Suzuki T

References (92)

Title : Functional roles of CD26\/DPP4 in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury - Sato_2024_Am.J.Physiol.Lung.Cell.Mol.Physiol__
Author(s) : Sato S , Kawasaki T , Hatano R , Koyanagi Y , Takahashi Y , Ohnuma K , Morimoto C , Dudek SM , Tatsumi K , Suzuki T
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Lung Cell Mol Physiol , : , 2024
Abstract : Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by dysregulated inflammation and increased permeability of lung microvascular cells. CD26/Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is a type II membrane protein that is expressed in several cell types and mediates multiple pleiotropic effects. We previously reported that DPP4 inhibition by sitagliptin attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury in mice. The current study characterized the functional role of CD26/DPP4 expression in LPS-induced lung injury in mice, isolated alveolar macrophages, and cultured lung endothelial cells. In LPS-induced lung injury, inflammatory responses (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophil numbers and several pro-inflammatory cytokine levels) were attenuated in Dpp4 knockout (Dpp4 KO) mice. However, multiple assays of alveolar capillary permeability were similar between the Dpp4 KO and wild-type mice. TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was suppressed in alveolar macrophages isolated from Dpp4 KO mice. In contrast, in cultured mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs), reduction in CD26/DPP4 expression by siRNA resulted in greater ICAM-1 and IL-6 expression after LPS stimulation. Moreover, the LPS-induced vascular monolayer permeability in vitro was higher in MLMVECs treated with Dpp4 siRNA, suggesting that CD26/DPP4 plays a protective role in endothelial barrier function. In summary, this study demonstrated that genetic deficiency of Dpp4 attenuates inflammatory responses but not permeability in LPS-induced lung injury in mice, potentially through differential functional roles of CD26/DPP4 expression in resident cellular components of the lung. CD26/DPP4 may be a potential therapeutic target for ARDS and warrants further exploration to precisely identify the multiple functional effects of CD26/DPP4 in ARDS pathophysiology.
ESTHER : Sato_2024_Am.J.Physiol.Lung.Cell.Mol.Physiol__
PubMedSearch : Sato_2024_Am.J.Physiol.Lung.Cell.Mol.Physiol__
PubMedID: 38469626

Title : Desmethyl type germinone, a specific agonist for the HTL\/KAI2 receptor, induces the Arabidopsis seed germination in a gibberellin-independent manner - Okabe_2023_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_649_110
Author(s) : Okabe S , Kitaoka K , Suzuki T , Kuruma M , Hagihara S , Yamaguchi S , Fukui K , Seto Y
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 649 :110 , 2023
Abstract : DWARF14 (D14) and HTL/KAI2 (KAI2) are paralogous receptors in the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily. D14 is the receptor for a class of plant hormones, strigolactones (SLs), and KAI2 is the receptor for the smoke-derived seed germination inducer, Karrikin (KAR), in Arabidopsis. Germinone (Ger) was previously reported as a KAI2 agonist with germination-inducing activity for thermo-inhibited Arabidopsis seed. However, Ger was not specific to KAI2, and could also bind to D14. It was reported that SL analogs with a desmethyl-type D-ring structure are specifically recognized by KAI2. On the basis of this observation, we synthesized a desmethyl-type germinone (dMGer). We found that dMGer is highly specific to KAI2. Moreover, dMGer induced Arabidopsis seed germination more effectively than did Ger. In addition, dMGer induced the seed germination of Arabidopsis in a manner independently of GA, a well-known germination inducer in plants.
ESTHER : Okabe_2023_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_649_110
PubMedSearch : Okabe_2023_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_649_110
PubMedID: 36764113

Title : A Divergent Clade KAI2 Protein in the Root Parasitic Plant Orobanche minor Is a Highly Sensitive Strigolactone Receptor and Is Involved in the Perception of Sesquiterpene Lactones - Takei_2023_Plant.Cell.Physiol__
Author(s) : Takei S , Uchiyama Y , Burger M , Suzuki T , Okabe S , Chory J , Seto Y
Ref : Plant Cell Physiol , : , 2023
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) were initially discovered as germination inducers for root parasitic plants. In 2015, three groups independently reported the characterization of the SL receptor in the root parasitic plant Striga hermonthica, which causes significant damage to crop production, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The characterized receptors belong to HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT/KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (HTL/KAI2), which is a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase protein superfamily. In non-parasitic plants, HTL/KAI2 perceives the smoke-derived germination inducer karrikin and a yet-unidentified endogenous ligand. However, root parasitic plants evolved a specific clade of HTL/KAI2 that has diverged from the KAI2 clade of non-parasitic plants. The S. hermonthica SL receptors are included in this specific clade, which is called KAI2 divergent (KAI2d). Orobanche minor is an obligate root holoparasitic plant that grows completely dependent on the host for water and nutrients because of a lack of photosynthetic ability. Previous phylogenetic analysis of KAI2 proteins in O. minor has demonstrated the presence of at least five KAI2d clade genes. Here, we report that KAI2d3 and KAI2d4 in O. minor have the ability to act as the SL receptors. They directly interact with SLs in vitro, and when expressed in Arabidopsis, they rescue thermo-inhibited germination in response to the synthetic SL analog GR24. In particular, KAI2d3 showed high sensitivity to GR24 when expressed in Arabidopsis, suggesting that this receptor enables highly sensitive SL recognition in O. minor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these KAI2d receptors are involved in the perception of sesquiterpene lactones, non-strigolactone-type germination inducers.
ESTHER : Takei_2023_Plant.Cell.Physiol__
PubMedSearch : Takei_2023_Plant.Cell.Physiol__
PubMedID: 37061839
Gene_locus related to this paper: oromi-OmKAI2d3 , oromi-OmKAI2c , oromi-OmKAI2d5 , oromi-OmKAI2d2 , oromi-OmKAI2d1 , oromi-OmD14 , oromi-OmKAI2d4

Title : A New Series of Strigolactone Analogs Derived From Cinnamic Acids as Germination Inducers for Root Parasitic Plants - Suzuki_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_843362
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Kuruma M , Seto Y
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 13 :843362 , 2022
Abstract : Root parasitic plants such as Striga and Orobanche cause significant damage on crop production, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Their seeds germinate by sensing host root-derived signaling molecules called strigolactones (SLs). SL mimics can be used as suicidal germination inducers for root parasitic plants. Previous attempts to develop such chemicals have revealed that the methylbutenolide ring (D-ring), a common substructure in all the naturally occurring SLs, is critical for SL agonistic activity, suggesting that it should be possible to generate new SL mimics simply by coupling a D-ring with another molecule. Because structural information regarding SLs and their receptor interaction is still limited, such an approach might be an effective strategy to develop new potent SL agonists. Here, we report development of a series of new SL analogs derived from cinnamic acid (CA), the basis of a class of phenylpropanoid natural products that occur widely in plants. CA has an aromatic ring and a double-bond side-chain structure, which are advantageous for preparing structurally diverse derivatives. We prepared SL analogs from cis and trans configuration CA, and found that all the cis-CA-derived SL analogs had stronger activities as seed germination inducers for the root parasitic plants, Orobanche minor and Striga hermonthica, compared with the corresponding trans-CA-derived analogs. Moreover, introduction of a substitution at the C-4 position increased the germination-stimulating activity. We also found that the SL analogs derived from cis-CA were able to interact directly with SL receptor proteins more effectively than the analogs derived from trans-CA. The cis isomer of CA was previously reported to have a growth promoting effect on non-parasitic plants such as Arabidopsis. We found that SL analogs derived from cis-CA also showed growth promoting activity toward Arabidopsis, suggesting that these new SL agonists might be useful not only as suicidal germination inducers for root parasitic weeds, but also as plant growth promoters for the host plants.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_843362
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_843362
PubMedID: 35422835

Title : Identification and characterization of a novel extracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase in the complete genome sequence of Undibacterium sp. KW1 and YM2 strains - Morohoshi_2020_PLoS.One_15_e0232698
Author(s) : Morohoshi T , Oi T , Suzuki T , Sato S
Ref : PLoS ONE , 15 :e0232698 , 2020
Abstract : Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biodegradable polymer that is synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. One of the derivatives of PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBH) has flexible material properties and low melting temperature. We have previously demonstrated that PHBH is degradable in a freshwater environment via the formation of biofilm on the surface of the PHBH film. Undibacterium sp. KW1 and YM2, which were isolated from the biofilm present on the PHBH film in the freshwater sample, were shown to have PHBH-degrading activity. In this study, the complete genome sequence of KW1 and YM2 revealed that the extracellular PHA depolymerase gene, designated as phaZUD, was present in their chromosomes. Sequence analysis revealed that PhaZUD contained four domains: a signal peptide, catalytic domain, linker domain, and substrate-binding domain. Escherichia coli harboring a PhaZUD-expressing plasmid showed PHBH-degrading activity in LB medium containing 1 wt% PHBH powder. The recombinant His-tagged PhaZUD from KW1 and YM2 was purified from the culture supernatant and shown to have PHBH-degrading activity at the optimum temperature of 35 and 40 degreesC, respectively. When the degradation product in the PHBH solution was treated with PhaZUD and assayed by LC-TOF-MS, we detected various oligomer structures, but no more than pentamers, which consist of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate. These results demonstrated that PhaZUD may have an endo-type extracellular PHA depolymerase activity.
ESTHER : Morohoshi_2020_PLoS.One_15_e0232698
PubMedSearch : Morohoshi_2020_PLoS.One_15_e0232698
PubMedID: 32369496

Title : Acute Respiratory Infection in Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4-Transgenic Mice Infected with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - Iwata-Yoshikawa_2019_J.Virol_93_
Author(s) : Iwata-Yoshikawa N , Okamura T , Shimizu Y , Kotani O , Sato H , Sekimukai H , Fukushi S , Suzuki T , Sato Y , Takeda M , Tashiro M , Hasegawa H , Nagata N
Ref : J Virol , 93 : , 2019
Abstract : Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection can manifest as a mild illness, acute respiratory distress, organ failure, or death. Several animal models have been established to study disease pathogenesis and to develop vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here, we developed transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6 background; these mice expressed human CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4), a functional receptor for MERS-CoV, under the control of an endogenous hDPP4 promoter. We then characterized this mouse model of MERS-CoV. The expression profile of hDPP4 in these mice was almost equivalent to that in human tissues, including kidney and lung; however, hDPP4 was overexpressed in murine CD3-positive cells within peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Intranasal inoculation of young and adult Tg mice with MERS-CoV led to infection of the lower respiratory tract and pathological evidence of acute multifocal interstitial pneumonia within 7 days, with only transient loss of body weight. However, the immunopathology in young and adult Tg mice was different. On day 5 or 7 postinoculation, lungs of adult Tg mice contained higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with migration of macrophages. These results suggest that the immunopathology of MERS-CoV infection in the Tg mouse is age dependent. The mouse model described here will increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis and host mediators that protect against MERS-CoV infection.IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections are endemic in the Middle East and a threat to public health worldwide. Rodents are not susceptible to the virus because they do not express functional receptors; therefore, we generated a new animal model of MERS-CoV infection based on transgenic mice expressing human DPP4 (hDPP4). The pattern of hDPP4 expression in this model was similar to that in human tissues (except lymphoid tissue). In addition, MERS-CoV was limited to the respiratory tract. Here, we focused on host factors involved in immunopathology in MERS-CoV infection and clarified differences in antiviral immune responses between young and adult transgenic mice. This new small-animal model could contribute to more in-depth study of the pathology of MERS-CoV infection and aid development of suitable treatments.
ESTHER : Iwata-Yoshikawa_2019_J.Virol_93_
PubMedSearch : Iwata-Yoshikawa_2019_J.Virol_93_
PubMedID: 30626685

Title : Gene structure and comparative study of two different plastic-degrading esterases fromRoseateles depolymeransstrain TB-87 - Ahmad_2019_Polym.Degrad.Stab_164_109
Author(s) : Ahmad A , Tsutsui A , Iijim S , Suzuki T , Shaha AA , Nakajima-kambe T
Ref : Polymer Degradation and Stability , 164 :109 , 2019
Abstract : The structures of two genes fromRoseateles depolymeransstrain TB-87 encoding the esterases Est-H andEst-L, which can degrade aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters, were annotated. Two open reading frames(ORFs) consisting of 1083 bp and 870 bp nucleotides, corresponding toest-Handest-L, encoding enzymesof 290 and 289 amino acids, respectively, were predicted. In addition, another ORF consisting of 735 bpencoding a chaperone-like protein (Est-Ch) of 244 amino acids was identified in the intergenic region ofest-Handest-L. The presence of a promoter region upstream ofest-Hand the absence of a terminatorregion downstream of the ORF and vice versa forest-Ch, suggests thatest-Handest-Chare poly-cistronically expressed. A homology search for Est-H and Est-L revealed homology with plastic degradingenzymes, such as esterases and cutinases, while Est-Ch showed homology with a bacterial lipasechaperone. As consensus lipase sequences (-Gly-His-Ser-Met-Gly-) were observed in these enzymes, Est-H and Est-L were hypothesized to be hydrolases with serine (Ser) in their active center. Three-dimensional structures of Est-H and Est-L without their putative signal sequences were constructedusing Est119 fromThermobifida albastrain AHK119 as the template; the structures and positions of thecatalytic triad (Ser, Asp, His) active centers were similar to those of Est119. A mutant strain in which theannotated esterase-encoding genes were disrupted using a homologous recombination method lost theability to form a clear zone on poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) emulsion-overlaid nutrientagar plates. Characterization of the esterases from strain TB-87 could contribute to the development ofnovel biodegradable plastics with unique properties such as recyclable monomers
ESTHER : Ahmad_2019_Polym.Degrad.Stab_164_109
PubMedSearch : Ahmad_2019_Polym.Degrad.Stab_164_109
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9burk-OWQ89612 , 9acto-d4q9n1 , 9burk-EstL , 9burk-a0a0u3lpw8

Title : Low serum butyrylcholinesterase is independently related to low fetuin-A in patients on hemodialysis: a cross-sectional study - Okamoto_2018_Int.Urol.Nephrol_50_1713
Author(s) : Okamoto T , Tsutaya C , Hatakeyama S , Konishi S , Okita K , Tanaka Y , Imanishi K , Takashima T , Saitoh F , Suzuki T , Ohyama C
Ref : International Urology & Nephrology , 50 :1713 , 2018
Abstract : PURPOSE: Fetuin-A, which plays a protective role against the atherosclerosis and progression of vascular calcification, is decreased in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Fetuin-A and serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) levels decrease during malnutrition. We explored whether BChE was independently related to fetuin-A in patients on HD. METHODS: Laboratory data including BChE and serum fetuin-A were acquired from 230 patients on HD between August 2017 and April 2018. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). Abdominal aortic calcification index (ACI) was measured using computed tomography. Patients were stratified into two groups: low fetuin-A (< lowest quartile) and non-low fetuin-A (>/= lowest quartile) groups. Patient background, medication, and laboratory data were compared. The receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted to determine the optimal cutoff values of BChE and GNRI for lower fetuin-A level. Factors independently related with lower fetuin-A levels were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The lowest quartile value of fetuin-A and optimal cutoff values of BChE and GNRI were 0.213 g/L, 200 IU/L, and 92.6, respectively. The study included 57 and 173 patients in the low fetuin-A and non-low fetuin-A groups, respectively. Significant between-group differences were observed for age, C-reactive protein (CRP), history of cardiovascular disease, serum albumin, GNRI, and BChE. Multivariate analysis showed that BChE of < 200 IU/L [odds ratio (OR) 3.05], CRP (OR 2.49), and GNRI of < 92.6 (OR 2.34) were independent factors for lower fetuin-A level after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: BChE was a significant independent marker for fetuin-A levels in patients on HD, in addition to GNRI.
ESTHER : Okamoto_2018_Int.Urol.Nephrol_50_1713
PubMedSearch : Okamoto_2018_Int.Urol.Nephrol_50_1713
PubMedID: 30128921

Title : Butyrylcholinesterase level as an independent factor of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent resistance in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: a single-center cross-sectional study - Okamoto_2018_Clin.Exp.Nephrol_22_1174
Author(s) : Okamoto T , Hatakeyama S , Tanaka Y , Imanishi K , Takashima T , Saitoh F , Koie T , Suzuki T , Ohyama C
Ref : Clin Exp Nephrol , 22 :1174 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) responsiveness is related to the nutritional status of patients on hemodialysis (HD). Serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an alpha-glycoprotein, may decrease in case of malnutrition. We investigated whether BChE was independently related to ESA resistance in patients on HD. METHODS: The laboratory data and ESA resistance index (ERI), defined as ESA dosage per week divided by dry weight and hemoglobin, were investigated in 215 patients on HD between July and September 2017. Malnutrition was defined as Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) of < 91.2. The patients were stratified into two groups: ERI-high (ERI >/= 9.44) and ERI-low (ERI < 9.44) groups. Variables such as patient's background, medication, and laboratory data were compared between the two groups. The optimal cutoff value of BChE for higher ERI was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Factors independently associated with higher ERI were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The median and optimal cutoff values of ERI and BChE were 6.51 and 200 IU/L, respectively. The study included 71 (33%) and 144 (67%) patients in the ERI-high and ERI-low groups, respectively. Significant between-group differences were observed concerning age, hemoglobin, ESA dose, lipid profiles, serum albumin, body mass index, GNRI, iron metabolism markers, ferric medicines, and BChE. Multivariate analysis showed that BChE < 200 IU/L (odds ratio 3.67; 95% confidence interval 1.73-7.77) continued to be an independent factor associated with higher ERI after adjusting for potential confounders, which was a similar odds ratio as GNRI < 91.2. CONCLUSION: BChE may be an independent indicator of ESA resistance.
ESTHER : Okamoto_2018_Clin.Exp.Nephrol_22_1174
PubMedSearch : Okamoto_2018_Clin.Exp.Nephrol_22_1174
PubMedID: 29600410

Title : The Role of Detoxification Enzymes in the Adaptation of the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae (Giles\; Diptera: Culicidae) to Polluted Water - King_2017_J.Med.Entomol_54_1674
Author(s) : King SA , Onayifeke B , Akorli J , Sibomana I , Chabi J , Manful-Gwira T , Dadzie S , Suzuki T , Wilson MD , Boakye DA , de Souza DK
Ref : Journal of Medical Entomology , 54 :1674 , 2017
Abstract : The main malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, the Anopheles gambiae (Giles; Diptera: Culicidae), normally breed in clean water sources. However, evidence suggests an on-going adaptation of Anopheline species to polluted breeding habitats in urban settings. This study aimed at understanding the adaptation to breeding in water bodies with different qualities, in five selected mosquito breeding sites in urban Accra, Ghana. The study sites were also evaluated for the WHO water-quality parameters as a measure of pollution, and insecticide residues. Field mosquitoes were evaluated for five genes; CYP6P3, CYP4H19, CYP4H24, GSTD1-4, and ABCC11-associated with insecticide detoxification-using quantitative RT-PCR, as well as Mono-oxygenase, Alpha Esterase, Glutathione S-transferase, and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using biochemical enzyme assays. The lab-reared, insecticide susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain was bred in the most polluted water source for 10 generations and evaluated for the same genes and enzymes. The results revealed that the fold expression of the genes was higher in the larvae compared with the adults. The results also suggest that detoxification enzymes could be involved in the adaptation of An. gambiae to polluted breeding sites. Correlation analysis revealed a highly positive significant correlation between calcium levels and all five genes (P < 0.05). Stepwise linear regression to understand which of the variables predicted the expression of the genes revealed that sulphate was responsible for ABCC11 and CYP4H24, alkalinity for GSTD1-4, and calcium for CYP4H19 and CYP6P3. The detailed genetic basis of this adaptation need to be further investigated. A further understanding of this adaptation may provide outlooks for controlling malaria and other disease vectors adapted to polluted breeding water sources.
ESTHER : King_2017_J.Med.Entomol_54_1674
PubMedSearch : King_2017_J.Med.Entomol_54_1674
PubMedID: 28968911

Title : Regulation of secretion and enzymatic activity of lipoprotein lipase by C-mannosylation - Okamoto_2017_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_486_558
Author(s) : Okamoto S , Murano T , Suzuki T , Uematsu S , Niwa Y , Sasazawa Y , Dohmae N , Bujo H , Simizu S
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 486 :558 , 2017
Abstract : Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a crucial enzyme in lipid metabolism and transport, and its enzymatic deficiency causes metabolic disorders, such as hypertriglyceridemia. LPL has one predicted C-mannosylation site at Trp417. In this study, we demonstrated that LPL is C-mannosylated at Trp417 by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, by using wild-type and a C-mannosylation-defective mutant of LPL-overexpressing cell lines, we revealed that both secretion efficiency and enzymatic activity of C-mannosylation-defective mutant LPL were lower than those of wild-type. These data suggest the importance of C-mannosylation for LPL functions.
ESTHER : Okamoto_2017_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_486_558
PubMedSearch : Okamoto_2017_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_486_558
PubMedID: 28327359
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LPL

Title : Altered Cortical Dynamics and Cognitive Function upon Haploinsufficiency of the Autism-Linked Excitatory Synaptic Suppressor MDGA2 - Connor_2016_Neuron_91_1052
Author(s) : Connor SA , Ammendrup-Johnsen I , Chan AW , Kishimoto Y , Murayama C , Kurihara N , Tada A , Ge Y , Lu H , Yan R , LeDue JM , Matsumoto H , Kiyonari H , Kirino Y , Matsuzaki F , Suzuki T , Murphy TH , Wang YT , Yamamoto T , Craig AM
Ref : Neuron , 91 :1052 , 2016
Abstract : Mutations in a synaptic organizing pathway contribute to autism. Autism-associated mutations in MDGA2 (MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2) are thought to reduce excitatory/inhibitory transmission. However, we show that mutation of Mdga2 elevates excitatory transmission, and that MDGA2 blocks neuroligin-1 interaction with neurexins and suppresses excitatory synapse development. Mdga2(+/-) mice, modeling autism mutations, demonstrated increased asymmetric synapse density, mEPSC frequency and amplitude, and altered LTP, with no change in measures of inhibitory synapses. Behavioral assays revealed an autism-like phenotype including stereotypy, aberrant social interactions, and impaired memory. In vivo voltage-sensitive dye imaging, facilitating comparison with fMRI studies in autism, revealed widespread increases in cortical spontaneous activity and intracortical functional connectivity. These results suggest that mutations in MDGA2 contribute to altered cortical processing through the dual disadvantages of elevated excitation and hyperconnectivity, and indicate that perturbations of the NRXN-NLGN pathway in either direction from the norm increase risk for autism.
ESTHER : Connor_2016_Neuron_91_1052
PubMedSearch : Connor_2016_Neuron_91_1052
PubMedID: 27608760

Title : Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated GABAergic inputs to cholinergic interneurons in the striosomes and the matrix compartments of the mouse striatum - Inoue_2016_Neuropharmacol_105_318
Author(s) : Inoue R , Suzuki T , Nishimura K , Miura M
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 105 :318 , 2016
Abstract : The striatum consists of two neurochemically distinct compartments: the striosomes (or patches) and the extrastriosomal matrix. Although striatal neurons are strongly innervated by intrinsic cholinergic interneurons, acetylcholinesterase is expressed more abundantly in the matrix than in the striosomes. At present, little is known about the different cholinergic functions of the striatal compartments. In this study, we examined gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) inputs to cholinergic interneurons in both compartments. We found that nicotinic receptor-mediated GABAergic responses were evoked more frequently in the matrix than in the striosomes. Furthermore, a single action potential of cholinergic neurons induced nicotinic receptor-mediated GABAergic inputs to the cholinergic neurons themselves, suggesting mutual connections that shape the temporal firing pattern of cholinergic neurons. The nicotinic receptor-mediated GABAergic responses were attenuated by continuous application of acetylcholine or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor eserine and were enhanced by desformylflustrabromine, a positive allosteric modulator of the alpha4beta2 subunit containing a nicotinic receptor. These results suggest that the nicotinic impact on the GABAergic responses are not uniform despite the massive and continuous cholinergic innervation. It has been reported that differential activation of neurons in the striosomes and the matrix produce a repetitive behavior called stereotypy. Drugs acting on alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors might provide potential tools for moderating the imbalanced activities between the compartments.
ESTHER : Inoue_2016_Neuropharmacol_105_318
PubMedSearch : Inoue_2016_Neuropharmacol_105_318
PubMedID: 26808315

Title : Non Susceptibility of Neonatal and Adult Rats against the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - Iwata-Yoshikawa_2016_Jpn.J.Infect.Dis_69_510
Author(s) : Iwata-Yoshikawa N , Fukushi S , Fukuma A , Suzuki T , Takeda M , Tashiro M , Hasegawa H , Nagata N
Ref : Jpn J Infect Dis , 69 :510 , 2016
Abstract : The present study examined the susceptibility of rats to the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and determined whether this animal is a suitable model for MERS-CoV infection. Immunohistochemical analysis identified dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), a known receptor for MERS-CoV on type I pneumocytes from infected rats. Whereas adult rats developed antibodies against MERS-CoV spike protein after intranasal inoculation, there was no evidence of viral replication in the lungs of adult, young, or neonatal rats after intranasal inoculation with MERS-CoV. In addition, human DPP4-expressing rat kidney fibroblasts, but not rat DPP4-expressing cells, were susceptible to MERS-CoV. Taken together, these results suggest that the rat is not a useful animal model for studying MERS-CoV infection.
ESTHER : Iwata-Yoshikawa_2016_Jpn.J.Infect.Dis_69_510
PubMedSearch : Iwata-Yoshikawa_2016_Jpn.J.Infect.Dis_69_510
PubMedID: 27000459

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of Algoriphagus sp. Strain M8-2, Isolated from a Brackish Lake - Muraguchi_2016_Genome.Announc_4_e00347
Author(s) : Muraguchi Y , Kushimoto K , Ohtsubo Y , Suzuki T , Dohra H , Kimbara K , Shintani M
Ref : Genome Announc , 4 : , 2016
Abstract : Algoriphagus sp. strain M8-2 was isolated from a brackish lake, Lake Sanaru, in Hamamatsu, Japan, as a filterable bacterium through a 0.22-microm-pore-size membrane filter. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the M8-2 genome (a 3,882,610-bp chromosome).
ESTHER : Muraguchi_2016_Genome.Announc_4_e00347
PubMedSearch : Muraguchi_2016_Genome.Announc_4_e00347
PubMedID: 27174266
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-a0a142ekx2

Title : Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (R243H) in a Type 2 Diabetes Patient with Multiple Arterial Aneurysms - Suzuki_2016_Intern.Med_55_1131
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Sawada S , Ishigaki Y , Tsukita S , Kodama S , Sugisawa T , Imai J , Yamada T , Yamaguchi T , Murano T , Katagiri H
Ref : Intern Med , 55 :1131 , 2016
Abstract : Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency is a rare monogenic disorder that manifests as severe hypertriglyceridemia. Whether or not LPL deficiency accelerates the development of atherosclerosis remains controversial. We herein report a 66-year-old woman who was homozygous for the R243H LPL mutation. She had developed multiple arterial aneurysms and systemic atherosclerosis despite good control of other atherogenic risk factors, including diabetes. Furthermore, although intensive pharmaceutical therapies had been minimally effective, medium chain triglyceride (MCT) therapy reduced the serum triglyceride levels. Thus, this case suggests important role that mutated LPL protein plays in the progression of atherosclerosis and that MCT therapy is potentially effective, even for severe hypertriglyceridemia due to LPL deficiency.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2016_Intern.Med_55_1131
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2016_Intern.Med_55_1131
PubMedID: 27150867

Title : Ab initio molecular simulations for proposing potent inhibitors to butyrylcholinesterases - Murakawa_2014_J.Mol.Graph.Model_54C_54
Author(s) : Murakawa T , Matsushita Y , Suzuki T , Khan MT , Kurita N
Ref : J Mol Graph Model , 54C :54 , 2014
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) exists mainly at neuromuscular junctions and plays an important role in the hydrolyzing mechanism of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. A variety of compounds have been produced in order to inhibit the function of BChE. We here investigate the specific interactions between BChE and some ligands (Kx) with large binding affinity to BChE, using ligand-docking, classical molecular mechanics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) methods. The binding energies between BChE and Kx evaluated by the FMO method have a correlation with the 50% inhibition concentration obtained by the previous experiments. In addition, the FMO calculations highlight that Asp70, Trp82 and Tyr128 residues of BChE contribute significantly to the binding between BChE and Kx. Based on the results, we propose some novel ligands and elucidate that one of the proposed ligands can bind strongly to BChE. The present results are useful for developing potent inhibitors to BChE.
ESTHER : Murakawa_2014_J.Mol.Graph.Model_54C_54
PubMedSearch : Murakawa_2014_J.Mol.Graph.Model_54C_54
PubMedID: 25259414

Title : Draft Genome Sequence of Holospora undulata Strain HU1, a Micronucleus-Specific Symbiont of the Ciliate Paramecium caudatum - Dohra_2013_Genome.Announc_1_E00664
Author(s) : Dohra H , Suzuki H , Suzuki T , Tanaka K , Fujishima M
Ref : Genome Announc , 1 : , 2013
Abstract : Holospora undulata is a micronucleus-specific symbiont of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We report here the draft genome sequence of H. undulata strain HU1. This genome information will contribute to the study of symbiosis between H. undulata and the host P. caudatum.
ESTHER : Dohra_2013_Genome.Announc_1_E00664
PubMedSearch : Dohra_2013_Genome.Announc_1_E00664
PubMedID: 23969064
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9prot-a0a061jga0 , 9prot-a0a061jg10

Title : Structural bases of Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease - Saito_2012_Mol.Genet.Metab_105_244
Author(s) : Saito S , Ohno K , Suzuki T , Sakuraba H
Ref : Mol Genet Metab , 105 :244 , 2012
Abstract : To elucidate the bases of Wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) from the viewpoint of enzyme structure, we constructed a structural model of human lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) using molecular modeling software Modeller. The results revealed that the residues responsible for WD/CESD tend to be less solvent-accessible than others. Then, we examined the structural changes in the LAL protein caused by the WD/CESD mutations, using molecular modeling software TINKER. The results indicated that conformational changes of the functionally important residues and/or large conformational changes tend to cause the severe clinical phenotype (WD), whereas small conformational changes tend to cause the mild clinical phenotype (CESD), although there have been several exceptions. Further structural analysis is required to clarify the relationship between the three-dimensional structural changes and clinical phenotypes.
ESTHER : Saito_2012_Mol.Genet.Metab_105_244
PubMedSearch : Saito_2012_Mol.Genet.Metab_105_244
PubMedID: 22138108
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LIPA

Title : Effect of a CNS-Sensitive Anticholinesterase Methane Sulfonyl Fluoride on Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in Freely Moving Rats - Imanishi_2012_Adv.Pharmacol.Sci_2012_708178
Author(s) : Imanishi T , Hossain MM , Suzuki T , Xu P , Sato I , Kobayashi H
Ref : Advances in Pharmacology Sci , 2012 :708178 , 2012
Abstract : Anticholinesterases (antiChEs) are used to treat Alzheimer's disease. The comparative effects of two antiChEs, methanesulfonyl fluoride (MSF) and donepezil, on the extracellular levels of ACh in the hippocampus were investigated by in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. MSF at 1 and 2 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent increase in ACh efflux from 10 min to at least 3 hrs after injection. At 2 mg/kg, the increase was still present at 24 hr. Donepezil at 1 mg/kg showed a similar but smaller effect, and, paradoxically, 2 mg/kg showed no consistent effect. MSF at 1 and 2 mg/kg decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus to 54.8 and 20.1% of control, respectively. These results suggest that MSF is a suitable candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Imanishi_2012_Adv.Pharmacol.Sci_2012_708178
PubMedSearch : Imanishi_2012_Adv.Pharmacol.Sci_2012_708178
PubMedID: 22319525

Title : Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae - Morita_2011_PLoS.One_6_e23184
Author(s) : Morita H , Toh H , Oshima K , Yoshizaki M , Kawanishi M , Nakaya K , Suzuki T , Miyauchi E , Ishii Y , Tanabe S , Murakami M , Hattori M
Ref : PLoS ONE , 6 :e23184 , 2011
Abstract : Lactococcus garvieae causes fatal haemorrhagic septicaemia in fish such as yellowtail. The comparative analysis of genomes of a virulent strain Lg2 and a non-virulent strain ATCC 49156 of L. garvieae revealed that the two strains shared a high degree of sequence identity, but Lg2 had a 16.5-kb capsule gene cluster that is absent in ATCC 49156. The capsule gene cluster was composed of 15 genes, of which eight genes are highly conserved with those in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster often found in Lactococcus lactis strains. Sequence analysis of the capsule gene cluster in the less virulent strain L. garvieae Lg2-S, Lg2-derived strain, showed that two conserved genes were disrupted by a single base pair deletion, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the capsule is crucial for virulence of Lg2. The capsule gene cluster of Lg2 may be a genomic island from several features such as the presence of insertion sequences flanked on both ends, different GC content from the chromosomal average, integration into the locus syntenic to other lactococcal genome sequences, and distribution in human gut microbiomes. The analysis also predicted other potential virulence factors such as haemolysin. The present study provides new insights into understanding of the virulence mechanisms of L. garvieae in fish.
ESTHER : Morita_2011_PLoS.One_6_e23184
PubMedSearch : Morita_2011_PLoS.One_6_e23184
PubMedID: 21829716
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacgt-f9v7p0

Title : Complete genomic sequence of the O-desmethylangolensin-producing bacterium Clostridium rRNA cluster XIVa strain SY8519, isolated from adult human intestine - Yokoyama_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5568
Author(s) : Yokoyama S , Oshima K , Nomura I , Hattori M , Suzuki T
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :5568 , 2011
Abstract : The O-desmethylangolensin-producing Clostridium rRNA cluster XIVa strain SY8519 was isolated from the intestinal flora of a healthy human as a key isoflavonoid-metabolizing bacterium. Here, we report the finished and annotated genomic sequence of this organism.
ESTHER : Yokoyama_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5568
PubMedSearch : Yokoyama_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5568
PubMedID: 21914882
Gene_locus related to this paper: closs-f7v5q6 , closs-f7v6v0

Title : Complete genomic sequence of the equol-producing bacterium Eggerthella sp. strain YY7918, isolated from adult human intestine - Yokoyama_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5570
Author(s) : Yokoyama S , Oshima K , Nomura I , Hattori M , Suzuki T
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :5570 , 2011
Abstract : Eggerthella sp. strain YY7918 was isolated from the intestinal flora of a healthy human. It metabolizes daidzein (a soybean isoflavonoid) and produces S-equol, which has stronger estrogenic activities than daidzein. Here, we report the finished and annotated genomic sequence of this organism.
ESTHER : Yokoyama_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5570
PubMedSearch : Yokoyama_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_5570
PubMedID: 21914883
Gene_locus related to this paper: eegsy-f7uz47

Title : Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate - Fukuda_2011_Nature_469_543
Author(s) : Fukuda S , Toh H , Hase K , Oshima K , Nakanishi Y , Yoshimura K , Tobe T , Clarke JM , Topping DL , Suzuki T , Taylor TD , Itoh K , Kikuchi J , Morita H , Hattori M , Ohno H
Ref : Nature , 469 :543 , 2011
Abstract : The human gut is colonized with a wide variety of microorganisms, including species, such as those belonging to the bacterial genus Bifidobacterium, that have beneficial effects on human physiology and pathology. Among the most distinctive benefits of bifidobacteria are modulation of host defence responses and protection against infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have barely been elucidated. To investigate these mechanisms, we used mice associated with certain bifidobacterial strains and a simplified model of lethal infection with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, together with an integrated 'omics' approach. Here we show that genes encoding an ATP-binding-cassette-type carbohydrate transporter present in certain bifidobacteria contribute to protecting mice against death induced by E. coli O157:H7. We found that this effect can be attributed, at least in part, to increased production of acetate and that translocation of the E. coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin from the gut lumen to the blood was inhibited. We propose that acetate produced by protective bifidobacteria improves intestinal defence mediated by epithelial cells and thereby protects the host against lethal infection.
ESTHER : Fukuda_2011_Nature_469_543
PubMedSearch : Fukuda_2011_Nature_469_543
PubMedID: 21270894
Gene_locus related to this paper: bifli-c2gxu7 , biflo-BL0073 , biflo-BL0336 , biflo-BL0581 , biflo-BL0582 , biflo-BL0682 , biflo-BL0787 , biflo-BL0807 , biflo-BL1109 , biflo-BL1514 , biflo-PAP , biflo-PTRB , bifln-c2gtr2

Title : IgSF molecule MDGA1 is involved in radial migration and positioning of a subset of cortical upper-layer neurons - Ishikawa_2011_Dev.Dyn_240_96
Author(s) : Ishikawa T , Gotoh N , Murayama C , Abe T , Iwashita M , Matsuzaki F , Suzuki T , Yamamoto T
Ref : Developmental Dynamics , 240 :96 , 2011
Abstract : Mdga1, encoding a GPI-anchored immunoglobulin superfamily molecule containing an MAM domain, is expressed by a specific subset of neurons, including layer II/III projection neurons, in the mouse neocortex. To investigate the function of Mdga1 in corticogenesis, we generated Mdga1-deficient mice and backcrossed them to obtain a congenic background. Gross anatomy of the Mdga1-deficient brain at postnatal day (P) 14 showed no obvious phenotype. However, the migration of Mdga1-mutant neurons to the superficial cortical plate was clearly delayed. Most Mdga1-mutant neurons reached the lower portion of the upper cortical layer by embryonic day 18.5 and stayed there through P0. By P7, the location of the mutant cells was the same as wild-type. The location of Cux2-expressing upper-layer neurons in the cortical plate was largely unaffected. These observations indicated that Mdga1 is involved in the migration and positioning of a subset of cortical neurons and suggested that the radial migration of upper-layer neurons might be differentially regulated.
ESTHER : Ishikawa_2011_Dev.Dyn_240_96
PubMedSearch : Ishikawa_2011_Dev.Dyn_240_96
PubMedID: 21104742

Title : Structural basis of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1 - Ohno_2010_Brain.Dev_32_524
Author(s) : Ohno K , Saito S , Sugawara K , Suzuki T , Togawa T , Sakuraba H
Ref : Brain Dev , 32 :524 , 2010
Abstract : To elucidate the basis of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1 (CLN1) from the viewpoint of enzyme structure, we constructed structural models of mutant palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) proteins using molecular modeling software, jackal and TINKER. We classified the amino acid substitutions responsible for CLN1 and divided them into two groups, groups 1 and 2, based on the biochemical phenotype. Then, we examined the structural changes in the PPT1 protein for each group by calculating the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA) and the number of atoms affected. Our results revealed that the structural changes in group 1, which exhibits a complete deficiency of PPT1 activity, were generally large and located in the core region of the enzyme molecule. In group 2 exhibiting residual PPT1 activity, the structural changes in PPT1 were smaller and localized near the surface of the enzyme molecule. Coloring of affected atoms based on the distances between those in the wild type and mutants revealed the characteristic structural changes in the PPT1 protein geographically and semi-quantitatively. Structural investigation provides us with a deeper insight into the basis of CLN1.
ESTHER : Ohno_2010_Brain.Dev_32_524
PubMedSearch : Ohno_2010_Brain.Dev_32_524
PubMedID: 19793631
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PPT1

Title : Effects of lipase, lipoxygenase, peroxidase and free fatty acids on volatile compound found in boiled buckwheat noodles - Suzuki_2010_J.Sci.Food.Agric_90_1232
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Kim SJ , Mukasa Y , Morishita T , Noda T , Takigawa S , Hashimoto N , Yamauchi H , Matsuura-Endo C
Ref : J Sci Food Agric , 90 :1232 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Relationships between buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour lipase, lipoxygenase and peroxidase activity, along with levels of individual free fatty acids (FFAs) and levels of headspace volatile compounds of boiled buckwheat noodles, were investigated for 12 different buckwheat varieties. Enzyme activities and FFA levels in flour were correlated with their respective varietal arrays of boiled noodle headspace volatile compounds, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The volatiles hexanal, tentative butanal, tentative 3-methylbutanal and tentative 2-methylbutanal showed significant positive correlation with one another, indicating that they may be generated through similar mechanisms. These important volatile components of buckwheat flavor were also positively correlated with lipase and/or peroxidase activity, indicating that enzymatic reactions are important in flavor generation in boiled buckwheat noodles. On the other hand, pentanal, which showed no significant correlation with any enzyme activity, showed a significant positive correlation to the levels of C18:2 and C18:3 FFAs, suggesting the existence of a 'non-enzymatic' and/or 'uncertain enzymatic pathway' for flavor generation in boiled buckwheat noodles. CONCLUSION: Lipase and peroxidase in buckwheat flour are important for flavor generation of boiled buckwheat noodles. This information is important for increasing desirable flavor of buckwheat products as well as for selecting varieties with improved flavor.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2010_J.Sci.Food.Agric_90_1232
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2010_J.Sci.Food.Agric_90_1232
PubMedID: 20394006

Title : Trypanosome alternative oxidase, a potential therapeutic target for sleeping sickness, is conserved among Trypanosoma brucei subspecies - Nakamura_2010_Parasitol.Int_59_560
Author(s) : Nakamura K , Fujioka S , Fukumoto S , Inoue N , Sakamoto K , Hirata H , Kido Y , Yabu Y , Suzuki T , Watanabe Y , Saimoto H , Akiyama H , Kita K
Ref : Parasitol Int , 59 :560 , 2010
Abstract : Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense are known causes of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or "sleeping sickness," which is deadly if untreated. We previously reported that a specific inhibitor of trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO), ascofuranone, quickly kills African trypanosomes in vitro and cures mice infected with another subspecies, non-human infective T. b. brucei, in in vivo trials. As an essential factor for trypanosome survival, TAO is a promising drug target due to the absence of alternative oxidases in the mammalian host. This study found TAO expression in HAT-causing trypanosomes; its amino acid sequence was identical to that in non-human infective T. b. brucei. The biochemical understanding of the TAO including its 3 dimensional structure and inhibitory compounds against TAO could therefore be applied to all three T. brucei subspecies in search of a cure for HAT. Our in vitro study using T. b. rhodesiense confirmed the effectiveness of ascofuranone (IC(50) value: 1 nM) to eliminate trypanosomes in human infective strain cultures.
ESTHER : Nakamura_2010_Parasitol.Int_59_560
PubMedSearch : Nakamura_2010_Parasitol.Int_59_560
PubMedID: 20688188
Gene_locus related to this paper: acreg-ascc

Title : Influence of carboxylesterase 2 genetic polymorphisms on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in Japanese renal transplant recipients - Fujiyama_2009_Xenobiotica_39_407
Author(s) : Fujiyama N , Miura M , Satoh S , Inoue K , Kagaya H , Saito M , Habuchi T , Suzuki T
Ref : Xenobiotica , 39 :407 , 2009
Abstract : Mycophenolic acid (MPA), converted from the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), is generated by intestinal and hepatic esterases. The role of carboxylesterase (CES) in MMF hydrolysis was examined in vitro using human liver microsomes. V(max) and K(m) values of MMF hydrolysis in pooled human liver microsomes were 1368 +/- 44 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein and 1030 +/- 65 microM, respectively. Hydrolytic activity was inhibited by the CES inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, bis-p-nitorophenylphosphate and diisopropylfluorophosphate, with IC(50) values of 77.1, 3.59 and 0.0312 microM, respectively. Eighty Japanese renal transplant recipients that received repeated-doses of MMF, tacrolimus and prednisolone,were evaluated for MPA pharmacokinetics 28 days after transplantation to investigate the relationship between MPA pharmacokinetics and CES2 genetic polymorphisms. No significant differences in MPA pharmacokinetics were observed between CES2 A4595G, C8721T orA-1548G genotype groups. CES2 allelic variants also did not appear to affect plasma MPA concentrations between individuals. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that while CES1 and/or CES2 are involved in the hydrolysis of MMF to MPA, CES2 allelic variants appeared to make only a minor contribution to inter-personal differences in MPA pharmacokinetics.
ESTHER : Fujiyama_2009_Xenobiotica_39_407
PubMedSearch : Fujiyama_2009_Xenobiotica_39_407
PubMedID: 19274604

Title : Broken sperm, cytoplasmic droplets and reduced sperm motility are principal markers of decreased sperm quality due to organophosphorus pesticides in rats - Okamura_2009_J.Occup.Health_51_478
Author(s) : Okamura A , Kamijima M , Ohtani K , Yamanoshita O , Nakamura D , Ito Y , Miyata M , Ueyama J , Suzuki T , Imai R , Takagi K , Nakajima T
Ref : J Occup Health , 51 :478 , 2009
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: Recent reports have shown significant associations between organopshophorus pesticide (OP) exposure and decreased sperm motility in workers and laboratory animals. However, the notion that OPs possess spermatotoxicity has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of OP exposure on detailed sperm toxicity markers, i.e., motility, morphology and sperm adenine nucleotide contents, and the histopathology of the testis and epididymis. METHODS: Ten-week-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=10) and orally administered corn oil, dichlorvos (DDVP; 5, 10 mg/kg) or diazinon (DZN; 3 mg/kg) 6 days a week for 9 wk. Sperm motility and morphology markers were analyzed with a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. RESULTS: In addition to a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities and a significant increase in urinary OP metabolites, DDVP and DZN significantly reduced sperm motility, but they did not influence sperm adenine nucleotide contents. The OPs also significantly increased the percentage of broken sperm, and DDVP significantly increased the percentage of cytoplasmic droplets. Importantly, both OPs significantly increased cytoplasmic vacuolation and nuclear shrinkage in the epithelial cells of the ductus epididymis, whereas the testes did not show significant histopathological changes. CONCLUSIONS: The broken sperm and cytoplasmic droplets as well as reduced sperm motility were the relevant spermatotoxicity makers of DDVP and DZN. To our knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that the above-mentioned OP-induced spermatotoxicity is related to histopathological impairment of the caput epididymis.
ESTHER : Okamura_2009_J.Occup.Health_51_478
PubMedSearch : Okamura_2009_J.Occup.Health_51_478
PubMedID: 19779279

Title : Effect of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon on glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats - Ueyama_2008_Toxicol.Lett_182_42
Author(s) : Ueyama J , Kamijima M , Asai K , Mochizuki A , Wang D , Kondo T , Suzuki T , Takagi K , Kanazawa H , Miyamoto K , Wakusawa S , Hasegawa T
Ref : Toxicol Lett , 182 :42 , 2008
Abstract : We have reported that the toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon (DZN) and its metabolites is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (type 1 diabetic rats). In the present study, we have investigated the effect of DZN on glucose tolerance in genetic type 2 diabetic rats, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (2g/(5 ml kg)) was assessed before, and 1 and 2 weeks after intraperitoneal injection of DZN (6.5 mg/kg) in Wistar and GK rats. DZN significantly increased the levels of glucose in plasma at designated blood sampling points in GK rats. The activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2D1, which oxidize DZN to DZN-oxon, a potent ChE inhibitor, were measured before DZN injection. There were no significant differences in the activity and expression of CYPs between both rat groups, indicating that the ability of metabolic activation might be almost the same in Wistar and GK rats. DZN dramatically decreased the activity of cholinesterase (ChE) in plasma by approximately 40% in both Wistar and GK rats. However, no significant differences in the activity of ChE in plasma were observed between Wistar and GK rats for 5 days after DZN injection. No massive necrotic and apoptotic areas, leukocyte infiltration and immunoreactive insulin-positive cells (beta-cells) were observed in pancreas 2 weeks after DZN injection. Moreover, DZN might not affect plasma insulin levels in Wistar and GK rats. These results suggest that DZN deteriorates the glucose tolerance in GK rats. It is unlikely that this phenomenon is due to differences in ChE activity and/or DZN-oxon production levels between Wistar and GK rats.
ESTHER : Ueyama_2008_Toxicol.Lett_182_42
PubMedSearch : Ueyama_2008_Toxicol.Lett_182_42
PubMedID: 18789379

Title : An outer membrane autotransporter, AoaA, of Azorhizobium caulinodans is required for sustaining high N2-fixing activity of stem nodules - Suzuki_2008_FEMS.Microbiol.Lett_285_16
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Aono T , Liu CT , Suzuki S , Iki T , Yokota K , Oyaizu H
Ref : FEMS Microbiology Letters , 285 :16 , 2008
Abstract : In this study, we investigated the function of a putative high-molecular-weight outer membrane protein, azorhizobial outer membrane autotransporter A (AoaA), of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571. Sequence analysis revealed that AoaA was an autotransporter protein belonging to the type V protein secretion system. Azorhizobium caulinodans forms N(2)-fixing nodules on the stems and roots of Sesbania rostrata. The sizes of stem nodules formed by an aoaA mutant having transposon insertion within this ORF were as large as those in the wild-type strain, but the N(2)-fixing activity of the nodules by the aoaA mutant was lower than that of wild-type nodules. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the expressions of several pathogen-related genes of host plants were induced in the aoaA mutant nodules. Furthermore, exopolysaccharide production was defective in the aoaA mutant under free-living conditions. These results indicate that AoaA may have an important role in sustaining the symbiosis by suppressing plant defense responses. The exopolysaccharide production controlled by AoaA might mediate this suppression mechanism.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2008_FEMS.Microbiol.Lett_285_16
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2008_FEMS.Microbiol.Lett_285_16
PubMedID: 18557786

Title : Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus fermentum reveal a genomic island for reuterin and cobalamin production - Morita_2008_DNA.Res_15_151
Author(s) : Morita H , Toh H , Fukuda S , Horikawa H , Oshima K , Suzuki T , Murakami M , Hisamatsu S , Kato Y , Takizawa T , Fukuoka H , Yoshimura T , Itoh K , O'Sullivan DJ , McKay LL , Ohno H , Kikuchi J , Masaoka T , Hattori M
Ref : DNA Research , 15 :151 , 2008
Abstract : Lactobacillus reuteri is a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that naturally inhabits the gut of humans and other animals. The probiotic effects of L. reuteri have been proposed to be largely associated with the production of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin during anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. We determined the complete genome sequences of the reuterin-producing L. reuteri JCM 1112(T) and its closely related species Lactobacillus fermentum IFO 3956. Both are in the same phylogenetic group within the genus Lactobacillus. Comparative genome analysis revealed that L. reuteri JCM 1112(T) has a unique cluster of 58 genes for the biosynthesis of reuterin and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)). The 58-gene cluster has a lower GC content and is apparently inserted into the conserved region, suggesting that the cluster represents a genomic island acquired from an anomalous source. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) with (13)C(3)-glycerol demonstrated that L. reuteri JCM 1112(T) could convert glycerol to reuterin in vivo, substantiating the potential of L. reuteri JCM 1112(T) to produce reuterin in the intestine. Given that glycerol is shown to be naturally present in feces, the acquired ability to produce reuterin and cobalamin is an adaptive evolutionary response that likely contributes to the probiotic properties of L. reuteri.
ESTHER : Morita_2008_DNA.Res_15_151
PubMedSearch : Morita_2008_DNA.Res_15_151
PubMedID: 18487258
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacfe-c0wz89 , lacre-a5vi88 , lacre-b3xl59 , lacre-b3xl60 , lacre-b3xlh0 , lacre-b3xps7 , lacre-q4jle7 , lacre-q4jlf2 , lacre-q4jll5 , lacre-q6wu85 , lacrj-b2g622

Title : LRP4 serves as a coreceptor of agrin - Zhang_2008_Neuron_60_285
Author(s) : Zhang B , Luo S , Wang Q , Suzuki T , Xiong WC , Mei L
Ref : Neuron , 60 :285 , 2008
Abstract : Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation requires agrin, a factor released from motoneurons, and MuSK, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that is activated by agrin. However, how signal is transduced from agrin to MuSK remains unclear. We report that LRP4, a low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein, is expressed specifically in myotubes and binds to neuronal agrin. Its expression enables agrin binding and MuSK signaling in cells that otherwise do not respond to agrin. Suppression of LRP4 expression in muscle cells attenuates agrin binding, agrin-induced MuSK tyrosine phosphorylation, and AChR clustering. LRP4 also forms a complex with MuSK in a manner that is stimulated by agrin. Finally, we showed that LRP4 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in agrin-stimulated muscle cells. These observations indicate that LRP4 is a coreceptor of agrin that is necessary for MuSK signaling and AChR clustering and identify a potential target protein whose mutation and/or autoimmunization may cause muscular dystrophies.
ESTHER : Zhang_2008_Neuron_60_285
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2008_Neuron_60_285
PubMedID: 18957220

Title : Brain regional acetylcholinesterase activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rats after repeated administration of cholinesterase inhibitors and its withdrawal - Kobayashi_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_219_151
Author(s) : Kobayashi H , Suzuki T , Sakamoto M , Hashimoto W , Kashiwada K , Sato I , Akahori F , Satoh T
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 219 :151 , 2007
Abstract : Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and specific binding of [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), [(3)H]pirenzepine (PZP) and [(3)H]AF-DX 384 to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) preparations in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of rats were determined 1, 6 and 11 days after the last treatment with an organophosphate DDVP, a carbamate propoxur or a muscarinic agonist oxotremorine as a reference for 7 and 14 days. AChE activity was markedly decreased in the three regions 1 day after the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days with a gradual recovery 6 to 11 days, and much less decreased 1, 6 and 11 days after the treatment with propoxur for 7 days but not for 14 days in the hippocampus and cortex. The binding of [(3)H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 in the three regions was generally decreased by the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days. Such down-regulations were generally restored 6 or 11 days after the treatment for 7 but not for 14 days. The down-regulation or up-regulation as measured by [(3)H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 was observed 1, 6 or 11 days after treatment with propoxur for 7 days and/or 14 days. Repeated treatment with oxotremorine produced similar effects except AChE activity to DDVP. These results suggest that repeated inhibition of AChE activity may usually cause down-regulation of mAChRs with some exception in the hippocampus when a reversible antiChE propoxur is injected.
ESTHER : Kobayashi_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_219_151
PubMedSearch : Kobayashi_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_219_151
PubMedID: 17188317

Title : Improvement on production of (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate and (S)-3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone with recombinant Escherichia coli cells - Nakagawa_2006_J.Biosci.Bioeng_101_97
Author(s) : Nakagawa A , Idogaki H , Kato K , Shinmyo A , Suzuki T
Ref : J Biosci Bioeng , 101 :97 , 2006
Abstract : (R)-4-Chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate (CHB) and (S)-3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone (HL) are used for the synthesis of biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. Enterobacter sp. DS-S-75 was found to have the unique activity to convert (S)-CHB in the racemate to (S)-HL through asymmetric dechlorination, hydrolysis, and lactonization. As a result, the remaining (R)-CHB and formed (S)-HL could be obtained in a one-pot reaction. We purified the CHB degrading enzyme which catalyzing these reactions and isolated the coding gene from the strain DS-S-75 in order to improve the productivity of these compounds using the transformant. Interestingly, the purified enzyme showed not only dechlorinating, but also hydrolyzing activities on CHB and the similar carboxylic esters, it was then designated CHB hydrolase, and appears to be a novel enzyme. The gene had 1101 bp encoding 367 amino acids including a signal peptide composed of 25 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a conserved region generally found in esterases and lipases, but did not have significant similarity. When asymmetric degradation of racemic methyl CHB (CHBM) was performed using a culture broth of Escherichia coli DH5alpha transformed with the isolated gene, the reaction time was shortened 20-fold over that of the strain DS-S-75, and the maximum concentration of the substrate could be increased from 8% to 15% (w/v). Moreover, both of the obtained residual (R)-CHBM and the formed (S)-HL had high optical purities (>99% e.e.).
ESTHER : Nakagawa_2006_J.Biosci.Bioeng_101_97
PubMedSearch : Nakagawa_2006_J.Biosci.Bioeng_101_97
PubMedID: 16569603
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9entr-q25c43

Title : Risk factors for hospital-acquired bacteremia - Yoshida_2005_Intern.Med_44_1157
Author(s) : Yoshida T , Tsushima K , Tsuchiya A , Nishikawa N , Shirahata K , Kaneko K , Ito K , Kawakami H , Nakagawa S , Suzuki T , Kubo K , Ikeda S
Ref : Intern Med , 44 :1157 , 2005
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Bacteremia is one of the most serious health problems associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for bacteremia in daily medical care to facilitate rapid and accurate clinical decisions about treatment. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: We studied 306 inpatients retrospectively. Age, peripheral neutrophil count, C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets, serum total cholesterol, total protein, albumin and cholinesterase were compared in patients with positive- and negative-blood cultures. The associations between blood culture positivity and glucose tolerance, bedridden state, presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) or urinary catheter were examined. On October 14, 2002, strategies for prevention of catheter-related infection were altered in our hospital. We studied the impact of these changes on the risk of bacteremia.
RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients had positive and 239 had negative blood cultures. Age, neutrophil, platelets, total protein, albumin, and cholinesterase were significantly different between the culture-positive patients and the culture-negative patients. Multivariate analysis showed albumin and platelets as independent predictors. The bedridden state and catheter-inserted states (central venous or urinary) conferred significantly higher positive blood culture rates. Multivariate analysis showed using urinary catheters and indwelling femoral CVCs as independent risk factors. There was no significant difference in the blood culture-positive rate before and after the change in prevention strategies; before the change, 6 of 9 catheter-inserted blood culture-positive cases yielded MRSA, while 4 of 12 cultures yielded Staphylococcus epidermidis after the change. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the risk factors of bacteremia in vulnerable patients.
ESTHER : Yoshida_2005_Intern.Med_44_1157
PubMedSearch : Yoshida_2005_Intern.Med_44_1157
PubMedID: 16357453

Title : Neuromechanical effects of pyrethroids, allethrin, cyhalothrin and deltamethrin on the cholinergic processes in rat brain - Hossain_2005_Life.Sci_77_795
Author(s) : Hossain MM , Suzuki T , Sato I , Takewaki T , Suzuki K , Kobayashi H
Ref : Life Sciences , 77 :795 , 2005
Abstract : Our previous microdialysis study of freely moving rats demonstrated that 3 pyrethroids, allethrin (type I), cyhalothrin (type II) and deltamethrin (type II) differentially modulate acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus. To better understand the mechanisms of their modulatory effects and also other effects on the cholinergic system in the brain, the activities of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), ACh synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and ACh synthesizing rate-limiting step, high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) were examined in the present study. The pyrethroids studied had no effect on AChE activity in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. These pyrethroids had no significant effect on ChAT in the cortex and hippocampus, but striatal ChAT was increased at higher dosage (60 mg/kg) by all three compounds. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of hippocampal HACU revealed that the pyrethroids did not alter the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value but caused alteration of maximal velocity (Vmax). Allethrin (60 mg/kg) and cyhalothrin (20 and 60 mg/kg) decreased while deltamethrin (60 mg/kg) increased the Vmax for HACU. In vitro study showed that at higher concentrations (> or = 10(-) (6) M) allethrin and cyhalothrin reduced the hippocampal HACU but deltamethrin increased it. These results suggest that mechanisms of ACh synthesis are involved in the modulatory effects of the pyrethroids on ACh release and other cholinergic activities.
ESTHER : Hossain_2005_Life.Sci_77_795
PubMedSearch : Hossain_2005_Life.Sci_77_795
PubMedID: 15936353

Title : Effects of lipase, lipoxygenase, peroxidase, and rutin on quality deteriorations in buckwheat flour - Suzuki_2005_J.Agric.Food.Chem_53_8400
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Honda Y , Mukasa Y , Kim SJ
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 53 :8400 , 2005
Abstract : To investigate the effects of changes in lipase, lipoxygenase, peroxidase (POX), and rutin concentrations on the quality of buckwheat flour, 14 buckwheat varieties were stored for 0, 4, 10, and 30 days at 5 or 20 degrees C. During the storage period, lipase activity correlated to pH (significantly negative) and water-soluble acid (WSA) (significantly positive). The lipoxygenase 1 protein concentration had a negative correlation to WSA (significant at 0 and 4 storage days at 5 degrees C and at 0 and 10 storage days at 20 degrees C). POX had significant correlation to pH and peroxide value (POV) at 5 degrees C, whereas it was not significant at 20 degrees C. The rutin concentration had negative correlations to WSA (significant at 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C and at 4 days of storage at 20 degrees C). Thus, lipase activity plays an important role that relates to lipid degradation in quality deterioration of buckwheat flour.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2005_J.Agric.Food.Chem_53_8400
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2005_J.Agric.Food.Chem_53_8400
PubMedID: 16218693

Title : p55 protein is a member of PSD scaffold proteins in the rat brain and interacts with various PSD proteins - Jing-Ping_2005_Brain.Res.Mol.Brain.Res_135_204
Author(s) : Jing-Ping Z , Tian QB , Sakagami H , Kondo H , Endo S , Suzuki T
Ref : Brain Research Mol Brain Res , 135 :204 , 2005
Abstract : p55 is a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGuK) family member that consists of a single PDZ followed by SH3, HOOK and guanylate kinase (GuK or GK) domains. We investigated rat p55 (r-p55) in the brain. r-p55 mRNA was expressed widely in various tissues and in various regions of the brain. r-p55 protein was also expressed widely in various rat tissues, including brain and erythrocytes. The protein was enriched in the synaptic plasma membrane and postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions of the forebrain. An immunocytochemical study using cultured cortical neurons suggested postsynaptic localization of r-p55 protein. Pull-down assay showed that r-p55 protein interacted with r-p55 itself and various PSD proteins, such as PSD-95, SAP97, GKAP, CASK, GRIP, neuroligin, cadherin, tubulin, actin, alpha-internexin, neurofilament-L and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, through its PDZ, SH3, HOOK or GK domains. The interaction with PSD-95 was found to occur between the PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the HOOK and GK domains of r-p55 protein. These findings, together with the presence of r-p55 puncta in a period of early synaptogenesis, suggest that r-p55 protein functions as one of postsynaptic scaffold component in an early stage of synaptogenesis in the brain. r-p55 protein may form a basic structure, which interlinks diverse functional molecules of the PSD necessary for postsynaptic signaling and synaptic adhesion.
ESTHER : Jing-Ping_2005_Brain.Res.Mol.Brain.Res_135_204
PubMedSearch : Jing-Ping_2005_Brain.Res.Mol.Brain.Res_135_204
PubMedID: 15857683

Title : Biotransformation of chlorpropham (CIPC) in isolated rat hepatocytes and xenoestrogenic activity of CIPC and its metabolites by in vitro assays - Nakagawa_2004_Xenobiotica_34_257
Author(s) : Nakagawa Y , Nakajima K , Suzuki T
Ref : Xenobiotica , 34 :257 , 2004
Abstract : 1: The metabolism and action of chlorpropham (isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate; CIPC, a post-harvest agent) were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, and the oestrogen-like activity of CIPC and its metabolites was assessed by in vitro assays. The exposure of hepatocyte suspensions to CIPC caused concentration- (0.25-1.0 mM) and time- (0-3 h) dependent cell death, which was assessed by Trypan blue exclusion, accompanied by losses of cellular adenosine triphosphate and adenine nucleotide pools, and formation of cell bleb. 2: CIPC at a weakly toxic level (0.25 or 0.5 mM) was metabolized to isopropyl N-(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)carbamate (4OH-CIPC) and subsequently to its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates (major metabolites) or alternatively to the minor metabolites 3-chloroaniline (3CA) and 3-chloroacetanilide. CIPC (0.25 mM) added to hepatocyte suspensions was distributed equally between hepatocytes and the extracellular medium during the incubation. The glucuronide rather than the sulfate conjugate of 4OH-CIPC predominantly increased in the medium with time, while the amount of unconjugated free 4OH-CIPC in the extracellular medium increased by approximately threefold compared with the amount in the cell fraction after 0.5 h and then decreased rapidly accompanied by increases in the conjugates. This indicates that unconjugated free 4OH-CIPC produced in hepatocytes was temporarily excreted in the extracellular medium and subsequently converted to the conjugates via re-influx into hepatocytes. 3: Diethylstilbestrol (DES), bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl ester (butylparaben), which are known xenoestrogenic compounds, competitively displaced 17beta-oestradiol bound to the oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 values of DES, BPA, butylparaben and its derivative 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl ester (3-chloro-butylparaben) were approximately 10(-8), 10(-5), 5 x 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-4) M, respectively. In contrast, neither CIPC nor 4OH-CIPC impaired the binding of 17beta-oestradiol to ERalpha at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-4) M, whereas at concentrations of >5 x 10(-4) M, the binding affinity of 4OH-CIPC was greater than that of CIPC. In a proliferation assay of MCF-7 cells, CIPC, 4OH-CIPC and 3CA did not increase cell numbers at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-5) M, but these compounds at a concentration of 10(-4) M induced a considerable decrease in cell numbers relative to the control. The results suggest that even if CIPC is metabolized to 4OH-CIPC by hepatocytes, the chlorine adjacent to the 4-hydroxy group added to the intermediate as well as 3-chloro-butylparaben obstructs the appearance of oestrogen-like effects via an interaction between the intermediate and the ER.
ESTHER : Nakagawa_2004_Xenobiotica_34_257
PubMedSearch : Nakagawa_2004_Xenobiotica_34_257
PubMedID: 15204698

Title : Chlorpropham induces mitochondrial dysfunction in rat hepatocytes - Nakagawa_2004_Toxicology_200_123
Author(s) : Nakagawa Y , Nakajima K , Suzuki T
Ref : Toxicology , 200 :123 , 2004
Abstract : The metabolism and action of chlorpropham (isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate; CIPC, a post-harvest agent) and its metabolites were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat hepatic mitochondria, respectively. The exposure of hepatocytes to CIPC caused a concentration (0.25-1.0 mM)- and time (0-3h)-dependent cell death accompanied by loss of cellular ATP and adenine nucleotides. CIPC at a weakly toxic level (0.5 mM) was metabolized to isopropyl N-(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)carbamate (4OH-CIPC) and subsequently to its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates (major metabolites) or alternatively to a minor metabolite 3-chloroaniline (3CA). The addition of SKF-525A (50 microM), an inhibitor of microsomal monooxygenase, enhanced the CIPC (0.5 mM)-induced cytotoxicity accompanied by loss of ATP and 4OH-CIPC and inhibited the decrease in the concentration of the parent compound. CIPC led to a strong decrease in cellular ATP content compared to its metabolites, 4OH-CIPC and 3CA. On the other hand, the exposure of isolated hepatic mitochondria to CIPC reduced State 3 respiration with a FAD-linked substrate (succinate plus rotenone) and/or with a NAD+ -linked substrate (pyruvate plus malate), whereas State 3 respiration with ascorbate plus tetramethyl-p-phenylendiamine (cytochrome oxidase-linked respiration) was not affected markedly by CIPC. Further, the addition of CIPC caused an increase in the rate of State 4 oxygen consumption, indicating an uncoupling effect, and a decrease in the rate of State 3 oxygen consumption in a concentration-dependent manner, respectively. In contrast, the addition of neither 4OH-CIPC nor 3CA markedly affected the rate of states 3 and/or 4 oxygen consumption. These results indicate that CIPC-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by the parent compound rather than by its metabolites such as 4OH-CIPC and 3CA, and that the toxicity is associated with a rapid depletion of ATP via impairment of mitochondrial function related to oxidative phosphorylation.
ESTHER : Nakagawa_2004_Toxicology_200_123
PubMedSearch : Nakagawa_2004_Toxicology_200_123
PubMedID: 15212809

Title : Picrotoxin increased acetylcholine release from rat cultured embryonic septal neurons - Suzuki_2004_Neurosci.Lett_356_57
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Takagi R , Kawashima K
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 356 :57 , 2004
Abstract : GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature mammalian brain. In the early stages of brain development, it has been reported that GABA(A) receptor stimulation and the associated increase in Cl(-) conductance lead to membrane depolarization. In this study, we tested the effects of picrotoxin, a GABA(A) receptor Cl(-) channel blocker, on spontaneously released acetylcholine (ACh) from cultured rat embryonic septal cells. Picrotoxin increased spontaneously released ACh. These results indicate that blockade of GABA-activated Cl(-) channel increases neuronal excitability even in an early stage of the development.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2004_Neurosci.Lett_356_57
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2004_Neurosci.Lett_356_57
PubMedID: 14746901

Title : Purification and characterization of lipase in buckwheat seed - Suzuki_2004_J.Agric.Food.Chem_52_7407
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Honda Y , Mukasa Y
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 52 :7407 , 2004
Abstract : To obtain basic information about enzymatic deterioration of buckwheat flour, triacylglycerol lipase (LIP; EC was purified from buckwheat seed. The LIP consisted of two isozymes, LIP I and LIP II, and they were purified with purification folds of 60 and 143 with final specific activities of 0.108 and 0.727 mumol of fatty acid released per minute per milligram of protein at 30 degrees C using triolein as a substrate. Molecular weights were estimated to be 150 (LIP I) and 28.4 kDa (LIP I) by gel filtration and 171 (LIP I) and 26.5 kDa (LIP II) by SDS-PAGE. Optimal pHs of LIP activities were 3.0 (LIP I) and 6.0 (Lip II) using triolein as a substrate. Both LIP I and II reacted in the acidic pH range. Optimal temperatures were 30 (LIP I) and 40 degrees C (LIP II), and both LIP I and II were stable below 30 degrees C when p-nitrophenyl-laurate was used as a substrate. However, they were inactivated above 60 degrees C. On the other hand, when triolein was used as a substrate, optimal temperatures were 30 degrees C for both LIP I and II, and they retained 40% of their activity after a 4 h incubation of enzymes at 70 degrees C. LIP I and II had higher activity against triolein than monoolein or tri/monopalmitin. Most of the LIP activity was distributed in the embryo.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2004_J.Agric.Food.Chem_52_7407
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2004_J.Agric.Food.Chem_52_7407
PubMedID: 15563227

Title : Biological evaluation of sphingomyelin analogues as inhibitors of sphingomyelinase - Taguchi_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_13_3681
Author(s) : Taguchi M , Goda K , Sugimoto K , Akama T , Yamamoto K , Suzuki T , Tomishima Y , Nishiguchi M , Arai K , Takahashi K , Kobori T
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 13 :3681 , 2003
Abstract : Seeking neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitors, we designed and synthesized hydrolytically stable analogues of sphingomyelin. These novel analogues replace the phosphodiester moiety of sphingomyelin with carbamate and urea moiety, resulting in inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase. Compound 1 prevented ceramide generation and apoptotic neuronal cell death in a model of ischemia based on organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.
ESTHER : Taguchi_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_13_3681
PubMedSearch : Taguchi_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_13_3681
PubMedID: 14552757

Title : Cloning, heterologous expression, renaturation, and characterization of a cold-adapted esterase with unique primary structure from a psychrotroph Pseudomonas sp. strain B11-1 - Suzuki_2003_Protein.Expr.Purif_30_171
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Nakayama T , Choo DW , Hirano Y , Kurihara T , Nishino T , Esaki N
Ref : Protein Expr Purif , 30 :171 , 2003
Abstract : A gene coding for an esterase (PsEst1, 1911bp in length) of the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. B11-1 isolated from Alaskan soil was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a protein of 637 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 69 kDa. Although the expression product, PsEst1, showed no appreciable sequence similarity (less than 15% identity) to any known proteins with the established biochemical functions, it is expected to be related to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily because it shared sequence motifs that have been identified with this superfamily. For example, a unique 'nucleophilic elbow' motif, -Gly(36)-Asp-Ser-Leu-Asn(40)-, was identified, and Ser(38) was predicted to constitute a catalytic triad with Asp(162) and His(303). PsEst1 was overexpressed using a T7 RNA polymerase transcription (pET21a) system in the Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells as an inclusion body. A soluble denatured form of the enzyme was purified to homogeneity in the presence of 8M urea, and the catalytically active form of the enzyme could be obtained by subsequent removal of urea by dialysis, where the addition of 0.1% Triton X-100 was essential for the efficient renaturation of the enzyme. To our knowledge, this was the first example of the successful renaturation of the recombinant cold-adapted enzyme. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed vinyl and aryl esters with the C4-C6 acyl chain. The activation energy of the enzymatic p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis (20.1 kcal/mol at 10 degrees C) was significantly lower than the value (79.9 kcal/mol) of the mesophilic lipase. It was observed that the K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl butyrate in the growth temperature range of strain B11-1 (5-15 degrees C) were lower than those at higher temperatures.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2003_Protein.Expr.Purif_30_171
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2003_Protein.Expr.Purif_30_171
PubMedID: 12880765

Title : Chlorophyllase as a serine hydrolase: identification of a putative catalytic triad - Tsuchiya_2003_Plant.Cell.Physiol_44_96
Author(s) : Tsuchiya T , Suzuki T , Yamada T , Shimada H , Masuda T , Ohta H , Takamiya K
Ref : Plant Cell Physiol , 44 :96 , 2003
Abstract : Chlorophyllases (Chlases), cloned so far, contain a lipase motif with the active serine residue of the catalytic triad of triglyceride lipases. Inhibitors specific for the catalytic serine residue in serine hydrolases, which include lipases effectively inhibited the activity of the recombinant Chenopodium album Chlase (CaCLH). From this evidence we assumed that the catalytic mechanism of hydrolysis by Chlase might be similar to those of serine hydrolases that have a catalytic triad composed of serine, histidine and aspartic acid in their active site. Thus, we introduced mutations into the putative catalytic residue (Ser162) and conserved amino acid residues (histidine, aspartic acid and cysteine) to generate recombinant CaCLH mutants. The three amino acid residues (Ser162, Asp191 and His262) essential for Chlase activity were identified. These results indicate that Chlase is a serine hydrolase and, by analogy with a plausible catalytic mechanism of serine hydrolases, we proposed a mechanism for hydrolysis catalyzed by Chlase.
ESTHER : Tsuchiya_2003_Plant.Cell.Physiol_44_96
PubMedSearch : Tsuchiya_2003_Plant.Cell.Physiol_44_96
PubMedID: 12552153
Gene_locus related to this paper: cheal-CACLH

Title : Quantitative structure-activity relationships for the enantioselectivity of oxirane ring-opening catalyzed by epoxide hydrolases - Funar-Timofei_2003_J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci_43_934
Author(s) : Funar-Timofei S , Suzuki T , Paier JA , Steinreiber A , Faber K , Fabian WM
Ref : J Chem Inf Comput Sci , 43 :934 , 2003
Abstract : The enantioselective ring-opening catalyzed by epoxide hydrolases originating from seven different sources of a series of 2,2-disubstituted oxiranes containing alkyl chains of different lengths, unsaturated (alkenyl, alkinyl) and aromatic groups as well as electronegative heteroatoms at various positions within the side chain was analyzed by quantitative structure-activity relationships. Models for the enantioselectivity were derived with the aid of multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) using several steric and electronic (quantum chemical) descriptors. On the basis of the models derived by MLR nonlinear modeling with artificial neural networks (ANN) was also done. Good predictive performance was observed for both modeling approaches. The models also indicate that different steric and/or electronic features account for the enantioselectivities observed for the individual epoxide hydrolases.
ESTHER : Funar-Timofei_2003_J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci_43_934
PubMedSearch : Funar-Timofei_2003_J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci_43_934
PubMedID: 12767152

Title : Endogenous glutamatergic synaptic activity elicits acetylcholine release from rat cultured septal cells - Suzuki_2003_Neurosci.Res_47_341
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Matsugi T , Takagi R , Kawashima K
Ref : Neurosci Res , 47 :341 , 2003
Abstract : We tested the characteristics of acetylcholine (ACh) release from cultured rat septal cells. The spontaneous release was inhibited by treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) and omega-conotoxin (GVIA), indicating that the release was elicited by synaptic activity. The release was also inhibited by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor blocker, in both the absence and presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), suggesting that endogenously released glutamate produced the ACh release by stimulating AMPA receptors. This is the first report of detection of the release of ACh by endogenous spontaneous synaptic activity conducted by glutamate AMPA receptor activation in cultured septal cells. This in vitro experimental system is useful for the study of cholinergic functions.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2003_Neurosci.Res_47_341
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2003_Neurosci.Res_47_341
PubMedID: 14568116

Title : The efficacy of ascofuranone in a consecutive treatment on Trypanosoma brucei brucei in mice - Yabu_2003_Parasitol.Int_52_155
Author(s) : Yabu Y , Yoshida A , Suzuki T , Nihei C , Kawai K , Minagawa N , Hosokawa T , Nagai K , Kita K , Ohta N
Ref : Parasitol Int , 52 :155 , 2003
Abstract : Consecutive administration of ascofuranone without glycerol was found to have therapeutic efficacy against Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice. A suspension of ascofuranone (25-100 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally every 24 h for 1-4 consecutive days to trypanosome-infected mice and efficacy was compared with oral treatment. With intraperitoneal administration, all mice treated with 100 mg/kg ascofuranone for 4 consecutive days were cured. On contrary, with oral treatment a higher dose of ascofuranone (400 mg/kg) was needed for 8 consecutive days to cure the mice. With intraperitoneal treatment, parasitemia was strongly suppressed, with almost all long slender bloodstream forms of the parasite changed to short stumpy forms by day 3 and the parasites have been eliminated 4 days after the start of treatment. These ascofuranone-induced short stumpy forms were morphologically analogous to the stumpy forms 2 days after peak parasitemia of pleomorphic clone of T. b. brucei GUTat 3.1. However, the properties of ubiquinol oxidase activity, which is the target of ascofuranone, in mitochondria isolated from before and after treatment, were almost same. The enzymatic activities of ubiquinol oxidase were only decreased to approximately 30% within a day after treatment, and then kept at nearly the same level. In the present study, we have improved regimen for administration of ascofuranone without glycerol, and demonstrated that consecutively administrated ascofuranone showed trypanocidal effects in T. b. brucei infected mice. Our present results strongly suggest that consecutive administration of ascofuranone may be an effective chemotherapy for African trypanosomiasis.
ESTHER : Yabu_2003_Parasitol.Int_52_155
PubMedSearch : Yabu_2003_Parasitol.Int_52_155
PubMedID: 12798927
Gene_locus related to this paper: acreg-ascc

Title : Cholinergic inhibition of electrogenic sodium absorption in the guinea pig distal colon - Hayashi_2003_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_284_G617
Author(s) : Hayashi H , Suzuki T , Yamamoto T , Suzuki Y
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Gastrointest Liver Physiol , 284 :G617 , 2003
Abstract : Submucosal cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in intestines have been shown to be involved in regulating epithelial transport functions, particularly stimulating Cl(-) secretion. This study investigates the role of submucosal cholinergic neurons in regulating electrogenic Na(+) absorption in distal colon. Amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current (I(sc)) and (22)Na(+) flux were measured in mucosal and mucosal-submucosal preparations mounted in Ussing chambers. In the mucosal preparation, carbachol (CCh) added to the serosal side inhibited amiloride-sensitive I(sc) and amiloride-sensitive (22)Na(+) absorption. The inhibitory effect of CCh was observed at approximately 0.1 microM, and maximum inhibition of approximately 70% was attained at approximately 30 microM (IC(50) = approximately 1 microM). CCh-induced inhibition of amiloride-sensitive I(sc) was almost totally abolished by 10 microM atropine. Treatment of the tissue with ionomycin markedly reduced amiloride-sensitive I(sc), but a subsequent addition of CCh further decreased it. Also, CCh still had an inhibitory effect, although significantly attenuated, after the tissue had been incubated with a low-Ca(2+) solution containing ionomycin and BAPTA-AM. Applying electrical field stimulation to submucosal neurons in the mucosal-submucosal preparation resulted in inhibition of amiloride-sensitive I(sc), approximately 33% of this inhibition being atropine sensitive. Physostigmine inhibited amiloride-sensitive I(sc), this effect being abolished by atropine. In conclusion, submucosal cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons were involved in inhibiting electrogenic Na(+) absorption in colon. This inhibition by cholinergic neurons was mediated by muscarinic receptor activation.
ESTHER : Hayashi_2003_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_284_G617
PubMedSearch : Hayashi_2003_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_284_G617
PubMedID: 12444010

Title : Complete genomic sequence and comparative analysis of the tumorigenic poxvirus Yaba monkey tumor virus - Brunetti_2003_J.Virol_77_13335
Author(s) : Brunetti CR , Amano H , Ueda Y , Qin J , Miyamura T , Suzuki T , Li X , Barrett JW , McFadden G
Ref : J Virol , 77 :13335 , 2003
Abstract : The Yatapoxvirus genus of poxviruses is comprised of Yaba monkey tumor virus (YMTV), Tanapox virus, and Yaba-like disease virus (YLDV), which all have the ability to infect primates, including humans. Unlike other poxviruses, YMTV induces formation of focalized histiocytomas upon infection. To gain a greater understanding of the Yatapoxvirus genus and the unique tumor formation properties of YMTV, we sequenced the 134,721-bp genome of YMTV. The genome of YMTV encodes at least 140 open reading frames, all of which are also found as orthologs in the closely related YLDV. However, 13 open reading frames found in YLDV are completely absent from YMTV. Common to both YLDV and YMTV are the unusually large noncoding regions between many open reading frames. To determine whether any of these noncoding regions might be functionally significant, we carried out a comparative analysis between the putative noncoding regions of YMTV and similar noncoding regions from other poxviruses. This approach identified three new gene poxvirus families, defined as orthologs of YMTV23.5L, YMTV28.5L, and YMTV120.5L, which are highly conserved in virtually all poxvirus species. Furthermore, the comparative analysis also revealed a 40-bp nucleotide sequence at approximately 14,700 bases from the left terminus that was 100% identical in the comparable intergene site within members of the Yatapoxvirus, Suipoxvirus, and Capripoxvirus genera and 95% conserved in the Leporipoxvirus genus. This conserved sequence was shown to function as a poxvirus late promoter element in transfected and infected cells, but other functions, such as an involvement in viral replication or packaging, cannot be excluded. Finally, we summarize the predicted immunomodulatory protein repertoire in the Yatapoxvirus genus as a whole.
ESTHER : Brunetti_2003_J.Virol_77_13335
PubMedSearch : Brunetti_2003_J.Virol_77_13335
PubMedID: 14645589
Gene_locus related to this paper: ymtv-q6tuz7

Title : Effect of increased dosage of the ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic gene cluster on ML-236B production in Penicillium citrinum - Abe_2002_Mol.Genet.Genomics_268_130
Author(s) : Abe Y , Suzuki T , Mizuno T , Ono C , Iwamoto K , Hosobuchi M , Yoshikawa H
Ref : Mol Genet Genomics , 268 :130 , 2002
Abstract : The gene cluster responsible for ML-236B (compactin) biosynthesis has recently been characterized from P. citrinum No. 41520. Here, we describe how the ML-236B-producing strain was improved using a cosmid-mediated recombination technique. The introduction of the cosmid pML48, which contains seven of the nine ML-236B biosynthetic genes, into P. citrinum No. 41520 resulted in transformants which produced increased amounts of ML-236B. Southern analysis showed that pML48 had been incorporated by a homologous recombination event, and all high producers possessed two copies of each of the seven genes, mlcA- mlcF and mlcR, suggesting that increased dosage of the biosynthetic gene cluster was responsible for the enhanced production of ML-236B. On the other hand, various kinds of mutants with decreased titers of ML-236B were also obtained. Characterization of one such mutant, designated as T48.28, which was more sensitive to ML-236B than the parental strain, suggested that one of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes, mlcD, which encodes a putative HMG-CoA reductase, was involved in conferring resistance to ML-236B.
ESTHER : Abe_2002_Mol.Genet.Genomics_268_130
PubMedSearch : Abe_2002_Mol.Genet.Genomics_268_130
PubMedID: 12242508
Gene_locus related to this paper: penci-MLCF

Title : Drug-induced Pisa syndrome (pleurothotonus): epidemiology and management - Suzuki_2002_CNS.Drugs_16_165
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Matsuzaka H
Ref : CNS Drugs , 16 :165 , 2002
Abstract : Long-term administration of antipsychotics occasionally produces persistent dystonia of the trunk, a disorder known as Pisa syndrome (or pleurothotonus). The development of Pisa syndrome is most commonly associated with prolonged treatment with antipsychotics; however, it has also been reported, although less frequently, in patients who are receiving other medications (such as cholinesterase inhibitors and antiemetics), in those not receiving medication (idiopathic Pisa syndrome) and in those with neurodegenerative disorders. Drug-induced Pisa syndrome predominantly develops in females and in older patients with organic brain changes. It sometimes occurs after the addition of another antipsychotic to an established regimen of antipsychotics or insidiously arises in antipsychotic-treated patients for no apparent reason. The condition generally disappears after antipsychotic drugs are discontinued. Although a pharmacological therapy for drug-induced Pisa syndrome has not been established, we have reported that anticholinergic drugs are effective in about 40% of patients who have episodes of Pisa syndrome with the remaining patients responding to the withdrawal or reduction of daily doses of antipsychotic drugs. The characteristics of its development and prognosis indicate that drug-induced Pisa syndrome consists of two types of dystonia. Some patients develop clinical features of acute dystonia, whereas others develop symptoms similar to tardive dystonia. Like that of tardive dystonia, Pisa syndrome responds better than tardive dyskinesia to a relatively high daily dose of an anticholinergic. However, the significant improvement caused by the withdrawal of antipsychotic drugs in Pisa syndrome differentiates it from tardive dystonia. Thus, Pisa syndrome including these features is considered to be an atypical type of tardive dystonia. These clinical characteristics suggest that the underlying pathophysiology of drug-induced Pisa syndrome is complex. A dopaminergic-cholinergic imbalance, or serotonergic or noradrenergic dysfunction, may be implicated. Asymmetric brain functions or neural transmission may also be considered as underlying mechanisms of the development of Pisa syndrome that is resistant to anticholinergic drugs. Idiopathic Pisa syndrome is characterised by an adult-onset, segmental truncal dystonia in patients with no previous exposure to antipsychotics. It occurs rarely but shows a complete resolution with high doses of anticholinergic drugs.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2002_CNS.Drugs_16_165
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2002_CNS.Drugs_16_165
PubMedID: 11888337

Title : [Neurotoxicity in sodium azide poisoning] - Fujimura_2002_Chudoku.Kenkyu_15_281
Author(s) : Fujimura T , Kobayashi H , Suzuki T , Sato I , Hara S
Ref : Chudoku Kenkyu , 15 :281 , 2002
Abstract : The effects of sodium azide administration on the central cholinergic functions were investigated utilizing mice to evaluate the neurotoxicity in the acute poisoning. Seven oral doses of the toxicant, ranging in dosage from 12.3 to 59.3 mg/kg, based upon a multiple of 1.3 x 27 mg/kg (an empirical LD50 for mice) or 27 mg/kg divided by 1.3 to calculate the lower three doses, were administered to facilitate the acute signs and to observe behavior. The behavior included locomotor activity, rectal temperature and rotarod performance which are convenient for the evaluation of central cholinergic involvement even if it may be partial, since no behavioral methods to study totally the cholinergic system have been known. Measurements of the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), enzymes that hydrolyze and synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) and high-affinity choline uptake (HACU), a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of ACh, were determined in the presence of various concentrations of sodium azide in vitro. Adult (12-15 weeks) female ICR strain mice were utilized in this study. Mice were orally given sodium azide in doses from 27 to 59.3 mg/kg and appeared sedated within 5 min. Next we observed hyperpnea and dyspnea, which were followed by seizure and death for mouse groups which received more than 35.1 mg/kg. Oral administration of the sodium azide solution produced an increase in locomotor activity for the 12.3 mg/kg group and a decrease for the higher doses (ranging from 16.0 to 27.0 mg/kg). The sodium azide administration suppressed rectal temperature dose-dependently as well as rotarod performance at high doses (20.8 and 27.0 mg/kg). Such behavioral changes elicited by sodium azide administration suggest an involvement of the central cholinergic system. Sodium azide also caused a measured decrease in the activity of AChE, but an increase in the activities of ChAT and HACU, dose-dependently, in vitro. From the results obtained from the behavioral and the in vitro experiments, we concluded that acute sodium azide poisoning significantly affects the central cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Fujimura_2002_Chudoku.Kenkyu_15_281
PubMedSearch : Fujimura_2002_Chudoku.Kenkyu_15_281
PubMedID: 12415870

Title : Primary structure and catalytic properties of a cold-active esterase from a psychrotroph, Acinetobacter sp. strain No. 6. isolated from Siberian soil - Suzuki_2002_Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem_66_1682
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Nakayama T , Kurihara T , Nishino T , Esaki N
Ref : Biosci Biotechnol Biochem , 66 :1682 , 2002
Abstract : We cloned a gene coding for a cold-active esterase from a genomic library of Acinetobacter sp. strain No. 6, a psychrotroph isolated from Siberian soil. The gene, aest, encoded a protein of 301 amino acid residues, the deduced sequence of which had less than 17% identity to sequences of known esterases and lipases. However, the esterase seemed to belong to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily, because it contained a sequence, Gly-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly (with Xaa an arbitrary amino acid residue), found in most serine hydrolases of this superfamily. Sequence comparison earlier suggested a weak phylogenetic relationship of gene product AEST to the EST group of the esterase-lipase family, which has been found only in eukaryotes. The aest gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells under the control of the T7 promoter, and the expression product was purified to homogeneity and characterized. It catalyzed the hydrolysis of esters with short-chain acyl groups and had lower activation energy and lower thermostability than do mesophilic enzymes, as expected from the cold-adapted nature of this enzyme.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2002_Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem_66_1682
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2002_Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem_66_1682
PubMedID: 12353628
Gene_locus related to this paper: acisp-AEST

Title : Expression of pancreatic enzyme genes during the early larval stage of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. -
Author(s) : Kurokawa T , Suzuki T , Ohta H , Kagawa H , Tanaka H , Unuma T
Ref : Fish Sci , 68 :736 , 2002
Gene_locus related to this paper: angja-1plip

Title : Molecular cloning and characterization of an ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic gene cluster in Penicillium citrinum - Abe_2002_Mol.Genet.Genomics_267_636
Author(s) : Abe Y , Suzuki T , Ono C , Iwamoto K , Hosobuchi M , Yoshikawa H
Ref : Mol Genet Genomics , 267 :636 , 2002
Abstract : Cloning of genes encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs) has allowed us to identify a gene cluster for ML-236B biosynthesis in Penicillium citrinum. Like lovastatin, which is produced by Aspergillus terreus, ML-236B (compactin) inhibits the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Genomic sequencing and Northern analysis showed that nine predicted genes for ML-236B biosynthesis were located within a 38-kb region and were transcribed when ML-236B was produced. The predicted amino acid sequences encoded by these nine genes, designated mlcA- mlcH and mlcR, were similar to those encoded by the genes for lovastatin synthesis, and were therefore assumed to be involved either directly or indirectly in ML-236B biosynthesis. Targeted disruption experiments provided evidence that two PKS genes in the cluster, mlcA and mlcB, are required for the biosynthesis of the nonaketide and the diketide moieties, respectively, of ML-236B, suggesting that the gene cluster as a whole is responsible for ML-236B biosynthesis in P. citrinum. Bioconversion of some of the predicted intermediates by an mlcA-disrupted mutant was also investigated in order to analyze the ML-236B biosynthetic pathway. The molecular organization of the gene cluster and proposed functions for the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in P. citrinum are described.
ESTHER : Abe_2002_Mol.Genet.Genomics_267_636
PubMedSearch : Abe_2002_Mol.Genet.Genomics_267_636
PubMedID: 12172803
Gene_locus related to this paper: penci-MLCF

Title : Correlation of binding sites for diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate with cholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase in membrane and cytosol preparations from hen - Kamata_2001_Neurotoxicol_22_203
Author(s) : Kamata R , Saito S , Suzuki T , Takewaki T , Kobayashi H
Ref : Neurotoxicology , 22 :203 , 2001
Abstract : To find new putative target(s) for organophosphorus induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN), we investigated the biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of [3H] diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) binding to membrane and cytosol preparations from the brain and spinal cord of hens. Specific [3H]DFP binding was determined by subtracting non-specific binding from total binding. The binding sites of [3H]DFP, an organophosphate that induces OPIDN, were found not only on membrane but also in cytosol. Reduction of subsequent ex vivo specific [3H]DFP binding by in vivo pretreatment with unlabeled DFP was found in cytosol, not membrane. The reduced binding lasted to the onset of OPIDN, especially in spinal cord. These results suggest that the specific DFP binding sites in cytosol, rather than on membrane, are the most important with regard to the initiation of OPIDN. Inhibitors of cholinesterase (ChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) other than DFP did not affect specific [3H]DFP binding to either membranes or cytosol in vivo. Additionally, inhibition of the activities of these esterases by these compounds was not consistent with either the degree of inhibition of the [3H]DFP binding or a time-dependent manner of OPIDN. These results suggest that DFP binding site(s) involved in the initiation of OPIDN may be different from the active sites of ChE and NTE.
ESTHER : Kamata_2001_Neurotoxicol_22_203
PubMedSearch : Kamata_2001_Neurotoxicol_22_203
PubMedID: 11405252

Title : A comparative study of binding sites for diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate in membrane and cytosol preparations from spinal cord and brain of hens - Kamata_2001_Neurotoxicol_22_191
Author(s) : Kamata R , Saito SY , Suzuki T , Takewaki T , Kofujita H , Ota M , Kobayashi H
Ref : Neurotoxicology , 22 :191 , 2001
Abstract : Biochemical events in the initiation of organophosphorus induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) are not well understood. To find new putative target(s) for OPIDN, we investigated the biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of [3H] diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) binding to membrane and cytosol preparations from the brain and spinal cord of hens in vitro. [3H]DFP binding to both preparations was determined by the specific binding obtained by subtracting non-specific binding from total binding. The specific binding sites of [3H]DFP were found not only on membrane but also in cytosol. Kd values were higher and Bmax values were lower in cytosol than in membrane. Moreover, the Kd values in both membrane and cytosol preparations from spinal cord were lower than those of brain. The Bmax values in membrane and cytosol were similar between brain and spinal cord. The specific binding to both preparations was markedly displaced by unlabeled DFP. The specific binding of DFP to the membrane was highly or partly displaced by organophosphorus compounds (OPs) or a carbamate, respectively. However, both the OPs and the carbamate had considerably weaker blocking effects on the specific binding of DFP to cytosol. None of the compounds known to interact with neuropathy target esterase (NTE) had a strong blocking effect on the specific binding of DFP to either membrane or cytosol. These results show that the specific binding of DFP to the membrane may be binding with cholinesterase (ChE). However, cytosol, especially in spinal cord, may have DFP binding sites other than ChE and NTE.
ESTHER : Kamata_2001_Neurotoxicol_22_191
PubMedSearch : Kamata_2001_Neurotoxicol_22_191
PubMedID: 11405251

Title : Cold-active lipolytic activity of psychrotrophic Acinetobacter sp. strain no. 6 - Suzuki_2001_J.Biosci.Bioeng_92_144
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Nakayama T , Kurihara T , Nishino T , Esaki N
Ref : J Biosci Bioeng , 92 :144 , 2001
Abstract : A lipolytic bacterium, strain no. 6, was isolated from Siberian tundra soil. It was a gram-negative coccoid rod capable of growing at 4 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C and was identified as a psychrotrophic strain of the genus Acinetobacter. Strain no. 6 extracellularly produced a lipolytic enzyme that efficiently hydrolyzed triglycerides such as soybean oil during bacterial growth even at 4 degrees C; it degraded 60% of added soybean oil (initial concentration, 1% w/v) after cultivation in LB medium at 4 degrees C for 7 d. Thus, the bacterium is potentially applicable to in-situ bioremediation or bioaugumentation of fat-contaminated cold environments. We partially purified the lipolytic enzyme from the culture filtrate by acetone fractionation and characterized it. The enzyme preparation contained a single species of cold-active lipase with significant activity at 4 degrees C, which was 57% of the activity at the optimum temperature (20 degrees C). The enzyme showed a broad specificity toward the acyl group (C8-C16) of substrate ethyl esters.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2001_J.Biosci.Bioeng_92_144
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2001_J.Biosci.Bioeng_92_144
PubMedID: 16233074

Title : Functional expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors precedes the development of cholinergic phenotype in embryonic rat septal cells in culture - Suzuki_2001_Neurosci.Lett_311_89
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Matsugi T , Takagi R , Kanagawa M , Hirata M , Nakamura T , Kudo Y , Kawashima K
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 311 :89 , 2001
Abstract : We examined the development of cholinergic neuronal functions and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) responses in cultured embryonic rat septal cells. Choline acetyltransferase activity was increased from 4 to 6 days in culture and reached a plateau at day 8. Acetylcholine release was increased from 6 to 8 days in culture. AMPA-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level was observed at 3 days in culture and most of the AMPA-responsive cells coincided with high-K(+) responsive cells. These results suggest that cholinergic neurons develop their neuronal functions about 8 days under cultured conditions, and functional expression of AMPA receptors precedes the cholinergic functional development.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2001_Neurosci.Lett_311_89
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2001_Neurosci.Lett_311_89
PubMedID: 11567785

Title : Toxicity and effects of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenyl N-methylcarbamate (terbutol) on hepatic cytochrome P450 in F344 rats - Suzuki_2001_Arch.Toxicol_75_555
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Nakagawa Y , Tayama K , Yaguchi K , Suga T
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , 75 :555 , 2001
Abstract : The subacute toxicity and effects of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenyl N-methylcarbamate (terbutol) on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) were investigated in male and female F344 rats. Rats were given 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0% terbutol for 28 days. Liver weights of male and female rats increased at all dose levels. The compound did not affect activity or amount of serum biochemical markers related to hepatic damage. The concentrations of terbutol in rat serum were less than 0.1 microM, and its major metabolites in serum were 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-carboxyphenyl N-methyl-carbamate and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-carboxyphenol. In male rats, P450 and cytochrome b5 (b5) contents, and NADPH cytochrome c reductase (fp2) activity in liver microsomes were increased about 2-fold by 1% terbutol administration for 7 to 28 days. Among the P450-dependent monooxygenase activities in liver microsomes, 7-benzyloxyresorufin-O-debenzylase (BROD) activity was greatly increased by 100-fold, and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), and aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APND) activities were elevated 2- to 3-fold. 7-Methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (MROD), erythromycin-N-demethylase (EMND), estradiol 2-hydroxylase (ED2H), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (CZ6H), and lauric acid omega-hydroxylase (LAOH) activities were unchanged. For the activities of testosterone hydroxylation, testosterone 16beta-hydroxylase (T16BH) activity was markedly increased by 30-fold, and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase (T6BH) and testosterone 7alpha-hydroxylase (T7AH) activities were slightly elevated. Testosterone 2alpha-hydroxylase (T2AH) activity was not affected. Terbutol 4-methylhydroxylase (T4MH) activity was increased 9-fold by 1% terbutol. In an immunoinhibition study, T4MH activity in liver microsomes from 1% terbutol-treated rats was decreased about 50% by polyclonal anti-rat CYP2B1, whereas polyclonal anti-rat CYP2A1 and CYP2C11 did not affected the activity. These results indicate that terbutol increased CYP2B subfamily in rat liver microsomes, and that the compound did not cause serious hepatic damage.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2001_Arch.Toxicol_75_555
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2001_Arch.Toxicol_75_555
PubMedID: 11760817

Title : Enhancement of the serotonin-mediated acetylcholine release by repeated desmethylimipramine treatment in the hippocampus of freely moving rats - Fujii_1999_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_80_303
Author(s) : Fujii T , Ohba S , Nakai K , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K
Ref : Japanese Journal of Pharmacology , 80 :303 , 1999
Abstract : A possible involvement of serotonin-mediated cholinergic activation in the antidepressant effect of desmethylimipramine (DMI) was investigated by determination of the effects of a single or repeated DMI administration on acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus using an in vivo microdialysis technique and a radioimmunoassay for ACh. Rats were administered DMI (10 mg/kg, i.p.) acutely or repeatedly for 21 days. A single or repeated DMI administration did not cause any significant effects on the basal ACh release compared with the respective controls. Atropine perfusion in the acutely DMI-treated or control rats increased the ACh release to the same degree. In repeatedly DMI-treated rats, serotonin (5-HT) (1 to 10 microM) perfusion enhanced significantly the ACh release. However, 5-HT in acutely DMI-treated rats enhanced significantly the ACh release only at 10 microM. 5-HT did not cause any changes in ACh release in control rats. Hippocampal 5-HT content of acutely DMI-treated rats was significantly higher than that of saline-treated control rats, while no difference was observed between the repeatedly DMI- and saline-treated rats. These findings suggest, for the first time, that DMI induced a facilitation of cholinergic neurotransmission in the rat hippocampus through the activation of 5-HT-receptor function.
ESTHER : Fujii_1999_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_80_303
PubMedSearch : Fujii_1999_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_80_303
PubMedID: 10496330

Title : Effect of WAY-100135 on the hippocampal acetylcholine release potentiated by 8-OH-DPAT, a serotonin1A receptor agonist, in normal and p-chlorophenylalanine-treated rats as measured by in vivo microdialysis - Nakai_1998_Neurosci.Res_31_23
Author(s) : Nakai K , Fujii T , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K
Ref : Neurosci Res , 31 :23 , 1998
Abstract : The mechanisms involved in the enhancement of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rat hippocampus by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonist, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, i.p.), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, 3 days before the dialysis experiments reduced the hippocampal 5-HT content to 30% of that in saline-treated rats, but did not affect basal ACh release in the hippocampus. 8-OH-DPAT administered systemically (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or applied locally (30 microM) into the hippocampus through the dialysis probe significantly enhanced the release of ACh in the hippocampus of PCPA-treated rats to the same degree as that in saline-treated rats. Pretreatment with (+)WAY-100135 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, completely eliminated the enhancement of ACh release induced by locally applied 8-OH-DPAT, but only partially reduced the effects induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT, in both groups of rats. Systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT induced hyperlocomotion in the both saline- and PCPA-treated rats, but this was not eliminated by (+)WAY-100135. 8-OH-DPAT applied locally into the hippocampus did not elicit hyperlocomotion in either group of rats. These results suggest that the modification of endogenous 5-HT release via the 5-HT1A autoreceptor is not involved in the 8-OH-DPAT-induced increase of hippocampal ACh release, and that the increase of ACh release induced by locally applied 8-OH-DPAT involves mainly hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor stimulation. In addition, a possibility that subtypes of 5-HT receptors other than the 5-HT1A receptor, probably 5-HT7 receptor in the septum as well as postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor in the hippocampus, are involved in the increased hippocampal ACh release induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT is discussed.
ESTHER : Nakai_1998_Neurosci.Res_31_23
PubMedSearch : Nakai_1998_Neurosci.Res_31_23
PubMedID: 9704975

Title : A cold-adapted lipase of an Alaskan psychrotroph, Pseudomonas sp. strain B11-1: gene cloning, purification and characterization -
Author(s) : Choo DW , Kurihara T , Suzuki T , Soda K , Esaki N
Ref : Applied Environmental Microbiology , 64 :486 , 1998
PubMedID: 9464382
Gene_locus related to this paper: psesp-plipa

Title : Effects of systemic administration of 2-(4-phenyl-piperidino)-cyclohexanol (vesamicol) and an organophosphate DDVP on the cholinergic system in brain regions of rats - Kobayashi_1997_Brain.Res.Bull_43_17
Author(s) : Kobayashi H , Watanabe T , Yasufuku T , Suzuki T , Saitoh S , Takeno K
Ref : Brain Research Bulletin , 43 :17 , 1997
Abstract : Vesamicol is known to inhibit the transport of acetylcholine (ACh) into synaptic vesicles in vitro, but much less is known about its effects in the brain in vivo. To assess the effect of vesamicol in vivo, we examined cholinergic parameters, such as the subcellular distribution of ACh, activities of enzymes, uptake of choline, and muscarinic receptor binding in the striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex of rats 30 and 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of vesamicol (3 mg/kg) or of vesamicol in combination with DDVP (5 mg/kg), which was administered 10 min before vasamicol. The levels of cytosolic ACh increased in all regions of the brain after injection of vesamicol, while those of vesicular ACh decreased in all regions except for the striatum. The increase in the levels of extracellular ACh and cytosolic ACh in the striatum induced by DDVP was generally enhanced after injection of vesamicol, Vesamicol did not reduce the level of vesicular ACh when DDVP had been injected previously. Vesamicol did not induce any significant changes in the activities of enzymes, choline uptake, or binding of [6H]quinuclidinyl benzilate to the muscarinic ACh receptors in the three regions. Changes in the cholinergic parameters caused by DDVP were not reversed by the combined administration of DDVP with vesamicol. The present results indicate that vesamicol can inhibit the transport of ACh into synaptic vesicles in the brain tissue in vivo, although it cannot reverse the effects of DDVP that has been injected prior to vesamicol.
ESTHER : Kobayashi_1997_Brain.Res.Bull_43_17
PubMedSearch : Kobayashi_1997_Brain.Res.Bull_43_17
PubMedID: 9205789

Title : Demonstration of the facilitatory role of 8-OH-DPAT on cholinergic transmission in the rat hippocampus using in vivo microdialysis - Fujii_1997_Brain.Res_761_244
Author(s) : Fujii T , Yoshizawa M , Nakai K , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K
Ref : Brain Research , 761 :244 , 1997
Abstract : The role of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor in the regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus was investigated using an in vivo microdialysis technique and a sensitive radioimmunoassay specific for ACh. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) basal ACh contents in the hippocampal perfusate of conscious, freely moving rats was 60 +/- 4 (n = 29) and 3691 +/- 265 fmol/30 min (n = 31), respectively, in the absence and presence of physostigmine (Phy) in the perfusion fluid. Systemic administration of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), a 5-HT1A agonist, significantly enhanced ACh release both in the presence and absence of Phy. Local application of 8-OH-DPAT (3-30 microM) into the hippocampus through the microdialysis probe significantly potentiated ACh release only in the presence of Phy, whereas no significant effect was observed in its absence. Pretreatment with NAN-190 (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a 5-HT1A antagonist, eliminated the increasing effect of systemically applied 8-OH-DPAT on ACh release, while NAN-190 alone had no effect on basal ACh release either in the absence or presence of Phy. Consistent with the time course of ACh release, systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT evoked hyperlocomotion, which was reversed by NAN-190. However, local hippocampal application of 8-OH-DPAT did not affect the locomotor activity of the rats. These findings suggest that at least two different sites are involved in the 8-OH-DPAT-induced increase in the release of ACh in the rat hippocampus in vivo.
ESTHER : Fujii_1997_Brain.Res_761_244
PubMedSearch : Fujii_1997_Brain.Res_761_244
PubMedID: 9252022

Title : Nitric oxide increases stimulation-evoked acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices by a cyclic GMP-independent mechanism - Suzuki_1997_Brain.Res_760_158
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Nakajima K , Fujimoto K , Fujii T , Kawashima K
Ref : Brain Research , 760 :158 , 1997
Abstract : Nitric oxide (NO) is an endothelium-derived relaxing factor and its main mechanism of action is activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase. NO and NO-related compounds have been reported to affect several neuronal functions in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO donors (sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and (+/-)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (FK409)) on acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat hippocampal slices. SNP (10(-5) M) and FK409 (10(-4) M) increased electrical stimulation-evoked ACh release without affecting basal release. As dibutyryl cyclic GMP inhibited stimulation-evoked ACh release, the effects of these NO donors were not due to soluble guanylyl cyclase activation. Atropine increased stimulation-evoked ACh release by blocking presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors, and SNP increased stimulation-evoked ACh release in the presence of atropine, suggesting that SNP and atropine increase stimulation-evoked ACh release by different mechanisms. The present results indicate that NO enhances some part of the excitation-secretion coupling pathway without inducing ACh release directly and these effects are mediated by cyclic GMP-independent mechanism.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1997_Brain.Res_760_158
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1997_Brain.Res_760_158
PubMedID: 9237530

Title : Localization and synthesis of acetylcholine in human leukemic T cell lines - Fujii_1996_J.Neurosci.Res_44_66
Author(s) : Fujii T , Tsuchiya T , Yamada S , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kasahara T , Kawashima K
Ref : Journal of Neuroscience Research , 44 :66 , 1996
Abstract : In order to clarify the origin of acetylcholine (ACh) in human blood, we measured the content and synthesis activity of ACh in several human leukemic cell lines. The intracellular ACh content determined by a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay in the human leukemic T cell lines, HSB-2, MOLT-3, and CEM, was 79.6, 36.2, and 9.5 pmol/10(6) cells, respectively. These values were 9-70-fold higher than those of other cell lines, including a helper T cell line, Jurkat. Stimulation of HSB-2 and MOLT-3 by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) increased both the intracellular content and release of ACh into the culture medium, but did not influence the intracellular content and release of ACh in CEM. ACh synthesis activity was found in all the T cell lines tested. Bromoacetylcholine (100 microM), a choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) inhibitor, and bromoacetyl-L-carnitine (100 microM), a carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT) inhibitor, decreased ACh-synthesizing activity in MOLT-3, and HSB-2 and CEM, by about 50% and 30%, respectively, indicating that both ChAT, and to a lesser extent CarAt, are involved in ACh synthesis in T cells. These results suggest that T lymphocytes have the potential to synthesize and release ACh, which may play a role in regulating T cell-dependent immune responses.
ESTHER : Fujii_1996_J.Neurosci.Res_44_66
PubMedSearch : Fujii_1996_J.Neurosci.Res_44_66
PubMedID: 8926632

Title : Species differences in the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, in whole blood and plasma - Fujii_1995_Neurosci.Lett_201_207
Author(s) : Fujii T , Yamada S , Yamaguchi N , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 201 :207 , 1995
Abstract : Various concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) were detected in samples of bovine, goat, horse, porcine, rat and sheep blood and plasma using a specific, sensitive radioimmunoassay. The ACh levels in whole blood in bovine and horse samples were about 40- and ten-fold higher, respectively, than in humans, but levels comparable to those in humans were measured in porcine samples. Goat, rat and sheep samples had lower whole blood ACh concentrations than those of humans. When plasma samples were assayed, the ACh contents of bovine and porcine plasma were found to be about two- to five-fold those of human. On the other hand, levels in horse, goat, rat and sheep samples were much lower than in humans. The ratio of the ACh contents of plasma to whole blood was high in porcine and rat samples, indicating that porcine and rat blood ACh is distributed mostly in the plasma, while in the other species tested most of the ACh is present in the blood cells. These results demonstrate that variable levels of ACh are present in the blood of different species, and that the distribution of ACh in the blood constituents varies according to species.
ESTHER : Fujii_1995_Neurosci.Lett_201_207
PubMedSearch : Fujii_1995_Neurosci.Lett_201_207
PubMedID: 8786841

Title : A new detection method for the K variant of butyrylcholinesterase based on PCR primer introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA) - Shibuta_1994_J.Med.Genet_31_576
Author(s) : Shibuta K , Abe M , Suzuki T
Ref : Journal of Medical Genetics , 31 :576 , 1994
Abstract : The K variant of human butyrylcholinesterase is caused by a G/A transition in the butyrylcholinesterase gene, which neither creates nor destroys any restriction site. In an attempt to detect the K variant both simply and rapidly, we developed a two step method of "PCR primer introduced restriction analysis" (PCR-PIRA). The first step was used to introduce a new Fun4HI site into the normal allele for a screening test, while the second step was performed to create a new MaeIII site on the variant allele for a specific test. This method thus enabled us to distinguish clearly the K variant from the normal allele, and also showed that the frequency of the K variant allele is 0.164 in the Japanese population.
ESTHER : Shibuta_1994_J.Med.Genet_31_576
PubMedSearch : Shibuta_1994_J.Med.Genet_31_576
PubMedID: 7966197

Title : Phorbol ester stimulates acetylcholine synthesis in cultured endothelial cells isolated from porcine cerebral microvessels - Ikeda_1994_Brain.Res_655_147
Author(s) : Ikeda C , Morita I , Mori A , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K , Murota S
Ref : Brain Research , 655 :147 , 1994
Abstract : Acetylcholine (ACh) is one of the factor which induces vasodilation through the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. The aim of this study was to clarify whether endothelial cells can synthesize ACh and the types of substance which regulate the synthesis of ACh in endothelial cells. We determined the ACh content of endothelial cells isolated from porcine cerebral microvessels and of the culture medium. ACh was detected in the medium after 12 h incubation in the presence of diisopropylfluorophosphate, a non-specific cholinesterase inhibitor, and increased linearly up to 24 h. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 10(-7) M) increased the ACh content of the medium in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of PMA was most apparent between 12 and 24 h after treatment, and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), did not inhibit the effect of PMA. Dioctanoyl glycerol, a specific activator of PKC, did not increase the intracellular ACh content or the amount released into the culture medium. ACh synthesis was not inhibited by bromoacetylcholine, a specific inhibitor of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). PMA treatment did not affect the specific activity of ACh synthesis in endothelial cells. These data show that endothelial cells are able to synthesize ACh, and that ACh synthesis is up-regulated by PMA through the PKC independent mechanism via protein induction. The enzyme which synthesizes ACh in endothelial cells is not ChAT. The increase in ACh synthesis induced by PMA may not be due to induction of the ACh synthetic enzyme.
ESTHER : Ikeda_1994_Brain.Res_655_147
PubMedSearch : Ikeda_1994_Brain.Res_655_147
PubMedID: 7529125

Title : Nerve growth factor treatment induces high-potassium-evoked calcium-dependent acetylcholine release in cultured embryonic rat septal cells - Suzuki_1994_Brain.Res_665_311
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Kanagawa M , Takada Y , Fujimoto K , Kawashima K
Ref : Brain Research , 665 :311 , 1994
Abstract : The effects of dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on acetylcholine (ACh) release from primary cultured cells of embryonic rat septum were studied. Both dbcAMP and NGF increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase and contents of intracellular and spontaneously released ACh without affecting the total protein content. High-potassium-evoked ACh release was observed in NGF-treated cells but not in untreated and dbcAMP-treated cells. These results indicate that NGF induces cholinergic maturation from induction of the ACh-synthetic enzyme to the excitation-secretion processes.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1994_Brain.Res_665_311
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1994_Brain.Res_665_311
PubMedID: 7895068

Title : Effects of the centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors tetrahydroaminoacridine and E2020 on the basal concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the hippocampus of freely moving rats - Kawashima_1994_Naunyn.Schmiedebergs.Arch.Pharmacol_350_523
Author(s) : Kawashima K , Sato A , Yoshizawa M , Fujii T , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T
Ref : Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol , 350 :523 , 1994
Abstract : The effects of the centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors, tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) and E2020 (1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanon)-2-yl] methylpiperidine hydrochloride), potential drugs for the treatment of senile dementia, on the basal extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the hippocampus of freely moving rats, were determined using a microdialysis technique without the use of a ChE inhibitor in the perfusion fluid and a sensitive RIA. The mean (+/- SEM) basal ACh content in the perfusate was 103.1 +/- 3.6 fmol/sample collected over 30 min when microdialysis probes with a length of 3 mm dialysis membrane were used. The content of ACh decreased to an almost undetectable level upon perfusion of magnesium, suggesting that, in the present study, most of the ACh detected in the perfusates was due to cholinergic neuronal activity. THA (1.65 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an insignificant increase in the extracellular ACh concentration, but a dose of 5 mg/kg, i.p. caused a prolonged and significant 5.5-fold increase from the control value. E2020 (0.65 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant, prolonged and dose-dependent increases (4 and 12 times the control value, respectively), the peak effect occurring within 1 h. Perfusion with 10 mumol/l physostigmine produced an about 30-fold increase of ACh output, suggesting that the basal extracellular ACh concentration is highly dependent on ChE activity. When ChE was inhibited locally by perfusion with physostigmine, THA (5 mg/kg) produced a transient and, at its maximum, a 1.42-fold increase in extracellular ACh concentration.
ESTHER : Kawashima_1994_Naunyn.Schmiedebergs.Arch.Pharmacol_350_523
PubMedSearch : Kawashima_1994_Naunyn.Schmiedebergs.Arch.Pharmacol_350_523
PubMedID: 7870192

Title : Tacrine increases stimulation-evoked acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices - Suzuki_1994_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_65_337
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Nonaka H , Fujimoto K , Kawashima K
Ref : Japanese Journal of Pharmacology , 65 :337 , 1994
Abstract : We examined the effects of tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) on endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat hippocampal slices. Tacrine (more than 1 microM) increased the measurable amount of basal ACh release. On the other hand, in the presence of physostigmine (50 microM; under this condition, cholinesterase activity was inhibited), tacrine did not enhance the basal ACh release. Tacrine at more than 100 microM increased the submaximal electrical stimulation-evoked release of ACh in both the absence and presence of physostigmine (50 microM). This effect of tacrine was abolished by a combination of atropine (100 mM) and physostigmine. These results indicate that a high-dose of tacrine increases cholinergic neurotransmission not only by inhibition of cholinesterase but also by increasing ACh release through an atropine-like effect, perhaps by blockade of part of the process of muscarinic autoinhibition.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1994_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_65_337
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1994_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_65_337
PubMedID: 7990271

Title : Complementary improvement of the method for determining cholinergic activities in the small intestine and its application to experiments in vivo - Kobayashi_1994_J.Toxicol.Sci_19_133
Author(s) : Kobayashi H , Sato I , Fujii S , Akatsu Y , Suzuki T , Matsusaka N , Yuyama A
Ref : Journal of Toxicological Sciences , 19 :133 , 1994
Abstract : The concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) in rat jejunum that had been homogenized with an ultra-high-speed homogenizer (Biotron) was significantly higher than that in jejunum homogenized with a glass homogenizer. Rats were injected once or repeatedly for 10 days with a muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine (1 mg/kg), or a muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine (5 mg/kg). Animals were killed 20 min or 24 hr after single or consecutive injections, respectively, for determinations of cholinergic activities in the jejunum. Single treatment: Pilocarpine did not cause significant changes in the level of ACh, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the contractile responses to ACh. Scopolamine reduced the level of ACh and binding of [3H]QNB without inducing significant changes in the activity of AChE and the contractile response. Consecutive treatment: Pilocarpine reduced the binding of [3H]QNB by changing the value of Bmax and reduced the contractile response without affecting the level of ACh or the activity of AChE. Scopolamine increased the binding of [3H]QNB without any effects on the level of ACh, the activity of AChE or the contractile response. In summary, it is possible to determine the level of ACh in a tissue as hard as intestine by homogenization with a Biotron and to assess the cholinergic situation in the intestine of animals that have been poisoned with various agents by estimating cholinergic activities.
ESTHER : Kobayashi_1994_J.Toxicol.Sci_19_133
PubMedSearch : Kobayashi_1994_J.Toxicol.Sci_19_133
PubMedID: 7966450

Title : Effects of physostigmine and some nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-related compounds on muscarinic receptor-mediated autoinhibition of hippocampal acetylcholine release - Suzuki_1993_J.Neurochem_60_2285
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Nonaka H , Fujimoto K , Kawashima K
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 60 :2285 , 1993
Abstract : We have investigated the effects of (a) the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and (b) drugs that are known to change intracellular cyclic GMP levels on the autoinhibition of acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices. Autoinhibition was triggered by submaximal electrical stimulation in both the absence and presence of physostigmine. The results obtained indicate that an unusual increase in the extracellular acetylcholine content, such as that induced by cholinesterase inhibition, is not essential for autoinhibition triggering. Dibutyryl cyclic GMP reduced significantly the stimulation-evoked acetylcholine release in the presence, but not in the absence, of atropine. Neither sodium nitroprusside nor glyceryl trinitrate exerted a dibutyryl cyclic GMP-like effect. NG-Nitro-L-arginine did not lessen the autoinhibition. These results indicate that an increase in the intracellular cyclic GMP level reduces acetylcholine release, and that the muscarinic receptor stimulation-nitric oxide synthesis-(soluble) guanylyl cyclase activation pathway is not involved in the cholinergic autoinhibition process.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1993_J.Neurochem_60_2285
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1993_J.Neurochem_60_2285
PubMedID: 8388037

Title : Studies on the therapeutic effect of 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) in mammals following organophosphorus compound-poisoning (report III): distribution and antidotal effect of 2-PAM in rats - Uehara_1993_J.Toxicol.Sci_18_265
Author(s) : Uehara S , Hiromori T , Isobe N , Suzuki T , Kato T , Miyamoto J
Ref : Journal of Toxicological Sciences , 18 :265 , 1993
Abstract : The metabolic fate of 2-PAM and its antidotal effect on organophosphorus compound poisoning in rats were studied. When 14C-2-PAM was administered intravenously, the amount of 14C reaching the brain was small. Following administration by intramedullary injection, 14C was present in high concentrations in the brain, and 72-90% of the 14C present in the brain corresponded to the unchanged form of 2-PAM. 2-PAM was rapidly excreted into the urine and feces following either intramedullary or intravenous administration. The half-life of 2-PAM in the brain following intramedullary administration was 1.52 hr. Intramedullary administration of 2-PAM to rats poisoned with fenitrothion or malathion enabled their survival and induced reactivation of brain cholinesterase.
ESTHER : Uehara_1993_J.Toxicol.Sci_18_265
PubMedSearch : Uehara_1993_J.Toxicol.Sci_18_265
PubMedID: 8295230

Title : Acetylcholine synthesis is modulated by acetylcholine content of cytosolic fraction but not by that of releasable fraction - Suzuki_1992_Neurosci.Lett_144_127
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Kashima Y , Fujimoto K , Kawashima K
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 144 :127 , 1992
Abstract : Synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat hippocampal slices were examined to clarify the mechanism of modulation of ACh synthesis. Treatment with 2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (AH5183, 50 microM), an inhibitor of ACh transport from cytosol to synaptic vesicles, inhibited the increase in ACh content of the membrane-bound fraction which is readily releasable, but did not affect the cytosolic ACh content. Under these conditions, the total ACh content reached a plateau value. These results indicate that ACh synthesis is modulated by cytosolic ACh content but not by the vesicular fraction.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1992_Neurosci.Lett_144_127
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1992_Neurosci.Lett_144_127
PubMedID: 1436692

Title : Regional differences in extracellular choline dependency of acetylcholine synthesis in the rat brain - Suzuki_1991_Neurosci.Res_11_71
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Kashima Y , Fujimoto K , Oohata H , Kawashima K
Ref : Neurosci Res , 11 :71 , 1991
Abstract : Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis under conditions of restricted extracellular choline uptake was investigated in order to clarify the procurement of choline for ACh synthesis using slices of several regions of the rat brain. Extracellular choline-independent ACh synthesis was observed in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and caudate putamen, which contain cholinergic nerve terminals, whereas little or no synthesis was observed in the medial septum or basal nucleus of Meynert, which contain cholinergic cell bodies. These results indicate that cholinergic nerve terminals, but not the cell bodies, may be able to synthesize choline for ACh biosynthesis. Extracellular choline-dependent ACh synthesis was observed in all regions examined. In the presence of 10 microM choline, the highest content of newly synthesized ACh and the proportionate increase in ACh compared with the unreleasable fraction (basal level) were observed in the caudate putamen. In the frontal cortex, although the level of synthesized ACh was low, the proportionate increase in ACh was high. In contrast, in the medial septum and basal nucleus of Meynert, high levels of ACh with a low proportionate increase compared with basal levels were observed. In the presence of hemicholinium-3, extracellular choline was also taken up for ACh synthesis in all regions examined, the level being especially high in the frontal cortex and medial septum. The present results indicate that the manner of choline procurement for ACh synthesis is heterogeneous among the various regions of the rat brain.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1991_Neurosci.Res_11_71
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1991_Neurosci.Res_11_71
PubMedID: 1653922

Title : Determination of acetylcholine release in the striatum of anesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis and a radioimmunoassay - Kawashima_1991_J.Neurochem_57_882
Author(s) : Kawashima K , Hayakawa T , Kashima Y , Suzuki T , Fujimoto K , Oohata H
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 57 :882 , 1991
Abstract : A vertical-type in vivo microdialysis probe and a sensitive, specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) were used to study the mechanism of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the striatum of anesthetized rats. Without the use of physostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, our RIA could still detect the amount of ACh present in the perfusate (5.6 +/- 0.6 fmol/min, n = 16). Tetrodotoxin (1 microM) produced a significant decrease in the amount of ACh collected in the perfusate, suggesting that basal ACh determined under the present experimental conditions was related to cholinergic neural activity. Atropine (0.1-1 microM) applied topically via the dialysis probe did not affect the amount of ACh recovered in the perfusate in the absence of physostigmine. Addition of physostigmine (10 microM) to the perfusion fluid produced about a 100-fold increase in the amount of ACh collected. In the presence of physostigmine, topical administration of atropine and pirenzepine (0.01-1 microM) through a dialysis probe produced a further three- to fourfold increase in ACh output, whereas a slight increase was produced by AF-DX 116 at the highest concentration (1 microM). These results indicate that presynaptic modulation of ACh release in the striatum does not occur under basal conditions, and that presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptors are involved in the modulation of ACh release when the ACh concentration is raised under certain conditions.
ESTHER : Kawashima_1991_J.Neurochem_57_882
PubMedSearch : Kawashima_1991_J.Neurochem_57_882
PubMedID: 1861156

Title : Pharmacological differentiation of presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptors modulating acetylcholine release from postsynaptic muscarinic receptors in guinea-pig ileum - Kawashima_1990_Gen.Pharmacol_21_17
Author(s) : Kawashima K , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Oohata H
Ref : General Pharmacology , 21 :17 , 1990
Abstract : 1. Effects of three muscarinic antagonists on electrically evoked ACh release and contractile response were investigated in longitudinal muscle strips of guinea-pig ileum suspended in an organ-bath and superfused with Krebs solution. ACh release was determined by a specific radioimmunoassay. 2. Telenzepine, a selective M1 muscarinic antagonist, increased the ACh release at a concentration of 100-fold less than that inhibiting the contractile response (10 vs 1000 nM). 3. AF-DX 116, a cardioselective M2 muscarinic antagonist, inhibited the contractile response at 10 microM, but did not affect the ACh release at this concentration. 4. (-)N-Methylscopolamine (NMS) did not affect the ACh release, but inhibited the contractile response at all concentrations tested (1-1000 nM), indicating (-)NMS can be used as an ileal specific postsynaptic muscarinic antagonist. 5. These data demonstrate that presynaptic muscarinic receptors modulating ACh release are distinct from postsynaptic ones involved in the contractile response and can be classified as M1 subtype.
ESTHER : Kawashima_1990_Gen.Pharmacol_21_17
PubMedSearch : Kawashima_1990_Gen.Pharmacol_21_17
PubMedID: 2298386

Title : Synthesis and release of acetylcholine by cultured bovine arterial endothelial cells - Kawashima_1990_Neurosci.Lett_119_156
Author(s) : Kawashima K , Watanabe N , Oohata H , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Ishizaki Y , Morita I , Murota S
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 119 :156 , 1990
Abstract : Using cultured endothelial cells prepared from bovine carotid artery, and a specific radioimmunoassay for acetylcholine (ACh), the synthesis and release of ACh by vascular endothelial cells were investigated directly. ACh content in the culture medium after 24 h of incubation in the presence of isoflurophate, a nonspecific cholinesterase inhibitor, was about 16 times higher than that in endothelial cells, indicating that ACh synthesized inside the cells was released rapidly. The presence of ACh in the culture medium was further confirmed qualitatively using high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrocapture detection. These results represent the first direct evidence that endothelial cells can synthesize and release ACh, suggesting the possibility that ACh acts not only as a neurotransmitter but also as an autacoid under certain conditions.
ESTHER : Kawashima_1990_Neurosci.Lett_119_156
PubMedSearch : Kawashima_1990_Neurosci.Lett_119_156
PubMedID: 2280888

Title : Effects of TRH and DN-1417 on high potassium-evoked acetylcholine release from rat basal forebrain slices determined directly by radioimmunoassay - Suzuki_1989_Gen.Pharmacol_20_239
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Fujimoto K , Oohata H , Kawashima K
Ref : General Pharmacology , 20 :239 , 1989
Abstract : 1. High potassium (50 mM)-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat basal forebrain slices under conditions without an exogenous choline supply was determined using a radioimmunoassay for ACh. 2. A consistent amount of ACh release was observed at each repetitive stimulation and ACh content in brain slices was not altered by potassium stimulations. These results indicate the existence of a large intracellular releasable ACh store, which is independent of new synthesis from exogenous choline. 3. Atropine, even at a concentration of 10(-6) M, did not affect the potassium-evoked ACh release. Thus, modulation of ACh release by the muscarinic autoreceptor was not revealed under the conditions employed. 4. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 10(-4) M) caused a slight and statistically insignificant increase in potassium-evoked ACh release. DN-1417, a TRH analogue, at a concentration of 10(-4) M significantly increased potassium-evoked ACh release. These findings indicate that DN-1417 is able to enhance ACh output independently of ACh synthesis from exogenous choline.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1989_Gen.Pharmacol_20_239
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1989_Gen.Pharmacol_20_239
PubMedID: 2565849

Title : Hemicholinium-3-resistant choline uptake system linked to acetylcholine synthesis in the rat hippocampus - Suzuki_1989_Neurosci.Lett_105_211
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Kashima Y , Kawashima K
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 105 :211 , 1989
Abstract : Extracellular choline-dependency of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis was examined in rat hippocampal slices. In the presence of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, 5 microM), extracellular choline-dependent ACh synthesis appeared to consist of two different components. The first component (saturated at up to 50 microM choline) was dependent on the HC-3-resistant choline uptake system having a low capacity for choline in comparison with the high-affinity choline uptake system (HACU). The second component, observed in the presence of more than 50 microM choline, was considered due to competitive inhibition of HACU by HC-3. HACU-dependent ACh synthesis seemed to be saturated in the presence of up to 2 microM choline. These results indicate that both the HACU and HC-3-resistant choline uptake systems are linked to ACh synthesis in the hippocampus.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1989_Neurosci.Lett_105_211
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1989_Neurosci.Lett_105_211
PubMedID: 2485880

Title : Extraneuronal localization of acetylcholine and its release upon nicotinic stimulation in rabbits - Kawashima_1989_Neurosci.Lett_104_336
Author(s) : Kawashima K , Oohata H , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 104 :336 , 1989
Abstract : A study was undertaken to examine the origin of plasma acetylcholine (ACh). The ACh content of blood cells was about 25 times higher than that of plasma in normal rabbits (3,722 vs 140 pg/ml blood, n = 7). Plasma ACh content in rabbits having antibody against ACh was about 80 times higher than in normal rabbits, while no difference was observed in the ACh content of blood cells between the groups. Nicotine (100 micrograms/kg, i.v.) produced a significant increase in plasma ACh content and a decrease in the ACh content of blood cells in normal rabbits. These data demonstrate that a large amount of ACh is localized in blood cells and that a considerable proportion of plasma ACh originates from blood cells, suggesting that ACh acts not only as a neurotransmitter but also as an autacoid.
ESTHER : Kawashima_1989_Neurosci.Lett_104_336
PubMedSearch : Kawashima_1989_Neurosci.Lett_104_336
PubMedID: 2812548

Title : Presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptor modulates spontaneous release of acetylcholine from rat basal forebrain slices - Suzuki_1988_Neurosci.Lett_84_209
Author(s) : Suzuki T , Fujimoto K , Oohata H , Kawashima K
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 84 :209 , 1988
Abstract : Spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from rat basal forebrain slices in the presence of cholinesterase inhibitor was directly determined using a specific radioimmunoassay for ACh. The release was calcium dependent. A consistent amount of ACh release was observed throughout the experiment. Atropine (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) and pirenzepine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) enhanced spontaneous ACh release. These findings indicate the presence of an M1 muscarinic autoreceptor that modulates spontaneous release of ACh in the rat basal forebrain.
ESTHER : Suzuki_1988_Neurosci.Lett_84_209
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_1988_Neurosci.Lett_84_209
PubMedID: 3340327

Title : Direct determination of acetylcholine release by radioimmunoassay and presence of presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig ileum - Kawashima_1988_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_244_1036
Author(s) : Kawashima K , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Oohata H
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 244 :1036 , 1988
Abstract : Radioimmunoassay for acetylcholine (ACh) with a sensitivity of 10 pg/tube was applied to the direct determination of ACh output from the nerve endings in longitudinal muscle strips of guinea pig ileum. The strips were preincubated with an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor and superfused with Krebs' solution under various experimental conditions. Pirenzepine (0.1-10 microM) and atropine (10-100 nM) produced an increase in electrically evoked ACh output through the inhibition of presynaptic muscarinic receptors. Contractile response to endogenous ACh released by electrical stimulation was enhanced by pirenzepine and atropine at lower concentrations, whereas the highest concentrations of pirenzepine (10 microM) and atropine (100 nM) caused a reduction in the enhanced contractile response and a significantly diminished response, respectively. These results demonstrate that the concentrations of pirenzepine and atropine, effective in inhibiting presynaptic muscarinic receptors, differ from those inhibiting postsynaptic muscarinic receptors and suggest the possibility that presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptors regulating ACh output may be present in the guinea pig ileum.
ESTHER : Kawashima_1988_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_244_1036
PubMedSearch : Kawashima_1988_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_244_1036
PubMedID: 3252021

Title : Simplified cleanup and gas chromatographic determination of organophosphorus pesticides in crops - Sasaki_1987_J.Assoc.Off.Anal.Chem_70_460
Author(s) : Sasaki K , Suzuki T , Saito Y
Ref : J Assoc Off Analytical Chemistry , 70 :460 , 1987
Abstract : A simple and efficient cleanup method for gas chromatographic determination of 23 organophosphorus pesticides in crops including onion is described. The sample was extracted with acetone. The extract was purified with coagulating solution, which contained ammonium chloride and phosphoric acid, and then filtered by suction. The filtrate was diluted with NaCl solution and reextracted with benzene. The organic layer was evaporated and injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector (FPD) and fused silica capillary columns (0.53 mm id) coated with silicone equivalent to OV-1701, OV-1, and SE-52. Onion extract, which contained FPD interferences, was cleaned up on a disposable silica cartridge. Recoveries of most organophosphorus pesticides from spiked crops: mandarin orange, tomato, spinach, sweet pepper, broccoli, lettuce, and onion at levels of 0.02-0.28 ppm, exceeded 80%, but the water-soluble pesticides dichlorvos and dimethoate gave poor recoveries in all crops; the nonpolar pesticides disulfoton, chlorpyrifos, fenthion, prothiophos, and leptophos were not recovered quantitatively in spinach, sweet pepper, broccoli, and lettuce. IBP, edifenphos, phosmet, and pyridaphenthion were not recovered from onion because of adsorption to the silica cartridge. The detection limits ranged from 1.25 to 17.5 ppb on a crop basis.
ESTHER : Sasaki_1987_J.Assoc.Off.Anal.Chem_70_460
PubMedSearch : Sasaki_1987_J.Assoc.Off.Anal.Chem_70_460
PubMedID: 3610958

Title : Plasma concentration of acetylcholine in young women - Kawashima_1987_Neurosci.Lett_80_339
Author(s) : Kawashima K , Oohata H , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T
Ref : Neuroscience Letters , 80 :339 , 1987
Abstract : A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied to the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) in plasma. The concentration of ACh in plasma sampled from 32 young women was 456.1 +/- 53.1 (mean +/- S.E.M.) pg/ml. No significant correlations were observed between plasma concentration of ACh and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, or gonadal hormones. These data demonstrate that an amount of ACh measurable by radioimmunoassay is present in plasma and plasma ACh is not regulated by AChE activity and the menstrual cycle in young women. The origin and physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of ACh in plasma remain to be clarified.
ESTHER : Kawashima_1987_Neurosci.Lett_80_339
PubMedSearch : Kawashima_1987_Neurosci.Lett_80_339
PubMedID: 3683989

Title : Hydrolysis of polyesters by lipases -
Author(s) : Tokiwa Y , Suzuki T
Ref : Nature , 270 :76 , 1977
PubMedID: 927523
Gene_locus related to this paper: rhidl-lipas