Tian H

References (17)

Title : Determination of carboxylesterase by fluorescence probe to guide detection of carbamate pesticide - Feng_2023_Luminescence__
Author(s) : Feng J , Gong Y , Yang S , Qiu G , Tian H , Sun B
Ref : Luminescence , : , 2023
Abstract : A carboxylesterase fluorescent probe (Probe 1) was developed for determination of carboxylesterase to guide detection of carbamate pesticide. The probe uses benzothiazole as fluorescence group and phenyldimethyl carbamate as recognition group. The solution of the fluorescent probe gradually changes from light blue to dark blue as the concentration of carbamate pesticides increases. The concentration of carbamate pesticides can be quickly calculated according to the colour of the probe solution through Get Color software on a smartphone. It showed that Probe 1 can be used as a rapid detection tool to achieve rapid detection of carbamate pesticides in juice samples without professional personnel and equipment. Furthermore, the probe has been successfully used to detect carbamate pesticides in fruit juice and vegetable juice.
ESTHER : Feng_2023_Luminescence__
PubMedSearch : Feng_2023_Luminescence__
PubMedID: 37947027

Title : Pharmacological effect and mechanism of orlistat in anti-tumor therapy: A review - Hao_2023_Medicine.(Baltimore)_102_e34671
Author(s) : Hao X , Zhu X , Tian H , Lai G , Zhang W , Zhou H , Liu S
Ref : Medicine (Baltimore) , 102 :e34671 , 2023
Abstract : Research has demonstrated that obesity is an important risk factor for cancer progression. Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor with promising therapeutic effects on obesity. In addition to being regarded as a slimming drug, a growing number of studies in recent years have suggested that orlistat has anti-tumor activities, while the underlying mechanism is still not well elucidated. This paper reviewed recent pharmacological effects and mechanisms of orlistat against tumors and found that orlistat can target cancer cells through activation or suppression of multiple signaling pathways. It can induce tumor cells apoptosis or death, interfere with tumor cells' cycles controlling, suppress fatty acid synthase activity, increase ferroptosis, inhibit tumor angiogenesis, and improve tumor cells glycolytic. Thus, this review may shed new light on anti-tumor mechanism and drug repurposing of orlistat, and anti-tumor drug development.
ESTHER : Hao_2023_Medicine.(Baltimore)_102_e34671
PubMedSearch : Hao_2023_Medicine.(Baltimore)_102_e34671
PubMedID: 37682175

Title : A colorimetric fluorescent probe for the detection of carboxylesterase and carbamate pesticides - Feng_2023_Anal.Sci__
Author(s) : Feng J , Gong Y , Yang S , Tian H , Sun B
Ref : Anal Sci , : , 2023
Abstract : A colorimetric fluorescent probe (BTCNA) was developed for the determination of carboxylesterase and carbamate pesticides. The probe used naphthalene-benzothiazole as the fluorescent group and naphthyl acetate as the recognition group. The recognition mechanism of BTCNA for carboxylesterase was based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of naphthyl acetate by carboxylesterase (CES). The test paper of the BTCNA gradually changed from light blue to bright yellow with the increase of CES activity. The probe solution gradually changed from light blue to earth-yellow as the carbaryl concentration increased. There was a linear functional relationship between the R*G (red, green) value of the photo and the CES activity. And a linear functional relationship between the carbaryl concentration and the R*G value of the photo was found. Additionally, BTCNA was successfully used to detect the concentration of carbaryl in actual samples. BTCNA is a rapid detection tool for CES activity and carbamate pesticides using a smartphone.
ESTHER : Feng_2023_Anal.Sci__
PubMedSearch : Feng_2023_Anal.Sci__
PubMedID: 37548851

Title : The role of strigolactone analog (GR24) in endogenous hormone metabolism and hormone-related gene expression in tobacco axillary buds - Tian_2023_Plant.Cell.Rep_43_21
Author(s) : Tian H , Tang B , Fan W , Pan Z , Peng J , Wang Y , Liu F , Liu G
Ref : Plant Cell Rep , 43 :21 , 2023
Abstract : Strigolactone has the potential to influence hormone metabolism, in addition to having a role in inhibiting axillary bud elongation, which could be regulated by the expression of phytohormones-related genes. The elongation of axillary buds affects the economic benefits of tobacco. In this study, it was investigated the effect of strigolactone (SL) on the elongation of tobacco axillary buds and its endogenous hormone metabolism and related gene expression by applying the artificial analog of SL, GR24, and an inhibitor of SL synthesis, TIS-108, to the axillary buds. The results showed that the elongation of axillary buds was significantly inhibited by GR24 on day 2 and day 9. Ultra-high-performance liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry results further showed that SL significantly affected the metabolism of endogenous plant hormones, altering both their levels and the ratios between each endogenous hormone. Particularly, the levels of auxin (IAA), trans-zeatin-riboside (tZR), N6-(delta(2)-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), gibberellin A(4) (GA(4)), jasmonic acid (JA), and jasmonoyl isoleucine (JA-Ile) were decreased after GR24 treatment on day 9, but the levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) were significantly increased. Further analysis of endogenous hormonal balance revealed that after the treatment with GR24 on day 9, the ratio of IAA to cytokinin (CTK) was markedly increased, but the ratios of IAA to abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), ACC, JAs, and, GAs were notably decreased. In addition, according to RNA-seq analysis, multiple differentially expressed genes were found, such as GH3.1, AUX/IAA, SUAR20, IPT, CKX1, GA2ox1, ACO3, ERF1, PR1, and HCT, which may play critical roles in the biosynthesis, deactivation, signaling pathway of phytohormones, and the biosynthesis of flavonoids to regulate the elongation of axillary buds in tobacco. This work lays the certain theoretical foundation for the application of SL in regulating the elongation of axillary buds of tobacco.
ESTHER : Tian_2023_Plant.Cell.Rep_43_21
PubMedSearch : Tian_2023_Plant.Cell.Rep_43_21
PubMedID: 38150090

Title : Lipase-catalyzed hydrazine insertion for the synthesis of N'-alkyl benzohydrazides - Yu_2022_Biotechnol.Appl.Biochem__
Author(s) : Yu Y , Li F , Li J , Zheng X , Tian H , Mahmut Z , Du Y , Dai Y , Wang L
Ref : Biotechnol Appl Biochem , : , 2022
Abstract : N'-alkyl benzohydrazides are classic organic compounds that have been widely utilized in organic chemistry. In this study, an efficient method was developed for the synthesis of N'-alkyl benzohydrazides by hydrazine insertion catalyzed by lipase. Under the optimal conditions (Morita-Baylis-Hillman ketone [1 mmol], phenylhydrazine [1.3 mmol], N,N-dimethylformamide [2 mL], lipase [20 mg], room temperature, 12 h), satisfactory yields (71%-97%) and substrate tolerance were obtained when porcine pancreatic lipase was used as biocatalyst. These findings imply the great potential for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of N'-alkyl benzohydrazides and extend the utilization of lipase in organic chemistry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Yu_2022_Biotechnol.Appl.Biochem__
PubMedSearch : Yu_2022_Biotechnol.Appl.Biochem__
PubMedID: 35285069

Title : Preparation of Lipase-Electrospun SiO(2) Nanofiber Membrane Bioreactors and Their Targeted Catalytic Ability at the Macroscopic Oil-Water Interface - Kuang_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem_68_8362
Author(s) : Kuang L , Zhang Q , Li J , Tian H
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 68 :8362 , 2020
Abstract : Lipase is one of the most widely used enzymes in biocatalysis. Because of the special structure of the catalytic active center, lipases show high catalytic activity at oil-water interfaces. Hence, the interface plays a key role in activating and modulating lipase biocatalysis. Compared with traditional catalytic systems that offer interfaces, such as emulsions, a lipase-membrane bioreactor exhibits many obvious advantages when at the macroscopic oil-water system. In our current research, a series of new Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL)-SiO(2) nanofiber membrane (NFM) bioreactors prepared via combined electrospinning and immobilization strategies were reported. These SiO(2) NFMs assisted BCL in reaching the oil-water interface for efficient catalysis. The enzyme loading capacity and catalytic efficiency of BCL-SiO(2) NFMs varied with the surface hydrophobicity of the electrospun NFMs. As the hydrophobicity increased, the activity decreased from 2.43-fold to 0.74-fold that of free BCL. However, the lipase-loading capacity increased obviously when the hydrophobicity of the SiO(2) NFMs increased from 0 to 143 degrees, and no significant change was observed when the hydrophobicity of the SiO(2) NFMs increased from 143 to 153 degrees. The gel trapping technique proved that the hydrolytic activity of the different BCL-SiO(2) NFM bioreactors depends on the contact area of the membrane at the oil-water interface. BCL-SiO(2) NFM, BCL-SiO(2) NFM-C(12), and BCL-SiO(2) NFM-C(18) retained 32, 83, and 42% of activity, respectively, after five cycles of reuse. The current work was a useful exploration of the construction and modification of lipase-membrane reactors based on electrospun inorganic silicon.
ESTHER : Kuang_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem_68_8362
PubMedSearch : Kuang_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem_68_8362
PubMedID: 32649192

Title : Unprecedented peroxidase-mimicking activity of single-atom nanozyme with atomically dispersed Fe-Nx moieties hosted by MOF derived porous carbon - Niu_2019_Biosens.Bioelectron_142_111495
Author(s) : Niu X , Shi Q , Zhu W , Liu D , Tian H , Fu S , Cheng N , Li S , Smith JN , Du D , Lin Y
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 142 :111495 , 2019
Abstract : Due to robustness, easy large-scale preparation and low cost, nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics (defined as 'nanozymes') are attracting increasing interest for various applications. However, most of currently developed nanozymes show much lower activity in comparison with natural enzymes, and the deficiency greatly hinders their use in sensing and biomedicine. Single-atom catalysts (SACs) offer the unique feature of maximum atomic utilization, providing a potential pathway to improve the catalytic activity of nanozymes. Herein, we propose a Fe-N-C single-atom nanozyme (SAN) that exhibits unprecedented peroxidase-mimicking activity. The SAN consists of atomically dispersed Fe horizontal line Nx moieties hosted by metal-organic frameworks (MOF) derived porous carbon. Thanks to the 100% single-atom active Fe dispersion and the large surface area of the porous support, the Fe-N-C SAN provided a specific activity of 57.76 U mg(-1), which was almost at the same level as natural horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Attractively, the SAN presented much better storage stability and robustness against harsh environments. As a proof-of-concept application, highly sensitive biosensing of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity using the Fe-N-C SAN as a substitute for natural HRP was further verified.
ESTHER : Niu_2019_Biosens.Bioelectron_142_111495
PubMedSearch : Niu_2019_Biosens.Bioelectron_142_111495
PubMedID: 31310943

Title : Plasma levels of soluble ST2, but not IL-33, correlate with the severity of alcoholic liver disease - Sun_2019_J.Cell.Mol.Med_23_887
Author(s) : Sun Z , Chang B , Huang A , Hao S , Gao M , Sun Y , Shi M , Jin L , Zhang W , Zhao J , Teng G , Han L , Tian H , Liang Q , Zhang JY , Zou Z
Ref : J Cell Mol Med , 23 :887 , 2019
Abstract : Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complication that is a burden on global health and economy. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a newly identified member of the IL-1 cytokine family and is released as an "alarmin" during inflammation. Soluble suppression of tumourigenicity 2 (sST2), an IL-33 decoy receptor, has been reported as a new biomarker for the severity of systemic and highly inflammatory diseases. Here, we found the levels of plasma sST2, increased with the disease severity from mild to severe ALD. Importantly, the plasma sST2 levels in ALD patients not only correlated with scores for prognostic models (Maddrey's discriminant function, model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh scores) and indexes for liver function (total bilirubin, international normalized ratio, albumin, and cholinesterase) but also correlated with neutrophil-associated factors as well as some proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide-activated monocytes down-regulated transmembrane ST2 receptor but up-regulated sST2 mRNA and protein expression and produced higher levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). By contrast, monocytes pretreated with recombinant sST2 showed decreased TNF-alpha production. In addition, although plasma IL-33 levels were comparable between healthy controls and ALD patients, we found the IL-33 expression in liver tissues from ALD patients was down-regulated at both RNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that the decreased of IL-33-positive cells were mainly located in liver lobule area. These results suggested that sST2, but not IL-33, is closely related to the severity of ALD. Consequently, sST2 could be used as a potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of ALD.
ESTHER : Sun_2019_J.Cell.Mol.Med_23_887
PubMedSearch : Sun_2019_J.Cell.Mol.Med_23_887
PubMedID: 30478965

Title : Gut-brain axis metabolic pathway regulates antidepressant efficacy of albiflorin - Zhao_2018_Theranostics_8_5945
Author(s) : Zhao ZX , Fu J , Ma SR , Peng R , Yu JB , Cong L , Pan LB , Zhang ZG , Tian H , Che CT , Wang Y , Jiang JD
Ref : Theranostics , 8 :5945 , 2018
Abstract : The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized to influence brain function through the gut-brain axis. Albiflorin, an antidepressant natural drug in China with a good safety profile, is difficult to absorb and cannot be detected in the brain after oral administration. Accordingly, the antidepressant mechanism of albiflorin in vivo has not been elucidated clearly. Methods: We identified benzoic acid as the characteristic metabolite of albiflorin in vivo and in vitro, then discovered the roles of gut microbiota in the conversion of albiflorin by carboxylesterase. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies were performed for the antidepressant activities of albiflorin in animals, and the efficacy of benzoic acid in inhibiting D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) in brain was further investigated. Results: We validated that gut microbiota transformed albiflorin to benzoic acid, a key metabolite in the intestine that could cross the blood-brain barrier and, as an inhibitor of DAAO in the brain, improved brain function and exerted antidepressant activity in vivo. Intestinal carboxylesterase was the crucial enzyme that generated benzoic acid from albiflorin. Additionally, the regulatory effect of albiflorin on the gut microbiota composition was beneficial to alleviate depression. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a novel gut-brain dialogue through intestinal benzoic acid for the treatment of depression and reveal that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the pathogenesis and treatment of the central nervous system disease.
ESTHER : Zhao_2018_Theranostics_8_5945
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2018_Theranostics_8_5945
PubMedID: 30613273

Title : Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition Promotes White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Functional Recovery after chronic hypoperfusion in mice - Chen_2017_Sci.Rep_7_7758
Author(s) : Chen Y , Tian H , Yao E , Tian Y , Zhang H , Xu L , Yu Z , Fang Y , Wang W , Du P , Xie M
Ref : Sci Rep , 7 :7758 , 2017
Abstract : Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced cerebrovascular white matter lesions (WMLs) are closely associated with cognitive impairment and other neurological deficits. The mechanism of demyelination in response to hypoperfusion has not yet been fully clarified. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an endogenous key enzyme in the metabolic conversion and degradation of P450 eicosanoids called epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Inhibition of sEH has been suggested to represent a prototype "combination therapy" targeting multiple mechanisms of stroke injury with a single agent. However, its role in the pathological process after WMLs has not been clarified. The present study was to investigate the role of a potent sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), on multiple elements in white matter of mice brain after chronic hypoperfusion. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) to induce WMLs. Administration of TPPU significantly inhibited microglia activation and inflammatory response, increased M2 polarization of microglial cells, enhanced oligodendrogenesis and differentiation of oligodendrocytes, promoted white matter integrity and remyelination following chronic hypoperfusion. Moreover, these cellular changes were translated into a remarkable functional restoration. The results suggest that sEH inhibition could exert multi-target protective effects and alleviate cognitive impairment after chronic hypoperfusion induced WMLs in mice.
ESTHER : Chen_2017_Sci.Rep_7_7758
PubMedSearch : Chen_2017_Sci.Rep_7_7758
PubMedID: 28798352

Title : Effects of monocrotophos pesticide on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems during early development in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus - Zhang_2017_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_328_46
Author(s) : Zhang X , Li S , Wang C , Tian H , Wang W , Ru S
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 328 :46 , 2017
Abstract : During early development in sea urchins, classical neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine (ACh), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), play important roles in the regulation of morphogenesis and swimming behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms of how organophosphate pesticides cause developmental neurotoxicity by interfering with different neurotransmitter systems are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00mg/L monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide on the activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase, the concentration of DA, dopamine transporter, and the transcription activity of DA receptor D1 and tyrosine hydroxylase, during critical periods in cholinergic and dopaminergic nervous system development in sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) embryos and larvae. At the blastula stages, MCP disrupted DA metabolism but not 5-HT metabolism, resulting in abnormal development. High ChAT and AChE activity were observed at the gastrulation-completed stage and the two-armed pluteus stage, respectively, MCP inhibited ChAT activity and AChE activity/distribution and resulted in developmental defects of the plutei. From the gastrula stage to the two-armed pluteus stage, we found ubiquitous disrupting effects of MCP on ACh, DA, and 5-HT metabolism, particularly at critical periods during the development of these neurotransmitter systems. Therefore, we propose that this disruption is one of the main mechanisms of MCP-related developmental neurotoxicity, which would contribute better understanding insight into the mechanism of MCP pesticide's toxic effects.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_328_46
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_328_46
PubMedID: 28479505

Title : Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization - Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
Author(s) : Qin C , Yu C , Shen Y , Fang X , Chen L , Min J , Cheng J , Zhao S , Xu M , Luo Y , Yang Y , Wu Z , Mao L , Wu H , Ling-Hu C , Zhou H , Lin H , Gonzalez-Morales S , Trejo-Saavedra DL , Tian H , Tang X , Zhao M , Huang Z , Zhou A , Yao X , Cui J , Li W , Chen Z , Feng Y , Niu Y , Bi S , Yang X , Cai H , Luo X , Montes-Hernandez S , Leyva-Gonzalez MA , Xiong Z , He X , Bai L , Tan S , Liu D , Liu J , Zhang S , Chen M , Zhang L , Zhang Y , Liao W , Wang M , Lv X , Wen B , Liu H , Luan H , Yang S , Wang X , Xu J , Li X , Li S , Wang J , Palloix A , Bosland PW , Li Y , Krogh A , Rivera-Bustamante RF , Herrera-Estrella L , Yin Y , Yu J , Hu K , Zhang Z
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 111 :5135 , 2014
Abstract : As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people's spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded approximately 0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of approximately 81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs.
ESTHER : Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
PubMedSearch : Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
PubMedID: 24591624
Gene_locus related to this paper: capch-q75qh4 , capan-a0a1u8fuf5 , capan-a0a1u8gmz3 , capan-a0a1u8f879 , capan-a0a1u8ftr2 , capan-a0a1u8g8s6

Title : Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Patients With AD With and Without Dysphagia - Tian_2013_Alzheimer.Dis.Assoc.Disord_27_138
Author(s) : Tian H , Abouzaid S , Sabbagh MN , Chen W , Gabriel S , Kahler KH , Kim E
Ref : Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders , 27 :138 , 2013
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: : To assess health care utilization and associated costs among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), with and without dysphagia.
METHODS: : MarketScan Commercial and Medicare databases were analyzed. Patients with a diagnosis of AD with and without dysphagia between October 2006 and September 2010 were included. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor usage, the number of outpatient and emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalizations, and associated health care costs were assessed. All variables were measured 1 year after the initial diagnosis of AD at the patient level. Patients with dysphagia were matched to patients without dysphagia using propensity score-matching (PSM) methods. Regression models were conducted to compare utilization and costs between the 2 groups.
RESULTS: : A total of 485 patients with dysphagia and 8492 patients without dysphagia were included. Before matching, patients with dysphagia were older (81.1 vs. 79.8 y), and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (2.4 vs. 1.7). After matching, all baseline covariates were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Multivariate regression results showed that patients with dysphagia had a higher likelihood of all-cause hospitalizations [odds ratio (OR)=2.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.70-2.99, P=0.001] and all-cause ER visits (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.12-1.87, P=0.007) compared with patients without dysphagia; they also had a higher likelihood for AD-related hospitalizations and ER visits. The difference in all-cause total health care, ER, and hospitalization costs between patients with and without dysphagia were $3620 (95% CI=$2863-$4375), $258 (95% CI=$241-$274), and $3547 (95% CI=$3325-$3770), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: : This study suggests that patients with AD and dysphagia have higher health care utilization and costs compared with patients without dysphagia.
ESTHER : Tian_2013_Alzheimer.Dis.Assoc.Disord_27_138
PubMedSearch : Tian_2013_Alzheimer.Dis.Assoc.Disord_27_138
PubMedID: 22596081

Title : The Pristionchus pacificus genome provides a unique perspective on nematode lifestyle and parasitism - Dieterich_2008_Nat.Genet_40_1193
Author(s) : Dieterich C , Clifton SW , Schuster LN , Chinwalla A , Delehaunty K , Dinkelacker I , Fulton L , Fulton R , Godfrey J , Minx P , Mitreva M , Roeseler W , Tian H , Witte H , Yang SP , Wilson RK , Sommer RJ
Ref : Nat Genet , 40 :1193 , 2008
Abstract : Here we present a draft genome sequence of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, a species that is associated with beetles and is used as a model system in evolutionary biology. With 169 Mb and 23,500 predicted protein-coding genes, the P. pacificus genome is larger than those of Caenorhabditis elegans and the human parasite Brugia malayi. Compared to C. elegans, the P. pacificus genome has more genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes, glucosyltransferases, sulfotransferases and ABC transporters, many of which were experimentally validated. The P. pacificus genome contains genes encoding cellulase and diapausin, and cellulase activity is found in P. pacificus secretions, indicating that cellulases can be found in nematodes beyond plant parasites. The relatively higher number of detoxification and degradation enzymes in P. pacificus is consistent with its necromenic lifestyle and might represent a preadaptation for parasitism. Thus, comparative genomics analysis of three ecologically distinct nematodes offers a unique opportunity to investigate the association between genome structure and lifestyle.
ESTHER : Dieterich_2008_Nat.Genet_40_1193
PubMedSearch : Dieterich_2008_Nat.Genet_40_1193
PubMedID: 18806794
Gene_locus related to this paper: pripa-h3dz72 , pripa-h3dzd7 , pripa-h3epg7 , pripa-h3ept4 , pripa-h3ept8 , pripa-h3ew78 , pripa-h3ext9 , pripa-h3f0j4 , pripa-h3f919 , pripa-h3f920 , pripa-h3fcj7 , pripa-h3fg45 , pripa-h3fg46 , pripa-h3fg51.2 , pripa-h3fhh1 , pripa-h3fhv6 , pripa-h3fig0 , pripa-h3fj25 , pripa-h3fvb4 , pripa-h3g1q9 , pripa-h3g217 , pripa-a0a0f5cf17 , pripa-a0a0f5crg5 , pripa-a0a0f5csq7 , pripa-h3esz7 , pripa-a0a0f5chi5 , pripa-h3fh18 , pripa-h3dzn5

Title : Novel mutations of the lipoprotein lipase gene associated with hypertriglyceridemia in members of type 2 diabetic pedigrees - Hu_2007_J.Lipid.Res_48_1681
Author(s) : Hu Y , Ren Y , Luo RZ , Mao X , Li X , Cao X , Guan L , Chen X , Li J , Long Y , Zhang X , Tian H
Ref : J Lipid Res , 48 :1681 , 2007
Abstract : Increased plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels are frequently associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To test the hypothesis that LPL gene mutations contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia observed in members of T2DM pedigrees, we screened the LPL gene in 53 hypertriglyceridemic members of 26 families. Four known and three novel mutations were identified. All three novel mutations, Lys312insC, Thr361insA, and double mutation Lys312insC + Asn291Ser, are clinically associated with hypertriglyceridemia. In vitro mutagenesis and expression studies confirm that these variants are associated with a significant reduction in LPL activity. The modeled structures displaying the Lys312insC and Thr361insA mutations showed loss of the activity-related C-terminal domain in the LPL protein. Another novel double mutation, Lys312insC + Asn291Ser, resulted in the loss of the catalytic ability of LPL attributable to the complete loss of the C-terminal domain and alteration in the heparin association site. Thus, these novel mutations of the LPL gene contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia observed in members of type 2 diabetic pedigrees.
ESTHER : Hu_2007_J.Lipid.Res_48_1681
PubMedSearch : Hu_2007_J.Lipid.Res_48_1681
PubMedID: 17476032

Title : Neither forced running nor forced swimming affect acute pyridostigmine toxicity or brain-regional cholinesterase inhibition in rats - Tian_2002_Toxicology_176_39
Author(s) : Tian H , Song X , Bressler J , Pruett S , Pope CN
Ref : Toxicology , 176 :39 , 2002
Abstract : Stress-induced change in the distribution of the drug pyridostigmine (PYR) has been proposed as a contributing factor to unexplained illnesses in Persian Gulf War veterans. We evaluated the effects of two stress models, forced running and forced swimming, on acute PYR (30 mg/kg, p.o.) toxicity and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in the blood and selected brain regions of young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age). Plasma corticosterone levels were measured at 0, 1 and 3 h after termination of forced swimming or forced running to confirm the induction of stress. PYR was given either immediately before stress (15 min swimming; 20 min running) or immediately after stress (15 min swimming; 90 min running) and cholinergic toxicity and ChE inhibition were evaluated at 1, 2 or 4 h after PYR exposure. Additionally, rats were subjected to either swimming (15 min) or running (90 min) stress, anesthetized, injected with horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 100 mg/kg, transcardial) and brain-regional HRP activity measured as an indicator of altered blood-brain barrier integrity. Both forced swimming and forced running resulted in significant elevations of plasma corticosterone levels. PYR caused cholinergic toxicity at all time-points evaluated. Swimming and running stress had little influence on expression of PYR-induced toxicity, however. Blood ChE activity was generally inhibited 77-91% at 1-4 h after PYR, but rats pretreated with PYR prior to forced swimming showed lesser inhibition (64%) 1 h after dosing, possibly because of swimming-induced hypothermia and delayed absorption of the drug. Minimal changes in ChE activity were noted in frontal cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus following PYR exposure (maximal inhibition 28%), and neither swimming nor running stress affected the degree of inhibition. Neither stress model increased HRP accumulation in any brain region. The results suggest that stress associated with forced running or forced swimming has little effect on acute PYR toxicity, entry of PYR into the brain or PYR-induced brain-regional ChE inhibition.
ESTHER : Tian_2002_Toxicology_176_39
PubMedSearch : Tian_2002_Toxicology_176_39
PubMedID: 12062928

Title : Acute and Repeated Restraint Stress Have Little Effect on Pyridostigmine Toxicity or Brain Regional Cholinesterase Inhibition in Rats - Song_2002_Toxicol.Sci_69_157
Author(s) : Song X , Tian H , Bressler J , Pruett S , Pope C
Ref : Toxicol Sci , 69 :157 , 2002
Abstract : Pyridostigmine, a carbamate cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, has been used for decades in the treatment of the autoimmune disorder myasthenia gravis and was used prophylactically to protect soldiers from possible organophosphorus nerve agent exposures during the Persian Gulf War. Pyridostigmine is a charged, quaternary compound and thus would not be expected to easily pass the blood-brain barrier. Some studies have suggested, however, that stress may alter blood-brain barrier integrity and allow pyridostigmine to enter the brain. We evaluated the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on functional signs of cholinergic toxicity (i.e., autonomic dysfunction and involuntary movements) and brain regional cholinesterase inhibition following either acute or repeated pyridostigmine exposures. The acute, oral maximum-tolerated dosage (MTD) of pyridostigmine was estimated at 30 mg/kg. Peak ChE inhibition in whole blood occurred from 0.5 to 4 h after MTD exposure, whereas minimal (<20%) brain ChE inhibition was noted. For acute restraint studies, rats were either (1) restrained for 90 min and then given pyridostigmine (30 mg/kg, po), (2) given pyridostigmine and immediately restrained for 60 min, or (3) restrained for 3 h, given pyridostigmine, and restrained for an additional 60 min. In all cases, rats were evaluated for cholinergic toxicity (SLUD signs and involuntary movements) and sacrificed 1 h after pyridostigmine treatment. Plasma corticosterone was significantly elevated immediately after a single 60-min session of acute restraint stress, but returned to control levels by 1 and 3 h later. Pyridostigmine-induced toxicity was not enhanced nor was brain ChE inhibition altered by acute restraint stress. Blood-brain barrier permeability, assessed by accumulation of horseradish peroxidase in brain regions following intracardiac injection, was not increased by restraint stress. For repeated restraint studies, rats were given pyridostigmine (0, 3, or 10 mg/kg/day) immediately prior to daily restraint (60 min) for 14 consecutive days. Plasma corticosterone was elevated at 1 and 7 days but not at 14 days. Pyridostigmine-treated rats in both dosage groups exhibited slight signs of toxicity for the first 3-5 days, after which cholinergic signs dissipated. Repeated restraint had little effect on functional signs of pyridostigmine toxicity, however. Whole blood and diaphragm ChE were markedly reduced 1 h after the last treatment, but stress had no influence on ChE inhibition in either peripheral or central tissues. The results suggest that acute and repeated restraint stress have little effect on pyridostigmine neurotoxicity or apparent entry of pyridostigmine into the brain.
ESTHER : Song_2002_Toxicol.Sci_69_157
PubMedSearch : Song_2002_Toxicol.Sci_69_157
PubMedID: 12215670