrine (BTA) adopts, in the active site of the crystal structure of the MSF-enzyme adduct, a location and an orientation that closely resemble the one being found in the crystal structure of the BTA-enzyme complex. Remarkably, the presence of BTA accelerates the rate of methanesulfonylation by a factor of two. This unexpected result can be explained on the basis of two facts: i) the steric hindrance exerted by BTA to MSF in accessing the active site and ii) the acceleration of the MSF-enzyme adduct formation as a consequence of the lowering of the rotational and translational degrees of freedom in the proximity of the catalytic serine. It is well known that pralidoxime (2-Pyridine Aldoxime Methyl chloride, 2-PAM) alone or in the presence of the substrate acetylcholine cannot reactivate the active site serine of the TcAChE-MSF adduct. We show that the simultaneous presence of 2-PAM and the additional neutral oxime, 2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-l-methylimidazol (2-HAM), triggers the reactivation process of TcAChE within the hour timescale. Overall, our results pave the way toward the likely use of a cocktail of distinctive oximes as a promising recipe for an effective and fast reactivation of aged cholinesterases.
ESTHER : Stojan_2024_Protein.Sci_33_e4977
PubMedSearch : Stojan_2024_Protein.Sci_33_e4977
PubMedID: 38591646

Title : Kinetic Modeling of Time-Dependent Enzyme Inhibition by Pre-Steady-State Analysis of Progress Curves: The Case Study of the Anti-Alzheimer's Drug Galantamine - Lamba_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
Author(s) : Lamba D , Pesaresi A
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 23 : , 2022
Abstract : The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetic assumes the free ligand approximation, the steady-state approximation and the rapid equilibrium approximation. Analytical methods to model slow-binding inhibitors by the analysis of initial velocities have been developed but, due to their inherent complexity, they are seldom employed. In order to circumvent the complications that arise from the violation of the rapid equilibrium assumption, inhibition is commonly evaluated by pre-incubating the enzyme and the inhibitors so that, even for slow inhibitors, the binding equilibrium is established before the reaction is started. Here, we show that for long drug-target residence time inhibitors, the conventional analysis of initial velocities by the linear regression of double-reciprocal plots fails to provide a correct description of the inhibition mechanism. As a case study, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by galantamine, a drug approved for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease, is reported. For over 50 years, analysis based on the conventional steady-state model has overlooked the time-dependent nature of galantamine inhibition, leading to an erroneous assessment of the drug potency and, hence, to discrepancies between biochemical data and the pharmacological evidence. Re-examination of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by pre-steady state analysis of the reaction progress curves showed that the potency of galantamine has indeed been underestimated by a factor of ~100.
ESTHER : Lamba_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
PubMedSearch : Lamba_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
PubMedID: 35563466

Title : Kinetic and structural studies on the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by a series of multitarget-directed galantamine-peptide derivatives - Pesaresi_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__110092
Author(s) : Pesaresi A , Lamba D , Vezenkov L , Tsekova D , Lozanov V
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , :110092 , 2022
Abstract : Complex neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, are one of the major therapeutic areas to which multitarget drug discovery strategies have been applied in the last twenty years. Due to the complex multifactorial etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, it has been proposed that to be successful the pharmaceutical agents should act on multiple targets in order to restore the complex disease network and to provide disease modifying effects. Here we report on the synthesis and the anticholinergic activity profiles of seven multitarget anti-Alzheimer compounds designed by combining galantamine, a well-known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, with different peptide fragments endowed with inhibitory activity against BACE-1. A complementary approach based on molecular docking simulations of the galantamine-peptide derivatives in the active sites of acetylcholinesterase and of the related butyrylcholinesterase, as well as on inhibition kinetics, by global fitting of the reaction progress curves, allowed to gain insights into the enzyme-inhibitor mechanism of interaction. The resulting structure-activity relationships pave the way towards the design of more effective pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic multitarget inhibitors.
ESTHER : Pesaresi_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__110092
PubMedSearch : Pesaresi_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__110092
PubMedID: 35987277

Title : Novel tacrine-tryptophan hybrids: Multi-target directed ligands as potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease - Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
Author(s) : Chalupova K , Korabecny J , Bartolini M , Monti B , Lamba D , Caliandro R , Pesaresi A , Brazzolotto X , Gastellier AJ , Nachon F , Pejchal J , Jarosova M , Hepnarova V , Jun D , Hrabinova M , Dolezal R , Karasova JZ , Mzik M , Kristofikova Z , Misik J , Muckova L , Jost P , Soukup O , Benkova M , Setnicka V , Habartova L , Chvojkova M , Kleteckova L , Vales K , Mezeiova E , Uliassi E , Valis M , Nepovimova E , Bolognesi ML , Kuca K
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 168 :491 , 2019
Abstract : A combination of tacrine and tryptophan led to the development of a new family of heterodimers as multi-target agents with potential to treat Alzheimer's disease. Based on the in vitro biological profile, compound S-K1035 was found to be the most potent inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE), demonstrating balanced IC50 values of 6.3 and 9.1nM, respectively. For all the tacrine-tryptophan heterodimers, favorable inhibitory effect on hAChE as well as on hBChE was coined to the optimal spacer length ranging from five to eight carbon atoms between these two pharmacophores. S-K1035 also showed good ability to inhibit Abeta42 self-aggregation (58.6+/-5.1% at 50muM) as well as hAChE-induced Abeta40 aggregation (48.3+/-6.3% at 100muM). The X-ray crystallographic analysis of TcAChE in complex with S-K1035 pinpointed the utility of the hybridization strategy applied and the structures determined with the two K1035 enantiomers in complex with hBChE could explain the higher inhibition potency of S-K1035. Other in vitro evaluations predicted the ability of S-K1035 to cross blood-brain barrier and to exert a moderate inhibition potency against neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Based on the initial promising biochemical data and a safer in vivo toxicity compared to tacrine, S-K1035 was administered to scopolamine-treated rats being able to dose-dependently revert amnesia.
ESTHER : Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
PubMedSearch : Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
PubMedID: 30851693
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Kinetic and structural studies on the interactions of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase with two donepezil-like rigid analogues - Caliandro_2018_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_33_794
Author(s) : Caliandro R , Pesaresi A , Cariati L , Procopio A , Oliverio M , Lamba D
Ref : J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem , 33 :794 , 2018
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were introduced for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the currently approved inhibitors, donepezil (DNP) is one of the most preferred choices in AD therapy. The X-ray crystal structures of Torpedo californica AChE in complex with two novel rigid DNP-like analogs, compounds 1 and 2, have been determined. Kinetic studies indicated that compounds 1 and 2 show a mixed-type inhibition against TcAChE, with Ki values of 11.12 +/- 2.88 and 29.86 +/- 1.12 nM, respectively. The DNP rigidification results in a likely entropy-enthalpy compensation with solvation effects contributing primarily to AChE binding affinity. Molecular docking evidenced the molecular basis for the binding of compounds 1 and 2 to the active site of beta-secretase-1. Overall, these simplified DNP derivatives may represent new structural templates for the design of lead compounds for a more effective therapeutic strategy against AD by foreseeing a dual AChE and BACE-1 inhibitory activity.
ESTHER : Caliandro_2018_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_33_794
PubMedSearch : Caliandro_2018_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_33_794
PubMedID: 29651884
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Novel Tacrine-Benzofuran Hybrids as Potent Multitarget-Directed Ligands for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and X-ray Crystallography - Zha_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_114
Author(s) : Zha X , Lamba D , Zhang L , Lou Y , Xu C , Kang D , Chen L , Xu Y , De Simone A , Samez S , Pesaresi A , Stojan J , Lopez MG , Egea J , Andrisano V , Bartolini M
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 59 :114 , 2016
Abstract : Twenty-six new tacrine-benzofuran hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in vitro on key molecular targets for Alzheimer's disease. Most hybrids exhibited good inhibitory activities on cholinesterases and beta-amyloid self-aggregation. Selected compounds displayed significant inhibition of human beta-secretase-1 (hBACE-1). Among the 26 hybrids, 2e showed the most interesting profile as a subnanomolar selective inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) (IC50 = 0.86 nM) and a good inhibitor of both beta-amyloid aggregation (hAChE- and self-induced, 61.3% and 58.4%, respectively) and hBACE-1 activity (IC50 = 1.35 muM). Kinetic studies showed that 2e acted as a slow, tight-binding, mixed-type inhibitor, while X-ray crystallographic studies highlighted the ability of 2e to induce large-scale structural changes in the active-site gorge of Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE), with significant implications for structure-based drug design. In vivo studies confirmed that 2e significantly ameliorates performances of scopolamine-treated ICR mice. Finally, 2e administration did not exhibit significant hepatotoxicity.
ESTHER : Zha_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_114
PubMedSearch : Zha_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_114
PubMedID: 26632651
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Multitarget Drug Design Strategy: Quinone-Tacrine Hybrids Designed To Block Amyloid-beta Aggregation and To Exert Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Effects - Nepovimova_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_8576
Author(s) : Nepovimova E , Uliassi E , Korabecny J , Pena-Altamira LE , Samez S , Pesaresi A , Garcia GE , Bartolini M , Andrisano V , Bergamini C , Fato R , Lamba D , Roberti M , Kuca K , Monti B , Bolognesi ML
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 57 :8576 , 2014
Abstract : We report the identification of multitarget anti-Alzheimer compounds designed by combining a naphthoquinone function and a tacrine fragment. In vitro, 15 compounds displayed excellent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potencies and interesting capabilities to block amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregation. The X-ray analysis of one of those compounds in complex with AChE allowed rationalizing the outstanding activity data (IC50 = 0.72 nM). Two of the compounds showed negligible toxicity in immortalized mouse cortical neurons Neuro2A and primary rat cerebellar granule neurons. However, only one of them was less hepatotoxic than tacrine in HepG2 cells. In T67 cells, both compounds showed antioxidant activity, following NQO1 induction. Furthermore, in Neuro2A, they were able to completely revert the decrease in viability induced by Abeta. Importantly, they crossed the blood-brain barrier, as demonstrated in ex vivo experiments with rats. When ex vivo results were combined with in vitro studies, these two compounds emerged to be promising multitarget lead candidates worthy of further pursuit.
ESTHER : Nepovimova_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_8576
PubMedSearch : Nepovimova_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_8576
PubMedID: 25259726
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Evaluation and computational characterization of the facilitated transport of Glc carbon C-1 oxime reactivators across a blood brain barrier model - Bhonsle_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_129
Author(s) : Bhonsle JB , Causey R , Oyler BL , Bartolucci C , Lamba D , Pesaresi A , Bhamare NK , Soojhawon I , Garcia GE
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 203 :129 , 2013
Abstract : We are evaluating a facilitative transport strategy to move oximes across the blood brain barrier (BBB) to reactivate inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE). We selected glucose (Glc) transporters (GLUT) for this purpose as these transporters are highly represented in the BBB. Glc conjugates have successfully moved drugs across the BBB and previous work has shown that Glc-oximes (sugar-oximes, SOxs) can reduce the organophosphonate induced hypothermia response. We previously evaluated the reactivation potential of Glc carbon C-1 SOxs. Here we report the reactivation parameters for VX- and GB-inhibited human (Hu) AChE of the best SOx (13c) and our findings that the kinetics are similar to those of the parent oxime. Although crystals of Torpedo californica AChE were produced, neither soaked or co-crystallized experiments were successful at concentrations below 20mM 13c, and higher concentrations cracked the crystals. 13c was non-toxic to neuroblastoma and kidney cell lines at 12-18mM, allowing high concentrations to be used in a BBB kidney cell model. The transfer of 13c from the donor side was asymmetric with the greatest loss of 13c from the apical- or luminal-treated side. There was no apparent transfer from the basolateral side. The 13cPapp results indicate a 'low' transport efficiency; however, mass accounting revealed only a 20% recovery from the apical dose in which high concentrations were found in the cell lysate fraction. Molecular modeling of 13c through the GLUT-1 channel demonstrated that transport of 13c was more restricted than Glc. Selected sites were compared and the 13c binding energies were greater than two times those of Glc.
ESTHER : Bhonsle_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_129
PubMedSearch : Bhonsle_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_129
PubMedID: 23073172

Title : Insights into the fatty acid chain length specificity of the carboxylesterase PA3859 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A combined structural, biochemical and computational study - Pesaresi_2010_Biochimie_92_1787
Author(s) : Pesaresi A , Lamba D
Ref : Biochimie , 92 :1787 , 2010
Abstract : The open reading frame PA3859 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an intracellular carboxylesterase belonging to a group of microbial enzymes (EC that catalyze the hydrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic esters with a broad substrate specificity. With few exceptions, for this class of enzymes, belonging to the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily, very little information is available regarding their biochemical activity and in vivo function. The X-ray crystal structure of recombinant PA3859 has been determined for two crystal forms (space groups P2(1) and P2(1)2(1)2). The kinetic properties of the enzyme were studied using p-nitrophenyl esters as substrates and data fitted to a surface dilution mixed micelle kinetic model. Enzymatic assays and computational docking simulations, pinpointed the enzyme's preference for esters of palmitic and/or stearic acids and provided insights into the enzyme-substrate favorable binding modes.
ESTHER : Pesaresi_2010_Biochimie_92_1787
PubMedSearch : Pesaresi_2010_Biochimie_92_1787
PubMedID: 20850500
Gene_locus related to this paper: pseae-PA3859

Title : Isolation, characterization, and heterologous expression of a carboxylesterase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 - Pesaresi_2005_Curr.Microbiol_50_102
Author(s) : Pesaresi A , Devescovi G , Lamba D , Venturi V , Degrassi G
Ref : Curr Microbiol , 50 :102 , 2005
Abstract : We purified to homogeneity an intracellular esterase from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The enzyme hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl acetate and other acetylated substrates. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was analyzed and 11 residues, SEPLILDAPNA, were determined. The corresponding gene PA3859 was identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome as the only gene encoding for a protein with this N-terminus. The encoding gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein expressed and purified to homogeneity. According to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and analytical gel filtration chromatography, the esterase was found to be a monomer of approximately 24 kDa. The experimentally determined isoelectric point was 5.2 and the optimal enzyme activity was at 55 degrees C and at pH 9.0. The esterase preferentially hydrolyzed short-chain fatty acids. It is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) but not by ethylendiaminotetraacetic acid (EDTA). Native enzyme preparations typically showed a Michaelis constant (K(m)) and V(max) of 0.43 mM and 12,500 U mg(-1), respectively, using p-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Homology-based database searches clearly revealed the presence of the consensus GXSXG signature motif that is present in the serine-dependent acylhydrolase protein family.
ESTHER : Pesaresi_2005_Curr.Microbiol_50_102
PubMedSearch : Pesaresi_2005_Curr.Microbiol_50_102
PubMedID: 15717224
Gene_locus related to this paper: pseae-PA3859

Title : Crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing of carboxylesterase PA3859 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Pesaresi_2005_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1752_197
Author(s) : Pesaresi A , Lamba D
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1752 :197 , 2005
Abstract : We have recently purified an intracellular carboxylesterase encoded by the open reading frame PA3859 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among proteins showing a significant sequence homology with PA3859 the in vivo function is only known for the human acyl-protein thioesterase I that is involved in the deacylation of Galpha proteins. The crystal structure determination of P. aeruginosa carboxylesterase is expected to provide insights into its physiological role. Therefore, the PA3859 gene was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as N-terminally 6xHis tagged recombinant protein. Here, we present the crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing of this enzyme. Two crystal forms were obtained by the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Crystals of form I belong to the space group P2(1) with cell dimensions of a=65.65, b=50.55, c=142.55 A, beta=92.9 degrees and diffracted, upon flash annealing, up to a resolution of 2.9 A. Two dimers are present in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of form II belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a=96.42, b=96.36, c=68.04 A and diffracted up to 2.1 A resolution. One dimer is present in the asymmetric unit.
ESTHER : Pesaresi_2005_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1752_197
PubMedSearch : Pesaresi_2005_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1752_197
PubMedID: 16120484
Gene_locus related to this paper: pseae-PA3859