Gu X

References (30)

Title : Molecular, behavioral, and growth responses of juvenile yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco) exposed to carbamazepine - Chen_2024_Aquat.Toxicol_271_106929
Author(s) : Chen H , Gu X , Mao Z , Zeng Q , Jin M , Wang W , Martyniuk CJ
Ref : Aquat Toxicol , 271 :106929 , 2024
Abstract : Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Due to its persistence and low removal rate in wastewater treatment plants, it is frequently detected in the environment, raising concerns regarding its potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms and ecosystems. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of CBZ on the behavior and growth of juvenile yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco, a native and economically important species in China. Fish were exposed to CBZ at three concentrations of 1, 10, or 100 microg/L for 14 days. The fish exposed to 10 and 100 microg/L of CBZ exhibited decreased feeding, and a significant increase in cannibalistic tendencies was observed in fish exposed to 100 microg/L CBZ. Acetylcholinesterase activity was increased in the brain of fish exposed to 100 microg/L CBZ. CBZ also inhibited the growth of yellow catfish. To better elucidate mechanisms of toxicity, transcriptomics was conducted in both the brain and liver. In the brain, gene networks associated with neurotransmitter dysfunction were altered by CBZ, as well as networks associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolism. In the liver, gene networks associated with the immune system were altered by CBZ. The current study improves comprehension of the sub-lethal effects of CBZ and reveals novel insight into molecular and biochemical pathways disrupted by CBZ, identifying putative key events associated with reduced growth and altered behavior. This study emphasizes the necessity for improved comprehension of the effects of pharmaceutical contaminants on fish at environmentally relevant levels.
ESTHER : Chen_2024_Aquat.Toxicol_271_106929
PubMedSearch : Chen_2024_Aquat.Toxicol_271_106929
PubMedID: 38663201

Title : A Turn-On Lipid Droplet-Targeted Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe with a Large Stokes Shift for Detection of Intracellular Carboxylesterases and Cell Viability Imaging - Li_2023_Molecules_28_
Author(s) : Li C , Li S , Li X , Yuan T , Xu J , Gu X , Hua J
Ref : Molecules , 28 : , 2023
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CEs) play important physiological roles in the human body and are involved in numerous cellular processes. Monitoring CEs activity has great potential for the rapid diagnosis of malignant tumors and multiple diseases. Herein, we developed a new phenazine-based "turn-on" fluorescent probe DBPpys by introducing 4-bromomethyl-phenyl acetate to DBPpy, which can selectively detect CEs with a low detection limit (9.38 x 10(-5) U/mL) and a large Stokes shift (more than 250 nm) in vitro. In addition, DBPpys can also be converted into DBPpy by carboxylesterase in HeLa cells and localized in lipid droplets (LDs), emitting bright near-infrared fluorescence under the irradiation of white light. Moreover, we achieved the detection of cell health status by measuring the intensity of NIR fluorescence after co-incubation of DBPpys with H(2)O(2)-pretreated HeLa cells, indicating that DBPpys has great potential applications for assessing CEs activity and cellular health.
ESTHER : Li_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedID: 36903562

Title : Omics techniques reveal the toxicity mechanisms of three antiepileptic drugs to juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain and liver - Yang_2023_Aquat.Toxicol_262_106668
Author(s) : Yang H , Gu X , Chen H , Zeng Q , Mao Z , Ge Y
Ref : Aquat Toxicol , 262 :106668 , 2023
Abstract : Epilepsy, a neurological disorder, is characterized by seizures that are an appearance of excessive brain activity and is symptomatically treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Oxcarbazepine (OCBZ), lamotrigine (LTG), and carbamazepine (CBZ) are widely used AEDs in clinics and are very often detected in aquatic environments. However, neither the sub-lethal effects nor the specific mechanisms of these AEDs' action on the fish are well understood. In this study, juvenile zebrafish were exposed to a sub-lethal concentration (100 microg/L) of OCBZ, LTG, and CBZ for 28 d, after which indicators of oxidative stress (i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level) and neurotoxicity (i.e. acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level, and glutamic acid (Glu) level) were measured. Brain SOD activity was significantly increased by three AEDs, while brain CAT activity was significantly inhibited by LTG and CBZ. Liver SOD activity was significantly enhanced by CBZ, and liver CAT activity was significantly induced by OCBZ and LTG. Liver MDA level was significantly increased by three AEDs. Brain AChE activity was significantly increased by LTG and CBZ, and brain GABA level was significantly enhanced by three AEDs. However, there were no significant alterations in the levels of MDA and Glu in zebrafish brain. To ascertain mechanisms of AEDs-induced toxicity, brain transcriptomics and liver metabolomics were conducted in zebrafish. The brain transcriptomics results showed that lots of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in the sensory system, the immune system, the digestive system, the metabolic processes, and others in three AEDs treated groups. The metabolomics data indicated dysregulation of glycerophospholipid signaling and lipid homeostasis in zebrafish liver after three AEDs exposure. The overall results of this study improve understanding of the sub-lethal effects and potential molecular mechanisms of action of AEDs in fish.
ESTHER : Yang_2023_Aquat.Toxicol_262_106668
PubMedSearch : Yang_2023_Aquat.Toxicol_262_106668
PubMedID: 37659109

Title : Comparative genomics of Sarcoptes scabiei provide new insights into adaptation to permanent parasitism and within-host species divergence - Xu_2022_Transbound.Emerg.Dis__
Author(s) : Xu J , Wang Q , Wang S , Huang W , Xie Y , Gu X , He R , Peng X , Wu S , Yang G
Ref : Transbound Emerg Dis , : , 2022
Abstract : Sarcoptic scabiei is the causative agent of a highly contagious skin disease in humans and more than 100 mammals. Here, we report the first chromosome-level reference genome of S. scabiei isolated from rabbits, with a contig N50 size of 5.92 Mb, a total assembled length of 57.30 Mb, -12.65% repetitive sequences, and 9,333 predicted protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic tree based on 1,338 shared high-confidence single-copy orthologous genes estimated that the mammalian ectoparasite S. scabiei and the plant-feeding mite Tetranychus urticae separated approximately 340 million years ago. Both neighbor-joining tree and principal component analysis of 20 mite populations isolated from four hosts (humans, pigs, dogs and rabbits) distributed in three countries (China, Australia and the US) consistently supported the genetic subdivisions according to host species rather than geographical location. The demographic history of S. scabiei reconstructed by multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent analysis suggested that S. scabiei isolated from rabbits, humans, dogs, and pigs diverged -5,000 years ago. Investigation of the homeobox (Hox) genes revealed that S. scabiei contains eight of 10 canonical Hox genes that are present in the arthropod ancestor, and the absence of the Abd-A gene may correlate with the long gap between their front and back legs. Comparative genomics demonstrated that genes specific to scabies mites were mainly enriched in nutrition digestive systems and genes in the families that involved detoxification (cytochrome P450, carboxyl/cholinesterases, and the ATP-binding cassette transporter C group) were extremely contracted compared with that of other mites analyzed in this study. Selective sweep analysis of mite populations from either two of the four host species revealed that the strongest selective sweep signals were mainly enriched in cysteine-type peptidase activity and apoptosis. The results provided clues for the mechanisms of S. scabiei adaptation to a permanent parasitic lifestyle and knowledge that would enable further control of this highly contagious skin disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Xu_2022_Transbound.Emerg.Dis__
PubMedSearch : Xu_2022_Transbound.Emerg.Dis__
PubMedID: 36134513

Title : Subchronic toxicity of oral deltamethrin in laying chickens - Liu_2022_Front.Vet.Sci_9_1079580
Author(s) : Liu Y , Han M , Liu C , Tang Y , Jia M , Chen X , Liang H , Gao Y , Gu X
Ref : Front Vet Sci , 9 :1079580 , 2022
Abstract : Pyrethroid pesticides, with low toxicity to birds and mammals and short persistence in the environment, are widely used now. With the development of intensive poultry farming, pesticide application leads to residues in poultry products and pollution in ecological environment. The aim of the present study was to examine deltamethrin subchronic toxicity in laying chickens. One hundred and twelve laying chickens were randomly assigned to 14 groups including 13 groups medicated with deltamethrin (n = 8) and one unmedicated group used as control (n = 8). Tissue samples were collected during and after administration for weighing and histopathological analysis. A single dose of deltamethrin (20 was administered orally to laying chickens for 14 days. The results showed that deltamethrin has no significant effect on the relative organ weight of laying chickens (p > 0.05). The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and cholinesterase in the plasma gradually decreased over time in the medicated group (p < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine significantly increased during treatment (p < 0.05), and significant liver damage and loss of intestinal villous epithelium were observed. The intestinal wall thickness, villus height, and crypt depth of laying chickens were altered by deltamethrin treatment. During treatment was withdrawn, the intestinal repair was more extensive than the liver repair.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Front.Vet.Sci_9_1079580
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Front.Vet.Sci_9_1079580
PubMedID: 36570503

Title : Molecular and behavioral responses of zebrafish embryos\/larvae after sertraline exposure - Yang_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_208_111700
Author(s) : Yang H , Liang X , Zhao Y , Gu X , Mao Z , Zeng Q , Chen H , Martyniuk CJ
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 208 :111700 , 2021
Abstract : Sertraline (SER) is one of the most frequently detected antidepressant drugs in aquatic environments. However, knowledge regarding SER-induced behavioral alterations in fish is insufficient, as well as the mechanisms underlying SER-induced toxicity. The present study aimed to determine behavioral and molecular responses in larval fish following SER exposure with a focus on its mode of action. Zebrafish embryos (~6 h-post-fertilization, hpf) were exposed to one of three concentrations of SER (1, 10, 100 microg/L) for 6 days, respectively. Evaluated parameters included development, behavior, transcripts related to serotonin signaling, serotonin levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity. Accelerated hatching of zebrafish embryos was observed for those fish exposed to 100 microg/L SER at 54 hpf. Locomotor activity (e.g. distance moved and mobile cumulative duration) was significantly reduced in larval zebrafish following exposure to 10 and 100 microg/L SER. Conversely, larval fish showed increased dark-avoidance after exposure to 1-100 microg/L SER. Of the measured transcripts related to serotonin signaling, only serotonin transporter (serta) and serotonin receptor 2c (5-ht2c) mRNA levels were increased in fish in response to 10 microg/L SER treatment. However, serotonin levels were unaltered in larvae exposed to SER. There were no differences among groups in acetylcholinesterase activity at any concentration tested. Taking together, the results evidenced that exposure to SER alters behavioral responses in early-staged zebrafish, which may be related to the abnormal expression of 5-ht2c. This study elucidates molecular responses to SER and characterizes targets that may be sensitive to antidepressant pharmaceuticals in larval fish.
ESTHER : Yang_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_208_111700
PubMedSearch : Yang_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_208_111700
PubMedID: 33396031

Title : Sugammadex enhances recovery after abdominal surgery in cancer patients: a real-world, observational study - Gu_2021_Ann.Palliat.Med_10_12566
Author(s) : Gu X , Gao R , Li P , Jiao D , Song T , Li T , Gu L
Ref : Ann Palliat Med , 10 :12566 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin that selectively binds to muscle relaxants, is increasingly being used to reverse neuromuscular blockade after surgery, but the potential benefits for cancer patients in the real-world setting are obscure. METHODS: This was a real-world, retrospective study. Adult cancer patients (<=18 years) undergoing abdominal surgery at Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, a tertiary care cancer hospital in China, between 2 March 2018 and 25 November 2019, were included in the analysis. Patients received 2 mg/kg (maximally 200 mg) sugammadex based on the discretion of the attending anesthetists. Patients were extubated as soon as they were awake and able to follow commands. The endpoint measures included extubation time, bowel function recovery and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 1,615 patients were included in the analysis: 795 participants received sugammadex at a dosage of 2 mg/kg (maximum 200 mg) upon completion of surgery; the remaining 820 participants did not receive sugammadex or neostigmine (another antidote for neuromuscular blockade). Despite several biases that clearly favored patients not receiving sugammadex [younger, better American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, and fewer comorbidities], the extubation time was significantly shorter in patients receiving sugammadex [median: 14 (range, 0-121) vs. 30.5 (range, 0-183) min; P<0.001]. In multivariate linear regression analysis, sugammadex use was associated with a significantly shorter extubation time (P<0.05). Patients who received sugammadex also had accelerated bowel function recovery and shorter postoperative hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Sugammadex shortens extubation time and accelerates postoperative recovery in cancer patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
ESTHER : Gu_2021_Ann.Palliat.Med_10_12566
PubMedSearch : Gu_2021_Ann.Palliat.Med_10_12566
PubMedID: 35016451

Title : Dimeric Tacrine(10)-hupyridone as a Multitarget-Directed Ligand To Treat Alzheimer's Disease - Xuan_2021_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_12_2462
Author(s) : Xuan Z , Gu X , Yan S , Xie Y , Zhou Y , Zhang H , Jin H , Hu S , Mak MSH , Zhou D , Tsim KWK , Carlier PR , Han Y , Cui W
Ref : ACS Chem Neurosci , 12 :2462 , 2021
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with multiple pathological features. Therefore, a multitarget-directed ligands (MTDLs) strategy has been developed to treat AD. We have previously designed and synthesized dimeric tacrine(10)-hupyridone (A10E), a novel tacrine derivative with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activation activity, by linking tacrine and a fragment of huperzine A. However, it was largely unknown whether A10E could act on other AD targets and produce cognitive-enhancing ability in AD animal models. In this study, A10E could prevent cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 transgenic mice and beta-amyloid (Abeta) oligomers-treated mice, with higher potency than tacrine and huperzine A. Moreover, A10E could effectively inhibit Abeta production and deposition, alleviate neuroinflammation, enhance BDNF expression, and elevate cholinergic neurotransmission in vivo. At nanomolar concentrations, A10E could inhibit Abeta oligomers-induced neurotoxicity via the activation of tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)/Akt pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, Abeta oligomerization and fibrillization could be directly disrupted by A10E. Importantly, A10E at high concentrations did not produce obvious hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that A10E could produce anti-AD neuroprotective effects via the inhibition of Abeta aggregation, the activation of the BDNF/TrkB pathway, the alleviation of neuroinflammation, and the decrease of AChE activity. As MTDLs could produce additional benefits, such as overcoming the deficits of drug combination and enhancing the compliance of AD patients, our results also suggested that A10E might be developed as a promising MTDL lead for the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Xuan_2021_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_12_2462
PubMedSearch : Xuan_2021_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_12_2462
PubMedID: 34156230

Title : Co-expression of Pseudomonas alcaligenes Lipase and Its Specific Foldase in Pichia pastoris by a Dual Expression Cassette Strategy - Zhang_2020_Protein.Expr.Purif__105721
Author(s) : Zhang Z , Zhang X , Hao H , Gong X , Gu X
Ref : Protein Expr Purif , :105721 , 2020
Abstract : Lipomax is a commercialized foldase-dependent Pseudomonas lipase that was previously expressed only in Pseudomonas strains. Here, using Pichia pastoris as the host, we report a new co-expression method that leads to the successful production of Lipomax. The active Lipomax is extracellularly co-expressed with its cognate foldase (LIM); and the purified enzyme mix has the optimum pH at pH 8.0 and an optimal temperature around 40degC. N-glycosylation was observed for Pichia produced Lipomax, and its reduction was shown to increase the lipolytic activity. With different p-nitrophenyl esters as the substrates, the substrate profiling analyses further indicate that Lipomax prefers esters with middle-long chain fatty acids, showing the highest specific activity to p-nitrophenyl caprylate (C8). The extracellular co-expression of Lipomax and LIM in Pichia will not only increase our ability to investigate additional eukaryotic hosts for lipase expression, but also be of considerable value in analyzing other foldase-dependent lipases.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Protein.Expr.Purif__105721
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Protein.Expr.Purif__105721
PubMedID: 32763465

Title : Development and Molecular Investigation into the Effects of Carbamazepine Exposure in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) - Chen_2020_Int.J.Environ.Res.Public.Health_17_
Author(s) : Chen H , Yang H , Zhao Y , Gu X , Martyniuk CJ
Ref : Int J Environ Research Public Health , 17 : , 2020
Abstract : Concerns regarding environmental exposures and the impacts of pharmaceuticals on non-target aquatic organisms continue to increase. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) is often detected as an aquatic contaminant and can disrupt various behaviors of fishes. However, there are few reports which investigate the mechanism of CBZ action in fish. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of CBZ on embryonic development (i.e., hatching rate, heart rate, and body length) and early spontaneous movement. Moreover, we sought to investigate potential mechanisms by focusing on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system in zebrafish 6 days after of exposure. The results show that CBZ exposure did not cause significant effects on embryo development (hatching rate, heart rate, nor body length) at the test concentrations. However, the early spontaneous movement of embryos was inhibited following 10 g/L CBZ exposure at 28-29 h post-fertilization (hpf). In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and GABA concentrations were increased with exposure, whereas glutamate (Glu) concentrations were decreased in larval zebrafish. Gene expression analysis revealed that GABA and glutamate metabolic pathways in zebrafish larvae were altered following exposure to CBZ. GABA transaminase (abat) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad1b) decreased to 100 microg/L, and glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 1b (grin1b) as well as the glutamate receptor, ionotropic, alpha-amino-3hydroxy-5methylisoxazole-4propionic 2b (gria2b) were down-regulated with exposure to 1 microg/L CBZ. Our study suggests that CBZ, which can act as an agonist of the GABA(A) receptor in humans, can also induce alterations in the GABAergic system in fish. Overall, this study improves understanding of the neurotoxicity and behavioral toxicity of zebrafish exposed to CBZ and generates data to be used to understand mechanisms of action that may underlie antiepileptic drug exposures.
ESTHER : Chen_2020_Int.J.Environ.Res.Public.Health_17_
PubMedSearch : Chen_2020_Int.J.Environ.Res.Public.Health_17_
PubMedID: 33260372

Title : Environmentally relevant concentrations of sertraline disrupts behavior and the brain and liver transcriptome of juvenile yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco): Implications for the feeding and growth axis - Chen_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_409_124974
Author(s) : Chen H , Liang X , Gu X , Zeng Q , Mao Z , Martyniuk CJ
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 409 :124974 , 2020
Abstract : Sertraline (SER) is one of the most prevalent antidepressants detected in aquatic environments, but its impact on fish behavior and growth remain poorly understood. As such, behavior and growth were assessed in yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco) following SER exposure. SER induced shoaling, reduced food consumption and growth, and increased cannibalism at environmentally relevant concentrations. To ascertain toxicity mechanisms, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and transcripts related to growth and feeding were measured. AChE activity was increased in fish exposed to 10 and 100 microg/L SER. Transcript levels of neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, growth hormone, and insulin growth factor 1 were reduced in the brain following SER exposure. RNA-seq conducted in brain and liver revealed that gene networks associated with feeding and growth (i.e. leptin expression networks in the brain and insulin signaling pathways in the liver) were altered, proposed to be associated with the decreased food intake and growth. The brain also accumulated SER, which may relate to neurobehavioral responses. Lastly, the main metabolite of SER, norsertraline, was detected in the liver, and may also relate to toxicity. This study uncovers mechanisms and key events proposed to lead to impaired behavior and growth after exposure to some antidepressants.
ESTHER : Chen_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_409_124974
PubMedSearch : Chen_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_409_124974
PubMedID: 33450510

Title : The rs1051931 G>A Polymorphism in the PLA2G7 Gene Confers Resistance to Immunoglobulin Therapy in Kawasaki Disease in a Southern Chinese Population - Gu_2020_Front.Pediatr_8_338
Author(s) : Gu X , Lin W , Xu Y , Che D , Tan Y , Lu Z , Pi L , Fu L , Zhou H , Jiang Z
Ref : Front Pediatr , 8 :338 , 2020
Abstract : Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a common cardiovascular disease in infants and young children, with fever, rash, and conjunctivitis as the main clinical manifestations, which can lead to the occurrence of coronary aneurysms. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the preferred treatment for KD patients, but 10-20% of patients are resistant to IVIG. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA2) is a potential therapeutic target for coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, and the polymorphism of Phospholipase A2 Group VII (PLA2G7) is closely related to the activity of Lp-PLA2, of which rs1051931 is the strongest. Therefore, the rs1051931 polymorphism may be a predictor of IVIG resistance in KD patients. Methods: A total of 760 KD cases, including 148 IVIG-resistant patients and 612 IVIG-responsive patients, were genotyped for rs1051931 in PLA2G7, we compared the effects of rs1051931 on IVIG treatment in KD patients by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The homozygous mutation AA may be a protective factor for IVIG resistance in KD patients (adjusted OR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.14-10.57, P = 0.0284) and is more evident in patients with KD aged <60 months (adjusted OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.10-12.28, P = 0.0399). Conclusions: The PLA2G7 rs1051931 G>A polymorphism may be suitable as a biomarker for the diagnosis or prognosis of IVIG resistance in KD in a southern Chinese population.
ESTHER : Gu_2020_Front.Pediatr_8_338
PubMedSearch : Gu_2020_Front.Pediatr_8_338
PubMedID: 32656171
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : Comparative transcriptomic profiling of peripheral efferent and afferent nerve fibres at different developmental stages in mice - Wang_2018_Sci.Rep_8_11990
Author(s) : Wang H , Zhou Y , Cong M , Zhang L , Gu X , Tang X
Ref : Sci Rep , 8 :11990 , 2018
Abstract : Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor and sensory function in humans, and its functional recovery largely depends on the axonal outgrowth required for the accurate reinnervation of appropriate targets. To better understand how motor and sensory nerve fibres select their terminal pathways, an unbiased cDNA microarray analysis was conducted to examine differential gene expression patterns in peripheral efferent and afferent fibres at different developmental stages in mice. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed common and distinct features of enrichment for differentially expressed genes during motor and sensory nerve fibre development. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) further indicated that the key differentially expressed genes were associated with trans-synaptic neurexin-neuroligin signalling components and a variety of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The aim of this study was to generate a framework of gene networks regulated during motor and sensory neuron differentiation/maturation. These data may provide new clues regarding the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine the intrinsic capacity of neurons to regenerate after peripheral nerve injury. Our findings may thus facilitate further development of a potential intervention to manipulate the therapeutic efficiency of peripheral nerve repair in the clinic.
ESTHER : Wang_2018_Sci.Rep_8_11990
PubMedSearch : Wang_2018_Sci.Rep_8_11990
PubMedID: 30097601

Title : Central cholinergic system mediates working memory deficit induced by anesthesia\/surgery in adult mice - Zhang_2018_Brain.Behav_8_e00957
Author(s) : Zhang X , Jiang X , Huang L , Tian W , Chen X , Gu X , Yu W , Tian J , Su D
Ref : Brain Behav , 8 :e00957 , 2018
Abstract : Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is consistently associated with increased morbidity and mortality, which has become a major concern of patients and caregivers. Although POCD occurs mainly in aged patients, it happens at any age. Previous studies demonstrated that anesthesia/surgery had no effects on reference memory of adult mice. However, whether it impairs working memory remains unclear. Working memory deficit would result in many deficits of executive function. We hypothesized that anesthesia/surgery impaired the working memory of adult mice and the central cholinergic system was involved. Method: Tibial fracture internal fixation under the anesthesia of isoflurane was performed in two-month-old C57BL/6 mice. Two days later, the spatial reference memory and working memory were measured by a Morris Water Maze (MWM). Donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), was administered in another cohort mice for 4 weeks. Then, the working memory was measured by MWM 2 days after anesthesia/surgery. Western blot was used to detect the protein levels of acetylcholine transferase (ChAT), AChE, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and choline transporter (ChT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Results: We found that anesthesia/surgery had no effects on the reference memory, but it impaired the working memory in adult mice. Meanwhile, we also found that the protein level of ChAT in PFC decreased significantly compared with that in control group. Donepezil pretreatment prevented working memory impairment and the decrease of the protein levels of ChAT induced by anesthesia/surgery. Conclusion: These results suggest that anesthesia/surgery leads to working memory deficits in adult mice and central cholinergic system impairment is involved.
ESTHER : Zhang_2018_Brain.Behav_8_e00957
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2018_Brain.Behav_8_e00957
PubMedID: 29761010

Title : Tacrine(10)-Hupyridone Prevents Post-operative Cognitive Dysfunction via the Activation of BDNF Pathway and the Inhibition of AChE in Aged Mice - Chen_2018_Front.Cell.Neurosci_12_396
Author(s) : Chen H , Wu X , Gu X , Zhou Y , Ye L , Zhang K , Pan H , Wang J , Wei H , Zhu B , Naman CB , Mak SH , Carlier PR , Cui W , Han YF
Ref : Front Cell Neurosci , 12 :396 , 2018
Abstract : Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) could cause short-term or long-term cognitive disruption lasting weeks or months after anesthesia and surgery in elderly. However, no effective treatment of POCD is currently available. Previous studies indicated that the enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and the elevation the cholinergic system, might be effective to prevent POCD. In this study, we have discovered that tacrine(10)-hupyridone (A10E), a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor derived from tacrine and huperzine A, could prevent surgery-induced short-term and long-term impairments of recognition and spatial cognition, as evidenced by the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze (MWM) tests, in aged mice. Moreover, A10E significantly increased the expression of BDNF and activated the downstream Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the surgery-treated mice. Furthermore, A10E substantially enhanced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive area and decreased AChE activity, in the hippocampus regions of surgery-treated mice, indicating that A10E could prevent surgery-induced dysfunction of cholinergic system, possibly via increasing the synthesis of acetylcholine and the inhibition of AChE. In conclusion, our results suggested that A10E might prevent POCD via the activation of BDNF pathway and the inhibition of AChE, concurrently, in aged mice. These findings also provided a support that A10E might be developed as a potential drug lead for POCD.
ESTHER : Chen_2018_Front.Cell.Neurosci_12_396
PubMedSearch : Chen_2018_Front.Cell.Neurosci_12_396
PubMedID: 30483056

Title : Wnt5a promotes Frizzled-4 signalosome assembly by stabilizing cysteine-rich domain dimerization - DeBruine_2017_Genes.Dev_31_916
Author(s) : DeBruine ZJ , Ke J , Harikumar KG , Gu X , Borowsky P , Williams BO , Xu W , Miller LJ , Xu HE , Melcher K
Ref : Genes Dev , 31 :916 , 2017
Abstract : Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated when extracellular Wnt ligands bind Frizzled (FZD) receptors at the cell membrane. Wnts bind FZD cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) with high affinity through a palmitoylated N-terminal "thumb" and a disulfide-stabilized C-terminal "index finger," yet how these binding events trigger receptor activation and intracellular signaling remains unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of the Frizzled-4 (FZD(4)) CRD in complex with palmitoleic acid, which reveals a CRD tetramer consisting of two cross-braced CRD dimers. Each dimer is stabilized by interactions of one hydrophobic palmitoleic acid tail with two CRD palmitoleoyl-binding grooves oriented end to end, suggesting that the Wnt palmitoleoyl group stimulates CRD-CRD interaction. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in live cells, we show that WNT5A stimulates dimerization of membrane-anchored FZD(4) CRDs and oligomerization of full-length FZD(4), which requires the integrity of CRD palmitoleoyl-binding residues. These results suggest that FZD receptors may form signalosomes in response to Wnt binding through the CRDs and that the Wnt palmitoleoyl group is important in promoting these interactions. These results complement our understanding of lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6), Dishevelled, and Axin signalosome assembly and provide a more complete model for Wnt signalosome assembly both intracellularly and at the membrane.
ESTHER : DeBruine_2017_Genes.Dev_31_916
PubMedSearch : DeBruine_2017_Genes.Dev_31_916
PubMedID: 28546512

Title : Thyroglobulin gene mutations in Chinese patients with congenital hypothyroidism - Hu_2016_Mol.Cell.Endocrinol_423_60
Author(s) : Hu X , Chen R , Fu C , Fan X , Wang J , Qian J , Yi S , Li C , Luo J , Su J , Zhang S , Xie B , Zheng H , Lai Y , Chen Y , Li H , Gu X , Chen S , Shen Y
Ref : Mol Cell Endocrinol , 423 :60 , 2016
Abstract : Mutations in Thyroglobulin (TG) are common genetic causes of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). But the TG mutation spectrum and its frequency in Chinese CH patients have not been investigated. Here we conducted a genetic screening of TG gene in a cohort of 382 Chinese CH patients. We identified 22 rare non-polymorphic variants including six truncating variants and 16 missense variants of unknown significance (VUS). Seven patients carried homozygous pathogenic variants, and three patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygous VUS. 48 out of 382 patients carried one of 18 heterozygous VUS which is significantly more often than their occurrences in control cohort (P < 0.0001). Unique to Asian population, the c.274+2T>G variant is the most common pathogenic variant with an allele frequency of 0.021. The prevalence of CH due to TG gene defect in Chinese population was estimated to be approximately 1/101,000. Our study uncovered ethnicity specific TG mutation spectrum and frequency.
ESTHER : Hu_2016_Mol.Cell.Endocrinol_423_60
PubMedSearch : Hu_2016_Mol.Cell.Endocrinol_423_60
PubMedID: 26777470
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-TG

Title : Enriched environment improves post-stroke cognitive impairment in mice by potential regulation of acetylation homeostasis in cholinergic circuits - Wang_2016_Brain.Res_1650_232
Author(s) : Wang X , Chen A , Wu H , Ye M , Cheng H , Jiang X , Zhang X , Wu D , Gu X , Shen F , Shan C , Yu D
Ref : Brain Research , 1650 :232 , 2016
Abstract : Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI), commonly seen in the clinical practice, is a major factor impeding patient rehabilitation. Enriched environment (EE) intervention is a simple and effective way to improve cognitive impairment, partially due to the rebalancing of the basal forebrain-hippocampus cholinergic signaling pathway. Epigenetic changes have been identified in many cognitive disorders. However, studies on the effects of EE on epigenetic regulation of cholinergic circuits in PSCI animal models have not yet been reported. In this study, we established a photothrombotic mouse PSCI model and showed that after EE intervention, mice with PSCI had significantly improved water maze performance, better induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), enhanced function of the basal forebrain-hippocampus cholinergic circuits of contralateral side of stroke and relatively balanced acetylation homeostasis compared to those of PSCI mice in standard environments (SE). In addition, PSCI mice in EE expressed much higher levels of p-CREB and CBP than in SE, and the chromatins bound to M-type promoter of ChAT gene were more acetylated. These results demonstrate that EE plays an important role in the improvement of PSCI and the underlying mechanism may involve in the acetylation of histones bound to the ChAT gene promoter in cholinergic circuits.
ESTHER : Wang_2016_Brain.Res_1650_232
PubMedSearch : Wang_2016_Brain.Res_1650_232
PubMedID: 27637156

Title : Identification and Characterization of Two Novel Esterases from a Metagenomic Library - Gu_2015_Food.Sci.Technol.Res_21_649
Author(s) : Gu X , Wang S , Wang SC , Zhao LX , Cao M , Feng Z
Ref : Food Science and Technology Research , 21 :649 , 2015
Abstract : Esterases are biocatalysts in food industry aimed for nutrition improvements, formation of flavor, and food fermentation. Two esterases EstGX1 and EstGX2 were identified based on function-based screening of a soil metagenomic cosmid library. Enzyme properties including optimum pH, optimal temperature, tolerance to organic solvents and metal ions were measured, respectively. The activity of EstGX2 could maintain about 40% after incubated at 99C for 55 min, and could be increased in presence of 15% ethanol. The unique properties of EstGX2, high thermostability and stability in the presence of several organic solvents, may make it a promising enzyme candidate in food industry.
ESTHER : Gu_2015_Food.Sci.Technol.Res_21_649
PubMedSearch : Gu_2015_Food.Sci.Technol.Res_21_649
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-estGX1 , 9bact-a0a0d5w6z2

Title : miR-124 represses ROCK1 expression to promote neurite elongation through activation of the PI3K\/Akt signal pathway - Gu_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_156
Author(s) : Gu X , Meng S , Liu S , Jia C , Fang Y , Li S , Fu C , Song Q , Lin L , Wang X
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 52 :156 , 2014
Abstract : Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for miR-124, the most abundant and well-conserved brain-specific microRNA(miRNA), in promoting neurite outgrowth and elongation during neuronal differentiation. This miRNA's target genes and the mechanisms that execute this role remain unclear. In this study, we identified ROCK1, a small GTPase Rho kinase, as a direct target of miR-124 for regulating neurite elongation. miR-124 significantly inhibited ROCK1 expression in M17 cells. Inhibiting ROCK1 promoted neurite elongation, and the overexpression of ROCK1 strongly repressed the neurite elongation-enhancing effect of miR-124 in M17 cells. We determined that Akt functions as a novel ROCK1 downstream effector in regulating neurite outgrowth and elongation.
ESTHER : Gu_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_156
PubMedSearch : Gu_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_156
PubMedID: 24338057

Title : Myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1, and HDL form a functional ternary complex - Huang_2013_J.Clin.Invest_123_3815
Author(s) : Huang Y , Wu Z , Riwanto M , Gao S , Levison BS , Gu X , Fu X , Wagner MA , Besler C , Gerstenecker G , Zhang R , Li XM , Didonato AJ , Gogonea V , Tang WH , Smith JD , Plow EF , Fox PL , Shih DM , Lusis AJ , Fisher EA , Didonato JA , Landmesser U , Hazen SL
Ref : J Clinical Investigation , 123 :3815 , 2013
Abstract : Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein-associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis. MPO is a source of ROS during inflammation and can oxidize apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) of HDL, impairing its atheroprotective functions. In contrast, PON1 fosters systemic antioxidant effects and promotes some of the atheroprotective properties attributed to HDL. Here, we demonstrate that MPO, PON1, and HDL bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1. MPO oxidizes PON1 on tyrosine 71 (Tyr71), a modified residue found in human atheroma that is critical for HDL binding and PON1 function. Acute inflammation model studies with transgenic and knockout mice for either PON1 or MPO confirmed that MPO and PON1 reciprocally modulate each other's function in vivo. Further structure and function studies identified critical contact sites between APOA1 within HDL, PON1, and MPO, and proteomics studies of HDL recovered from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects revealed enhanced chlorotyrosine content, site-specific PON1 methionine oxidation, and reduced PON1 activity. HDL thus serves as a scaffold upon which MPO and PON1 interact during inflammation, whereupon PON1 binding partially inhibits MPO activity, and MPO promotes site-specific oxidative modification and impairment of PON1 and APOA1 function.
ESTHER : Huang_2013_J.Clin.Invest_123_3815
PubMedSearch : Huang_2013_J.Clin.Invest_123_3815
PubMedID: 23908111

Title : Chrysin attenuates allergic airway inflammation by modulating the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 in mice - Du_2012_Mol.Med.Rep_6_100
Author(s) : Du Q , Gu X , Cai J , Huang M , Su M
Ref : Mol Med Rep , 6 :100 , 2012
Abstract : Chrysin, a flavonoid obtained from various natural sources, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant and anti-allergic activities. However, its anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities in asthma animal models are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of chrysin on airway inflammation and the possible mechanisms through which it acts in a murine model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin (OVA) were administered intragastrically with chrysin at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily. Chrysin significantly suppressed OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to acetylcholine chloride (Ach). Chrysin administration significantly inhibited the total inflammatory cell and eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in serum. Histological examination of lung tissue demonstrated that chrysin significantly attenuated allergen-induced lung eosinophilic inflammation and mucus-producing goblet cells in the airway. In addition, chrysin triggered a switch of the immune response to allergens towards a T-helper type 1 (Th1) profile by modulating the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 in allergic mice. These data suggest that chrysin exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties and provides new insights into the immunopharmacological role of chrysin in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma.
ESTHER : Du_2012_Mol.Med.Rep_6_100
PubMedSearch : Du_2012_Mol.Med.Rep_6_100
PubMedID: 22552848

Title : Lysophosphatidylcholine is generated by spontaneous deacylation of oxidized phospholipids - Choi_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_111
Author(s) : Choi J , Zhang W , Gu X , Chen X , Hong L , Laird JM , Salomon RG
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 24 :111 , 2011
Abstract : Elevated levels of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), present in oxidatively damaged low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), are implicated in cardiovascular complications. LysoPC is generated by free radical-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated PCs to oxidatively truncated phosphophatidylcholines (oxPCs). It is known that oxPCs are especially susceptible to hydrolysis by platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase (PL) A(2) that exists in plasma largely in association with LDL. Drugs that aim to prevent the generation of lysoPC by inhibiting this PLA(2)-catalyzed hydrolysis are in advanced clinical trials. We now report that spontaneous deacylation oxPCs, such as 1-palmityl-2-(4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, occurs readily under physiological conditions of temperature and pH (t(1/2) = 30 min at 37 degreesC and pH 7.4). We also show that this reaction proceeds through an intramolecular transesterification mechanism. Because antiphospholipase drugs cannot block this nonenzymatic pathway to lysoPC, additional therapeutic measures may be needed to avoid the pathological consequences of the newly discovered biomolecular chemistry of oxPCs.
ESTHER : Choi_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_111
PubMedSearch : Choi_2011_Chem.Res.Toxicol_24_111
PubMedID: 20973507

Title : Continuous colorimetric assay for acetylcholinesterase and inhibitor screening with gold nanoparticles - Wang_2009_Langmuir_25_2504
Author(s) : Wang M , Gu X , Zhang G , Zhang D , Zhu D
Ref : Langmuir , 25 :2504 , 2009
Abstract : We report herein a new colorimetric assay method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and its inhibitor screening by making use of the following facts: (1) the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) results in the red-shift of the plasmon absorption due to interparticle plasmon interactions and (2) AChE can catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine into thiocholine which can induce the aggregation of Au-NPs. With this convenient method, the activity of AChE with a concentration as low as 0.6 mU/mL can be assayed. Moreover, this assay method is also useful for screening inhibitors of AChE. Given its simplicity and easy-operation, this method may extend to high-throughput screening of AChE inhibitors and relevant drug discovery.
ESTHER : Wang_2009_Langmuir_25_2504
PubMedSearch : Wang_2009_Langmuir_25_2504
PubMedID: 19154124

Title : Convenient and continuous fluorometric assay method for acetylcholinesterase and inhibitor screening based on the aggregation-induced emission - Wang_2009_Anal.Chem_81_4444
Author(s) : Wang M , Gu X , Zhang G , Zhang D , Zhu D
Ref : Analytical Chemistry , 81 :4444 , 2009
Abstract : A new convenient and continuous fluorometric assay method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and its inhibitor screening is successfully established with the ensemble of 1 [a TPE (tetraphenylethylene) compound with two sulfonate (-SO(3)(-)) units] and myristoylcholine (an amphiphilic compound as a good substrate of AChE). This new assay method is designed by making use of the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature of TPE compounds. Both dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence confocal microscopic measurements indicated the formation of aggregation complex for the ensemble of 1 and myristoylcholine and further disassembly of the aggregation complex after introducing AChE. The analysis for AChE can be carried out continuously, and AChE with concentration as low as 0.5 U/mL can be assayed. The results also clearly demonstrate the usefulness of this convenient assay method for kinetic study of AChE-catalyzed myristoylcholine hydrolysis and screening inhibitors of AChE. Given its simplicity and easy operation, this method may extend to high-throughput screening of AChE inhibitors and relevant Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug discovery.
ESTHER : Wang_2009_Anal.Chem_81_4444
PubMedSearch : Wang_2009_Anal.Chem_81_4444
PubMedID: 19374428

Title : The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L - Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
Author(s) : Huang S , Li R , Zhang Z , Li L , Gu X , Fan W , Lucas WJ , Wang X , Xie B , Ni P , Ren Y , Zhu H , Li J , Lin K , Jin W , Fei Z , Li G , Staub J , Kilian A , van der Vossen EA , Wu Y , Guo J , He J , Jia Z , Tian G , Lu Y , Ruan J , Qian W , Wang M , Huang Q , Li B , Xuan Z , Cao J , Asan , Wu Z , Zhang J , Cai Q , Bai Y , Zhao B , Han Y , Li Y , Li X , Wang S , Shi Q , Liu S , Cho WK , Kim JY , Xu Y , Heller-Uszynska K , Miao H , Cheng Z , Zhang S , Wu J , Yang Y , Kang H , Li M , Liang H , Ren X , Shi Z , Wen M , Jian M , Yang H , Zhang G , Yang Z , Chen R , Ma L , Liu H , Zhou Y , Zhao J , Fang X , Fang L , Liu D , Zheng H , Zhang Y , Qin N , Li Z , Yang G , Yang S , Bolund L , Kristiansen K , Li S , Zhang X , Wang J , Sun R , Zhang B , Jiang S , Du Y
Ref : Nat Genet , 41 :1275 , 2009
Abstract : Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequencing technologies to obtain 72.2-fold genome coverage. The absence of recent whole-genome duplication, along with the presence of few tandem duplications, explains the small number of genes in the cucumber. Our study establishes that five of the cucumber's seven chromosomes arose from fusions of ten ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides a valuable resource for developing elite cultivars and for studying the evolution and function of the plant vascular system.
ESTHER : Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
PubMedSearch : Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
PubMedID: 19881527
Gene_locus related to this paper: cucsa-a0a0a0ktw5 , cucsa-a0a0a0lnt6 , cucsa-a0a0a0kpn7 , cucsa-a0a0a0lvt9 , cucsa-a0a0a0kdx8 , cucsa-a0a0a0m228 , cucsa-a0a0a0kz31 , cucsa-a0a0a0k5t5 , cucsa-a0a0a0kfs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kjj7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kzs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0l0a6 , cucsa-a0a0a0l4w4 , cucsa-a0a0a0lpz0 , cucsa-a0a0a0ls66

Title : An integrated genetic and cytogenetic map of the cucumber genome - Ren_2009_PLoS.One_4_e5795
Author(s) : Ren Y , Zhang Z , Liu J , Staub JE , Han Y , Cheng Z , Li X , Lu J , Miao H , Kang H , Xie B , Gu X , Wang X , Du Y , Jin W , Huang S
Ref : PLoS ONE , 4 :e5795 , 2009
Abstract : The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular linkage maps. We report herein the development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers originated from whole genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent construction of a high-density genetic linkage map. This map includes 995 SSRs in seven linkage groups which spans in total 573 cM, and defines approximately 680 recombination breakpoints with an average of 0.58 cM between two markers. These linkage groups were then assigned to seven corresponding chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH assays also revealed a chromosomal inversion between Cucumis subspecies [C. sativus var. sativus L. and var. hardwickii (R.) Alef], which resulted in marker clustering on the genetic map. A quarter of the mapped markers showed relatively high polymorphism levels among 11 inbred lines of cucumber. Among the 995 markers, 49%, 26% and 22% were conserved in melon, watermelon and pumpkin, respectively. This map will facilitate whole genome sequencing, positional cloning, and molecular breeding in cucumber, and enable the integration of knowledge of gene and trait in cucurbits.
ESTHER : Ren_2009_PLoS.One_4_e5795
PubMedSearch : Ren_2009_PLoS.One_4_e5795
PubMedID: 19495411
Gene_locus related to this paper: cucsa-a0a0a0ktw5 , cucsa-a0a0a0lnt6 , cucsa-a0a0a0kpn7 , cucsa-a0a0a0lvt9 , cucsa-a0a0a0kdx8 , cucsa-a0a0a0m228 , cucsa-a0a0a0kz31 , cucsa-a0a0a0k5t5 , cucsa-a0a0a0kfs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kjj7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kzs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0l0a6 , cucsa-a0a0a0l4w4 , cucsa-a0a0a0lpz0

Title : Investigation of differentially expressed proteins in rat gastrocnemius muscle during denervation-reinnervation - Sun_2006_J.Muscle.Res.Cell.Motil_27_241
Author(s) : Sun H , Liu J , Ding F , Wang X , Liu M , Gu X
Ref : J Muscle Res Cell Motil , 27 :241 , 2006
Abstract : To have a better insight into the molecular events involved in denervation-induced atrophy and reinnervation-induced regeneration of skeletal muscles, it is important to investigate the changes in expression levels of a great multitude of muscle proteins during the process of denervation-reinnervation. In this study, we employed an experimental model of rat sciatic nerve crush to examine the differentially expressed proteins in the rat gastrocnemius muscle at different time points (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks) after sciatic nerve crush by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), collectively referred to as the modern proteomic analysis. The results showed that 16 proteins in the rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibited two distinct types of change pattern in their relative abundance: (1) The relative expression levels of 11 proteins (including alpha actin, myosin heavy chain, etc.) were decreased either within 1 or 2 weeks post-sciatic nerve injury, followed by restoration during the ensuing days until 4 weeks. (2) The other 5 proteins (including alpha enolase, beta enolase, signal peptide peptidase-like 3, etc.) displayed an up-regulation in their relative expression levels within 1 week following sciatic nerve injury, and a subsequent gradual decrease in their relative expression levels until 4 weeks. Moreover, the significance of the changes in expression levels of the 16 proteins during denervation-reinnervation has been selectively discussed.
ESTHER : Sun_2006_J.Muscle.Res.Cell.Motil_27_241
PubMedSearch : Sun_2006_J.Muscle.Res.Cell.Motil_27_241
PubMedID: 16752196

Title : Memantine alleviates toxicity induced by dichlorvos in rats - Zhou_2005_J.Occup.Health_47_96
Author(s) : Zhou Z , Dai X , Gu X , Sun Y , Zheng G , Zheng J
Ref : J Occup Health , 47 :96 , 2005
Abstract : The changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and protective efficacy of memantine (MEM) in rats poisoned with dichlorvos were studied. Dichlorvos evoked down-regulation of the affinity and density of [(3)H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptor in the brain of rats receiving dichlorvos (15 and 25 mg/kg bw, i.p.). The binding capacity of NMDA receptor and acetylcholinesterase activity were determined at 4 h, 8 h, 16 h, 24 h and 48 h after treatment. When rats were given a different doses of MEM (5, 15 and 45 mg/kg bw) after poisoning (dichlorvos 25 mg/kg bw), the latency of onset of signs was postponed and the magnitude of muscular fasciculation was alleviated as the dose of MEM increased. The lower doses of MEM (5 and 15 mg/kg bw) could antagonize the dichlorvos-evoked down-regulation of NMDA receptor, while the highest dose (45 mg/kg bw) decreased the Bmax and Kd values of NMDA receptors. These results show the dichlorvos-evoked down-regulation of NMDA receptor might be self-regulation by the body to protect the central nervous system. MEM could antagonize the down-regulation of NMDA receptors, and alleviated signs of poisoning, especially reducing the magnitude of muscular fasciculation. We suggest that the role of NMDA receptor in organophosphates (OP) poisoning should receive more attention, and, that MEM treatment in acute OP poisoning, as a supplement to atropine and oxime, should be considered.
ESTHER : Zhou_2005_J.Occup.Health_47_96
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2005_J.Occup.Health_47_96
PubMedID: 15824473

Title : Seizures increase acetylcholine and choline concentrations in rat brain regions - Jope_1991_Neurochem.Res_16_1219
Author(s) : Jope RS , Gu X
Ref : Neurochem Res , 16 :1219 , 1991
Abstract : Seizures induced by three convulsant treatments produced differential effects on the concentration of acetylcholine in rat brain. Status epilepticus induced by (i) coadministration of lithium and pilocarpine caused massive increases in the concentration of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, (ii) a high dose of pilocarpine did not cause an increase of acetylcholine, and (iii) kainate increased acetylcholine, but the magnitude was lower than with the lithium/pilocarpine model. The finding that the acetylcholine concentration increases in two models of status epilepticus in the cortex and hippocampus is in direct contrast with many in vitro reports in which excessive stimulation causes depletion of acetylcholine. The concentration of choline increased during seizures with all three models. This is likely to be due to calcium- and agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C and/or D activity causing cleavage of choline-containing lipids. The excessive acetylcholine present during status epilepticus induced by lithium and pilocarpine was responsive to pharmacological manipulation. Atropine tended to decrease acetylcholine, similar to its effects in controls. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, reduced the excessive concentration of acetylcholine, especially in the cortex. Inhibition of choline uptake by hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) administered icv reduced the acetylcholine concentration in controls and when given to rats during status epilepticus. These results demonstrate that the rat brain concentrations of acetylcholine and choline can increase during status epilepticus. The accumulated acetylcholine was not in a static, inactive compartment, but was actively turning-over and was responsive to drug treatments. Excessive concentrations of acetylcholine and/or choline may play a role in seizure maintenance and in the neuronal damage and lethality associated with status epilepticus.
ESTHER : Jope_1991_Neurochem.Res_16_1219
PubMedSearch : Jope_1991_Neurochem.Res_16_1219
PubMedID: 1815138