Muckova L


Full name : Muckova Lubica

First name : Lubica

Mail : Department of Toxicology and Military Pharmacy, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, Trebesska 1575, 500 01, Hradec Kralove

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Country : Czech Republic

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References (29)

Title : Phenoxytacrine derivatives: Low-toxicity neuroprotectants exerting affinity to ifenprodil-binding site and cholinesterase inhibition - Misiachna_2024_Eur.J.Med.Chem_266_116130
Author(s) : Misiachna A , Svobodova B , Netolicky J , Chvojkova M , Kleteckova L , Prchal L , Novak M , Hrabinova M , Kucera T , Muckova L , Moravcova Z , Karasova JZ , Pejchal J , Blazek F , Malinak D , Hakenova K , Krausova BH , Kolcheva M , Ladislav M , Korabecny J , Pahnke J , Vales K , Horak M , Soukup O
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 266 :116130 , 2024
Abstract : Tacrine (THA), a long withdrawn drug, is still a popular scaffold used in medicinal chemistry, mainly for its good reactivity and multi-targeted effect. However, THA-associated hepatotoxicity is still an issue and must be considered in drug discovery based on the THA scaffold. Following our previously identified hit compound 7-phenoxytacrine (7-PhO-THA), we systematically explored the chemical space with 30 novel derivatives, with a focus on low hepatotoxicity, anticholinesterase action, and antagonism at the GluN1/GluN2B subtype of the NMDA receptor. Applying the down-selection process based on in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic data, two candidates, I-52 and II-52, selective GluN1/GluN2B inhibitors thanks to the interaction with the ifenprodil-binding site, have entered in vivo pharmacodynamic studies. Finally, compound I-52, showing only minor affinity to AChE, was identified as a lead candidate with favorable behavioral and neuroprotective effects using open-field and prepulse inhibition tests, along with scopolamine-based behavioral and NMDA-induced hippocampal lesion models. Our data show that compound I-52 exhibits low toxicity often associated with NMDA receptor ligands, and low hepatotoxicity, often related to THA-based compounds.
ESTHER : Misiachna_2024_Eur.J.Med.Chem_266_116130
PubMedSearch : Misiachna_2024_Eur.J.Med.Chem_266_116130
PubMedID: 38218127

Title : A-series agent A-234: initial in vitro and in vivo characterization - Hrabinova_2024_Arch.Toxicol__
Author(s) : Hrabinova M , Pejchal J , Hepnarova V , Muckova L , Junova L , Opravil J , Zdarova Karasova J , Rozsypal T , Dlabkova A , Rehulkova H , Kucera T , Vecera Z , Caisberger F , Schmidt M , Soukup O , Jun D
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , : , 2024
Abstract : A-series agent A-234 belongs to a new generation of nerve agents. The poisoning of a former Russian spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter in Salisbury, England, in March 2018 led to the inclusion of A-234 and other A-series agents into the Chemical Weapons Convention. Even though five years have already passed, there is still very little information on its chemical properties, biological activities, and treatment options with established antidotes. In this article, we first assessed A-234 stability in neutral pH for subsequent experiments. Then, we determined its inhibitory potential towards human recombinant acetylcholinesterase (HssAChE; EC and butyrylcholinesterase (HssBChE; EC, the ability of HI-6, obidoxime, pralidoxime, methoxime, and trimedoxime to reactivate inhibited cholinesterases (ChEs), its toxicity in rats and therapeutic effects of different antidotal approaches. Finally, we utilized molecular dynamics to explain our findings. The results of spontaneous A-234 hydrolysis showed a slow process with a reaction rate displaying a triphasic course during the first 72 h (the residual concentration 86.2%). A-234 was found to be a potent inhibitor of both human ChEs (HssAChE IC(50) = 0.101 +/- 0.003 microM and HssBChE IC(50) = 0.036 +/- 0.002 microM), whereas the five marketed oximes have negligible reactivation ability toward A-234-inhibited HssAChE and HssBChE. The acute toxicity of A-234 is comparable to that of VX and in the context of therapy, atropine and diazepam effectively mitigate A-234 lethality. Even though oxime administration may induce minor improvements, selected oximes (HI-6 and methoxime) do not reactivate ChEs in vivo. Molecular dynamics implies that all marketed oximes are weak nucleophiles, which may explain the failure to reactivate the A-234 phosphorus-serine oxygen bond characterized by low partial charge, in particular, HI-6 and trimedoxime oxime oxygen may not be able to effectively approach the A-234 phosphorus, while pralidoxime displayed low interaction energy. This study is the first to provide essential experimental preclinical data on the A-234 compound.
ESTHER : Hrabinova_2024_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedSearch : Hrabinova_2024_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedID: 38446233

Title : Morphing cholinesterase inhibitor amiridine into multipotent drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Mezeiova_2024_Biomed.Pharmacother_173_116399
Author(s) : Mezeiova E , Prchal L , Hrabinova M , Muckova L , Pulkrabkova L , Soukup O , Misiachna A , Janousek J , Fibigar J , Kucera T , Horak M , Makhaeva GF , Korabecny J
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 173 :116399 , 2024
Abstract : The search for novel drugs to address the medical needs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an ongoing process relying on the discovery of disease-modifying agents. Given the complexity of the disease, such an aim can be pursued by developing so-called multi-target directed ligands (MTDLs) that will impact the disease pathophysiology more comprehensively. Herewith, we contemplated the therapeutic efficacy of an amiridine drug acting as a cholinesterase inhibitor by converting it into a novel class of novel MTDLs. Applying the linking approach, we have paired amiridine as a core building block with memantine/adamantylamine, trolox, and substituted benzothiazole moieties to generate novel MTDLs endowed with additional properties like N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor affinity, antioxidant capacity, and anti-amyloid properties, respectively. The top-ranked amiridine-based compound 5d was also inspected by in silico to reveal the butyrylcholinesterase binding differences with its close structural analogue 5b. Our study provides insight into the discovery of novel amiridine-based drugs by broadening their target-engaged profile from cholinesterase inhibitors towards MTDLs with potential implications in AD therapy.
ESTHER : Mezeiova_2024_Biomed.Pharmacother_173_116399
PubMedSearch : Mezeiova_2024_Biomed.Pharmacother_173_116399
PubMedID: 38492439

Title : A-agents, misleadingly known as Novichoks: a narrative review - Opravil_2023_Arch.Toxicol__
Author(s) : Opravil J , Pejchal J , Finger V , Korabecny J , Rozsypal T , Hrabinova M , Muckova L , Hepnarova V , Konecny J , Soukup O , Jun D
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , : , 2023
Abstract : "Novichok" refers to a new group of nerve agents called the A-series agents. Their existence came to light in 2018 after incidents in the UK and again in 2020 in Russia. They are unique organophosphorus-based compounds developed during the Cold War in a program called Foliant in the USSR. This review is based on original chemical entities from Mirzayanov's memoirs published in 2008. Due to classified research, a considerable debate arose about their structures, and hence, various structural moieties were speculated. For this reason, the scientific literature is highly incomplete and, in some cases, contradictory. This review critically assesses the information published to date on this class of compounds. The scope of this work is to summarize all the available and relevant information, including the physicochemical properties, chemical synthesis, mechanism of action, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and medical countermeasures used to date. The environmental stability of A-series agents, the lack of environmentally safe decontamination, their high toxicity, and the scarcity of information on post-contamination treatment pose a challenge for managing possible incidents.
ESTHER : Opravil_2023_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedSearch : Opravil_2023_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedID: 37612377

Title : In Vitro Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Induced by Oxime Reactivators of Acetylcholinesterase in HepG2 Cells - Vanova_2023_Chem.Res.Toxicol__
Author(s) : Vanova N , Muckova L , Kaliskova T , Lochman L , Bzonek P , Svec F
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , : , 2023
Abstract : Oxime reactivators of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are used as causal antidotes for intended and unintended poisoning by organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides. Despite all efforts to develop new AChE reactivators, none of these drug candidates replaced conventional clinically used oximes. In addition to the therapeutic efficacy, determining the safety profile is crucial in preclinical drug evaluation. The exact mechanism of oxime toxicity and the structure-toxicity relationship are subjects of ongoing research, with oxidative stress proposed as a possible mechanism. In the present study, we investigated four promising bispyridinium oxime AChE reactivators, K048, K074, K075, and K203, and their ability to induce oxidative stress in vitro. Cultured human hepatoma cells were exposed to oximes at concentrations corresponding to their IC(50) values determined by the MTT assay after 24 h. Their potency to generate reactive oxygen species, interfere with the thiol antioxidant system, and induce lipid peroxidation was evaluated at 1, 4, and 24 h of exposure. Reactivators without a double bond in the four-carbon linker, K048 and K074, showed a greater potential to induce oxidative stress compared with K075 and K203, which contain a double bond. Unlike oximes with a three-carbon-long linker, the number of aldoxime groups attached to the pyridinium moieties does not determine the oxidative stress induction for K048, K074, K075, and K203 oximes. In conclusion, our results emphasize that the structure of oximes plays a critical role in inducing oxidative stress, and this relationship does not correlate with their cytotoxicity expressed as the IC(50) value. However, it is important to note that oxidative stress cannot be disregarded as a potential contributor to the side effects associated with oximes.
ESTHER : Vanova_2023_Chem.Res.Toxicol__
PubMedSearch : Vanova_2023_Chem.Res.Toxicol__
PubMedID: 37950699

Title : Highly selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors related to Amaryllidaceae alkaloids - Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation - Pidany_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_252_115301
Author(s) : Pidany F , Kroustkova J , Al Mamun A , Suchankova D , Brazzolotto X , Nachon F , Chantegreil F , Dolezal R , Pulkrabkova L , Muckova L , Hrabinova M , Finger V , Kufa M , Soukup O , Jun D , Jenco J , Kunes J , Novakova L , Korabecny J , Cahlikova L
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 252 :115301 , 2023
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is one of the most frequently implicated enzymes in the advanced stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As part of our endeavors to develop new drug candidates for AD, we have focused on natural template structures, namely the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids carltonine A and B endowed with high BChE selectivity. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and in vitro evaluation of 57 novel highly selective human BChE (hBChE) inhibitors. Most synthesized compounds showed hBChE inhibition potency ranging from micromolar to low nanomolar scale. Compounds that revealed BChE inhibition below 100 nM were selected for detailed biological investigation. The CNS-targeted profile of the presented compounds was confirmed theoretically by calculating the BBB score algorithm, these data were corroborated by determining the permeability in vitro using PAMPA-assay for the most active derivatives. The study highlighted compounds 87 (hBChE IC(50) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 nM) and 88 (hBChE IC(50) = 5.7 +/- 1.5 nM) as the top-ranked BChE inhibitors. Compounds revealed negligible cytotoxicity for the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines compared to BChE inhibitory potential. A crystallographic study was performed to inspect the binding mode of compound 87, revealing essential interactions between 87 and hBChE active site. In addition, multidimensional QSAR analyses were applied to determine the relationship between chemical structures and biological activity in a dataset of designed agents. Compound 87 is a promising lead compound with potential implications for treating the late stages of AD.
ESTHER : Pidany_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_252_115301
PubMedSearch : Pidany_2023_Eur.J.Med.Chem_252_115301
PubMedID: 36996715
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as a model for evaluation of nerve agent-associated neurotoxicity - Pulkrabkova_2023_Arch.Toxicol__
Author(s) : Pulkrabkova L , Muckova L , Hrabinova M , Sorf A , Kobrlova T , Jost P , Bezdekova D , Korabecny J , Jun D , Soukup O
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , : , 2023
Abstract : Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) involving life-threatening nerve agents (NA) have been known for several decades. Despite a clear mechanism of their lethality caused by the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and manifested via overstimulation of peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, the mechanism for central neurotoxicity responsible for acute or delayed symptoms of the poisoning has not been thoroughly uncovered. One of the reasons is the lack of a suitable model. In our study, we have chosen the SH-SY5Y model in both the differentiated and undifferentiated state to study the effects of NAs (GB, VX and A234). The activity of expressed AChE in cell lysate assessed by Ellman's method showed 7.3-times higher activity in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells in contrast to undifferentiated cells, and with no involvement of BuChE as proved by ethopropazine (20 microM). The activity of AChE was found to be, in comparison to untreated cells, 16-, 9.3-, and 1.9-times lower upon A234, VX, and GB (100 microM) administration respectively. The cytotoxic effect of given OPs expressed as the IC(50) values for differentiated and undifferentiated SH-SY5Y, respectively, was found 12 mM and 5.7 mM (A234), 4.8 mM and 1.1 mM (VX) and 2.6 mM and 3.8 mM (GB). In summary, although our results confirm higher AChE expression in the differentiated SH-SY5Y cell model, the such higher expression does not lead to a more pronounced NA cytotoxic effect. On the contrary, higher expression of AChE may attenuate NA-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging the NA. Such finding highlights a protective role for cholinesterases by scavenging Novichoks (A-agents). Second, we confirmed the mechanism of cytotoxicity of NAs, including A-agents, can be ascribed rather to the non-specific effects of OPs than to AChE-mediated effects.
ESTHER : Pulkrabkova_2023_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedSearch : Pulkrabkova_2023_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedID: 37221426

Title : Structure-Guided Design of N-Methylpropargylamino-Quinazoline Derivatives as Multipotent Agents for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease - Svobodova_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_
Author(s) : Svobodova B , Pulkrabkova L , Panek D , Misiachna A , Kolcheva M , Andrys R , Handl J , Capek J , Nyvltova P , Rousar T , Prchal L , Hepnarova V , Hrabinova M , Muckova L , Tosnerova D , Karabanovich G , Finger V , Soukup O , Horak M , Korabecny J
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 24 : , 2023
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disease with an unknown etiology. Available treatments, limited to cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, provide symptomatic relief only. As single-target therapies have not proven effective, rational specific-targeted combination into a single molecule represents a more promising approach for treating AD, and is expected to yield greater benefits in alleviating symptoms and slowing disease progression. In the present study, we designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated 24 novel N-methylpropargylamino-quinazoline derivatives. Initially, compounds were thoroughly inspected by in silico techniques determining their oral and CNS availabilities. We tested, in vitro, the compounds' effects on cholinesterases and monoamine oxidase A/B (MAO-A/B), as well as their impacts on NMDAR antagonism, dehydrogenase activity, and glutathione levels. In addition, we inspected selected compounds for their cytotoxicity on undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We collectively highlighted II-6h as the best candidate endowed with a selective MAO-B inhibition profile, NMDAR antagonism, an acceptable cytotoxicity profile, and the potential to permeate through BBB. The structure-guided drug design strategy applied in this study imposed a novel concept for rational drug discovery and enhances our understanding on the development of novel therapeutic agents for treating AD.
ESTHER : Svobodova_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_
PubMedSearch : Svobodova_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_
PubMedID: 37298087

Title : Neurotoxicity evoked by organophosphates and available countermeasures - Pulkrabkova_2022_Arch.Toxicol__
Author(s) : Pulkrabkova L , Svobodova B , Konecny J , Kobrlova T , Muckova L , Janousek J , Pejchal J , Korabecny J , Soukup O
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , : , 2022
Abstract : Organophosphorus compounds (OP) are a constant problem, both in the military and in the civilian field, not only in the form of acute poisoning but also for their long-lasting consequences. No antidote has been found that satisfactorily protects against the toxic effects of organophosphates. Likewise, there is no universal cure to avert damage after poisoning. The key mechanism of organophosphate toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. The overstimulation of nicotinic or muscarinic receptors by accumulated acetylcholine on a synaptic cleft leads to activation of the glutamatergic system and the development of seizures. Further consequences include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuroinflammation, and the formation of various other neuropathologists. In this review, we present neuroprotection strategies which can slow down the secondary nerve cell damage and alleviate neurological and neuropsychiatric disturbance. In our opinion, there is no unequivocal approach to ensure neuroprotection, however, sooner the neurotoxicity pathway is targeted, the better the results which can be expected. It seems crucial to target the key propagation pathways, i.e., to block cholinergic and, foremostly, glutamatergic cascades. Currently, the privileged approach oriented to stimulating GABA(A)R by benzodiazepines is of limited efficacy, so that antagonizing the hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system could provide an even more efficacious approach for terminating OP-induced seizures and protecting the brain from permanent damage. Encouraging results have been reported for tezampanel, an antagonist of GluK1 kainate and AMPA receptors, especially in combination with caramiphen, an anticholinergic and anti-glutamatergic agent. On the other hand, targeting ROS by antioxidants cannot or already developed neuroinflammation does not seem to be very productive as other processes are also involved.
ESTHER : Pulkrabkova_2022_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedSearch : Pulkrabkova_2022_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedID: 36335468

Title : Non-covalent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: In vitro screening and molecular modeling for novel selective insecticides - Hepnarova_2022_Toxicol.In.Vitro__105463
Author(s) : Hepnarova V , Hrabinova M , Muckova L , Kucera T , Schmidt M , Dolezal R , Gorecki L , Hrabcova V , Korabecny J , Mezeiova E , Jun D , Pejchal J
Ref : Toxicol In Vitro , :105463 , 2022
Abstract : Insecticides represent the most crucial element in the integrated management approach to malaria and other vector-borne diseases. The evolution of insect resistance to long-used substances and the toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are the main factors contributing to the development of new, environmentally safe pesticides. In our work, fourteen compounds of 7-methoxytacrine-tacrine heterodimers were tested for their insecticidal effect. Compounds were evaluated in vitro on insect acetylcholinesterase from Anopheles gambiae (AgAChE) and Musca domestica (MdAChE). The evaluation was executed in parallel with testing on human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (HssAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (HssBChE) using a modified Ellman's method. Compound efficacy was determined as IC(50) values for the respective enzymes and selectivity indexes were expressed to compare the interspecies selectivity. Docking studies were performed to predict the binding modes of selected compounds. K1328 and K1329 provided high HssAChE/AgAChE selectivity outperforming standard pesticides (carbofuran and bendiocarb), and thus can be considered as suitable lead structure for novel anticholinesterase insecticides.
ESTHER : Hepnarova_2022_Toxicol.In.Vitro__105463
PubMedSearch : Hepnarova_2022_Toxicol.In.Vitro__105463
PubMedID: 36041654

Title : Privileged multi-target directed propargyl-tacrines combining cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibition activities - Chrienova_2022_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_37_2605
Author(s) : Chrienova Z , Nepovimova E , Andrys R , Dolezal R , Janockova J , Muckova L , Fabova L , Soukup O , Oleksak P , Valis M , Korabecny J , Marco-Contelles J , Kuca K
Ref : J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem , 37 :2605 , 2022
Abstract : Twenty-four novel compounds bearing tetrahydroacridine and N-propargyl moieties have been designed, synthesised, and evaluated in vitro for their anti-cholinesterase and anti-monoamine oxidase activities. Propargyltacrine 23 (IC(50) = 21 nM) was the most potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, compound 20 (IC(50) = 78 nM) showed the best inhibitory human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) profile, and ligand 21 afforded equipotent and significant values on both ChEs (human AChE [hAChE]: IC(50) = 0.095 +/- 0.001 microM; hBChE: IC(50) = 0.093 +/- 0.003 microM). Regarding MAO inhibition, compounds 7, 15, and 25 demonstrated the highest inhibitory potential towards hMAO-B (IC(50) = 163, 40, and 170 nM, respectively). In all, compounds 7, 15, 20, 21, 23, and 25 exhibiting the most balanced pharmacological profile, were submitted to permeability and cell viability tests. As a result, 7-phenoxy-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine hydrochloride (15) has been identified as a permeable agent that shows a balanced pharmacological profile [IC(50) (hAChE) = 1.472 +/- 0.024 microM; IC(50) (hBChE) = 0.659 +/- 0.077 microM; IC(50) (hMAO-B) = 40.39 +/- 5.98 nM], and consequently, as a new hit-ligand that deserves further investigation, in particular in vivo analyses, as the preliminary cell viability test results reported here suggest that this is a relatively safe therapeutic agent.
ESTHER : Chrienova_2022_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_37_2605
PubMedSearch : Chrienova_2022_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_37_2605
PubMedID: 36131624

Title : Development of versatile and potent monoquaternary reactivators of acetylcholinesterase - Gorecki_2021_Arch.Toxicol__
Author(s) : Gorecki L , Hepnarova V , Karasova JZ , Hrabinova M , Courageux C , Dias J , Kucera T , Kobrlova T , Muckova L , Prchal L , Malinak D , Jun D , Musilek K , Worek F , Nachon F , Soukup O , Korabecny J
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , : , 2021
Abstract : To date, the only treatments developed for poisoning by organophosphorus compounds, the most toxic chemical weapons of mass destruction, have exhibited limited efficacy and versatility. The available causal antidotes are based on reactivation of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is rapidly and pseudo-irreversibly inhibited by these agents. In this study, we developed a novel series of monoquaternary reactivators combining permanently charged moieties tethered to position 6- of 3-hydroxypyridine-2-aldoxime reactivating subunit. Highlighted representatives (21, 24, and 27; also coded as K1371, K1374, and K1375, respectively) that contained 1-phenylisoquinolinium, 7-amino-1-phenylisoquinolinium and 4-carbamoylpyridinium moieties as peripheral anionic site ligands, respectively, showed efficacy superior or comparable to that of the clinically used standards. More importantly, these reactivators exhibited wide-spectrum efficacy and were minutely investigated via determination of their reactivation kinetics in parallel with molecular dynamics simulations to study their mechanisms of reactivation of the tabun-inhibited AChE conjugate. To further confirm the potential applicability of these candidates, a mouse in vivo assay was conducted. While K1375 had the lowest acute toxicity and the most suitable pharmacokinetic profile, the oxime K1374 with delayed elimination half-life was the most effective in ameliorating the signs of tabun toxicity. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo, the versatility of the agents was substantially superior to that of clinically used standards. Their high efficacy and broad-spectrum capability make K1374 and K1375 promising candidates that should be further investigated for their potential as nerve agents and insecticide antidotes.
ESTHER : Gorecki_2021_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedSearch : Gorecki_2021_Arch.Toxicol__
PubMedID: 33517499

Title : Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids of Norbelladine-Type as Inspiration for Development of Highly Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Activity Evaluation, and Docking Studies - Al Mamun_2021_Int.J.Mol.Sci_22_
Author(s) : Al Mamun A , Pidany F , Hulcova D , Marikova J , Kucera T , Schmidt M , Catapano MC , Hrabinova M , Jun D , Muckova L , Kunes J , Janousek J , Andrys R , Novakova L , Perinova R , Maafi N , Soukup O , Korabecny J , Cahlikova L
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 22 : , 2021
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative condition of the central nervous system (CNS) that is currently treated by cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine. Emerging evidence strongly supports the relevance of targeting butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in the more advanced stages of AD. Within this study, we have generated a pilot series of compounds (1-20) structurally inspired from belladine-type Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, namely carltonine A and B, and evaluated their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE inhibition properties. Some of the compounds exhibited intriguing inhibition activity for human BuChE (hBuChE), with a preference for BuChE over AChE. Seven compounds were found to possess a hBuChE inhibition profile, with IC(50) values below 1 microM. The most potent one, compound 6, showed nanomolar range activity with an IC(50) value of 72 nM and an excellent selectivity pattern over AChE, reaching a selectivity index of almost 1400. Compound 6 was further studied by enzyme kinetics, along with in-silico techniques, to reveal the mode of inhibition. The prediction of CNS availability estimates that all the compounds in this survey can pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as disclosed by the BBB score.
ESTHER : Al Mamun_2021_Int.J.Mol.Sci_22_
PubMedSearch : Al Mamun_2021_Int.J.Mol.Sci_22_
PubMedID: 34361074

Title : Phenothiazine-Tacrine Heterodimers: Pursuing Multitarget Directed Approach in Alzheimer's Disease - Gorecki_2021_ACS.Chem.Neurosci__
Author(s) : Gorecki L , Uliassi E , Bartolini M , Janockova J , Hrabinova M , Hepnarova V , Prchal L , Muckova L , Pejchal J , Karasova JZ , Mezeiova E , Benkova M , Kobrlova T , Soukup O , Petralla S , Monti B , Korabecny J , Bolognesi ML
Ref : ACS Chem Neurosci , : , 2021
Abstract : Since 2002, no clinical candidate against Alzheimer's disease has reached the market; hence, an effective therapy is urgently needed. We followed the so-called "multitarget directed ligand" approach and designed 36 novel tacrine-phenothiazine heterodimers which were in vitro evaluated for their anticholinesterase properties. The assessment of the structure-activity relationships of such derivatives highlighted compound 1dC as a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with IC(50) = 8 nM and 1aA as a potent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor with IC(50) = 15 nM. Selected hybrids, namely, 1aC, 1bC, 1cC, 1dC, and 2dC, showed a significant inhibitory activity toward tau((306-336)) peptide aggregation with percent inhibition ranging from 50.5 to 62.1%. Likewise, 1dC and 2dC exerted a remarkable ability to inhibit self-induced Abeta(1-42) aggregation. Notwithstanding, in vitro studies displayed cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cells and cerebellar granule neurons; no pathophysiological abnormality was observed when 1dC was administered to mice at 14 mg/kg (i.p.). 1dC was also able to permeate to the CNS as shown by in vitro and in vivo models. The maximum brain concentration was close to the IC(50) value for acetylcholinesterase inhibition with a relatively slow elimination half-time. 1dC showed an acceptable safety and good pharmacokinetic properties and a multifunctional biological profile.
ESTHER : Gorecki_2021_ACS.Chem.Neurosci__
PubMedSearch : Gorecki_2021_ACS.Chem.Neurosci__
PubMedID: 33852284

Title : Huprine Y - tryptophan heterodimers with potential implication to Alzheimer's disease treatment - Mezeiova_2021_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__128100
Author(s) : Mezeiova E , Hrabinova M , Hepnarova V , Jun D , Janockova J , Muckova L , Prchal L , Kristofikova Z , Kucera T , Gorecki L , Chalupova K , Kunes J , Hroudova J , Soukup O , Korabecny J
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , :128100 , 2021
Abstract : The search for novel and effective therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main quest that remains to be resolved. The goal is to find a disease-modifying agent able to confront the multifactorial nature of the disease positively. Herewith, a family of huprineY-tryptophan heterodimers was prepared, resulting in inhibition of cholinesterase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzymes, with effect against amyloid-beta (Abeta) and potential ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Their cholinesterase pattern of behavior was inspected using kinetic analysis in tandem with docking studies. These heterodimers exhibited a promising pharmacological profile with strong implication in AD.
ESTHER : Mezeiova_2021_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__128100
PubMedSearch : Mezeiova_2021_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__128100
PubMedID: 33984470

Title : Tacrine - Benzothiazoles: Novel class of potential multitarget anti-Alzheimes drugs dealing with cholinergic, amyloid and mitochondrial systems - Nepovimova_2020_Bioorg.Chem_107_104596
Author(s) : Nepovimova E , Svobodova L , Dolezal R , Hepnarova V , Junova L , Jun D , Korabecny J , Kucera T , Gazova Z , Motykova K , Kubackova J , Bednarikova Z , Janockova J , Jesus C , Cortes L , Pina J , Rostohar D , Serpa C , Soukup O , Aitken L , Hughes RE , Musilek K , Muckova L , Jost P , Chvojkova M , Vales K , Valis M , Chrienova Z , Chalupova K , Kuca K
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 107 :104596 , 2020
Abstract : A series of tacrine - benzothiazole hybrids incorporate inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), amyloid beta (Abeta) aggregation and mitochondrial enzyme ABAD, whose interaction with Abeta leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, into a single molecule. In vitro, several of 25 final compounds exerted excellent anti-AChE properties and interesting capabilities to block Abeta aggregation. The best derivative of the series could be considered 10w that was found to be highly potent and selective towards AChE with the IC(50) value in nanomolar range. Moreover, the same drug candidate exerted absolutely the best results of the series against ABAD, decreasing its activity by 23% at 100 microM concentration. Regarding the cytotoxicity profile of highlighted compound, it roughly matched that of its parent compound - 6-chlorotacrine. Finally, 10w was forwarded for in vivo scopolamine-induced amnesia experiment consisting of Morris Water Maze test, where it demonstrated mild procognitive effect. Taking into account all in vitro and in vivo data, highlighted derivative 10w could be considered as the lead structure worthy of further investigation.
ESTHER : Nepovimova_2020_Bioorg.Chem_107_104596
PubMedSearch : Nepovimova_2020_Bioorg.Chem_107_104596
PubMedID: 33421953

Title : Encapsulation of oxime K027 into cucurbit[7]uril: In vivo evaluation of safety, absorption, brain distribution and reactivation effectiveness - Karasova_2020_Toxicol.Lett_320_64
Author(s) : Karasova JZ , Hepnarova V , Andrys R , Lisa M , Jost P , Muckova L , Pejchal J , Herman D , Jun D , Kassa J , Kuca K
Ref : Toxicol Lett , 320 :64 , 2020
Abstract : Oxime-based acetylcholinesterase reactivators (briefly oximes) regenerate organophosphate-inactivated acetylcholinesterase and restore its function. Poor blood-brain-barrier passage and fast elimination from blood limit their actual use in treatment of patients exposed to organophosphates. Previous in vitro results implicated further testing of cucurbit[7]uril as a delivery vehicle for bisquaternary oximes. The present paper focuses on cell toxicity, in vivo safety and influence of cucurbit[7]uril on oxime pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Neither the K027 nor the complex caused any cell toxicity, changes in blood biochemistry or hepato- or nephrotoxicity in tested concentrations. The encapsulation of K027 increased and accelerated the blood-brain-barrier penetration. The peripheral oxime exposure also increased, supporting the suggestion that cucurbit[7]uril protects the circulating oxime from rapid renal clearance. Contrary to the comparable in vitro reactivation power of K027 and the encapsulated K027, we failed to confirm this in vivo. In theory, this might result from the non-specific binding of molecules to the cucurbit[7]uril or the interaction of K027 with cucurbit[7]uril being too strong for acetylcholinesterase reactivation. Precise explanation requires additional in silico, in vitro and also in vivo experiments.
ESTHER : Karasova_2020_Toxicol.Lett_320_64
PubMedSearch : Karasova_2020_Toxicol.Lett_320_64
PubMedID: 31794810

Title : Tacroximes: novel unique compounds for the recovery of organophosphorus-inhibited acetylcholinesterase - Gorecki_2019_Future.Med.Chem_11_2625
Author(s) : Gorecki L , Junova L , Kucera T , Hepnarova V , Prchal L , Kobrlova T , Muckova L , Soukup O , Korabecny J
Ref : Future Med Chem , 11 :2625 , 2019
Abstract : Aim: Organophosphorus compounds are irreversible inhibitors of AChE. Without immediate countermeasure, intoxication leads quickly to death. None of the clinically-used causal antidotes can ensure a good prognosis for any poisoned patient. When fallen into the wrong hands, organophosphates represent a serious threat to mankind. Results & methodology: Herein, we describe two novel compounds as unique merged molecules built on a tacrine scaffold against organophosphorus intoxication. These reactivators of AChE have balanced physicochemical properties, and should be able to cross the blood-brain barrier with a slightly lowered cytotoxicity profile compared to reference tacrine. Conclusion: Their efficiency compared with pralidoxime and obidoxime was proved against dichlorvos.
ESTHER : Gorecki_2019_Future.Med.Chem_11_2625
PubMedSearch : Gorecki_2019_Future.Med.Chem_11_2625
PubMedID: 31556693

Title : Pharmacological and toxicological in vitro and in vivo effect of higher doses of oxime reactivators - Hepnarova_2019_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol__114776
Author(s) : Hepnarova V , Muckova L , Ring A , Pejchal J , Herman D , Misik J , Hrabinova M , Jun D , Soukup O
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , :114776 , 2019
Abstract : The major function of compounds with an oxime moiety attached to a quarternary nitrogen pyridinium ring is to reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus agent (OP). However, other oxime mechanisms (e.g. modulation of cholinergic or glutamatergic receptor) may be involved in the recovery. The main disadvantage of positively charged reactivators is their low ability to penetrate into the brain although crossing the blood brain barrier could be supported via increasing the dose of administered oxime. Thus, this study presents maximal tolerated doses (MTD) for marketed oximes (TMB-4, MMB-4, LuH-6, HI-6, 2-PAM) and the most promising K-oximes (K027, K048, K203) which can be used in OP therapy in the future. No signs of sarin intoxication were observed in mice treated with 100% MTD of HI-6 in contrast to those treated with atropine and only 5% LD50 of HI-6. 100% MTD of HI-6 resulted in levels of 500muM and 12muM in plasma and brain, respectively. This concentration is by a far margin safe with respect to direct effects on neuronal cell viability and, on the other hand, does not have any effects on central NMDA receptors or central nACh receptors. However, a weak antimuscarinic activity in case of LuH-6 and a weak peripheral antinicotinic action in case of TMB-4 and 2-PAM could be observed at their respective 100% MTD dose. These high doses, represented by MTD, are, however, irrelevant to clinical practice since they led to mild to moderate toxic side effects. Therefore, we conclude that clinically used doses of marketed oxime reactivators have no significant direct pharmacological effect on the tested receptors.
ESTHER : Hepnarova_2019_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol__114776
PubMedSearch : Hepnarova_2019_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol__114776
PubMedID: 31629733

Title : Oxidative stress induced by oxime reactivators of acetylcholinesterase in vitro - Muckova_2019_Toxicol.In.Vitro_56_110
Author(s) : Muckova L , Vanova N , Misik J , Herman D , Pejchal J , Jun D
Ref : Toxicol In Vitro , 56 :110 , 2019
Abstract : In this study, we determined the effect of methoxime (MMB-4), asoxime (HI-6), obidoxime (LuH-6), trimedoxime (TMB-4), and pralidoxime (2-PAM) on redox homeostasis in vitro. Cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were exposed to oximes at concentrations equivalent to their IC50 (assessed using MTT assay) and evaluated 1, 4 and 24h after incubation. Additionally, intact, early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells were quantified by microcapillary flow cytometry. Intracellular levels of oxygen/nitrogen species were determined using two fluorescent probes (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium). Malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured by LC-MS/MS. Non-protein thiols and non-protein disulfides were evaluated using HPLC-UV to reflect antioxidant capacity. Oxidative and nitrosative stress was induced by LuH-6, TMB-4 and MMB-4, whereas 2-PAM and HI-6 appeared as weak oxidative stressors with no activity towards nitrosative stress in HepG2 cells. Based on these results, bisquartenary oxime reactivators containing two functional oxime groups at the position 4 of pyridinium ring appear as more intense oxidative and nitrosative inducers. Activation of apoptosis and necrosis do not seem to correlate with generation of RONS. On the other hand, both processes rather reflect MDA concentrations, i.e. the damage of biomolecules.
ESTHER : Muckova_2019_Toxicol.In.Vitro_56_110
PubMedSearch : Muckova_2019_Toxicol.In.Vitro_56_110
PubMedID: 30682493

Title : Novel tacrine-tryptophan hybrids: Multi-target directed ligands as potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease - Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
Author(s) : Chalupova K , Korabecny J , Bartolini M , Monti B , Lamba D , Caliandro R , Pesaresi A , Brazzolotto X , Gastellier AJ , Nachon F , Pejchal J , Jarosova M , Hepnarova V , Jun D , Hrabinova M , Dolezal R , Karasova JZ , Mzik M , Kristofikova Z , Misik J , Muckova L , Jost P , Soukup O , Benkova M , Setnicka V , Habartova L , Chvojkova M , Kleteckova L , Vales K , Mezeiova E , Uliassi E , Valis M , Nepovimova E , Bolognesi ML , Kuca K
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 168 :491 , 2019
Abstract : A combination of tacrine and tryptophan led to the development of a new family of heterodimers as multi-target agents with potential to treat Alzheimer's disease. Based on the in vitro biological profile, compound S-K1035 was found to be the most potent inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE), demonstrating balanced IC50 values of 6.3 and 9.1nM, respectively. For all the tacrine-tryptophan heterodimers, favorable inhibitory effect on hAChE as well as on hBChE was coined to the optimal spacer length ranging from five to eight carbon atoms between these two pharmacophores. S-K1035 also showed good ability to inhibit Abeta42 self-aggregation (58.6+/-5.1% at 50muM) as well as hAChE-induced Abeta40 aggregation (48.3+/-6.3% at 100muM). The X-ray crystallographic analysis of TcAChE in complex with S-K1035 pinpointed the utility of the hybridization strategy applied and the structures determined with the two K1035 enantiomers in complex with hBChE could explain the higher inhibition potency of S-K1035. Other in vitro evaluations predicted the ability of S-K1035 to cross blood-brain barrier and to exert a moderate inhibition potency against neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Based on the initial promising biochemical data and a safer in vivo toxicity compared to tacrine, S-K1035 was administered to scopolamine-treated rats being able to dose-dependently revert amnesia.
ESTHER : Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
PubMedSearch : Chalupova_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_168_491
PubMedID: 30851693
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Exploring Structure-Activity Relationship in Tacrine-Squaramide Derivatives as Potent Cholinesterase Inhibitors - Svobodova_2019_Biomolecules_9_
Author(s) : Svobodova B , Mezeiova E , Hepnarova V , Hrabinova M , Muckova L , Kobrlova T , Jun D , Soukup O , Jimeno ML , Marco-Contelles J , Korabecny J
Ref : Biomolecules , 9 : , 2019
Abstract : Tacrine was the first drug to be approved for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment, acting as a cholinesterase inhibitor. The neuropathological hallmarks of AD are amyloid-rich senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal degeneration. The portfolio of currently approved drugs for AD includes acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Squaric acid is a versatile structural scaffold capable to be easily transformed into amide-bearing compounds that feature both hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups with the possibility to create multiple interactions with complementary sites. Considering the relatively simple synthesis approach and other interesting properties (rigidity, aromatic character, H-bond formation) of squaramide motif, we combined this scaffold with different tacrine-based derivatives. In this study, we developed 21 novel dimers amalgamating squaric acid with either tacrine, 6-chlorotacrine or 7-methoxytacrine representing various AChEIs. All new derivatives were evaluated for their anti-cholinesterase activities, cytotoxicity using HepG2 cell line and screened to predict their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this contribution, we also report in silico studies of the most potent AChE and BChE inhibitors in the active site of these enzymes.
ESTHER : Svobodova_2019_Biomolecules_9_
PubMedSearch : Svobodova_2019_Biomolecules_9_
PubMedID: 31430943

Title : N-alkylated Tacrine Derivatives as Potential Agents in Alzheimer's Disease Therapy - Nepovimova_2019_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_16_333
Author(s) : Nepovimova E , Korabecny J , Hepnarova V , Jun D , Dolezal R , Muckova L , Jost P , Soukup O , Janockova J , Pham NL , Nguyen TD , Valis M , Kuca K
Ref : Curr Alzheimer Res , 16 :333 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Based on the prevalence studies, the number of people suffering from dementia will almost double every 20 years, to 65.7 million in 2030 and 115.4 million in 2050, assuming no changes in mortality, effective preventative measures, definitive diagnostic guidelines or curative treatment. From the abovementioned epidemiological data, it is obvious that dementia constitutes a major public health problem not only at present, but unfortunately also in the future. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Several N-alkylated tacrine (THA) derivatives have already been synthesized by Pomponi et al., in 1997. However, these compounds were tested for their anti-AChE activity using enzyme isolated from Electrophorus electricus. For this reason, we have decided to extend the previously reported series of THA derivatives and consequently test them in the battery of experiments, the results of which have served to more relevant evaluation of these compounds from the perspective of Alzeimer s disease compared to that published by Pomponi. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In summary, all compounds of interest effectively inhibited ChEs in vitro. One of the most promising derivatives 8 bearing an N-octyl chain showed 2.5-fold higher AChE inhibitory activity in relation to tacrine. With respect to blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, it can be claimed that synthesized analogues are presumably able to cross the BBB. From the point of view of hepatotoxicity, selected Nalkylated tacrine derivatives exerted worse results compared to tacrine. However, in vitro results are only illustrative, therefore, only in vivo experiments could determine the real value of selected N-alkylated THA derivatives.
ESTHER : Nepovimova_2019_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_16_333
PubMedSearch : Nepovimova_2019_Curr.Alzheimer.Res_16_333
PubMedID: 30873921

Title : The concept of hybrid molecules of tacrine and benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) as multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease - Hepnarova_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_150_292
Author(s) : Hepnarova V , Korabecny J , Matouskova L , Jost P , Muckova L , Hrabinova M , Vykoukalova N , Kerhartova M , Kucera T , Dolezal R , Nepovimova E , Spilovska K , Mezeiova E , Pham NL , Jun D , Staud F , Kaping D , Kuca K , Soukup O
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 150 :292 , 2018
Abstract : Novel tacrine-benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (tacrine-BQCA) hybrids were designed based on multi-target directed ligands (MTLDs) paradigm, synthesized and evaluated in vitro as inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE). Tacrine moiety is represented herein as 7-methoxytacrine, 6-chlorotacrine or unsubstituted tacrine forming three different families of seven members, i.e. 21 compounds in overall. Introducing BQCA, a positive modulator of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), the action of novel compounds on M1 mAChRs was evaluated via Fluo-4 NW assay on the Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO-M1WT2) cell line. All the novel tacrine-BQCA hybrids were able to block the action of hAChE and hBChE in micromolar to nanomolar range. The hAChE kinetic profile of 5p was found to be mixed-type which is consistent with our docking experiments. Moreover, selected ligands were assessed for their potential hepatotoxicity on HepG2 cell line and presumable permeation through the blood-brain barrier by PAMPA assay. Expected agonistic profile towards M1 mAChRs delivered by BQCA moiety was not confirmed. From all the hybrids, 5o can be highlighted as non-selective cholinesterase inhibitor (hAChE IC50=74.5nM; hBChE IC50=83.3nM) with micromolar antagonistic activity towards M1 mAChR (IC50=4.23muM). A non-selective pattern of cholinesterase inhibition is likely to be valuable during the onset as well as later stages of AD.
ESTHER : Hepnarova_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_150_292
PubMedSearch : Hepnarova_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_150_292
PubMedID: 29533874

Title : Cytotoxicity of acetylcholinesterase reactivators evaluated in vitro and its relation to their structure - Muckova_2018_Drug.Chem.Toxicol__1
Author(s) : Muckova L , Pejchal J , Jost P , Vanova N , Herman D , Jun D
Ref : Drug & Chemical Toxicology , :1 , 2018
Abstract : The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e., antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defense research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of five currently available oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) together with four perspective oximes from K-series (K027, K074, K075, and K203). The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using two methods - colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and impedance based real-time cytotoxicity assay - in three different cell lines (HepG2, ACHN, and NHLF). Toxicity was subsequently expressed as toxicological index IC50. The tested compounds showed different cytotoxicity ranging from 0.92 to 40.06 mM. In HepG2 cells, K027 was the least and asoxime was the most toxic reactivator. In ACHN and NHLF cell lines, trimedoxime was the compound with the lowest adverse effects, whereas the highest toxicity was found in methoxime-treated cells. The results show that at least five structural features affect the reactivators' toxicity such as the number of oxime groups in the molecule, their position on pyridinium ring, the length of carbon linker, and the oxygen substitution or insertion of the double bond into the connection chain. Newly synthetized oximes with IC50 >/= 1 mM evaluated in this three cell lines model might appear suitable for further testing.
ESTHER : Muckova_2018_Drug.Chem.Toxicol__1
PubMedSearch : Muckova_2018_Drug.Chem.Toxicol__1
PubMedID: 29421945

Title : Novel Tacrine-Scutellarin Hybrids as Multipotent Anti-Alzheimer's Agents: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation - Spilovska_2017_Molecules_22_
Author(s) : Spilovska K , Korabecny J , Sepsova V , Jun D , Hrabinova M , Jost P , Muckova L , Soukup O , Janockova J , Kucera T , Dolezal R , Mezeiova E , Kaping D , Kuca K
Ref : Molecules , 22 : , 2017
Abstract : A novel series of 6-chlorotacrine-scutellarin hybrids was designed, synthesized and the biological activity as potential anti-Alzheimer's agents was assessed. Their inhibitory activity towards human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE), antioxidant activity, ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and hepatotoxic profile were evaluated in vitro. Among these compounds, hybrid K1383, bearing two methylene tether between two basic scaffolds, was found to be very potent hAChE inhibitor (IC50 = 1.63 nM). Unfortunately, none of the hybrids displayed any antioxidant activity (EC50 >/= 500 muM). Preliminary data also suggests a comparable hepatotoxic profile with 6-Cl-THA (established on a HepG2 cell line). Kinetic studies performed on hAChE with the most active compound in the study, K1383, pointed out to a mixed, non-competitive enzyme inhibition. These findings were further corroborated by docking studies.
ESTHER : Spilovska_2017_Molecules_22_
PubMedSearch : Spilovska_2017_Molecules_22_
PubMedID: 28621747

Title : Development of 2-Methoxyhuprine as Novel Lead for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy - Mezeiova_2017_Molecules_22_
Author(s) : Mezeiova E , Korabecny J , Sepsova V , Hrabinova M , Jost P , Muckova L , Kucera T , Dolezal R , Misik J , Spilovska K , Pham NL , Pokrievkova L , Roh J , Jun D , Soukup O , Kaping D , Kuca K
Ref : Molecules , 22 : , 2017
Abstract : Tacrine (THA), the first clinically effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and the first approved drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), was withdrawn from the market due to its side effects, particularly its hepatotoxicity. Nowadays, THA serves as a valuable scaffold for the design of novel agents potentially applicable for AD treatment. One such compound, namely 7-methoxytacrine (7-MEOTA), exhibits an intriguing profile, having suppressed hepatotoxicity and concomitantly retaining AChE inhibition properties. Another interesting class of AChE inhibitors represents Huprines, designed by merging two fragments of the known AChE inhibitors-THA and (-)-huperzine A. Several members of this compound family are more potent human AChE inhibitors than the parent compounds. The most promising are so-called huprines X and Y. Here, we report the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and in silico studies of 2-methoxyhuprine that amalgamates structural features of 7-MEOTA and huprine Y in one molecule.
ESTHER : Mezeiova_2017_Molecules_22_
PubMedSearch : Mezeiova_2017_Molecules_22_
PubMedID: 28788095

Title : A 7-methoxytacrine-4-pyridinealdoxime hybrid as a novel prophylactic agent with reactivation properties in organophosphate intoxication - Nepovimova_2016_Toxicol.Res.(Camb)_5_1012
Author(s) : Nepovimova E , Korabecny J , Dolezal R , Nguyen TD , Jun D , Soukup O , Pasdiorova M , Jost P , Muckova L , Malinak D , Gorecki L , Musilek K , Kuca K
Ref : Toxicol Res (Camb) , 5 :1012 , 2016
Abstract : Chemical warfare agents constitute an increasing threat to both military and civilian populations. Therefore, effective prophylactic approaches are urgently needed. Herein, we present a novel hybrid compound which is able not only to keep acetylcholinesterase resistant to organophosphate (OP) inhibitors, but also to serve as an enzyme reactivator in the case of OP intoxication.
ESTHER : Nepovimova_2016_Toxicol.Res.(Camb)_5_1012
PubMedSearch : Nepovimova_2016_Toxicol.Res.(Camb)_5_1012
PubMedID: 30090408

Title : Tacrine-Trolox Hybrids: A Novel Class of Centrally Active, Nonhepatotoxic Multi-Target-Directed Ligands Exerting Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities with Low In Vivo Toxicity - Nepovimova_2015_J.Med.Chem_58_8985
Author(s) : Nepovimova E , Korabecny J , Dolezal R , Babkova K , Ondrejicek A , Jun D , Sepsova V , Horova A , Hrabinova M , Soukup O , Bukum N , Jost P , Muckova L , Kassa J , Malinak D , Andrs M , Kuca K
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 58 :8985 , 2015
Abstract : Coupling of two distinct pharmacophores, tacrine and trolox, endowed with different biological properties, afforded 21 hybrid compounds as novel multifunctional candidates against Alzheimer's disease. Several of them showed improved inhibitory properties toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in relation to tacrine. These hybrids also scavenged free radicals. Molecular modeling studies in tandem with kinetic analysis exhibited that these hybrids target both catalytic active site as well as peripheral anionic site of AChE. In addition, incorporation of the moiety bearing antioxidant abilities displayed negligible toxicity on human hepatic cells. This striking effect was explained by formation of nontoxic metabolites after 1 h incubation in human liver microsomes system. Finally, tacrine-trolox hybrids exhibited low in vivo toxicity after im administration in rats and potential to penetrate across blood-brain barrier. All of these outstanding in vitro results in combination with promising in vivo outcomes highlighted derivative 7u as the lead structure worthy of further investigation.
ESTHER : Nepovimova_2015_J.Med.Chem_58_8985
PubMedSearch : Nepovimova_2015_J.Med.Chem_58_8985
PubMedID: 26503905