Kato T

References (31)

Title : Identification of a Novel Mutation in Carboxyl Ester Lipase Gene in a Patient with MODY-like Diabetes - Kondoh_2022_Tohoku.J.Exp.Med_256_37
Author(s) : Kondoh T , Nakajima Y , Yokoi K , Matsumoto Y , Inagaki H , Kato T , Ito T , Yoshikawa T , Kurahashi H
Ref : Tohoku J Exp Med , 256 :37 , 2022
Abstract : Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a form of diabetes mellitus characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, early onset, and the absence of pancreatic autoimmune markers. MODY-causing mutations have been identified in 14 genes, and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) has been implicated in MODY8. We report a Japanese patient with MODY who harbored a heterogeneous mutation in CEL exon 2 (NM_001807.4:c.146_147delCT; NP_001798.2:p.Ser49CysfsTer52). A 13-year-old girl experienced her first episode of diabetic ketoacidosis, during which her endogenous insulin secretion was poor. However, her insulin secretion had apparently recovered 2 months after the commencement of insulin treatment, and no further treatment was required for the following 2 years. Diabetic ketoacidosis recurred when the patient was 15 years old, when her insulin secretion was again poor. Since that time, the patient, who is now 18 years old, has been undergoing continuous insulin treatment. The large fluctuations in her insulin secretory capacity led us to suspect MODY. MODY8 patients that carry a mutation in the variable number of tandem repeats in the last exon of the CEL gene typically show pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. However, in the present case, which features premature termination, there is no involvement of exocrine dysfunction, potentially demonstrating a genotype-phenotype correlation.
ESTHER : Kondoh_2022_Tohoku.J.Exp.Med_256_37
PubMedSearch : Kondoh_2022_Tohoku.J.Exp.Med_256_37
PubMedID: 35082198
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CEL

Title : Identification and characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase from Aspergillus oryzae - Kato_2021_J.Biosci.Bioeng__
Author(s) : Kato T , Shiono Y , Koseki T
Ref : J Biosci Bioeng , : , 2021
Abstract : In this study, we report the identification and characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase, designated as AoAXEC, which was previously annotated as a hypothetical protein encoded by AO090023000158 in the Aspergillus oryzae genomic database. Based on its amino acid sequence, a low sequence identity to known acetyl xylan esterases was observed in the sequence of characterized acetyl xylan esterase. The gene fused with alpha-factor signal sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae instead of the native signal sequence was cloned into a vector, pPICZalphaC, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0 and 50 degreesC, respectively, and was stable up to 50 degreesC. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant AoAXEC, among a panel of alpha-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was alpha-naphthyl propionate (C3), with an activity of 0.35 +/- 0.006 units/mg protein. No significant difference of the K(m) value was observed between C3 (2.3 +/- 0.7 mM) and C2 (1.9 +/- 0.4 mM). In contrast, k(cat) value for C3 (18 +/- 3.9 s(-1)) was higher compared to C2 (4.5 +/- 0.7 s(-1)). The purified recombinant enzyme displayed a low activity toward acyl chain substrates containing eight or more carbon atoms. Recombinant AoAXEC catalyzed the release of acetic acid from wheat arabinoxylan. However, no activity was detected on methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, or sinapic acids. Additionally, the liberation of phenolic acids, such as ferulic acid, from wheat arabinoxylan was not exhibited by the recombinant protein.
ESTHER : Kato_2021_J.Biosci.Bioeng__
PubMedSearch : Kato_2021_J.Biosci.Bioeng__
PubMedID: 34376338
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspfu-faec , aspor-faec

Title : Serum cholinesterase as a prognostic biomarker for acute heart failure - Shiba_2021_Eur.Heart.J.Acute.Cardiovasc.Care__
Author(s) : Shiba M , Kato T , Morimoto T , Yaku H , Inuzuka Y , Tamaki Y , Ozasa N , Seko Y , Yamamoto E , Yoshikawa Y , Kitai T , Yamashita Y , Iguchi M , Nagao K , Kawase Y , Morinaga T , Toyofuku M , Furukawa Y , Ando K , Kadota K , Sato Y , Kuwahara K , Kimura T
Ref : Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care , : , 2021
Abstract : AIMS: The association between serum cholinesterase and prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF) remains to be elucidated. We investigated the serum cholinesterase level at discharge from hospitalization for AHF and its association with clinical outcomes in patients with AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 4056 patients enrolled in the Kyoto Congestive Heart Failure multicentre registry, we analysed 2228 patients with available serum cholinesterase data. The study population was classified into three groups according to serum cholinesterase level at discharge: low tertile (<180 U/L, N = 733), middle tertile (<=180 U/L and <240 U/L, N = 746), and high tertile (<=240 U/L, N = 749). Patients in the low tertile had higher tricuspid pressure gradient, greater inferior vena cava diameter, and higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels than those in the high tertile. The cumulative 1-year incidence of the primary outcome measure (a composite endpoint of all-cause death and hospitalization for HF) was higher in the low and middle tertiles than in the high tertile [46.5% (low tertile) and 31.4% (middle tertile) vs. 22.1% (high tertile), P < 0.0001]. After adjustment for 26 variables, the excess risk of the low tertile relative to the high tertile for the primary outcome measure remained significant (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.70, P = 0.006). Restricted cubic spline models below the median of cholinesterase demonstrated incrementally higher hazards at low cholinesterase levels. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum cholinesterase levels are associated with congestive findings on echocardiography, higher BNP, and higher risks for a composite of all-cause death and HF hospitalization in patients with AHF.
ESTHER : Shiba_2021_Eur.Heart.J.Acute.Cardiovasc.Care__
PubMedSearch : Shiba_2021_Eur.Heart.J.Acute.Cardiovasc.Care__
PubMedID: 33580775

Title : Cholinesterase: Conflicting Aspects of Two Cardiovascular Diseases -
Author(s) : Kato T
Ref : Intern Med , 60 :1143 , 2021
PubMedID: 33191332

Title : Ntrk1 mutation co-segregating with bipolar disorder and inherited kidney disease in a multiplex family causes defects in neuronal growth and depression-like behavior in mice - Nakajima_2020_Transl.Psychiatry_10_407
Author(s) : Nakajima K , Miranda A , Craig DW , Shekhtman T , Kmoch S , Bleyer A , Szelinger S , Kato T , Kelsoe JR
Ref : Transl Psychiatry , 10 :407 , 2020
Abstract : Previously, we reported a family in which bipolar disorder (BD) co-segregates with a Mendelian kidney disorder linked to 1q22. The causative renal gene was later identified as MUC1. Genome-wide linkage analysis of BD in the family yielded a peak at 1q22 that encompassed the NTRK1 and MUC1 genes. NTRK1 codes for TrkA (Tropomyosin-related kinase A) which is essential for development of the cholinergic nervous system. Whole genome sequencing of the proband identified a damaging missense mutation, E492K, in NTRK1. Induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from family members, and then differentiated to neural stem cells (NSCs). E492K NSCs had reduced neurite outgrowth. A conditional knock-in mouse line, harboring the point mutation in the brain, showed depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test following challenge by physostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor. These results are consistent with the cholinergic hypothesis of depression. They imply that the NTRK1 E492K mutation, impairs cholinergic neurotransmission, and may convey susceptibility to bipolar disorder.
ESTHER : Nakajima_2020_Transl.Psychiatry_10_407
PubMedSearch : Nakajima_2020_Transl.Psychiatry_10_407
PubMedID: 33235206

Title : Usefulness of the plasma branched-chain amino acid\/aromatic amino acid ratio for predicting future cardiac events in patients with heart failure - Hiraiwa_2020_J.Cardiol__
Author(s) : Hiraiwa H , Okumura T , Kondo T , Kato T , Kazama S , Ishihara T , Iwata E , Shimojo M , Kondo S , Aoki S , Kanzaki Y , Tanimura D , Sano H , Awaji Y , Yamada S , Murohara T
Ref : J Cardiol , : , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a hypercatabolic state that promotes branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic activity in the heart and skeletal muscle and reduces protein synthesis in the liver. Consequently, plasma free aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are increased. We investigated the prognostic value of the BCAA/AAA ratio (Fischer's ratio, FR) in patients with HF. METHODS: We enrolled 157 consecutive patients hospitalized for worsening HF (81 men, 76 women; mean +/- SD age 75 +/- 14 years). Plasma BCAA levels (i.e. total leucine, isoleucine, valine) and AAA levels (i.e. total tyrosine, phenylalanine) were measured at a time when the patients were stabilized (at discharge). FR was calculated as the combined plasma BCAA levels divided by the AAA level. Cardiac events were defined as a composite of cardiac death and hospitalization for worsening HF. RESULTS: The patients were divided into two groups based on the median FR (high-FR group: FR >/= 3.1, n = 78; low-FR group: FR < 3.1, n = 79). Compared with the high-FR group, low-FR patients were older, had more prior hospitalizations for HF, lower albumin and cholinesterase levels, and lower geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI). Altogether, 46 cardiac events occurred during the follow-up period (221 +/- 135 days), including 14 cardiac deaths and 32 hospitalizations for worsening HF. In a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the low-FR group had more cardiac events than the high-FR group (log-rank, p < 0.001). The best cut-off value of FR was determined as 2.9 in the receiver operating characteristic curve for cardiac events. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that being in the low-FR group was an independent determinant of cardiac events from parameters of liver function tests and GNRI. CONCLUSIONS: FR might be useful for predicting future cardiac events in patients with HF, reflecting nutritional status which cannot be assessed by liver function tests and GNRI.
ESTHER : Hiraiwa_2020_J.Cardiol__
PubMedSearch : Hiraiwa_2020_J.Cardiol__
PubMedID: 32001073

Title : Long-term effect of galantamine on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease versus a simulated disease trajectory: an observational study in the clinical setting - Nakagawa_2017_Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat_13_1115
Author(s) : Nakagawa R , Ohnishi T , Kobayashi H , Yamaoka T , Yajima T , Tanimura A , Kato T , Yoshizawa K
Ref : Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat , 13 :1115 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Long-term maintenance of cognitive function is an important goal of treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but evidence about the long-term efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors is sparse. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of galantamine for AD in routine clinical practice, we conducted a 72-week post-marketing surveillance study. The effect of galantamine on cognitive function was estimated in comparison with a simulated disease trajectory. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: Patients with mild-to-moderate AD received flexible dosing of galantamine (16-24 mg/day) during this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the clinical status was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I). Changes of the MMSE score without treatment were estimated in each patient using Mendiondo's model. Generalized linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the simulated MMSE scores with the actual scores.
RESULTS: Of the 661 patients who were enrolled, 642 were evaluable for safety and 554 were assessed for efficacy. The discontinuation rate was 46.73%. Cognitive decline indicated by the mean change of actual MMSE scores was significantly smaller than the simulated decline. Individual analysis demonstrated that >70% of patients had better actual MMSE scores than their simulated scores. Significant improvement of CGI-I was also observed during the observation period. Adverse events occurred in 28.5% of patients and were serious in 8.41%. The reported events generally corresponded with the safety profile of galantamine in previous studies. CONCLUSION: These findings support the long-term efficacy of galantamine for maintaining cognitive function and the clinical state in AD patients. Treatment with galantamine was generally safe. Importantly, this study revealed that galantamine improved cognitive function above the predicted level in >70% of the patients.
ESTHER : Nakagawa_2017_Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat_13_1115
PubMedSearch : Nakagawa_2017_Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat_13_1115
PubMedID: 28458553

Title : EzCatDB: the enzyme reaction database, 2015 update - Nagano_2015_Nucleic.Acids.Res_43_D453
Author(s) : Nagano N , Nakayama N , Ikeda K , Fukuie M , Yokota K , Doi T , Kato T , Tomii K
Ref : Nucleic Acids Research , 43 :D453 , 2015
Abstract : The EzCatDB database (http://ezcatdb.cbrc.jp/EzCatDB/) has emphasized manual classification of enzyme reactions from the viewpoints of enzyme active-site structures and their catalytic mechanisms based on literature information, amino acid sequences of enzymes (UniProtKB) and the corresponding tertiary structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Reaction types such as hydrolysis, transfer, addition, elimination, isomerization, hydride transfer and electron transfer have been included in the reaction classification, RLCP. This database includes information related to ligand molecules on the enzyme structures in the PDB data, classified in terms of cofactors, substrates, products and intermediates, which are also necessary to elucidate the catalytic mechanisms. Recently, the database system was updated. The 3D structures of active sites for each PDB entry can be viewed using Jmol or Rasmol software. Moreover, sequence search systems of two types were developed for the EzCatDB database: EzCat-BLAST and EzCat-FORTE. EzCat-BLAST is suitable for quick searches, adopting the BLAST algorithm, whereas EzCat-FORTE is more suitable for detecting remote homologues, adopting the algorithm for FORTE protein structure prediction software. Another system, EzMetAct, is also available to searching for major active-site structures in EzCatDB, for which PDB-formatted queries can be searched.
ESTHER : Nagano_2015_Nucleic.Acids.Res_43_D453
PubMedSearch : Nagano_2015_Nucleic.Acids.Res_43_D453
PubMedID: 25324316

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of N-Acylhomoserine Lactone-Producing Pseudomonas sp. Strain StFLB209, Isolated from Potato Phyllosphere - Morohoshi_2014_Genome.Announc_2_e01037
Author(s) : Morohoshi T , Kato T , Someya N , Ikeda T
Ref : Genome Announc , 2 : , 2014
Abstract : Pseudomonas sp. strain StFLB209 is isolated from the potato leaf and produces N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal compounds. Here, we present the 6,332,373-bp complete genome sequence of StFLB209, with a G+C content of 60.7%, which carries 5,598 protein-coding genes, 6 rRNA operons, and 69 tRNA genes.
ESTHER : Morohoshi_2014_Genome.Announc_2_e01037
PubMedSearch : Morohoshi_2014_Genome.Announc_2_e01037
PubMedID: 25323715
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9psed-a0a077lll1 , 9psed-a0a077lha3

Title : Association of an intronic haplotype of the LIPC gene with hyperalphalipoproteinemia in two independent populations - Iijima_2008_J.Hum.Genet_53_193
Author(s) : Iijima H , Emi M , Wada M , Daimon M , Toriyama S , Koyano S , Sato H , Hopkins PN , Hunt SC , Kubota I , Kawata S , Kato T
Ref : J Hum Genet , 53 :193 , 2008
Abstract : Hepatic lipase (HL) plays a major role in the regulation of plasma lipids. Several groups seeking to find association between the gene encoding HL (LIPC) and plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) using various methods and populations have reported conflicting results. We have approached the problem of demonstrating a relationship between the LIPC locus and HDLc by means of haplotype association using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs12594375G/A, rs8023503C/T, rs4775047C/T, and rs11634134T/A) located in intron 1 of the LIPC gene in two independent Japanese populations consisting of 2,970 and 1,638 individuals, respectively. Significant association between hyperalphalipoproteinemia and a specific haplotype in this intron was detected in both populations. When HDLc levels among the three haplotypic categories were analyzed [haplotype rs8023503C/rs12594375G (haplotype-1; H1) homozygotes (H1H1), haplotype rs8023503T/rs12594375A (haplotype-2; H2) homozygotes (H2H2), and heterozygotes (H1H2)], HDLc levels were lowest among H1H1 [mean +/- standard error (SE) = 58.4 +/- 0.4 mg/dl], highest among H2H2 (62.5 +/- 0.8 mg/dl), and intermediate among H1H2 (59.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl) (P = 0.00011), indicating that H2 haplotype elevates plasma HDLc levels. This association was validated in the second population (n = 1,638) (P = 0.00070). The results provide convincing evidence that the LIPC locus influences HDL metabolism.
ESTHER : Iijima_2008_J.Hum.Genet_53_193
PubMedSearch : Iijima_2008_J.Hum.Genet_53_193
PubMedID: 18160998

Title : Cetilistat (ATL-962), a novel pancreatic lipase inhibitor, ameliorates body weight gain and improves lipid profiles in rats - Yamada_2008_Horm.Metab.Res_40_539
Author(s) : Yamada Y , Kato T , Ogino H , Ashina S , Kato K
Ref : Hormone & Metabolic Research , 40 :539 , 2008
Abstract : Cetilistat is a novel inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. The aim of this report is to evaluate the anti-obesity action of cetilistat in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats. Cetilistat inhibited rat and human pancreatic lipase activity with an IC (50) of 54.8 nmol/l, and 5.95 nmol/l, respectively, meaning that it is 9.2 times more potent for human pancreatic lipase than for that of rat. Cetilistat was orally administered simultaneously with fat emulsion to Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations were measured before and after oral fat loading. The elevation in plasma triglyceride concentration by oral fat loading was reduced by cetilistat in a dose-dependent manner at 3, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, indicating that cetilistat reduces intestinal fat absorption in rats. Cetilistat was administered to DIO F344 rats as food admixture in a high-fat diet at 4.9, 14.9, or 50.7 mg/kg/day for three weeks. Both triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acid content in the feces were dose-dependently and drastically increased, suggesting the intestinal breakdown of fat and excretion. Body weight (BW) gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, leptin, TG, and total cholesterol (TC) in plasma were reduced and there were no reports of oily stools. These results suggest that cetilistat ameliorates obesity and hyperlipidemia in DIO rats, a plausible animal model of the most common type of human obesity.
ESTHER : Yamada_2008_Horm.Metab.Res_40_539
PubMedSearch : Yamada_2008_Horm.Metab.Res_40_539
PubMedID: 18500680

Title : Common null variant, Arg192Stop, in a G-protein coupled receptor, olfactory receptor 1B1, associated with decreased serum cholinesterase activity - Koyano_2008_Hepatol.Res_38_696
Author(s) : Koyano S , Emi M , Saito T , Makino N , Toriyama S , Ishii M , Kubota I , Kato T , Kawata S
Ref : Hepatol Res , 38 :696 , 2008
Abstract : AIM: Non-functioning single nucleotide polymorphisms (nSNPs) that result in premature termination codons, that is null-alleles of the respective genes, may have phenotypic effects on clinical parameters. We conducted association studies involving several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that harbor nSNPs, using clinical parameters of liver function in a general population consisting of 2969 Japanese adults. METHODS: SNP typings were performed with TaqMan and Invader assays. Quantitative associations between genotypes and clinical parameters were analyzed by analysis of variance. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was tested by Haploview Version 3.3. Haplotype-based association was performed using the haplo.stats program. RESULTS: A significant correlation (P = 0.0057) was identified between serum cholinesterase activity (CHE) and an nSNP (Arg192Stop) in the olfactory receptor (OR) 1B1 gene, a member of the GPCR gene family. This nSNP was associated with decreased serum CHE (P = 0.0013). LD analysis based on eight selected SNPs at the locus revealed three LD blocks. The Arg192Stop nSNP was located on the second LD block, which covered one-third of the 3'-portion of the gene. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the null-allele of OR1B1 might affect metabolism of serum cholinesterase in carriers of this nSNP.
ESTHER : Koyano_2008_Hepatol.Res_38_696
PubMedSearch : Koyano_2008_Hepatol.Res_38_696
PubMedID: 18328065

Title : Human brain structural change related to acute single exposure to sarin - Yamasue_2007_Ann.Neurol_61_37
Author(s) : Yamasue H , Abe O , Kasai K , Suga M , Iwanami A , Yamada H , Tochigi M , Ohtani T , Rogers MA , Sasaki T , Aoki S , Kato T , Kato N
Ref : Annals of Neurology , 61 :37 , 2007
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify persistent morphological changes subsequent to an acute single-time exposure to sarin, a highly poisonous organophosphate, and the neurobiological basis of long-lasting somatic and cognitive symptoms in victims exposed to sarin. METHODS: Thirty-eight victims of the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, all of whom had been treated in an emergency department for sarin intoxication, and 76 matched healthy control subjects underwent T1-weighted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in 2000 to 2001. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) levels measured immediately and longitudinally after the exposure and the current severity of chronic reports in the victims were also evaluated. RESULTS: The voxel-based morphometry exhibited smaller than normal regional brain volumes in the insular cortex and neighboring white matter, as well as in the hippocampus in the victims. The reduced regional white matter volume correlated with decreased serum cholinesterase levels and with the severity of chronic somatic complaints related to interoceptive awareness. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging further demonstrated an extensively lower than normal fractional anisotropy in the victims. All these findings were statistically significant (corrected p < 0.05). INTERPRETATION: Sarin intoxication might be associated with structural changes in specific regions of the human brain, including those surrounding the insular cortex, which might be related to elevated subjective awareness of internal bodily status in exposed individuals.
ESTHER : Yamasue_2007_Ann.Neurol_61_37
PubMedSearch : Yamasue_2007_Ann.Neurol_61_37
PubMedID: 17187377

Title : Support for relationship between serum cholinesterase and post-traumatic stress disorder\; 5-year follow-ups of victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning -
Author(s) : Tochigi M , Otani T , Yamasue H , Kasai K , Kato T , Iwanami A , Kato N , Sasaki T
Ref : Neurosci Res , 52 :129 , 2005
PubMedID: 15876465

Title : Expression of acetylcholine (ACh) and ACh-synthesizing activity in Archaea - Yamada_2005_Life.Sci_77_1935
Author(s) : Yamada T , Fujii T , Kanai T , Amo T , Imanaka T , Nishimasu H , Wakagi T , Shoun H , Kamekura M , Kamagata Y , Kato T , Kawashima K
Ref : Life Sciences , 77 :1935 , 2005
Abstract : Acetylcholine (ACh) is known generally as the neurotransmitter in the mammalian central and peripheral cholinergic nervous systems. However, ACh is also widely expressed in non-neuronal animal tissues and in plants, fungi and bacteria, where it is likely involved in the transport of water, electrolytes and nutrients, and in modulating various other cell functions. We have investigated the expression of ACh and ACh-synthesizing activity in various strains of Archaea, which are situated between Bacteria and Eucarya in the universal phylogenetic tree. Using a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay, differing levels of ACh were detected in the Hyperthermophiles Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1, Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 and Pyrobaculum calidifontis VA1; the Methanogens Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus deltaH and Methanosarcina barkeri; and the Halophiles Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Haloferax volcanii. T. kodakaraensis KOD1 expressed the highest levels of ACh among the Archaea tested; moreover, the substance expressed was verified to be ACh using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Varying degrees of ACh-synthesizing activity were also identified in all of the strains, and the activity of bromoACh-sensitive choline acetyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for ACh synthesis in the nervous system, was detected in T. kodakaraensis KOD1. Our findings demonstrate that ACh and ACh-synthesizing activity are both expressed in evolutionally old Archaea. In the context of the recent discovery of non-neuronal ACh in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, these findings support the notion that ACh has been expressed in organisms from the origin of life on the earth, functioning as a local mediator as well as a neurotransmitter.
ESTHER : Yamada_2005_Life.Sci_77_1935
PubMedSearch : Yamada_2005_Life.Sci_77_1935
PubMedID: 15936779

Title : The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome - Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
Author(s) : Carninci P , Kasukawa T , Katayama S , Gough J , Frith MC , Maeda N , Oyama R , Ravasi T , Lenhard B , Wells C , Kodzius R , Shimokawa K , Bajic VB , Brenner SE , Batalov S , Forrest AR , Zavolan M , Davis MJ , Wilming LG , Aidinis V , Allen JE , Ambesi-Impiombato A , Apweiler R , Aturaliya RN , Bailey TL , Bansal M , Baxter L , Beisel KW , Bersano T , Bono H , Chalk AM , Chiu KP , Choudhary V , Christoffels A , Clutterbuck DR , Crowe ML , Dalla E , Dalrymple BP , de Bono B , Della Gatta G , di Bernardo D , Down T , Engstrom P , Fagiolini M , Faulkner G , Fletcher CF , Fukushima T , Furuno M , Futaki S , Gariboldi M , Georgii-Hemming P , Gingeras TR , Gojobori T , Green RE , Gustincich S , Harbers M , Hayashi Y , Hensch TK , Hirokawa N , Hill D , Huminiecki L , Iacono M , Ikeo K , Iwama A , Ishikawa T , Jakt M , Kanapin A , Katoh M , Kawasawa Y , Kelso J , Kitamura H , Kitano H , Kollias G , Krishnan SP , Kruger A , Kummerfeld SK , Kurochkin IV , Lareau LF , Lazarevic D , Lipovich L , Liu J , Liuni S , McWilliam S , Madan Babu M , Madera M , Marchionni L , Matsuda H , Matsuzawa S , Miki H , Mignone F , Miyake S , Morris K , Mottagui-Tabar S , Mulder N , Nakano N , Nakauchi H , Ng P , Nilsson R , Nishiguchi S , Nishikawa S , Nori F , Ohara O , Okazaki Y , Orlando V , Pang KC , Pavan WJ , Pavesi G , Pesole G , Petrovsky N , Piazza S , Reed J , Reid JF , Ring BZ , Ringwald M , Rost B , Ruan Y , Salzberg SL , Sandelin A , Schneider C , Schonbach C , Sekiguchi K , Semple CA , Seno S , Sessa L , Sheng Y , Shibata Y , Shimada H , Shimada K , Silva D , Sinclair B , Sperling S , Stupka E , Sugiura K , Sultana R , Takenaka Y , Taki K , Tammoja K , Tan SL , Tang S , Taylor MS , Tegner J , Teichmann SA , Ueda HR , van Nimwegen E , Verardo R , Wei CL , Yagi K , Yamanishi H , Zabarovsky E , Zhu S , Zimmer A , Hide W , Bult C , Grimmond SM , Teasdale RD , Liu ET , Brusic V , Quackenbush J , Wahlestedt C , Mattick JS , Hume DA , Kai C , Sasaki D , Tomaru Y , Fukuda S , Kanamori-Katayama M , Suzuki M , Aoki J , Arakawa T , Iida J , Imamura K , Itoh M , Kato T , Kawaji H , Kawagashira N , Kawashima T , Kojima M , Kondo S , Konno H , Nakano K , Ninomiya N , Nishio T , Okada M , Plessy C , Shibata K , Shiraki T , Suzuki S , Tagami M , Waki K , Watahiki A , Okamura-Oho Y , Suzuki H , Kawai J , Hayashizaki Y
Ref : Science , 309 :1559 , 2005
Abstract : This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.
ESTHER : Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
PubMedSearch : Carninci_2005_Science_309_1559
PubMedID: 16141072
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-abhd1 , mouse-abhd3 , mouse-abhd4 , mouse-acot4 , mouse-adcl4 , mouse-DGLB , mouse-ephx3 , mouse-Kansl3 , mouse-lipli , mouse-LIPN , mouse-Ppgb , mouse-q3uuq7 , mouse-srac1 , mouse-Tex30 , mouse-tmco4 , mouse-tmm53 , mouse-f172a

Title : Association of lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism with risk of prostate cancer in a Japanese population - Narita_2004_Int.J.Cancer_112_872
Author(s) : Narita S , Tsuchiya N , Wang L , Matsuura S , Ohyama C , Satoh S , Sato K , Ogawa O , Habuchi T , Kato T
Ref : International Journal of Cancer , 112 :872 , 2004
Abstract : A high fat intake has been associated with prostate cancer risk, and gene polymorphisms of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) play an important role in plasma lipoprotein metabolism. We herein analyzed the association of LPL gene polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer in a Japanese population. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LPL designated as Ser447stop, HindIII and PvuII were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 273 prostate cancer patients, 205 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 230 male controls. The men with the CG + GG genotypes of the Ser447stop polymorphism had an increased risk of prostate cancer compared to those with the CC genotype [age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.625; 95% CI = 1.068-2.471; p = 0.023]. Furthermore, the increased risk associated with the CG + GG genotypes was more strongly observed in patients with high-grade cancers (aOR = 2.843; 95% CI = 1.252-6.458; p = 0.039) or metastatic diseases (aOR = 2.300; 95% CI = 1.042-5.074; p = 0.013), whereas the risk was not significant in those with low- to intermediate-grade cancers or nonmetastatic diseases. In the HindIII and PvuII polymorphisms, there was no significant difference between the prostate cancer patients and the controls, and no significant results as for tumor grade and stage. None of the 3 polymorphisms showed any association with the risk of BPH. Our results suggest that the LPL Ser447stop polymorphism is a common genetic modifier for the development of prostate cancer, particularly that of high-grade and/or high-stage, in a Japanese population.
ESTHER : Narita_2004_Int.J.Cancer_112_872
PubMedSearch : Narita_2004_Int.J.Cancer_112_872
PubMedID: 15386377

Title : Evolutional study on acetylcholine expression - Horiuchi_2003_Life.Sci_72_1745
Author(s) : Horiuchi Y , Kimura R , Kato N , Fujii T , Seki M , Endo T , Kato T , Kawashima K
Ref : Life Sciences , 72 :1745 , 2003
Abstract : Acetylcholine (ACh) is a well-known neurotransmitter in the cholinergic nervous systems of vertebrates and insects; however, there is only indirect evidence for its presence in lower invertebrates, such as plants and fungi. We therefore investigated the expression of ACh in invertebrates (sea squirt, sea urchin, trepang, squid, abalone, nereis, sea anemone, coral and sponge), plants (arabidopsis, eggplant, bamboo shoot, cedar, hinoki, pine, podcarp, fern, horsetail and moss), fungi (yeast and mushroom) and bacteria by assaying ACh content and synthesis, focusing on the presence of two synthetic enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT). Using a specific radioimmunoassay, ACh was detected in all samples tested. The levels varied considerably, however, with the upper portion of bamboo shoots having the highest content (2.9 micromol/g). ACh synthesis was also detected in all samples tested; moreover, the activity in most samples from the animal kingdom, as well as bamboo shoots and the stem of the shiitake mushroom, were sensitive to both ChAT and CarAT inhibitors. Levels of ACh synthesis were lower in samples from other plants, fungi and bacteria and were insensitive to ChAT and CarAT inhibitors. These findings demonstrate the presence of ACh and ACh-synthesizing activity in evolutionally primitive life as well as in more complex multicellular organisms. In the context of the recent discovery of non-neuronal ACh in various mammalian species, these findings suggest that ACh been expressed in organisms from the beginning of life, functioning as a local mediator as well as a neurotransmitter.
ESTHER : Horiuchi_2003_Life.Sci_72_1745
PubMedSearch : Horiuchi_2003_Life.Sci_72_1745
PubMedID: 12559395

Title : SGR2, a phospholipase-like protein, and ZIG\/SGR4, a SNARE, are involved in the shoot gravitropism of Arabidopsis - Kato_2002_Plant.Cell_14_33
Author(s) : Kato T , Morita MT , Fukaki H , Yamauchi Y , Uehara M , Niihama M , Tasaka M
Ref : Plant Cell , 14 :33 , 2002
Abstract : In higher plants, the shoot and the root generally show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in gravitropism, we have isolated many shoot gravitropism mutants in Arabidopsis. The sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants exhibited abnormal gravitropism in both inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. These genes probably are involved in the early step(s) of the gravitropic response. The sgr2 mutants also had misshapen seed and seedlings, whereas the stem of the zig/sgr4 mutants elongated in a zigzag fashion. The SGR2 gene encodes a novel protein that may be part of a gene family represented by bovine phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1 containing a putative transmembrane domain. This gene family has been reported only in eukaryotes. The ZIG gene was found to encode AtVTI11, a protein that is homologous with yeast VTI1 and is involved in vesicle transport. Our observations suggest that the two genes may be involved in a vacuolar membrane system that affects shoot gravitropism.
ESTHER : Kato_2002_Plant.Cell_14_33
PubMedSearch : Kato_2002_Plant.Cell_14_33
PubMedID: 11826297

Title : Serum cholesterol, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning: a relation with post-traumatic stress disorder - Tochigi_2002_Neurosci.Res_44_267
Author(s) : Tochigi M , Umekage T , Otani T , Kato T , Iwanami A , Asukai N , Sasaki T , Kato N
Ref : Neurosci Res , 44 :267 , 2002
Abstract : Cholesterol and uric acid, which might correlate with steroidogenesis and monoamine functions, may change under emotionally stressful conditions and in mental disturbances. Among anxiety disorders, an increase of serum cholesterol has been observed in panic disorder. However, the issue has not been adequately investigated in other anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated serum cholesterols, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning, 1995, in a series of 5-year follow-ups. Cholinesterase was studied, in relevance with serum lipid changes and symptoms of PTSD, and also in light of a biological effect of sarin. Out of 34 victims, eight developed PTSD and two were currently diagnosed with PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). No significant relationship was observed between PTSD and serum cholesterols or uric acid. Several factors including co-occurrence of other mental disturbances with PTSD, in addition to the limited sample size, might have affected the result. In contrast, serum cholinesterase level was significantly reduced in the victims with the development of PTSD, compared with the matched controls (P<0.02, t-test). This might partly reflect a long-term remnant effect of sarin intoxication, although an effect of the psychological experience could not be totally excluded.
ESTHER : Tochigi_2002_Neurosci.Res_44_267
PubMedSearch : Tochigi_2002_Neurosci.Res_44_267
PubMedID: 12413655

Title : Molecular cloning and partial characterization of rat procarboxypeptidase R and carboxypeptidase N - Kato_2000_Microbiol.Immunol_44_719
Author(s) : Kato T , Akatsu H , Sato T , Matsuo S , Yamamoto T , Campbell W , Hotta N , Okada N , Okada H
Ref : Microbiol Immunol , 44 :719 , 2000
Abstract : Carboxypeptidase R (EC (CPR) and carboxypeptidase N (EC (CPN) cleave carboxy-terminal arginine or lysine residues from biologically active peptides such as kinins or anaphylatoxins in the circulation thereby regulating their activities. Although CPN is present in a stable active form in plasma, CPR is generated from proCPR, a plasma zymogen, by proteolytic enzymes such as thrombin, thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and plasmin. We have isolated rat proCPR and CPN cDNA clones which can induce enzymatic activities in culture supernatants of the transfected cells. mRNA of proCPR was detected only in rat liver by Northern hybridization and showed hepatocyte-specific expression. Expression of proCPR mRNA was enhanced following LPS injection, indicating that proCPR production is increased under inflammatory conditions.
ESTHER : Kato_2000_Microbiol.Immunol_44_719
PubMedSearch : Kato_2000_Microbiol.Immunol_44_719
PubMedID: 11021404

Title : Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana - Tabata_2000_Nature_408_823
Author(s) : Tabata S , Kaneko T , Nakamura Y , Kotani H , Kato T , Asamizu E , Miyajima N , Sasamoto S , Kimura T , Hosouchi T , Kawashima K , Kohara M , Matsumoto M , Matsuno A , Muraki A , Nakayama S , Nakazaki N , Naruo K , Okumura S , Shinpo S , Takeuchi C , Wada T , Watanabe A , Yamada M , Yasuda M , Sato S , de la Bastide M , Huang E , Spiegel L , Gnoj L , O'Shaughnessy A , Preston R , Habermann K , Murray J , Johnson D , Rohlfing T , Nelson J , Stoneking T , Pepin K , Spieth J , Sekhon M , Armstrong J , Becker M , Belter E , Cordum H , Cordes M , Courtney L , Courtney W , Dante M , Du H , Edwards J , Fryman J , Haakensen B , Lamar E , Latreille P , Leonard S , Meyer R , Mulvaney E , Ozersky P , Riley A , Strowmatt C , Wagner-McPherson C , Wollam A , Yoakum M , Bell M , Dedhia N , Parnell L , Shah R , Rodriguez M , See LH , Vil D , Baker J , Kirchoff K , Toth K , King L , Bahret A , Miller B , Marra M , Martienssen R , McCombie WR , Wilson RK , Murphy G , Bancroft I , Volckaert G , Wambutt R , Dusterhoft A , Stiekema W , Pohl T , Entian KD , Terryn N , Hartley N , Bent E , Johnson S , Langham SA , McCullagh B , Robben J , Grymonprez B , Zimmermann W , Ramsperger U , Wedler H , Balke K , Wedler E , Peters S , van Staveren M , Dirkse W , Mooijman P , Lankhorst RK , Weitzenegger T , Bothe G , Rose M , Hauf J , Berneiser S , Hempel S , Feldpausch M , Lamberth S , Villarroel R , Gielen J , Ardiles W , Bents O , Lemcke K , Kolesov G , Mayer K , Rudd S , Schoof H , Schueller C , Zaccaria P , Mewes HW , Bevan M , Fransz P
Ref : Nature , 408 :823 , 2000
Abstract : The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been sequenced by an international collaboration, The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. Here we report the complete sequence of chromosome 5. This chromosome is 26 megabases long; it is the second largest Arabidopsis chromosome and represents 21% of the sequenced regions of the genome. The sequence of chromosomes 2 and 4 have been reported previously and that of chromosomes 1 and 3, together with an analysis of the complete genome sequence, are reported in this issue. Analysis of the sequence of chromosome 5 yields further insights into centromere structure and the sequence determinants of heterochromatin condensation. The 5,874 genes encoded on chromosome 5 reveal several new functions in plants, and the patterns of gene organization provide insights into the mechanisms and extent of genome evolution in plants.
ESTHER : Tabata_2000_Nature_408_823
PubMedSearch : Tabata_2000_Nature_408_823
PubMedID: 11130714
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-At5g11650 , arath-At5g16120 , arath-at5g18630 , arath-AT5G20520 , arath-At5g21950 , arath-AT5G27320 , arath-CXE15 , arath-F1N13.220 , arath-F14F8.240 , arath-q3e9e4 , arath-q8lae9 , arath-Q8LFB7 , arath-q9ffg7 , arath-q9fij5 , arath-Q9LVU7 , arath-q66gm8 , arath-SCPL34 , arath-B9DFR3 , arath-a0a1p8bcz0

Title : Sequence and analysis of chromosome 3 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana - Salanoubat_2000_Nature_408_820
Author(s) : Salanoubat M , Lemcke K , Rieger M , Ansorge W , Unseld M , Fartmann B , Valle G , Blocker H , Perez-Alonso M , Obermaier B , Delseny M , Boutry M , Grivell LA , Mache R , Puigdomenech P , de Simone V , Choisne N , Artiguenave F , Robert C , Brottier P , Wincker P , Cattolico L , Weissenbach J , Saurin W , Quetier F , Schafer M , Muller-Auer S , Gabel C , Fuchs M , Benes V , Wurmbach E , Drzonek H , Erfle H , Jordan N , Bangert S , Wiedelmann R , Kranz H , Voss H , Holland R , Brandt P , Nyakatura G , Vezzi A , D'Angelo M , Pallavicini A , Toppo S , Simionati B , Conrad A , Hornischer K , Kauer G , Lohnert TH , Nordsiek G , Reichelt J , Scharfe M , Schon O , Bargues M , Terol J , Climent J , Navarro P , Collado C , Perez-Perez A , Ottenwalder B , Duchemin D , Cooke R , Laudie M , Berger-Llauro C , Purnelle B , Masuy D , de Haan M , Maarse AC , Alcaraz JP , Cottet A , Casacuberta E , Monfort A , Argiriou A , Flores M , Liguori R , Vitale D , Mannhaupt G , Haase D , Schoof H , Rudd S , Zaccaria P , Mewes HW , Mayer KF , Kaul S , Town CD , Koo HL , Tallon LJ , Jenkins J , Rooney T , Rizzo M , Walts A , Utterback T , Fujii CY , Shea TP , Creasy TH , Haas B , Maiti R , Wu D , Peterson J , Van Aken S , Pai G , Militscher J , Sellers P , Gill JE , Feldblyum TV , Preuss D , Lin X , Nierman WC , Salzberg SL , White O , Venter JC , Fraser CM , Kaneko T , Nakamura Y , Sato S , Kato T , Asamizu E , Sasamoto S , Kimura T , Idesawa K , Kawashima K , Kishida Y , Kiyokawa C , Kohara M , Matsumoto M , Matsuno A , Muraki A , Nakayama S , Nakazaki N , Shinpo S , Takeuchi C , Wada T , Watanabe A , Yamada M , Yasuda M , Tabata S
Ref : Nature , 408 :820 , 2000
Abstract : Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative) was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. The sequence of the last three chromosomes and an analysis of the whole genome are reported in this issue. Here we present the sequence of chromosome 3, organized into four sequence segments (contigs). The two largest (13.5 and 9.2 Mb) correspond to the top (long) and the bottom (short) arms of chromosome 3, and the two small contigs are located in the genetically defined centromere. This chromosome encodes 5,220 of the roughly 25,500 predicted protein-coding genes in the genome. About 20% of the predicted proteins have significant homology to proteins in eukaryotic genomes for which the complete sequence is available, pointing to important conserved cellular functions among eukaryotes.
ESTHER : Salanoubat_2000_Nature_408_820
PubMedSearch : Salanoubat_2000_Nature_408_820
PubMedID: 11130713
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-MES17 , arath-AT3G12150 , arath-At3g61680 , arath-AT3g62590 , arath-CXE12 , arath-eds1 , arath-SCP25 , arath-F1P2.110 , arath-F1P2.140 , arath-F11F8.28 , arath-F14D17.80 , arath-F16B3.4 , arath-SCP27 , arath-At3g50790 , arath-At3g05600 , arath-PAD4 , arath-At3g51000 , arath-SCP16 , arath-gid1 , arath-GID1B , arath-Q9LUG8 , arath-Q84JS1 , arath-Q9SFF6 , arath-q9m236 , arath-q9sr22 , arath-q9sr23 , arath-SCP7 , arath-SCP14 , arath-SCP15 , arath-SCP17 , arath-SCP36 , arath-SCP37 , arath-SCP39 , arath-SCP40 , arath-SCP49 , arath-T19F11.2

Title : Complete genome structure of the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti - Kaneko_2000_DNA.Res_7_331
Author(s) : Kaneko T , Nakamura Y , Sato S , Asamizu E , Kato T , Sasamoto S , Watanabe A , Idesawa K , Ishikawa A , Kawashima K , Kimura T , Kishida Y , Kiyokawa C , Kohara M , Matsumoto M , Matsuno A , Mochizuki Y , Nakayama S , Nakazaki N , Shimpo S , Sugimoto M , Takeuchi C , Yamada M , Tabata S
Ref : DNA Research , 7 :331 , 2000
Abstract : The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti strain MAFF303099 was determined. The genome of M. loti consisted of a single chromosome (7,036,071 bp) and two plasmids, designated as pMLa (351,911 bp) and pMLb (208, 315 bp). The chromosome comprises 6752 potential protein-coding genes, two sets of rRNA genes and 50 tRNA genes representing 47 tRNA species. Fifty-four percent of the potential protein genes showed sequence similarity to genes of known function, 21% to hypothetical genes, and the remaining 25% had no apparent similarity to reported genes. A 611-kb DNA segment, a highly probable candidate of a symbiotic island, was identified, and 30 genes for nitrogen fixation and 24 genes for nodulation were assigned in this region. Codon usage analysis suggested that the symbiotic island as well as the plasmids originated and were transmitted from other genetic systems. The genomes of two plasmids, pMLa and pMLb, contained 320 and 209 potential protein-coding genes, respectively, for a variety of biological functions. These include genes for the ABC-transporter system, phosphate assimilation, two-component system, DNA replication and conjugation, but only one gene for nodulation was identified.
ESTHER : Kaneko_2000_DNA.Res_7_331
PubMedSearch : Kaneko_2000_DNA.Res_7_331
PubMedID: 11214968
Gene_locus related to this paper: meslo-acoc , meslo-EphB , meslo-est , meslo-lipest , meslo-MLL0014 , meslo-MLL0351 , meslo-MLL0537 , meslo-mll0601 , meslo-MLL0618 , meslo-MLL1209 , meslo-MLL1226 , meslo-mll1328 , meslo-MLL1329 , meslo-MLL1495 , meslo-MLL1869 , meslo-mll1900 , meslo-MLL2018 , meslo-MLL2072 , meslo-mll2481 , meslo-mll2689 , meslo-MLL2788 , meslo-MLL3556 , meslo-MLL3568 , meslo-MLL3682 , meslo-mll3776 , meslo-MLL4497 , meslo-MLL4552 , meslo-MLL5128 , meslo-mll5179 , meslo-mll5392 , meslo-MLL5717 , meslo-mll5743 , meslo-MLL6746 , meslo-MLL6752 , meslo-mll6871 , meslo-MLL7643 , meslo-mll7742 , meslo-MLL9722 , meslo-MLR0094 , meslo-mlr0145 , meslo-mlr0170 , meslo-MLR0240 , meslo-mlr0493 , meslo-MLR0937 , meslo-mlr0978 , meslo-MLR0992 , meslo-MLR1612 , meslo-mlr1789 , meslo-mlr1864 , meslo-mlr2176 , meslo-MLR2262 , meslo-mlr2612 , meslo-mlr2710 , meslo-mlr3034 , meslo-MLR3538 , meslo-mlr3816 , meslo-mlr4436 , meslo-MLR4903 , meslo-MLR5045 , meslo-MLR5063 , rhilo-dhaa , meslo-MLR6087 , meslo-MLR6657 , meslo-mlr6682 , meslo-mlr6683 , meslo-MLR6684 , meslo-MLR6787 , meslo-MLR6993 , meslo-mlr6999 , meslo-mlr7206 , meslo-mlr7232 , meslo-mlr7803 , meslo-MLR9053 , meslo-mlr9622 , meslo-mlr9641 , rhilo-MLL0076 , rhilo-MLL1824 , rhilo-MLL7123 , rhilo-MLL8374 , rhilo-MLR1247 , rhilo-MLR2444 , rhilo-MLR4383 , rhilo-MLR8175 , rhilo-q98nf6 , rhilo-q98nf8 , rhilo-q988i9

Title : Nefiracetam elevates extracellular acetylcholine level in the frontal cortex of rats with cerebral cholinergic dysfunctions: an in vivo microdialysis study - Sakurai_1998_Neurosci.Lett_246_69
Author(s) : Sakurai T , Kato T , Mori K , Takano E , Watabe S , Nabeshima T
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 246 :69 , 1998
Abstract : We determined the effect of nefiracetam, a novel cognitive enhancer, on the extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) level in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats, using a microdialysis technique without an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in the perfusate. Treatment with nefiracetam (10 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant increase in the level of ACh in the brain dialysate, compared with the vehicle-treated group. This enhancing effect was also observed when the ACh level was elevated by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) at 45 min after the treatment with nefiracetam. In addition, perfusion of nefiracetam at the concentration of 10 microM significantly increased the extracellular ACh level in the frontal cortex of basal forebrain (BF)-lesioned rats, in which a marked decrease of the basal ACh level was observed in this region. These results suggest that enhancement of cortical ACh release by nefiracetam may contribute to an anti-amnesic effect on the learning deficits induced by treatment of scopolamine or BF-lesion in rats.
ESTHER : Sakurai_1998_Neurosci.Lett_246_69
PubMedSearch : Sakurai_1998_Neurosci.Lett_246_69
PubMedID: 9627182

Title : Cutin monomers and surface wax constituents elicit H2O2 in conditioned cucumber hypocotyl segments and enhance the activity of other H2O2 elicitors - Fauth_1998_Plant.Physiol_117_1373
Author(s) : Fauth M , Schweizer P , Buchala A , Markstadter C , Riederer M , Kato T , Kauss H
Ref : Plant Physiol , 117 :1373 , 1998
Abstract : Hypocotyls from etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were gently abraded at their epidermal surface and cut segments were conditioned to develop competence for H2O2 elicitation. Alkaline hydrolysates of cutin from cucumber, tomato, and apple elicited H2O2 in such conditioned segments. The most active constituent of cucumber cutin was identified as dodecan-1-ol, a novel cutin monomer capable of forming hydrophobic terminal chains. Additionally, the cutin hydrolysates enhanced the activity of a fungal H2O2 elicitor, similar to cucumber surface wax, which contained newly identified alkan-1,3-diols. The specificity of elicitor and enhancement activity was further elaborated using some pure model compounds. Certain saturated hydroxy fatty acids were potent H2O2 elicitors as well as enhancers. Some unsaturated epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids were also excellent H2O2 elicitors but inhibited the fungal elicitor activity. Short-chain alkanols exhibited good elicitor and enhancer activity, whereas longer-chain alkan-1-ols were barely active. The enhancement effect was also observed for H2O2 elicitation by ergosterol and chitosan. The physiological significance of these observations might be that once the cuticle is degraded by fungal cutinase, the cutin monomers may act as H2O2 elicitors. Corrosion of cutin may also bring surface wax constituents in contact with protoplasts and enhance elicitation.
ESTHER : Fauth_1998_Plant.Physiol_117_1373
PubMedSearch : Fauth_1998_Plant.Physiol_117_1373
PubMedID: 9701593

Title : Studies on the therapeutic effect of 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) in mammals following organophosphorus compound-poisoning (report III): distribution and antidotal effect of 2-PAM in rats - Uehara_1993_J.Toxicol.Sci_18_265
Author(s) : Uehara S , Hiromori T , Isobe N , Suzuki T , Kato T , Miyamoto J
Ref : Journal of Toxicological Sciences , 18 :265 , 1993
Abstract : The metabolic fate of 2-PAM and its antidotal effect on organophosphorus compound poisoning in rats were studied. When 14C-2-PAM was administered intravenously, the amount of 14C reaching the brain was small. Following administration by intramedullary injection, 14C was present in high concentrations in the brain, and 72-90% of the 14C present in the brain corresponded to the unchanged form of 2-PAM. 2-PAM was rapidly excreted into the urine and feces following either intramedullary or intravenous administration. The half-life of 2-PAM in the brain following intramedullary administration was 1.52 hr. Intramedullary administration of 2-PAM to rats poisoned with fenitrothion or malathion enabled their survival and induced reactivation of brain cholinesterase.
ESTHER : Uehara_1993_J.Toxicol.Sci_18_265
PubMedSearch : Uehara_1993_J.Toxicol.Sci_18_265
PubMedID: 8295230

Title : Determination of basal acetylcholine release in vivo by rat brain dialysis with a U-shaped cannula: effect of SM-10888, a putative therapeutic drug for Alzheimer's disease - Xu_1991_Neurosci.Lett_123_179
Author(s) : Xu M , Nakamura Y , Yamamoto T , Natori K , Irie T , Utsumi H , Kato T
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 123 :179 , 1991
Abstract : A U-shaped dialysis cannula was implanted into rat frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum, and after 1 day for surgical recovery the cannula was perfused with Ringer's solution without any acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor under freely moving conditions. With a highly sensitive assay method for acetylcholine (ACh), the basal ACh content in the dialysates were detectable in those brain regions for several hours. The basal levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum were 82 +/- 9, 72 +/- 4, 70 +/- 8 fmol/20 microliters (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively. When SM-10888, a novel AChE inhibitor and putative therapeutic drug for Alzheimer's disease, was injected intraperitoneally, ACh in the dialysate of the cortex increased in a dose-dependent manner. Changes in the levels of hippocampal and striatal ACh release evoked by SM-10888 were similar to, but smaller than, that in the cortex. These data suggest that since the present assay method is able to determine in vivo basal ACh release in the dialysate without any AChE inhibitor, it is possible to study the effect of a novel drug such as SM-10888 in the brain regions.
ESTHER : Xu_1991_Neurosci.Lett_123_179
PubMedSearch : Xu_1991_Neurosci.Lett_123_179
PubMedID: 2027531

Title : Differential effects of M1- and M2-muscarinic drugs on striatal dopamine release and metabolism in freely moving rats - Xu_1989_Brain.Res_495_232
Author(s) : Xu M , Mizobe F , Yamamoto T , Kato T
Ref : Brain Research , 495 :232 , 1989
Abstract : A dialysis loop cannula was implanted into rat striatum under anesthetized condition, and the area was perfused with Ringer's solution under freely moving condition after 3 days for surgical recovery. Dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid recovered in the dialysate were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The effects of M1- and M2-muscarinic receptor agents, which were perfused continuously into the striatum through the dialysis membrane, were investigated. Continuous perfusion of AF102B, an M1-selective agonist, and oxotremorine, a non-selective agonist, resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the striatal DA release. Pirenzepine (10(-5) and 10(-7) M), an M1-selective antagonist, decreased the release of DA, and the stimulatory effect of AF102B (10(-5) M) was completely inhibited by 10(-5) and 10(-7) M pirenzepine, while the stimulatory effect of oxotremorine (10(-4) M) was only partly inhibited by 10(-5) M pirenzepine. AF-DX116 (10(-5) M), an M2-selective antagonist, increased the DA release, and showed an additive effect on the DA release evoked by AF102B (10(-5) M), whereas it produced no significant effect on oxotremorine (10(-5) M)-evoked DA release. These results suggest that in vivo DA release in the rat striatum is modulated by different subtypes of muscarinic receptors; i.e., the stimulatory effect is mainly mediated by M1-sites and inhibitory effect is mainly mediated by M2-sites. The changes in the DA release induced by the various drugs were prevented by pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX). Since action potential-dependent DA release (exocytosis) is blocked by the pretreatment with TTX, those drugs affect DA release by means of action potential-dependent processes.
ESTHER : Xu_1989_Brain.Res_495_232
PubMedSearch : Xu_1989_Brain.Res_495_232
PubMedID: 2765928

Title : Brain dialysis: detection of acetylcholine in the striatum of unrestrained and unanesthetized rats - Ajima_1987_Neurosci.Lett_81_129
Author(s) : Ajima A , Kato T
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 81 :129 , 1987
Abstract : A dialysis cannula was implanted into rat striatum while the animals were anesthetized, and after at least one day following the surgery the area was perfused with Ringer solution under the unrestrained and unanesthetized conditions. Concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) in the perfusate was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemical detection (ECD) with the enzyme-column on which acetylcholine esterase and choline oxidase were immobilized. ACh in the dialysate was only detectable when the Ringer solution containing eserine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, was perfused. ACh peak on HPLC-ECD could be detected at least for 4 h under these conditions. The level of ACh increased 2-3 fold with the perfusion of 1 mM atropine sulfate, a blocker of ACh receptor. These data indicate that brain dialysis in the presence of eserine is useful for study on the neurochemical activity of ACh neurons in the brain.
ESTHER : Ajima_1987_Neurosci.Lett_81_129
PubMedSearch : Ajima_1987_Neurosci.Lett_81_129
PubMedID: 3320817

Title : The physiological action of physostigmine and its action on denervated skeletal muscle -
Author(s) : Langley JN , Kato T
Ref : Journal of Physiology London , 49 :410 , 1915