Morgan J

References (6)

Title : Characterisation of Anopheles strains used for laboratory screening of new vector control products - Williams_2019_Parasit.Vectors_12_522
Author(s) : Williams J , Flood L , Praulins G , Ingham VA , Morgan J , Lees RS , Ranson H
Ref : Parasit Vectors , 12 :522 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Insecticides formulated into products that target Anopheles mosquitos have had an immense impact on reducing malaria cases in Africa. However, resistance to currently used insecticides is spreading rapidly and there is an urgent need for alternative public health insecticides. Potential new insecticides must be screened against a range of characterized mosquito strains to identify potential resistance liabilities. The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine maintains three susceptible and four resistant Anopheles strains that are widely used for screening for new insecticides. The properties of these strains are described in this paper. METHODS: WHO tube susceptibility bioassays were used for colony selection and to screen for resistance to the major classes of public health insecticides. Topical and tarsal contact bioassays were used to produce dose response curves to assess resistance intensity. Bioassays with the synergist piperonyl butoxide were also performed. Taqman assays were used to screen for known target site resistance alleles (kdr and ace-1). RT-qPCR was used to quantify expression of genes associated with pyrethroid resistance. RESULTS: Pyrethroid selection pressure has maintained resistance to this class in all four resistant strains. Some carbamate and organophosphate resistance has been lost through lack of exposure to these insecticide classes. The Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) strains, VK7 2014, Banfora M and Tiassale 13 have higher levels of pyrethroid resistance than the An. funestus FUMOZ-R strain. Elevated expression of P450s is found in all four strains and the 1014F kdr mutation is present in all three An. gambiae strains at varying frequencies. Tarsal contact data and overexpression of CYP4G16 and SAP2 suggest penetration barriers and/or sequestration also confer resistance in Banfora M. CONCLUSIONS: Continual selection with deltamethrin has maintained a stable pyrethroid-resistant phenotype over many generations. In conjunction with a standardized rearing regime, this ensures quality control of strains over time allowing for robust product comparison and selection of optimal products for further development. The identification of multiple mechanisms underpinning insecticide resistance highlights the importance of screening new compounds against a range of mosquito strains.
ESTHER : Williams_2019_Parasit.Vectors_12_522
PubMedSearch : Williams_2019_Parasit.Vectors_12_522
PubMedID: 31690332

Title : Developmental plasticity shapes synaptic phenotypes of autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations in the calyx of Held - Zhang_2017_Mol.Psychiatry_22_1483
Author(s) : Zhang B , Seigneur E , Wei P , Gokce O , Morgan J , Sudhof TC
Ref : Mol Psychiatry , 22 :1483 , 2017
Abstract : Neuroligins are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins. Mutations in neuroligin-3 predispose to autism, but how such mutations affect synaptic function remains incompletely understood. Here we systematically examined the effect of three autism-associated mutations, the neuroligin-3 knockout, the R451C knockin, and the R704C knockin, on synaptic transmission in the calyx of Held, a central synapse ideally suited for high-resolution analyses of synaptic transmission. Surprisingly, germline knockout of neuroligin-3 did not alter synaptic transmission, whereas the neuroligin-3 R451C and R704C knockins decreased and increased, respectively, synaptic transmission. These puzzling results prompted us to ask whether neuroligin-3 mutant phenotypes may be reshaped by developmental plasticity. Indeed, conditional knockout of neuroligin-3 during late development produced a marked synaptic phenotype, whereas conditional knockout of neuroligin-3 during early development caused no detectable effect, mimicking the germline knockout. In canvassing potentially redundant candidate genes, we identified developmentally early expression of another synaptic neurexin ligand, cerebellin-1. Strikingly, developmentally early conditional knockout of cerebellin-1 only modestly impaired synaptic transmission, whereas in contrast to the individual single knockouts, developmentally early conditional double knockout of both cerebellin-1 and neuroligin-3 severely decreased synaptic transmission. Our data suggest an unanticipated mechanism of developmental compensation whereby cerebellin-1 and neuroligin-3 functionally occlude each other during development of calyx synapses. Thus, although acute manipulations more likely reveal basic gene functions, developmental plasticity can be a major factor in shaping the overall phenotypes of genetic neuropsychiatric disorders.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Mol.Psychiatry_22_1483
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Mol.Psychiatry_22_1483
PubMedID: 27725662

Title : What do mouse models of muscular dystrophy tell us about the DAPC and its components? - Whitmore_2014_Int.J.Exp.Pathol_95_365
Author(s) : Whitmore C , Morgan J
Ref : International Journal of Experimental Pathology , 95 :365 , 2014
Abstract : There are over 30 mouse models with mutations or inactivations in the dystrophin-associated protein complex. This complex is thought to play a crucial role in the functioning of muscle, as both a shock absorber and signalling centre, although its role in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy is not fully understood. The first mouse model of muscular dystrophy to be identified with a mutation in a component of the dystrophin-associated complex (dystrophin) was the mdx mouse in 1984. Here, we evaluate the key characteristics of the mdx in comparison with other mouse mutants with inactivations in DAPC components, along with key modifiers of the disease phenotype. By discussing the differences between the individual phenotypes, we show that the functioning of the DAPC and consequently its role in the pathogenesis is more complicated than perhaps currently appreciated.
ESTHER : Whitmore_2014_Int.J.Exp.Pathol_95_365
PubMedSearch : Whitmore_2014_Int.J.Exp.Pathol_95_365
PubMedID: 25270874

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase reduces food intake and increases metabolic rate in obese mice - do Carmo_2012_Nutr.Metab.Cardiovasc.Dis_22_598
Author(s) : do Carmo JM , da Silva AA , Morgan J , Jim Wang YX , Munusamy S , Hall JE
Ref : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis , 22 :598 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study evaluated the responses to soluble epoxide hydrolase (s-EH) inhibition, an essential enzyme in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, on food intake, body weight and metabolic parameters in mice fed a high fat-high fructose diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 5 weeks of HFD, mice were divided into two groups: 1) s-EH inhibitor (AR9281, 200mg/kg/day by gavage twice daily), and 2) vehicle (0.3ml per gavage). Food intake, body weight, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)), respiratory quotient (RQ), and motor activity were measured weekly for more 5 weeks. HFD increased body weight (37+/-1 vs. 26+/-1g), and plasma of glucose (316+/-8 vs. 188+/-27mg/dl), insulin (62.1+/-8.1 vs. 15.5+/-5.0muU/ml), and leptin levels (39.4+/-3.6 vs. 7.5+/-0.1ng/ml) while reducing VO(2), VCO(2) and motor activity. s-EH inhibition for 5 weeks decreased caloric intake by ~32% and increased VO(2) by ~17% (42.8+/-1.4 vs. 50.2+/-1.5ml/kg/min) leading to significant weight loss. Inhibition of s-EHi also caused significant reductions in plasma leptin levels and visceral fat content. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content in brown adipose tissue was also elevated by ~50% during s-EH inhibition compared to vehicle treatment. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that s-EH inhibition with AR9281 promotes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing metabolic rate, and that increased UCP1 content may contribute to the increase in energy expenditure.
ESTHER : do Carmo_2012_Nutr.Metab.Cardiovasc.Dis_22_598
PubMedSearch : do Carmo_2012_Nutr.Metab.Cardiovasc.Dis_22_598
PubMedID: 21190818

Title : The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16 - Martin_2004_Nature_432_988
Author(s) : Martin J , Han C , Gordon LA , Terry A , Prabhakar S , She X , Xie G , Hellsten U , Chan YM , Altherr M , Couronne O , Aerts A , Bajorek E , Black S , Blumer H , Branscomb E , Brown NC , Bruno WJ , Buckingham JM , Callen DF , Campbell CS , Campbell ML , Campbell EW , Caoile C , Challacombe JF , Chasteen LA , Chertkov O , Chi HC , Christensen M , Clark LM , Cohn JD , Denys M , Detter JC , Dickson M , Dimitrijevic-Bussod M , Escobar J , Fawcett JJ , Flowers D , Fotopulos D , Glavina T , Gomez M , Gonzales E , Goodstein D , Goodwin LA , Grady DL , Grigoriev I , Groza M , Hammon N , Hawkins T , Haydu L , Hildebrand CE , Huang W , Israni S , Jett J , Jewett PB , Kadner K , Kimball H , Kobayashi A , Krawczyk MC , Leyba T , Longmire JL , Lopez F , Lou Y , Lowry S , Ludeman T , Manohar CF , Mark GA , McMurray KL , Meincke LJ , Morgan J , Moyzis RK , Mundt MO , Munk AC , Nandkeshwar RD , Pitluck S , Pollard M , Predki P , Parson-Quintana B , Ramirez L , Rash S , Retterer J , Ricke DO , Robinson DL , Rodriguez A , Salamov A , Saunders EH , Scott D , Shough T , Stallings RL , Stalvey M , Sutherland RD , Tapia R , Tesmer JG , Thayer N , Thompson LS , Tice H , Torney DC , Tran-Gyamfi M , Tsai M , Ulanovsky LE , Ustaszewska A , Vo N , White PS , Williams AL , Wills PL , Wu JR , Wu K , Yang J , DeJong P , Bruce D , Doggett NA , Deaven L , Schmutz J , Grimwood J , Richardson P , Rokhsar DS , Eichler EE , Gilna P , Lucas SM , Myers RM , Rubin EM , Pennacchio LA
Ref : Nature , 432 :988 , 2004
Abstract : Human chromosome 16 features one of the highest levels of segmentally duplicated sequence among the human autosomes. We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9% of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein-coding genes confirmed by 1,670 aligned transcripts, 19 transfer RNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and three RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukaemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobase pairs were identified and result in gene content differences among humans. Whereas the segmental duplications of chromosome 16 are enriched in the relatively gene-poor pericentromere of the p arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events that are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.
ESTHER : Martin_2004_Nature_432_988
PubMedSearch : Martin_2004_Nature_432_988
PubMedID: 15616553
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1 , human-CES2 , human-CES3 , human-CES4A , human-CES5A

Title : The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19 - Grimwood_2004_Nature_428_529
Author(s) : Grimwood J , Gordon LA , Olsen A , Terry A , Schmutz J , Lamerdin J , Hellsten U , Goodstein D , Couronne O , Tran-Gyamfi M , Aerts A , Altherr M , Ashworth L , Bajorek E , Black S , Branscomb E , Caenepeel S , Carrano A , Caoile C , Chan YM , Christensen M , Cleland CA , Copeland A , Dalin E , Dehal P , Denys M , Detter JC , Escobar J , Flowers D , Fotopulos D , Garcia C , Georgescu AM , Glavina T , Gomez M , Gonzales E , Groza M , Hammon N , Hawkins T , Haydu L , Ho I , Huang W , Israni S , Jett J , Kadner K , Kimball H , Kobayashi A , Larionov V , Leem SH , Lopez F , Lou Y , Lowry S , Malfatti S , Martinez D , McCready P , Medina C , Morgan J , Nelson K , Nolan M , Ovcharenko I , Pitluck S , Pollard M , Popkie AP , Predki P , Quan G , Ramirez L , Rash S , Retterer J , Rodriguez A , Rogers S , Salamov A , Salazar A , She X , Smith D , Slezak T , Solovyev V , Thayer N , Tice H , Tsai M , Ustaszewska A , Vo N , Wagner M , Wheeler J , Wu K , Xie G , Yang J , Dubchak I , Furey TS , DeJong P , Dickson M , Gordon D , Eichler EE , Pennacchio LA , Richardson P , Stubbs L , Rokhsar DS , Myers RM , Rubin EM , Lucas SM
Ref : Nature , 428 :529 , 2004
Abstract : Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high G + C content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one-quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.
ESTHER : Grimwood_2004_Nature_428_529
PubMedSearch : Grimwood_2004_Nature_428_529
PubMedID: 15057824