Munk AC

References (11)

Title : Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus - Kimes_2012_ISME.J_6_835
Author(s) : Kimes NE , Grim CJ , Johnson WR , Hasan NA , Tall BD , Kothary MH , Kiss H , Munk AC , Tapia R , Green L , Detter C , Bruce DC , Brettin TS , Colwell RR , Morris PJ
Ref : Isme J , 6 :835 , 2012
Abstract : Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a globally distributed bacterium associated with multiple coral diseases, infects corals at temperatures above 27 degrees C. The mechanisms underlying this temperature-dependent pathogenicity, however, are unknown. In this study, we identify potential virulence mechanisms using whole genome sequencing of V. coralliilyticus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) BAA-450. Furthermore, we demonstrate direct temperature regulation of numerous virulence factors using proteomic analysis and bioassays. Virulence factors involved in motility, host degradation, secretion, antimicrobial resistance and transcriptional regulation are upregulated at the higher virulent temperature of 27 degrees C, concurrent with phenotypic changes in motility, antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, cytotoxicity and bioluminescence. These results provide evidence that temperature regulates multiple virulence mechanisms in V. coralliilyticus, independent of abundance. The ecological and biological significance of this temperature-dependent virulence response is reinforced by climate change models that predict tropical SST to consistently exceed 27 degrees C during the spring, summer and fall seasons. We propose V. coralliilyticus as a model Gram-negative bacterium to study temperature-dependent pathogenicity in Vibrio-related diseases.
ESTHER : Kimes_2012_ISME.J_6_835
PubMedSearch : Kimes_2012_ISME.J_6_835
PubMedID: 22158392
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9vibr-c9nnl3 , 9vibr-c9nqc3 , 9vibr-c9ntb8 , vibcr-c9nnv6 , 9vibr-u0f626

Title : Complete genome sequence of Tsukamurella paurometabola type strain (no. 33) - Munk_2011_Stand.Genomic.Sci_4_342
Author(s) : Munk AC , Lapidus A , Lucas S , Nolan M , Tice H , Cheng JF , Del Rio TG , Goodwin L , Pitluck S , Liolios K , Huntemann M , Ivanova N , Mavromatis K , Mikhailova N , Pati A , Chen A , Palaniappan K , Tapia R , Han C , Land M , Hauser L , Chang YJ , Jeffries CD , Brettin T , Yasawong M , Brambilla EM , Rohde M , Sikorski J , Goker M , Detter JC , Woyke T , Bristow J , Eisen JA , Markowitz V , Hugenholtz P , Kyrpides NC , Klenk HP
Ref : Stand Genomic Sci , 4 :342 , 2011
Abstract : Tsukamurella paurometabola corrig. (Steinhaus 1941) Collins et al. 1988 is the type species of the genus Tsukamurella, which is the type genus to the family Tsukamurellaceae. The species is not only of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location, but also because it is a human opportunistic pathogen with some strains of the species reported to cause lung infection, lethal meningitis, and necrotizing tenosynovitis. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Tsukamurella and the first genome sequence of a member of the family Tsukamurellaceae. The 4,479,724 bp long genome contains a 99,806 bp long plasmid and a total of 4,335 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
ESTHER : Munk_2011_Stand.Genomic.Sci_4_342
PubMedSearch : Munk_2011_Stand.Genomic.Sci_4_342
PubMedID: 21886861
Gene_locus related to this paper: tsupd-d5uxc3

Title : Genome sequence of Streptomyces griseus strain XylebKG-1, an ambrosia beetle-associated actinomycete - Grubbs_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2890
Author(s) : Grubbs KJ , Biedermann PH , Suen G , Adams SM , Moeller JA , Klassen JL , Goodwin LA , Woyke T , Munk AC , Bruce D , Detter C , Tapia R , Han CS , Currie CR
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :2890 , 2011
Abstract : Streptomyces griseus strain XylebKG-1 is an insect-associated strain of the well-studied actinobacterial species S. griseus. Here, we present the genome of XylebKG-1 and discuss its similarity to the genome of S. griseus subsp. griseus NBRC13350. XylebKG-1 was isolated from the fungus-cultivating Xyleborinus saxesenii system. Given its similarity to free-living S. griseus subsp. griseus NBRC13350, comparative genomics will elucidate critical components of bacterial interactions with insects.
ESTHER : Grubbs_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2890
PubMedSearch : Grubbs_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2890
PubMedID: 21460079
Gene_locus related to this paper: strgg-b1vz78 , strgg-b1vzw6 , strgg-b1w021 , strgg-b1w1b1

Title : Comparative genomics of clinical and environmental Vibrio mimicus - Hasan_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_21134
Author(s) : Hasan NA , Grim CJ , Haley BJ , Chun J , Alam M , Taviani E , Hoq M , Munk AC , Saunders E , Brettin TS , Bruce DC , Challacombe JF , Detter JC , Han CS , Xie G , Nair GB , Huq A , Colwell RR
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 107 :21134 , 2010
Abstract : Whether Vibrio mimicus is a variant of Vibrio cholerae or a separate species has been the subject of taxonomic controversy. A genomic analysis was undertaken to resolve the issue. The genomes of V. mimicus MB451, a clinical isolate, and VM223, an environmental isolate, comprise ca. 4,347,971 and 4,313,453 bp and encode 3,802 and 3,290 ORFs, respectively. As in other vibrios, chromosome I (C-I) predominantly contains genes necessary for growth and viability, whereas chromosome II (C-II) bears genes for adaptation to environmental change. C-I harbors many virulence genes, including some not previously reported in V. mimicus, such as mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA), and enterotoxigenic hemolysin (HlyA); C-II encodes a variant of Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), and Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) cluster of genes. Extensive genomic rearrangement in C-II indicates it is a hot spot for evolution and genesis of speciation for the genus Vibrio. The number of virulence regions discovered in this study (VSP-II, MSHA, HlyA, type IV pilin, PilE, and integron integrase, IntI4) with no notable difference in potential virulence genes between clinical and environmental strains suggests these genes also may play a role in the environment and that pathogenic strains may arise in the environment. Significant genome synteny with prototypic pre-seventh pandemic strains of V. cholerae was observed, and the results of phylogenetic analysis support the hypothesis that, in the course of evolution, V. mimicus and V. cholerae diverged from a common ancestor with a prototypic sixth pandemic genomic backbone.
ESTHER : Hasan_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_21134
PubMedSearch : Hasan_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_21134
PubMedID: 21078967
Gene_locus related to this paper: vibch-VC2610 , vibch-VC2718 , vibch-VCA0688 , vibch-y1892 , vibch-y2276 , vibmi-d0gt41 , vibmi-u4zh77

Title : The genomic basis of trophic strategy in marine bacteria - Lauro_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_15527
Author(s) : Lauro FM , McDougald D , Thomas T , Williams TJ , Egan S , Rice S , DeMaere MZ , Ting L , Ertan H , Johnson J , Ferriera S , Lapidus A , Anderson I , Kyrpides N , Munk AC , Detter C , Han CS , Brown MV , Robb FT , Kjelleberg S , Cavicchioli R
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 106 :15527 , 2009
Abstract : Many marine bacteria have evolved to grow optimally at either high (copiotrophic) or low (oligotrophic) nutrient concentrations, enabling different species to colonize distinct trophic habitats in the oceans. Here, we compare the genome sequences of two bacteria, Photobacterium angustum S14 and Sphingopyxis alaskensis RB2256, that serve as useful model organisms for copiotrophic and oligotrophic modes of life and specifically relate the genomic features to trophic strategy for these organisms and define their molecular mechanisms of adaptation. We developed a model for predicting trophic lifestyle from genome sequence data and tested >400,000 proteins representing >500 million nucleotides of sequence data from 126 genome sequences with metagenome data of whole environmental samples. When applied to available oceanic metagenome data (e.g., the Global Ocean Survey data) the model demonstrated that oligotrophs, and not the more readily isolatable copiotrophs, dominate the ocean's free-living microbial populations. Using our model, it is now possible to define the types of bacteria that specific ocean niches are capable of sustaining.
ESTHER : Lauro_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_15527
PubMedSearch : Lauro_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_15527
PubMedID: 19805210
Gene_locus related to this paper: phoas-q1zm99 , phoas-q1zpt1 , phoas-q1zwh7 , phoas-q1zx01 , phoas-q1zlj9 , sphal-q1grs6

Title : Comparative genomics reveals mechanism for short-term and long-term clonal transitions in pandemic Vibrio cholerae - Chun_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_15442
Author(s) : Chun J , Grim CJ , Hasan NA , Lee JH , Choi SY , Haley BJ , Taviani E , Jeon YS , Kim DW , Brettin TS , Bruce DC , Challacombe JF , Detter JC , Han CS , Munk AC , Chertkov O , Meincke L , Saunders E , Walters RA , Huq A , Nair GB , Colwell RR
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 106 :15442 , 2009
Abstract : Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the sixth and the current seventh pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and reemerging pathogenic clones carrying diverse combinations of phenotypic and genotypic properties, which significantly hampered control of the disease. To elucidate evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity of pandemic V. cholerae, we compared the genome sequences of 23 V. cholerae strains isolated from a variety of sources over the past 98 years. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae lineages, of which one comprises both O1 classical and El Tor biotypes. All seventh pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content. Using analogy to influenza virology, we define the transition from sixth to seventh pandemic strains as a "shift" between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages. In contrast, transition among clones during the present pandemic period is characterized as a "drift" between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V. cholerae O139 and V. cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones. Based on the comparative genomics it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.
ESTHER : Chun_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_15442
PubMedSearch : Chun_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_15442
PubMedID: 19720995
Gene_locus related to this paper: vibch-lipas , vibch-VC0135 , vibch-VC1418 , vibch-VC1974 , vibch-VC2432 , vibch-VC2718 , vibch-VCA0063 , vibch-VCA0490 , vibch-VCA0688 , vibch-VCA0754 , vibch-y1892 , vibch-y2276

Title : The genome of Polaromonas sp. strain JS666: insights into the evolution of a hydrocarbon- and xenobiotic-degrading bacterium, and features of relevance to biotechnology - Mattes_2008_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_74_6405
Author(s) : Mattes TE , Alexander AK , Richardson PM , Munk AC , Han CS , Stothard P , Coleman NV
Ref : Applied Environmental Microbiology , 74 :6405 , 2008
Abstract : Polaromonas sp. strain JS666 can grow on cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) as a sole carbon and energy source and may be useful for bioremediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. Analysis of the genome sequence of JS666 (5.9 Mb) shows a bacterium well adapted to pollution that carries many genes likely to be involved in hydrocarbon and xenobiotic catabolism and metal resistance. Clusters of genes coding for haloalkane, haloalkanoate, n-alkane, alicyclic acid, cyclic alcohol, and aromatic catabolism were analyzed in detail, and growth on acetate, catechol, chloroacetate, cyclohexane carboxylate, cyclohexanol, ferulate, heptane, 3-hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyquinol, gentisate, octane, protocatechuate, and salicylate was confirmed experimentally. Strain JS666 also harbors diverse putative mobile genetic elements, including retrons, inteins, a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element, insertion sequence transposases from 14 families, eight genomic islands, a Mu family bacteriophage, and two large (338- and 360-kb) plasmids. Both plasmids are likely to be self-transferable and carry genes for alkane, alcohol, aromatic, and haloacid metabolism. Overall, the JS666 genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of pollutant-degrading bacteria and provides a toolbox of catabolic genes with utility for biotechnology.
ESTHER : Mattes_2008_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_74_6405
PubMedSearch : Mattes_2008_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_74_6405
PubMedID: 18723656
Gene_locus related to this paper: polsj-hboh

Title : The complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam - Challacombe_2007_J.Bacteriol_189_3680
Author(s) : Challacombe JF , Altherr MR , Xie G , Bhotika SS , Brown N , Bruce D , Campbell CS , Campbell ML , Chen J , Chertkov O , Cleland C , Dimitrijevic M , Doggett NA , Fawcett JJ , Glavina T , Goodwin LA , Green LD , Han CS , Hill KK , Hitchcock P , Jackson PJ , Keim P , Kewalramani AR , Longmire J , Lucas S , Malfatti S , Martinez D , McMurry K , Meincke LJ , Misra M , Moseman BL , Mundt M , Munk AC , Okinaka RT , Parson-Quintana B , Reilly LP , Richardson P , Robinson DL , Saunders E , Tapia R , Tesmer JG , Thayer N , Thompson LS , Tice H , Ticknor LO , Wills PL , Gilna P , Brettin TS
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 189 :3680 , 2007
Abstract : Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that is widely used as a biopesticide (E. Schnepf, N. Crickmore, J. Van Rie, D. Lereclus, J. Baum, J. Feitelson, D. R. Zeigler, and D. H. Dean, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:775-806, 1998). Here we report the finished, annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, which was collected in Iraq by the United Nations Special Commission (L. Radnedge, P. Agron, K. Hill, P. Jackson, L. Ticknor, P. Keim, and G. Andersen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:2755-2764, 2003).
ESTHER : Challacombe_2007_J.Bacteriol_189_3680
PubMedSearch : Challacombe_2007_J.Bacteriol_189_3680
PubMedID: 17337577
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacah-a0rcd1 , bacah-a0rer5 , bacah-a0rev7 , bacan-BA1019 , bacan-BA1242 , bacan-BA2392 , bacan-BA2607 , bacan-BA3343 , bacan-BA3863 , bacan-BA3877 , bacan-BA4324 , bacan-BA4338 , bacan-BA4577 , bacan-BA5009 , bacan-BA5110 , bacan-BA5136 , bacan-DHBF , bacc1-q73a27 , bacc1-q73c93 , bacce-BC0192 , bacce-BC1788 , bacce-BC1954 , bacce-BC2141 , bacce-BC2171 , bacce-BC4730 , bacce-BC4862 , bacce-BC5130 , bacce-PHAC , bacce-q72yu1 , baccr-pepx , bachk-q6hcl3 , bachk-q6hgn4 , bachk-q6hgp9 , bachk-q6hig3 , bachk-q6hit8

Title : Analysis of the neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum A1-A4 and B1 strains: BoNT\/A3, \/Ba4 and \/B1 clusters are located within plasmids - Smith_2007_PLoS.One_2_e1271
Author(s) : Smith TJ , Hill KK , Foley BT , Detter JC , Munk AC , Bruce DC , Doggett NA , Smith LA , Marks JD , Xie G , Brettin TS
Ref : PLoS ONE , 2 :e1271 , 2007
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Clostridium botulinum and related clostridial species express extremely potent neurotoxins known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that cause long-lasting, potentially fatal intoxications in humans and other mammals. The amino acid variation within the BoNT is used to categorize the species into seven immunologically distinct BoNT serotypes (A-G) which are further divided into subtypes. The BoNTs are located within two generally conserved gene arrangements known as botulinum progenitor complexes which encode toxin-associated proteins involved in toxin stability and expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because serotype A and B strains are responsible for the vast majority of human botulism cases worldwide, the location, arrangement and sequences of genes from eight different toxin complexes representing four different BoNT/A subtypes (BoNT/A1-Ba4) and one BoNT/B1 strain were examined. The bivalent Ba4 strain contained both the BoNT/A4 and BoNT/bvB toxin clusters. The arrangements of the BoNT/A3 and BoNT/A4 subtypes differed from the BoNT/A1 strains and were similar to those of BoNT/A2. However, unlike the BoNT/A2 subtype, the toxin complex genes of BoNT/A3 and BoNT/A4 were found within large plasmids and not within the chromosome. In the Ba4 strain, both BoNT toxin clusters (A4 and bivalent B) were located within the same 270 kb plasmid, separated by 97 kb. Complete genomic sequencing of the BoNT/B1 strain also revealed that its toxin complex genes were located within a 149 kb plasmid and the BoNT/A3 complex is within a 267 kb plasmid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite their size differences and the BoNT genes they contain, the three plasmids containing these toxin cluster genes share significant sequence identity. The presence of partial insertion sequence (IS) elements, evidence of recombination/gene duplication events, and the discovery of the BoNT/A3, BoNT/Ba4 and BoNT/B1 toxin complex genes within plasmids illustrate the different mechanisms by which these genes move among diverse genetic backgrounds of C. botulinum.
ESTHER : Smith_2007_PLoS.One_2_e1271
PubMedSearch : Smith_2007_PLoS.One_2_e1271
PubMedID: 18060065
Gene_locus related to this paper: clob1-a7fqm2 , clob1-a7fv94 , clobl-a7gbn0 , clobh-pip , clobh-a5i3m0 , clob1-a7fvd9 , clobl-a7gbt4

Title : Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis - Han_2006_J.Bacteriol_188_3382
Author(s) : Han CS , Xie G , Challacombe JF , Altherr MR , Bhotika SS , Brown N , Bruce D , Campbell CS , Campbell ML , Chen J , Chertkov O , Cleland C , Dimitrijevic M , Doggett NA , Fawcett JJ , Glavina T , Goodwin LA , Green LD , Hill KK , Hitchcock P , Jackson PJ , Keim P , Kewalramani AR , Longmire J , Lucas S , Malfatti S , McMurry K , Meincke LJ , Misra M , Moseman BL , Mundt M , Munk AC , Okinaka RT , Parson-Quintana B , Reilly LP , Richardson P , Robinson DL , Rubin E , Saunders E , Tapia R , Tesmer JG , Thayer N , Thompson LS , Tice H , Ticknor LO , Wills PL , Brettin TS , Gilna P
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 188 :3382 , 2006
Abstract : Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms.
ESTHER : Han_2006_J.Bacteriol_188_3382
PubMedSearch : Han_2006_J.Bacteriol_188_3382
PubMedID: 16621833
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacan-BA0954 , bacan-BA2607 , bacce-BC0968 , bacce-BC3133 , bacce-BC5130 , bacce-c2mr40 , baccz-q63gk2

Title : The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16 - Martin_2004_Nature_432_988
Author(s) : Martin J , Han C , Gordon LA , Terry A , Prabhakar S , She X , Xie G , Hellsten U , Chan YM , Altherr M , Couronne O , Aerts A , Bajorek E , Black S , Blumer H , Branscomb E , Brown NC , Bruno WJ , Buckingham JM , Callen DF , Campbell CS , Campbell ML , Campbell EW , Caoile C , Challacombe JF , Chasteen LA , Chertkov O , Chi HC , Christensen M , Clark LM , Cohn JD , Denys M , Detter JC , Dickson M , Dimitrijevic-Bussod M , Escobar J , Fawcett JJ , Flowers D , Fotopulos D , Glavina T , Gomez M , Gonzales E , Goodstein D , Goodwin LA , Grady DL , Grigoriev I , Groza M , Hammon N , Hawkins T , Haydu L , Hildebrand CE , Huang W , Israni S , Jett J , Jewett PB , Kadner K , Kimball H , Kobayashi A , Krawczyk MC , Leyba T , Longmire JL , Lopez F , Lou Y , Lowry S , Ludeman T , Manohar CF , Mark GA , McMurray KL , Meincke LJ , Morgan J , Moyzis RK , Mundt MO , Munk AC , Nandkeshwar RD , Pitluck S , Pollard M , Predki P , Parson-Quintana B , Ramirez L , Rash S , Retterer J , Ricke DO , Robinson DL , Rodriguez A , Salamov A , Saunders EH , Scott D , Shough T , Stallings RL , Stalvey M , Sutherland RD , Tapia R , Tesmer JG , Thayer N , Thompson LS , Tice H , Torney DC , Tran-Gyamfi M , Tsai M , Ulanovsky LE , Ustaszewska A , Vo N , White PS , Williams AL , Wills PL , Wu JR , Wu K , Yang J , DeJong P , Bruce D , Doggett NA , Deaven L , Schmutz J , Grimwood J , Richardson P , Rokhsar DS , Eichler EE , Gilna P , Lucas SM , Myers RM , Rubin EM , Pennacchio LA
Ref : Nature , 432 :988 , 2004
Abstract : Human chromosome 16 features one of the highest levels of segmentally duplicated sequence among the human autosomes. We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9% of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein-coding genes confirmed by 1,670 aligned transcripts, 19 transfer RNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and three RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukaemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobase pairs were identified and result in gene content differences among humans. Whereas the segmental duplications of chromosome 16 are enriched in the relatively gene-poor pericentromere of the p arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events that are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.
ESTHER : Martin_2004_Nature_432_988
PubMedSearch : Martin_2004_Nature_432_988
PubMedID: 15616553
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1 , human-CES2 , human-CES3 , human-CES4A , human-CES5A