Ishikawa T

References (15)

Title : GPER\/PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by Piceatannol - Arisawa_2023_Nutrients_16_
Author(s) : Arisawa K , Matsuoka A , Ozawa N , Ishikawa T , Ichi I , Fujiwara Y
Ref : Nutrients , 16 : , 2023
Abstract : We previously reported that piceatannol (PIC) had an anti-obesity effect only in ovariectomized (OVX) postmenopausal obesity mice. PIC was found to induce the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (pHSL) in OVX mice. To elucidate the mechanism by which PIC activates HSL, we investigated the effect of PIC using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PIC induced HSL phosphorylation at Ser563 in 3T3-L1 cells, as in vivo experiments showed. pHSL (Ser563) is believed to be activated through the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways; however, the addition of a selective inhibitor of beta-AR did not inhibit the effect of PIC. The addition of a PKA inhibitor with PIC blocked pHSL (Ser563), suggesting that the effects are mediated by PKA in a different pathway than beta-AR. The addition of G15, a selective inhibitor of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), reduced the activation of HSL by PIC. Furthermore, PIC inhibited insulin signaling and did not induce pHSL (Ser565), which represents its inactive form. These results suggest that PIC acts as a phytoestrogen and phosphorylates HSL through a novel pathway that activates GPER and its downstream PKA, which may be one of the inhibitory actions of PIC on fat accumulation in estrogen deficiency.
ESTHER : Arisawa_2023_Nutrients_16_
PubMedSearch : Arisawa_2023_Nutrients_16_
PubMedID: 38201867

Title : Genome sequence of Aspergillus luchuensis NBRC 4314 - Yamada_2016_DNA.Res_23_507
Author(s) : Yamada O , Machida M , Hosoyama A , Goto M , Takahashi T , Futagami T , Yamagata Y , Takeuchi M , Kobayashi T , Koike H , Abe K , Asai K , Arita M , Fujita N , Fukuda K , Higa KI , Horikawa H , Ishikawa T , Jinno K , Kato Y , Kirimura K , Mizutani O , Nakasone K , Sano M , Shiraishi Y , Tsukahara M , Gomi K
Ref : DNA Research , 23 :507 , 2016
Abstract : Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A. luchuensis NBRC 4314 (RIB 2604). The total length of nonredundant sequences was nearly 34.7 Mb, comprising approximately 2,300 contigs with 16 telomere-like sequences. In total, 11,691 genes were predicted to encode proteins. Most of the housekeeping genes, such as transcription factors and N-and O-glycosylation system, were conserved with respect to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae An alternative oxidase and acid-stable alpha-amylase regarding citric acid production and fermentation at a low pH as well as a unique glutamic peptidase were also found in the genome. Furthermore, key biosynthetic gene clusters of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B were absent when compared with A. niger genome, showing the safety of A. luchuensis for food and beverage production. This genome information will facilitate not only comparative genomics with industrial kuro-koji molds, but also molecular breeding of the molds in improvements of awamori fermentation.
ESTHER : Yamada_2016_DNA.Res_23_507
PubMedSearch : Yamada_2016_DNA.Res_23_507
PubMedID: 27651094
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9euro-a0a146f3d2

Title : Butea superba-Induced Amelioration of Cognitive and Emotional Deficits in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice and Putative Mechanisms Underlying Its Actions - Mizuki_2014_J.Pharmacol.Sci_124_457
Author(s) : Mizuki D , Qi Z , Tanaka K , Fujiwara H , Ishikawa T , Higuchi Y , Matsumoto K
Ref : J Pharmacol Sci , 124 :457 , 2014
Abstract : This study investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of Butea superba (BS) on cognitive deficits and depression-related behavior using olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its actions. OBX mice were treated daily with BS (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) or reference drugs, tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) from day 3 after OBX. OBX impaired non-spatial and spatial cognitive performances, which were elucidated by the novel object recognition test and modified Y maze test, respectively. These deficits were attenuated by tacrine and BS but not imipramine. OBX animals exhibited depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test in a manner reversible by imipramine and BS but not tacrine. OBX down-regulated phosphorylation of synaptic plasticity-related signaling proteins: NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein. OBX also reduced choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus. BS and tacrine reversed these neurochemical alterations. Moreover, BS inhibited ex vivo activity of acetylcholinesterase in the brain. These results indicate that BS ameliorates not only cognition dysfunction via normalizing synaptic plasticity-related signaling and facilitating central cholinergic systems but also depression-like behavior via a mechanism differing from that implicated in BS amelioration of cognitive function in OBX animals.
ESTHER : Mizuki_2014_J.Pharmacol.Sci_124_457
PubMedSearch : Mizuki_2014_J.Pharmacol.Sci_124_457
PubMedID: 24646653

Title : Diverse type VI secretion phospholipases are functionally plastic antibacterial effectors - Russell_2013_Nature_496_508
Author(s) : Russell AB , LeRoux M , Hathazi K , Agnello DM , Ishikawa T , Wiggins PA , Wai SN , Mougous JD
Ref : Nature , 496 :508 , 2013
Abstract : Membranes allow the compartmentalization of biochemical processes and are therefore fundamental to life. The conservation of the cellular membrane, combined with its accessibility to secreted proteins, has made it a common target of factors mediating antagonistic interactions between diverse organisms. Here we report the discovery of a diverse superfamily of bacterial phospholipase enzymes. Within this superfamily, we defined enzymes with phospholipase A1 and A2 activity, which are common in host-cell-targeting bacterial toxins and the venoms of certain insects and reptiles. However, we find that the fundamental role of the superfamily is to mediate antagonistic bacterial interactions as effectors of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) translocation apparatus; accordingly, we name these proteins type VI lipase effectors. Our analyses indicate that PldA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a eukaryotic-like phospholipase D, is a member of the type VI lipase effector superfamily and the founding substrate of the haemolysin co-regulated protein secretion island II T6SS (H2-T6SS). Although previous studies have specifically implicated PldA and the H2-T6SS in pathogenesis, we uncovered a specific role for the effector and its secretory machinery in intra- and interspecies bacterial interactions. Furthermore, we find that this effector achieves its antibacterial activity by degrading phosphatidylethanolamine, the major component of bacterial membranes. The surprising finding that virulence-associated phospholipases can serve as specific antibacterial effectors suggests that interbacterial interactions are a relevant factor driving the continuing evolution of pathogenesis.
ESTHER : Russell_2013_Nature_496_508
PubMedSearch : Russell_2013_Nature_496_508
PubMedID: 23552891
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-T6SS.TLE3

Title : Decreased resting energy expenditure in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy - Shimizu-Fujiwara_2012_Brain.Dev_34_206
Author(s) : Shimizu-Fujiwara M , Komaki H , Nakagawa E , Mori-Yoshimura M , Oya Y , Fujisaki T , Tokita Y , Kubota N , Shimazaki R , Sato K , Ishikawa T , Goto K , Mochizuki H , Takanoha S , Ogata K , Kawai M , Konagaya M , Miyazaki T , Tatara K , Sugai K , Sasaki M
Ref : Brain Dev , 34 :206 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle metabolism is a major determinant of resting energy expenditure (REE). Although the severe muscle loss that characterizes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may alter REE, this has not been extensively investigated. METHODS: We studied REE in 77 patients with DMD ranging in age from 10 to 37 years using a portable indirect calorimeter, together with several clinical parameters (age, height, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), vital capacity (VC), creatine kinase, creatinine, albumin, cholinesterase, prealbumin), and assessed their influence on REE. In addition, in 12 patients maintaining a stable body weight, the ratio of energy intake to REE was calculated and defined as an alternative index for the physical activity level (aPAL). RESULTS: REE (kcal/day, mean+/-SD) in DMD patients was 1123 (10-11 years), 1186+/-188 (12-14 years), 1146+/-214 (15-17 years), 1006+/-136 (18-29 years) and 1023+/-97 (>/=30 years), each of these values being significantly lower than the corresponding control (p<0.0001). VC (p<0.001) was the parameter most strongly associated with REE, followed by BMI (p<0.01) and BW (p<0.05). The calculated aPAL values were 1.61 (10-11 years), 1.19 (12-14 years), 1.16 (15-17 years), and 1.57 (18-29 years). CONCLUSION: The REE in DMD patients was significantly lower than the normal value in every age group, and strongly associated with VC. Both the low REE and PAL values during the early teens, resulting in a low energy requirement, might be related to the obesity that frequently occurs in this age group. In contrast, the high PAL value in the late stage of the disease, possibly due to the presence of respiratory failure, may lead to a high energy requirement, and thus become one of the risk factors for development of malnutrition.
ESTHER : Shimizu-Fujiwara_2012_Brain.Dev_34_206
PubMedSearch : Shimizu-Fujiwara_2012_Brain.Dev_34_206
PubMedID: 21632191

Title : Whole-genome sequencing of sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 - Akao_2011_DNA.Res_18_423
Author(s) : Akao T , Yashiro I , Hosoyama A , Kitagaki H , Horikawa H , Watanabe D , Akada R , Ando Y , Harashima S , Inoue T , Inoue Y , Kajiwara S , Kitamoto K , Kitamoto N , Kobayashi O , Kuhara S , Masubuchi T , Mizoguchi H , Nakao Y , Nakazato A , Namise M , Oba T , Ogata T , Ohta A , Sato M , Shibasaki S , Takatsume Y , Tanimoto S , Tsuboi H , Nishimura A , Yoda K , Ishikawa T , Iwashita K , Fujita N , Shimoi H
Ref : DNA Research , 18 :423 , 2011
Abstract : The term 'sake yeast' is generally used to indicate the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that possess characteristics distinct from others including the laboratory strain S288C and are well suited for sake brewery. Here, we report the draft whole-genome shotgun sequence of a commonly used diploid sake yeast strain, Kyokai no. 7 (K7). The assembled sequence of K7 was nearly identical to that of the S288C, except for several subtelomeric polymorphisms and two large inversions in K7. A survey of heterozygous bases between the homologous chromosomes revealed the presence of mosaic-like uneven distribution of heterozygosity in K7. The distribution patterns appeared to have resulted from repeated losses of heterozygosity in the ancestral lineage of K7. Analysis of genes revealed the presence of both K7-acquired and K7-lost genes, in addition to numerous others with segmentations and terminal discrepancies in comparison with those of S288C. The distribution of Ty element also largely differed in the two strains. Interestingly, two regions in chromosomes I and VII of S288C have apparently been replaced by Ty elements in K7. Sequence comparisons suggest that these gene conversions were caused by cDNA-mediated recombination of Ty elements. The present study advances our understanding of the functional and evolutionary genomics of the sake yeast.
ESTHER : Akao_2011_DNA.Res_18_423
PubMedSearch : Akao_2011_DNA.Res_18_423
PubMedID: 21900213
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-YDR428C , yeast-hda1

Title : IgSF molecule MDGA1 is involved in radial migration and positioning of a subset of cortical upper-layer neurons - Ishikawa_2011_Dev.Dyn_240_96
Author(s) : Ishikawa T , Gotoh N , Murayama C , Abe T , Iwashita M , Matsuzaki F , Suzuki T , Yamamoto T
Ref : Developmental Dynamics , 240 :96 , 2011
Abstract : Mdga1, encoding a GPI-anchored immunoglobulin superfamily molecule containing an MAM domain, is expressed by a specific subset of neurons, including layer II/III projection neurons, in the mouse neocortex. To investigate the function of Mdga1 in corticogenesis, we generated Mdga1-deficient mice and backcrossed them to obtain a congenic background. Gross anatomy of the Mdga1-deficient brain at postnatal day (P) 14 showed no obvious phenotype. However, the migration of Mdga1-mutant neurons to the superficial cortical plate was clearly delayed. Most Mdga1-mutant neurons reached the lower portion of the upper cortical layer by embryonic day 18.5 and stayed there through P0. By P7, the location of the mutant cells was the same as wild-type. The location of Cux2-expressing upper-layer neurons in the cortical plate was largely unaffected. These observations indicated that Mdga1 is involved in the migration and positioning of a subset of cortical neurons and suggested that the radial migration of upper-layer neurons might be differentially regulated.
ESTHER : Ishikawa_2011_Dev.Dyn_240_96
PubMedSearch : Ishikawa_2011_Dev.Dyn_240_96
PubMedID: 21104742

Title : PCR-based identification of Culex pipiens complex collected in Japan - Kasai_2008_Jpn.J.Infect.Dis_61_184
Author(s) : Kasai S , Komagata O , Tomita T , Sawabe K , Tsuda Y , Kurahashi H , Ishikawa T , Motoki M , Takahashi T , Tanikawa T , Yoshida M , Shinjo G , Hashimoto T , Higa Y , Kobayashi M
Ref : Jpn J Infect Dis , 61 :184 , 2008
Abstract : The Culex pipiens complex consists of vector mosquitoes that transmit important human pathogens. In this study we established a simplified method to distinguish three members of the Cx. pipiens complex, Cx. p. pallens Coquillet, Cx. p. form molestus Forskal, and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, collected in Japan. Sequence analysis of the Drosophila Ace-orthologous acetylcholinesterase (Ace) gene (668 to 680 bp) revealed that a single polymorphic region characterizes each species. Based on this region, specific primers that distinguish Cx. p. form molestus (ACEpip2) and Cx. p. pallens (ACEpall2) were newly designed. Polymerase chain reactions were performed with the genomic DNA of Culex mosquitoes as the template, and these primers clearly distinguished two Culex spp. The accuracy of the designed primers was evaluated with 38 colonies of mosquito samples collected from 9 prefectures of Japan. The testing revealed that the distribution of anautogenous Cx. p. pipiens has not been confirmed in Japan. It also revealed that the male of Cx. p. pallens possesses an Ace gene haplotype that is highly similar to the sequence of Cx. quinquefasciatus. This improved method allows the evaluation of vector competence of Cx. p.molestus, which is the suspected vector of West Nile virus.
ESTHER : Kasai_2008_Jpn.J.Infect.Dis_61_184
PubMedSearch : Kasai_2008_Jpn.J.Infect.Dis_61_184
PubMedID: 18503166

Title : The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome - Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
Author(s) : Carninci P , Kasukawa T , Katayama S , Gough J , Frith MC , Maeda N , Oyama R , Ravasi T , Lenhard B , Wells C , Kodzius R , Shimokawa K , Bajic VB , Brenner SE , Batalov S , Forrest AR , Zavolan M , Davis MJ , Wilming LG , Aidinis V , Allen JE , Ambesi-Impiombato A , Apweiler R , Aturaliya RN , Bailey TL , Bansal M , Baxter L , Beisel KW , Bersano T , Bono H , Chalk AM , Chiu KP , Choudhary V , Christoffels A , Clutterbuck DR , Crowe ML , Dalla E , Dalrymple BP , de Bono B , Della Gatta G , di Bernardo D , Down T , Engstrom P , Fagiolini M , Faulkner G , Fletcher CF , Fukushima T , Furuno M , Futaki S , Gariboldi M , Georgii-Hemming P , Gingeras TR , Gojobori T , Green RE , Gustincich S , Harbers M , Hayashi Y , Hensch TK , Hirokawa N , Hill D , Huminiecki L , Iacono M , Ikeo K , Iwama A , Ishikawa T , Jakt M , Kanapin A , Katoh M , Kawasawa Y , Kelso J , Kitamura H , Kitano H , Kollias G , Krishnan SP , Kruger A , Kummerfeld SK , Kurochkin IV , Lareau LF , Lazarevic D , Lipovich L , Liu J , Liuni S , McWilliam S , Madan Babu M , Madera M , Marchionni L , Matsuda H , Matsuzawa S , Miki H , Mignone F , Miyake S , Morris K , Mottagui-Tabar S , Mulder N , Nakano N , Nakauchi H , Ng P , Nilsson R , Nishiguchi S , Nishikawa S , Nori F , Ohara O , Okazaki Y , Orlando V , Pang KC , Pavan WJ , Pavesi G , Pesole G , Petrovsky N , Piazza S , Reed J , Reid JF , Ring BZ , Ringwald M , Rost B , Ruan Y , Salzberg SL , Sandelin A , Schneider C , Schonbach C , Sekiguchi K , Semple CA , Seno S , Sessa L , Sheng Y , Shibata Y , Shimada H , Shimada K , Silva D , Sinclair B , Sperling S , Stupka E , Sugiura K , Sultana R , Takenaka Y , Taki K , Tammoja K , Tan SL , Tang S , Taylor MS , Tegner J , Teichmann SA , Ueda HR , van Nimwegen E , Verardo R , Wei CL , Yagi K , Yamanishi H , Zabarovsky E , Zhu S , Zimmer A , Hide W , Bult C , Grimmond SM , Teasdale RD , Liu ET , Brusic V , Quackenbush J , Wahlestedt C , Mattick JS , Hume DA , Kai C , Sasaki D , Tomaru Y , Fukuda S , Kanamori-Katayama M , Suzuki M , Aoki J , Arakawa T , Iida J , Imamura K , Itoh M , Kato T , Kawaji H , Kawagashira N , Kawashima T , Kojima M , Kondo S , Konno H , Nakano K , Ninomiya N , Nishio T , Okada M , Plessy C , Shibata K , Shiraki T , Suzuki S , Tagami M , Waki K , Watahiki A , Okamura-Oho Y , Suzuki H , Kawai J , Hayashizaki Y
Ref : Science , 309 :1559 , 2005
Abstract : This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.
ESTHER : Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
PubMedSearch : Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
PubMedID: 16141072
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-abhd1 , mouse-abhd3 , mouse-abhd4 , mouse-acot4 , mouse-adcl4 , mouse-DGLB , mouse-ephx3 , mouse-Kansl3 , mouse-lipli , mouse-LIPN , mouse-Ppgb , mouse-q3uuq7 , mouse-srac1 , mouse-Tex30 , mouse-tmco4 , mouse-tmm53 , mouse-f172a

Title : Preparation of the methyl ester of hyaluronan and its enzymatic degradation - Hirano_2005_Carbohydr.Res_340_2297
Author(s) : Hirano K , Sakai S , Ishikawa T , Avci FY , Linhardt RJ , Toida T
Ref : Carbohydr Res , 340 :2297 , 2005
Abstract : A methyl ester of hyaluronan in which the carboxyl groups were fully esterified was prepared using trimethylsilyl diazomethane. This derivative, while not depolymerized by hyaluronan lyases or hyaluronan hydrolases, was a substrate for both chondroitin ACI lyase (EC from Flavobacterium heparinum and chondroitin ACII lyase (EC from Arthrobacter aurescens. The major product isolated in these depolymerization reactions was methyl alpha-L-threo-hex-4-enepyranosyluronate-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha,beta-D- glucopyranoside as determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and MALDITOF mass spectrometry.
ESTHER : Hirano_2005_Carbohydr.Res_340_2297
PubMedSearch : Hirano_2005_Carbohydr.Res_340_2297
PubMedID: 16098492

Title : Skin and salivary gland carcinogenicity of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene is equivalent in the presence or absence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor - Ide_2004_Cancer.Lett_214_35
Author(s) : Ide F , Suka N , Kitada M , Sakashita H , Kusama K , Ishikawa T
Ref : Cancer Letters , 214 :35 , 2004
Abstract : 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a well-known polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that causes a variety of tumors in exposed animals. Although PAH carcinogenicity is primarily mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) through induction of P450, it is not precisely determined whether AhR regulates the DMBA carcinogenesis in vivo. In this context, we examined the frequency of DMBA-induced tumors and the expressions of mRNAs of P450-CYP1 subfamily and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) in the skin and submandibular gland using AhR-deficient mice. After DMBA exposure, AhR-/- and AhR+/+ mice showed the same tumor incidences and latency. CYP1A1 was absent in these tissues but was slightly induced in DMBA-treated AhR+/+ mice. In AhR-/- and AhR+/+ mice, constitutive expression of CYP1B1 was evident at equivalent levels, whereas CYP1A2 was not detectable, irrespective of DMBA treatment. mEH was expressed in both tissues of all animals. Collectively, the constitutive levels of CYP1B1 and mEH in the skin and submandibular gland maintain DMBA response in these tissues of AhR-/- mice.
ESTHER : Ide_2004_Cancer.Lett_214_35
PubMedSearch : Ide_2004_Cancer.Lett_214_35
PubMedID: 15331171

Title : Lipoprotein lipase activator NO-1886 improves fatty liver caused by high-fat feeding in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats - Kusunoki_2004_Metabolism_53_260
Author(s) : Kusunoki M , Tsutsumi K , Inoue Y , Hara T , Miyata T , Nakamura T , Ogawa H , Sakakibara F , Fukuzawa Y , Okabayashi N , Kato K , Ikeda H , Kurokawa T , Ishikawa T , Otake K , Nakaya Y
Ref : Metabolism , 53 :260 , 2004
Abstract : NO-1886 is a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activator. Administration of NO-1886 results in an increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and a decrease in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether NO-1886 improves fatty liver caused by high-fat feeding in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Administration of NO-1886 resulted in increased plasma HDL-C levels and decreased TG levels without affecting total cholesterol and glucose levels in the diabetic rats. NO-1886 dose-dependently decreased liver TG contents and cholesterol contents, resulting in improvement of fatty liver. NO-1886 also reduced plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) that accompany fatty liver. The liver cholesterol contents were inversely correlated with plasma HDL-C levels (r = -0.5862, P <.001) and were positively correlated with plasma TG levels (r = 0.4083, P <.003). The liver TG contents were inversely correlated with plasma HDL-C levels (r = -0.6195, P <.001) and were positively correlated with plasma TG levels (r = 0.5837, P <.001). There was no correlation between plasma cholesterol levels, and cholesterol and TG contents in liver. These results indicate that reducing plasma TG levels and elevating in HDL-C levels may result in improving fatty liver.
ESTHER : Kusunoki_2004_Metabolism_53_260
PubMedSearch : Kusunoki_2004_Metabolism_53_260
PubMedID: 14767881

Title : Mechanisms of increased insulin resistance in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection - Maeno_2003_J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol_18_1358
Author(s) : Maeno T , Okumura A , Ishikawa T , Kato K , Sakakibara F , Sato K , Ayada M , Hotta N , Tagaya T , Fukuzawa Y , Kakumu S
Ref : J Gastroenterol Hepatol , 18 :1358 , 2003
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence showing a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been accumulating. However, the reason why chronic HCV infection promotes DM remains unknown. In the present study, the authors focused on non-cirrhotic and non-diabetic patients with chronic HCV infection and evaluated the factors responsible for increases in insulin resistance.
METHODS: Fifty-six patients diagnosed with HCV-related chronic liver disease were included. Biochemical information including body mass index (BMI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, cholinesterase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, hemoglobin, platelet count, glycosylated hemoglobin, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and HCV-RNA were determined using venous blood samples obtained from each patient after overnight fasting. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a simple and convenient measure of insulin resistance, was also calculated. The relationship between the stage of liver fibrosis and HOMA-IR, and the clinical factors responsible for the increase in HOMA-IR in non-diabetic patients was investigated.
RESULTS: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and IRI levels increased parallel with the progression of fibrosis. Among the non-diabetic patients with mild to moderate liver fibrosis, BMI, serum levels of AST and TNF-alpha were related with HOMA-IR (BMI: r = 0.395, P = 0.041; AST: r = 0.465, P = 0.014; TNF-alpha: r = 0.396, P = 0.040). In contrast, HOMA-IR related to TNF-alpha (r = 0.526, P = 0.013) in non-diabetic patients with advanced liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Collectively, hepatic fibrosis and inflammation appear to play key roles in the increase in insulin resistance in patients with chronic HCV infection.
ESTHER : Maeno_2003_J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol_18_1358
PubMedSearch : Maeno_2003_J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol_18_1358
PubMedID: 14675263

Title : Design of a novel oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate, capecitabine, which generates 5-fluorouracil selectively in tumours by enzymes concentrated in human liver and cancer tissue - Miwa_1998_Eur.J.Cancer_34_1274
Author(s) : Miwa M , Ura M , Nishida M , Sawada N , Ishikawa T , Mori K , Shimma N , Umeda I , Ishitsuka H
Ref : Eur J Cancer , 34 :1274 , 1998
Abstract : Capecitabine (N4-pentyloxycarbonyl-5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine) is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate, which is converted to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively in tumours through a cascade of three enzymes. The present study investigated tissue localisation of the three enzymes in humans, which was helpful for us to design the compound. Carboxylesterase was almost exclusively located in the liver and hepatoma, but not in other tumours and normal tissue adjacent to the tumours. Cytidine (Cyd) deaminase was located in high concentrations in the liver and various types of solid tumours. Finally, thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase) was also more concentrated in various types of tumour tissues than in normal tissues. These unique tissue localisation patterns enabled us to design capecitabine. Oral capecitabine would pass intact through the intestinal tract, but would be converted first by carboxylesterase to 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-dFCyd) in the liver, then by Cyd deaminase to 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd) in the liver and tumour tissues and finally by dThdPase to 5-FU in tumours. In cultures of human cancer cell lines, the highest level of cytotoxicity was shown by 5-FU itself, followed by 5'-dFUrd. Capecitabine and 5'-dFCyd had weak cytotoxic activity only at high concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the intermediate metabolites 5'-dFCyd and 5'-dFCyd was suppressed by inhibitors of Cyd deaminase and dThdPase, respectively, indicating that these metabolites become effective only after their conversion to 5-FU. Capecitabine, which is finally converted to 5-FU by dThdPase in tumours, should be much safer and more effective than 5-FU, and this was indeed the case in the HCT116 human colon cancer and the MX-1 breast cancer xenograft models.
ESTHER : Miwa_1998_Eur.J.Cancer_34_1274
PubMedSearch : Miwa_1998_Eur.J.Cancer_34_1274
PubMedID: 9849491

Title : Control of activity of neurons in the supraoptic nucleus -
Author(s) : Koizumi K , Ishikawa T , Brooks CMC
Ref : Journal of Neurophysiology , 27 :878 , 1964