Zhao M

References (64)

Title : Smartphone-assisted colorimetric biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides on the peel of fruits - Li_2024_Food.Chem_443_138459
Author(s) : Li D , Li J , Wu C , Liu H , Zhao M , Shi H , Zhang Y , Wang T
Ref : Food Chem , 443 :138459 , 2024
Abstract : Nowadays, the widespread use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agricultural production leads to varying degrees of residues in crops, which pose a potential threat to human health. Conventional methods used in national standard for the detection of OPs in fruits and vegetables require expensive instruments or cumbersome sample pretreatment steps for the analysis. To address these challenges, in this work, we took advantage of the peroxidase-like activity of PtCu(3) alloy nanocrystals (NCs) for a colorimetric and smartphone assisted sensitive detection of OPs. With the assist of a smartphone, the concentration of OPs on the peel of fruits could be obtained by comparing the B/RG value (the brightness value of blue divided by those of red and green) of a test strip with a calibration curve. This work not only provides a facile and cost-effective method to detect pesticides but also makes a positive contribution to food safety warning.
ESTHER : Li_2024_Food.Chem_443_138459
PubMedSearch : Li_2024_Food.Chem_443_138459
PubMedID: 38306911

Title : Santacruzamate A Alleviates Pain and Pain-Related Adverse Emotions through the Inhibition of Microglial Activation in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex - Qin_2024_ACS.Pharmacol.Transl.Sci_7_1002
Author(s) : Qin Y , Liu Q , Wang S , Wang Q , Du Y , Yao J , Chen Y , Yang Q , Wu Y , Liu S , Zhao M , Wei G , Yang L
Ref : ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci , 7 :1002 , 2024
Abstract : Chronic pain is a complex disease. It seriously affects patients' quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden on society. Santacruzamate A (SCA) is a natural product isolated from marine cyanobacteria in Panama. In this study, we first demonstrated that SCA could alleviate chronic inflammatory pain, pain-related anxiety, and depression emotions induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in mice while inhibiting microglial activation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, SCA treatment attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response by downregulating interleukin 1beta and 6 (IL-1beta and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in BV2 cells. Furthermore, we found that SCA could bind to soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) through molecular docking technology, and the thermal stability of sEH was enhanced after binding of SCA to the sEH protein. Meanwhile, we identified that SCA could reduce the sEH enzyme activity and inhibit sEH protein overexpression in the LPS stimulation model. The results indicated that SCA could alleviate the development of inflammation by inhibiting the enzyme activity and expression of sEH to further reduce chronic inflammatory pain. Our study suggested that SCA could be a potential drug for treating chronic inflammatory pain.
ESTHER : Qin_2024_ACS.Pharmacol.Transl.Sci_7_1002
PubMedSearch : Qin_2024_ACS.Pharmacol.Transl.Sci_7_1002
PubMedID: 38633586

Title : Synthesis and evaluation of a highly selective cannabidiol amide cholinesterase inhibitor - Zhang_2024_Results.Chem_7_101492
Author(s) : Zhang R , Zhao M , Wang D , Zhao Y , Li J , Zhang S , Zhang W , Shi Z
Ref : Results in Chemistry , 7 :101492 , 2024
Abstract : The therapeutic mechanism for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mainly by inhibiting the activity of cholinesterase (ChE) and increasing the transmission of choline and the function of neurons. In this study, two series of ChE inhibitors (CA1CA8 and CB1CB7) were designed and synthesized by the acylation of a cannabinoid (CBD) with bromoacetyl bromide, or the esterification of a CBD with an amino acid. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro activity to evaluate the compounds as AD therapies. Compound CB7 was identified as a potential butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor (IC50=0.310.09microM), which did not display toxicity against HepG2 or PC12 cells at 6.25microM. Compound CB7 showed good antioxidant behavior, effective anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50=0.0370.003microM), and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (IC50=19.730.79microM). Kinetic studies also showed that CB7 can act as a dual inhibitor. These results provide a theoretical basis for the use of the natural product CBD in the design and development of anti-AD drugs.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Results.Chem_7_101492
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Results.Chem_7_101492
PubMedID:

Title : Carboxylesterase Activatable Molecular Probe for Personalized Treatment Guidance by Analyte-Induced Molecular Transformation - Li_2024_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl__e202404093
Author(s) : Li B , Liu H , Zhao M , Zhang X , Huang P , Chen X , Lin J
Ref : Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , :e202404093 , 2024
Abstract : Accurate visualization of tumor microenvironment is of great significance for personalized medicine. Here, we develop a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence/photoacoustic (FL/PA) dual-mode molecular probe (denoted as NIR-CE) for distinguishing tumors based on carboxylesterase (CE) level by an analyte-induced molecular transformation (AIMT) strategy. The recognition moiety for CE activity is the acetyl unit of NIR-CE, generating the pre-product, NIR-CE-OH, which undergoes spontaneous hydrogen atom exchange between the nitrogen atoms in the indole group and the phenol hydroxyl group, eventually transforming into NIR-CE-H. In cellular experiments and in vivo blind studies, the human hepatoma cells and tumors with high level of CE were successfully distinguished by both NIR FL and PA imaging. Our findings provide a new molecular imaging strategy for personalized treatment guidance.
ESTHER : Li_2024_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl__e202404093
PubMedSearch : Li_2024_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl__e202404093
PubMedID: 38727540

Title : Collagen derived Gly-Pro-type DPP-IV inhibitory peptides: Structure-activity relationship, inhibition kinetics and inhibition mechanism - Xu_2024_Food.Chem_441_138370
Author(s) : Xu Q , Zheng L , Huang M , Zhao M
Ref : Food Chem , 441 :138370 , 2024
Abstract : Our previous study has demonstrated that both the amino acid at N3 position and peptide length affected the DPP-IV inhibitory activity of Gly-Pro-type peptides. To further elucidate their molecular mechanism, a combined approach of QSAR modeling, enzymatic kinetics and molecular docking was used. Results showed that the QSAR models of Gly-Pro-type tripeptides and Gly-Pro-type peptides containing 3-12 residues were successfully constructed by 5z-scale descriptor with R(2) of 0.830 and 0.797, respectively. The lower values of electrophilicity, polarity, and side-chain bulk of amino acid at N3 position caused higher DPP-IV inhibitory activity of Gly-Pro-type peptides. Moreover, an appropriate increase in the length of Gly-Pro-type peptides did not change their competitive inhibition mode, but decreased their inhibition constants (K(i) values) and increased interactions with DPP-IV. More importantly, the interactions between the residues at C-terminal of Gly-Pro-type peptides containing 5 - 6 residues with S2 extensive subsites (Ser209, Phe357, Arg358) of DPP-IV increased the interactions of Gly residue at N1 position with the S2 subsites (Glu205, Glu206, Asn710, Arg125, Tyr662) and decreased the acylation level of DPP-IV-peptide complex, and thereby increasing peptides' DPP-IV inhibitory activity.
ESTHER : Xu_2024_Food.Chem_441_138370
PubMedSearch : Xu_2024_Food.Chem_441_138370
PubMedID: 38199113

Title : Molecular Mechanistic Insights into Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Peptides to Decipher the Structural Basis of Activity - Wang_2024_J.Agric.Food.Chem_72_11230
Author(s) : Wang C , Zheng L , Udenigwe CC , Lin L , Zhao M
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 72 :11230 , 2024
Abstract : Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibiting peptides have attracted increased attention because of their possible beneficial effects on glycemic homeostasis. However, the structural basis underpinning their activities has not been well understood. This study combined computational and in vitro investigations to explore the structural basis of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. We first superimposed the Xaa-Pro-type peptide-like structures from several crystal structures of DPP-IV ligand-protein complexes to analyze the recognition interactions of DPP-IV to peptides. Thereafter, a small set of Xaa-Pro-type peptides was designed to explore the effect of key interactions on inhibitory activity. The intramolecular interaction of Xaa-Pro-type peptides at the first and third positions from the N-terminus was pivotal to their inhibitory activities. Residue interactions between DPP-IV and residues of the peptides at the fourth and fifth positions of the N-terminus contributed significantly to the inhibitory effect of Xaa-Pro-type tetrapeptides and pentapeptides. Based on the interaction descriptors, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies with the DPP-IV inhibitory peptides resulted in valid models with high R(2) values (0.90 for tripeptides; 0.91 for tetrapeptides and pentapeptides) and Q(2) values (0.33 for tripeptides; 0.68 for tetrapeptides and pentapeptides). Taken together, the structural information on DPP-IV and peptides in this study facilitated the development of novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides.
ESTHER : Wang_2024_J.Agric.Food.Chem_72_11230
PubMedSearch : Wang_2024_J.Agric.Food.Chem_72_11230
PubMedID: 38709903

Title : Enhancement degradation efficiency of pyrethroid-degrading esterase (Est816) through rational design and its application in bioremediation - Fan_2023_Chemosphere_319_138021
Author(s) : Fan X , Zhao M , Wen H , Zhang Y , Zhang J , Liu X
Ref : Chemosphere , 319 :138021 , 2023
Abstract : The pervasive use of pyrethroids is seriously hazardous to the environment and even human health. Enzymatic bioremediation is potentially a rapid and environmentally friendly technology to combat the pollution of pyrethroid pesticides. The hydrolysis of ester linkages is the initial and critical enzymatic step in microbial degradation pathways. Here, the versatile and thermostable esterase Est816 was cloned and its new function, pyrethroid-hydrolysis activity, was expanded. To further improve its pyrethroid-hydrolysis ability, Est816 was modified by rational design. After two rounds of mutation, the best-performing mutant, Est816(A216V/K238N/M97V,) was obtained, which could completely degrade 1 mg/L lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin within 20 min, and efficiently degrade fenvalerate, reaching over 80% conversion. Degradation activity analyses showed that three substitutions (A216V, K238 N and M97V) were beneficial for enhancing the activity of Est816. Enzymatic characterization showed that Est816(A216V/K238N/M97V) inherited broad substrate specificity and possessed excellent stability and adaptability over wide ranges of temperature and pH, which is essential for bioremediation in frequently changing conditions. Furthermore, Est816(A216V/K238N/M97V) had the best degradation effect on all four pyrethroid residues in Panax notoginseng root, with more than 87% conversion after 24 h. Pyrethroid residues in tea, cucumber, and soil were reduced by more than 76%, 80%, and 76%, respectively. Taken together, these findings highlight the great potential of Est816(A216V/K238N/M97V) in the bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soil and agricultural products.
ESTHER : Fan_2023_Chemosphere_319_138021
PubMedSearch : Fan_2023_Chemosphere_319_138021
PubMedID: 36731665
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-i6yrg4

Title : A feruloyl esterase\/cellulase integrated biological system for high-efficiency and toxic-chemical free isolation of tobacco based cellulose nanofibers - Zhao_2023_Carbohydr.Polym_313_120885
Author(s) : Zhao M , An X , Fan Z , Nie S , Cheng Z , Cao H , Zhang X , Mian MM , Liu H , Liu L
Ref : Carbohydr Polym , 313 :120885 , 2023
Abstract : Tobacco based cellulose nanofiber (TCNF) is a novel nanocellulose that has recently been used to replace undesirable wood pulp fibers in the preparation of reconstructed tobacco sheets (RTS). However, given the strict requirements for controlling toxic chemical content in tobacco products, there is a global interest in developing a green, efficient, and toxic-chemical free approach to isolate TCNF from tobacco stem as a bioresource. In this study, we propose a creative and environmentally friendly method to efficiently and safely isolate TCNF from tobacco stem pulp, which involves integrated biological pretreatment followed by a facile mechanical defibrillation process. Feruloyl esterase is used to pretreat the stem pulp by disrupting the ether and ester bonds between lignin and polysaccharide carbohydrates within the fiber wall, which effectively facilitates cellulase hydrolysis and swelling of the stem pulp fiber, as well as the following mechanical shearing treatment for TCNF isolation. The results demonstrate that TCNF obtained by the comprehensive feruloyl esterase/cellulase/mechanical process exhibit uniform and well-dispersed nanofiber morphology, higher crystallinity, and stronger mechanical properties than those of the control. The addition of 0.5 % TCNF can replace wood pulp by 18 wt% ~ 25 wt% in the production of RTS samples while maintaining their reasonable strength properties.
ESTHER : Zhao_2023_Carbohydr.Polym_313_120885
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2023_Carbohydr.Polym_313_120885
PubMedID: 37182973

Title : Enzymatic synthesis of novel pyrrole esters and their thermal stability - Hu_2023_BMC.Chem_17_123
Author(s) : Hu J , Zhou M , Zhang Y , Zhang X , Ji X , Zhao M , Lai M
Ref : BMC Chem , 17 :123 , 2023
Abstract : In the present work a simple enzymatic approach (Novozym 435) for transesterification to synthesize pyrrole esters was reported. To generate the best reaction conditions, which resulted in the optimum yield of 92%, the effects of lipase type, solvent, lipase load, molecular sieves, substrate molar ratio of esters to alcohol, reaction temperature, reaction duration, and speed of agitation were evaluated. The range of alcohols was assessed under optimal circumstances. The spectrum observations conclusively demonstrated that the compounds could be generated with high yield under the circumstances utilized for synthesis. The odor characteristics of the pyrrolyl esters obtained were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Among them, compounds of benzhydryl 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (3j), butyl 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (3k) and pentyl 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (3l) present sweet and acid aroma. In addition, the thermal degradation process was further studied using the Py-GC/MS (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), TG (thermogravimetry), and DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) techniques. The outcomes of the Py-GC/MS, TG, and DSC techniques show that they have excellent thermal stability.
ESTHER : Hu_2023_BMC.Chem_17_123
PubMedSearch : Hu_2023_BMC.Chem_17_123
PubMedID: 37742035

Title : Effects of walnut seed coat polyphenols on walnut protein hydrolysates: Structural alterations, hydrolysis efficiency, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity - Su_2023_Food.Chem_437_137905
Author(s) : Su G , Chen J , Huang L , Zhao M , Huang Q , Zhang J , Zeng X , Zhang Y , Deng L , Zhao T
Ref : Food Chem , 437 :137905 , 2023
Abstract : The walnut meal is rich in nutrients such as protein from the kernel and polyphenolic compounds from the seed coat. However, the influences of seed coat polyphenols on walnut protein (WP) hydrolysis remained unclear. In this study, our findings indicated that polyphenols induced alterations in the secondary structure and amino acid composition of WP. These changes resulted in both a hindrance of hydrolysis and an enhancement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Furthermore, four peptides of 119 identified peptides (LR, SF, FQ, and FR) were synthesized based on higher predicted bioactivity and Vinascores in silico. Among them, FQ showed interaction with amino acid residues in AChE through the formation of four Pi-Pi stacking bonds and two hydrogen bonds, resulting in the highest AChE inhibitory capacity. The combination index showed that chlorogenic acid derived from the seed coat and FQ at the molar ratio of 1:4 exhibited synergistic effects of AChE inhibition.
ESTHER : Su_2023_Food.Chem_437_137905
PubMedSearch : Su_2023_Food.Chem_437_137905
PubMedID: 37922803

Title : The dynamic changes of genes revealed that persistently overexpressed genes drive the evolution of cyflumetofen resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus - Feng_2023_Insect.Sci_30_1129
Author(s) : Feng K , Liu J , Zhao M , Jiang Z , Liu P , Wei P , Dou W , He L
Ref : Insect Sci , 30 :1129 , 2023
Abstract : Changes in gene expression are associated with the evolution of pesticide resistance in arthropods. In this study, transcriptome sequencing was performed in 3 different resistance levels (low, L; medium, M; and high, H) of cyflumetofen-resistant strain (YN-CyR). A total of 1 685 genes, including 97 detoxification enzyme genes, were upregulated in all 3 stages, of which 192 genes, including 11 detoxification enzyme genes, showed a continuous increase in expression level with resistance development (L to H). RNA interference experiments showed that overexpression of 7 genes (CYP392A1, TcGSTd05, CCE06, CYP389A1, TcGSTz01, CCE59, and CYP389C2) is involved in the development of cyflumetofen resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus. The recombinant CYP392A1 can effectively metabolize cyflumetofen, while CCE06 can bind and sequester cyflumetofen in vitro. We compared 2 methods for rapid screening of resistance molecular markers, including short-term induction and 1-time high-dose selection. Two detoxification enzyme genes were upregulated in the field susceptible strain (YN-S) by induction with 20% lethal concentration (LC(20) ) of cyflumetofen. However, 16 detoxification enzyme genes were upregulated by 1-time selection with LC(80) of cyflumetofen. Interestingly, the 16 genes were overexpressed in all 3 resistance stages. These results indicated that 1 685 genes that were upregulated at the L stage constituted the basis of cyflumetofen resistance, of which 192 genes in which upregulation continued to increase were the main driving force for the development of resistance. Moreover, the 1-time high-dose selection is an efficient way to rapidly obtain the resistance-related genes that can aid in the development of resistance markers and resistance management in mites.
ESTHER : Feng_2023_Insect.Sci_30_1129
PubMedSearch : Feng_2023_Insect.Sci_30_1129
PubMedID: 36380571
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetur-t1jsk0 , tetur-t1l0m8

Title : Cholinergic drugs reduce metabolic inflammation and diabetic myocardial injury by regulating the gut bacterial component lipopolysaccharide-induced ERK\/Egr-1 pathway - Wu_2023_FASEB.J_37_e22917
Author(s) : Wu Q , Zhao M , Li D , He X , Zang W
Ref : FASEB Journal , 37 :e22917 , 2023
Abstract : Autonomic imbalance and metabolic inflammation are important pathological processes in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Gut microbiota dysbiosis and increased levels of bacterial component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are associated with diabetic myocardial injury, but the mechanism by which gut microbes affect metabolic inflammation and cardiac injury remains unclear. We determined whether pyridostigmine (PYR), which inhibits cholinesterase to improve vagal activity, could regulate the disordered gut microbiota and attenuate gut barrier dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, and inflammation in diabetes. Db/db mice exhibited high blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, low vagal activity, and diabetic myocardial injury. Db/db mice also exhibited gut microbiota perturbations and subsequent disruption of gut barrier function, resulting in an influx of LPS, metabolic endotoxemia, and inflammation. PYR ameliorated the dysregulated glucose and lipid metabolism, modulated the overall structure of the gut microbiota, selectively enhanced the abundance of anti-inflammatory bacteria, and reduced the abundance of proinflammatory and potentially pathogenic bacteria in db/db mice. Importantly, PYR enhanced vagal activity, restored gut microbiota homeostasis, and alleviated gut barrier dysfunction. Therefore, the LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/early growth response-1 (Egr-1) pathway and consequent metabolic inflammation were inhibited, and eventually, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and dysfunction were ameliorated in db/db mice. In vitro cardiomyocyte injury was induced by exposing primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes to high glucose (HG) and LPS. In vitro analyses showed that HG + LPS induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, Egr-1 expression, inflammation, and cell apoptosis, which were inhibited by acetylcholine (ACh). Alpha 7 nicotinic ACh receptor but not muscarinic 2 ACh receptor plays an important role in ACh-mediated anti-inflammatory effects and inhibiting the ERK/Egr-1 pathway in HG + LPS-administered neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. PYR and ACh ameliorated diabetic myocardial injury by inhibiting the LPS-induced ERK/Egr-1 pathway and metabolic inflammation. The vagus-gut-heart axis has provided new insights into the complex mechanisms of diabetes and offers novel therapeutic targets.
ESTHER : Wu_2023_FASEB.J_37_e22917
PubMedSearch : Wu_2023_FASEB.J_37_e22917
PubMedID: 37039813

Title : Organism-wide, cell-type-specific secretome mapping of exercise training in mice - Wei_2023_Cell.Metab__
Author(s) : Wei W , Riley NM , Lyu X , Shen X , Guo J , Raun SH , Zhao M , Moya-Garzon MD , Basu H , Sheng-Hwa Tung A , Li VL , Huang W , Wiggenhorn AL , Svensson KJ , Snyder MP , Bertozzi CR , Long JZ
Ref : Cell Metab , : , 2023
Abstract : There is a significant interest in identifying blood-borne factors that mediate tissue crosstalk and function as molecular effectors of physical activity. Although past studies have focused on an individual molecule or cell type, the organism-wide secretome response to physical activity has not been evaluated. Here, we use a cell-type-specific proteomic approach to generate a 21-cell-type, 10-tissue map of exercise training-regulated secretomes in mice. Our dataset identifies >200 exercise training-regulated cell-type-secreted protein pairs, the majority of which have not been previously reported. Pdgfra-cre-labeled secretomes were the most responsive to exercise training. Finally, we show anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and exercise performance-enhancing activities for proteoforms of intracellular carboxylesterases whose secretion from the liver is induced by exercise training.
ESTHER : Wei_2023_Cell.Metab__
PubMedSearch : Wei_2023_Cell.Metab__
PubMedID: 37141889

Title : The Role of Insect Symbiotic Bacteria in Metabolizing Phytochemicals and Agrochemicals - Zhao_2022_Insects_13_
Author(s) : Zhao M , Lin X , Guo X
Ref : Insects , 13 : , 2022
Abstract : The diversity and high adaptability of insects are heavily associated with their symbiotic microbes, which include bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and archaea. These microbes play important roles in many aspects of the biology and physiology of insects, such as helping the host insects with food digestion, nutrition absorption, strengthening immunity and confronting plant defenses. To maintain normal development and population reproduction, herbivorous insects have developed strategies to detoxify the substances to which they may be exposed in the living habitat, such as the detoxifying enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s). Additionally, insect symbiotic bacteria can act as an important factor to modulate the adaptability of insects to the exposed detrimental substances. This review summarizes the current research progress on the role of insect symbiotic bacteria in metabolizing phytochemicals and agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides). Given the importance of insect microbiota, more functional symbiotic bacteria that modulate the adaptability of insects to the detrimental substances to which they are exposed should be identified, and the underlying mechanisms should also be further studied, facilitating the development of microbial-resource-based pest control approaches or protective methods for beneficial insects.
ESTHER : Zhao_2022_Insects_13_
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2022_Insects_13_
PubMedID: 35886759

Title : Pesticide Residues in Commonly Consumed Vegetables in Henan Province of China in 2020 - Ma_2022_Front.Public.Health_10_901485
Author(s) : Ma C , Wei D , Liu P , Fan K , Nie L , Song Y , Wang M , Wang L , Xu Q , Wang J , Shi J , Geng J , Zhao M , Jia Z , Huan C , Huo W , Wang C , Mao Z , Huang S , Zeng X
Ref : Front Public Health , 10 :901485 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to control insect pests and regulate plant growth in China, which may result in the presence of some pesticide residues in the vegetables. However, few studies of monitoring pesticides have been conducted in Henan Province. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed vegetables in the regions of Henan Province. METHODS: In this study, we collected 5,576 samples of 15 different vegetables in 17 areas from Henan Province during 2020. Eight kinds of pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), including procymidone, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, pendimethalin, isocarbophos, isazophos, fenthion and deltamethrin. The chi-square test was used to compare the detection rates of pesticide residues in different regions. RESULTS: Of all the pesticides above, procymidone, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, pendimethalin and isocarbophos were detected in vegetables, the detection rates were 27.0%, 16.2%, 11.4%, 3.5%, and 1.9%, respectively. However, isazophos, fenthion, and deltamethrin were not detected. In addition, procymidone, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin were detected in urban areas, while pendimethalin was detected in rural areas. The detection rates of cypermethrin and pendimethalin in rural were 19.8% and 5.4%, respectively, which in urban were at relatively lower levels (13.7% and 1.9%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Compared the differences of pesticide detection rates among five areas of Henan province, we found that there were statistical differences in the detection rates of procymidone, cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in different regions (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results have revealed that the pesticide residues are present. Higher detection rates and more types of pesticides were found in rural areas than urban areas. In addition, there were higher detection rates in Eastern Henan. The findings provided valuable information on the current pesticide residues status, which can be a reference of pesticide supervision and management.
ESTHER : Ma_2022_Front.Public.Health_10_901485
PubMedSearch : Ma_2022_Front.Public.Health_10_901485
PubMedID: 35757605

Title : Paper-Based Distance Sensor for the Detection of Lipase via a Phase Separation-Induced Viscosity Change - Xia_2022_Anal.Chem__
Author(s) : Xia S , Yin F , Xu L , Zhao B , Wu W , Ma Y , Lin JM , Liu Y , Zhao M , Hu Q
Ref : Analytical Chemistry , : , 2022
Abstract : Human pancreatic lipase is a symbolic biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, which has profound significance for clinical detection and disease treatment. Herein, we first demonstrate a paper-based lipase sensor via a phase separation-induced viscosity change. Lipase catalyzes triolein to produce oleic acid and glycerol. Adding an excess of Ca(2+) produces calcium oleate. The remaining Ca(2+) binds with sodium alginate, triggering hydrogelation with an "egg-box" structure. The viscosity change of the aqueous solution induced by the phase separation process can be quantified by measuring the solution flow distance on a pH test paper. The paper-based lipase sensor has high sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.052 U/mL and also shows excellent specificity. Additionally, it is also utilized for quantitative lipase analysis in human serum samples to exhibit its potency in acute pancreatitis detection. This method overcomes the drawbacks of low sensitivity, slow response, and poor reproducibility caused by the nonuniform distribution of the highly viscous hydrogel on the sensing interface in existing approaches. In conclusion, thanks to the prominent characteristics of high portability, low cost, and easy operation, it is prospective for simple quantitative detection of lipase and has great potential for commercialization.
ESTHER : Xia_2022_Anal.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Xia_2022_Anal.Chem__
PubMedID: 36455011

Title : Enantioselective neurotoxicity and oxidative stress effects of paclobutrazol in zebrafish (Danio rerio) - Guo_2022_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_185_105136
Author(s) : Guo D , Luo L , Kong Y , Kuang Z , Wen S , Zhao M , Zhang W , Fan J
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 185 :105136 , 2022
Abstract : Paclobutrazol is a widely used chiral plant growth regulator and its enantioselective toxicity in aquatic organisms is less explored till now. Herein, the enantioselective neurotoxicity of paclobutrazol mediated by oxidative stress in zebrafish were investigated. The oxidative stress parameters and neurotoxic biomarkers changed significantly in each exposure group, and paclobutrazol showed enantioselective toxicity in zebrafish. Firstly, (2R, 3R)-paclobutrazol exhibited a stronger oxidative stress in zebrafish than (2S, 3S)-enantiomer (P < 0.05). Then, activities of acetylcholinesterase, calcineurin, and total nitric oxide synthase in (2R, 3R)-paclobutrazol treatments were 0.61-0.89, 1.24-1.53, and 1.21-1.35-fold stronger (P < 0.05) than those in (2S, 3S)-enantiomer treatments, respectively. Next, the content variations of four neurotransmitters in zebrafish exposed to (2R, 3R)-paclobutrazol were significantly larger than those in (2S, 3S)-enantiomer treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, (2R, 3R)-paclobutrazol had stronger binding with the receptors than (2S, 3S)-enantiomer through molecular docking. The integrated biomarker response values further demonstrated that (2R, 3R)-paclobutrazol showed stronger toxicity to zebrafish than (2S, 3S)-enantiomer. Furthermore, the neurotoxicity of paclobutrazol can be interpreted as the mediating effect of oxidative stress in zebrafish through correlation analysis, and an adverse outcome pathway for the nervous system in zebrafish induced by paclobutrazol was proposed. This work will greatly extend our understanding on the enantioselective toxic effects of paclobutrazol in aquatic organisms.
ESTHER : Guo_2022_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_185_105136
PubMedSearch : Guo_2022_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_185_105136
PubMedID: 35772839

Title : An efficient multi-enzyme cascade platform based on mesoporous metal-organic frameworks for the detection of organophosphorus and glucose - Cao_2022_Food.Chem_381_132282
Author(s) : Cao X , Guo Y , Zhao M , Li J , Wang C , Xia J , Zou T , Wang Z
Ref : Food Chem , 381 :132282 , 2022
Abstract : An efficient colorimetric detection platform based on multi-enzyme cascade has been developed for detection of organophosphorus. Firstly, the dual-enzyme platform was prepared and applied for sensitive glucose detection (detection limit 0.32 microM). And then three enzymes, including acetylcholinesterase, horseradish peroxidase and choline oxidase were encapsulated in cruciate flower-like zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (CF-ZIF-8) through one-step co-precipitation to construct detection platform with acetylcholine chloride as substrate. The acephate inhibited the activity of acetylcholinesterase, obstructed the cascade reaction and reduced the production of H(2)O(2), resulting in the changes of color intensity for the colorimetric detection. With suitable size and porous structure, CF-ZIF-8 provided a good microenvironment for guaranteeing the activity and spatial proximity of enzymes. The multi-enzyme platform displayed great performances with the detection limit of 0.23 nM for acephate. It was applied to the detection of acephate in Chinese cabbage and romaine, verifying the practicability of this platform.
ESTHER : Cao_2022_Food.Chem_381_132282
PubMedSearch : Cao_2022_Food.Chem_381_132282
PubMedID: 35176684

Title : Recombinant humanized IgG1 maintain liver triglyceride homeostasis through Arylacetamide deacetylase in ApoE(-\/-) mice - Xiao_2022_Int.Immunopharmacol_108_108741
Author(s) : Xiao S , Lin R , Duan R , Li Z , Tang D , Liu X , Liu Y , Zhao M
Ref : Int Immunopharmacol , 108 :108741 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyperlipidemia is a lipid metabolism disorder associated with elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and/or cholesterol. Over the years, studies have shown that hyperlipidemia is associated with combordities, incluing diabetes and obesity, gradually becoming a public health concern. Current treatment approaches remain limited due to the lack of effective drugs. Here we investigated the function of recombinant humanized IgG1 in maintaining liver TG homeostasis and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify differences in gene expression in different groups of ApoE(-/-) mice liver. In vitro lipid accumulation in primary mouse hepatocytes was induced using a free fatty acid (FFA) mixture. Gene and protein expression were assessed in primary mouse hepatocytes by qPCR and Western blot. Gene reporter assays and ChIP-PCR were used to determine arylacetamide deacetylase (Aadac) promoter activity. RESULTS: Recombinant humanized IgG1 could significantly decrease the serum level of TG and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C). Moreover, hepatic TG and lipid droplets were also reduced compared to the HFD group. Mouse liver RNA-Seq revealed that administration of recombinant humanized IgG1 significantly elevated the expression of Aadac. In vitro, knock-down of Aadac could nullify the effect of recombinant humanized IgG1 on decreasing the lipid droplets induced by FFA in primary mouse hepatocytes. Gene Reporter assays and ChIP-PCR demonstrated that the foxa1 response element in the Aadac promoter played a key role in Aadac expression induced by recombinant humanized IgG1. Moreover, recombinant humanized IgG1 repressed phosphorylation of PKCdelta and resulted in foxa1 elevation. Finally, neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) knock-down reversed the effect of recombinant humanized IgG1 on the expression of PKCdelta phosphorylation, foxa1 and Aadac. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that recombinant humanized IgG1 plays an important role in maintaining liver TG homeostasis via the FcRn/PKCdelta/foxa1/Aadac pathway.
ESTHER : Xiao_2022_Int.Immunopharmacol_108_108741
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2022_Int.Immunopharmacol_108_108741
PubMedID: 35397394

Title : Water-soluble non-conjugated polymer dots with strong green fluorescence for sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides - Zhang_2022_Anal.Chim.Acta_1206_339792
Author(s) : Zhang C , Li S , Duan Z , Li Q , Zhao M , Chen Y , Zhai X , Mao G , Wang H
Ref : Anal Chim Acta , 1206 :339792 , 2022
Abstract : Water-soluble non-conjugated polymer dots (PDs) have been synthesized using hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DHB) for the first time via the Schiff base reaction at room temperature. The yielded non-conjugated PDs of PEI-DHB could display the well-defined spheric structure and good water solubility. In contrast to the common PDs otherwise showing blue emission, the PEI-DHB PDs could give out strong green fluorescence in aqueous media. Especially, the fluorescence of the PEI-DHB PDs could be specifically quenched by MnO(2) nanosheets through the inner filter effects and further restored by the thiocholine that could reduce MnO(2) nanosheets into Mn(2+). Herein, thiocholine could be produced in hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine catalyzed by the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), of which the catalytic activity could be irreversibly inhibitted by the introduction of organophosphates. A highly selective fluorimetric method was thereby been developed for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides using dimethyl-dichloro-vinyl phosphate as a model. The linear concentrations ranges from 0.050 to 2.5 microM. Importantly, the non-conjugated PDs probes with strong green fluorescence and high water solubility may promise the extensive applications in the environmental, food, and clinical analysis fields.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Anal.Chim.Acta_1206_339792
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Anal.Chim.Acta_1206_339792
PubMedID: 35473871

Title : Improving Effect of the Policosanol from Ericerus pela Wax on Learning and Memory Impairment Caused by Scopolamine in Mice - Sun_2022_Foods_11_
Author(s) : Sun L , Li X , Ma C , He Z , Zhang X , Wang C , Zhao M , Gan J , Feng Y
Ref : Foods , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of long-chain fatty alcohols that exhibits multiple biological activities, such as reducing blood lipid and cholesterol levels, lowering blood pressure, and extenuating liver inflammation. To assess PC's impact on cognitive behavior and function, PC was prepared from Ericerus pela wax using a reduction method and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups of 10 animals each: control (0.5% CMC-Na solution, i.g.), model (0.5% CMC-Na solution, i.g.), donepezil (3 mg/kg, i.g.), PC low- (2 g/kg, i.g.), medium (4 g/kg, i.g.), and high- (6 g/kg, i.g.) dose groups. All the groups were administered daily for 28 consecutive days. There were four parameters-escape latency, crossings of platform, swimming distance, and time spent in the target quadrant-that were recorded to evaluate the cognitive performance of mice in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). After MWM testing, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) that were present in brain tissue were determined using assay kits. The GC data showed that PC consisted of four major components: tetracosanol (14.40%), hexacosanol (48.97%), octacosanol (25.40%), and triacontanol (4.80%). In the MWM test, PC significantly decreased the escape latency (p < 0.05) and increased the crossings of the platform (p < 0.05) and swimming distance (p < 0.05) and time in the target quadrant (p < 0.05) in rodents compared to that in the model group. Moreover, PC increased the levels of ACh, SOD, and GSH; inhibited AChE; and reduced MDA in the brain tissue of the tested animals. This is the first report to evaluate the efficacy of PC for cognitive behavior and function in animals. Our findings demonstrate that PC from E. pela wax is likely to exert an enhancing effect on learning and memory by promoting the cholinergic system and attenuating oxidative stress, which will provide a new insight into the efficacy of PC and expand its application in the food, nutraceutical, and beverage industries.
ESTHER : Sun_2022_Foods_11_
PubMedSearch : Sun_2022_Foods_11_
PubMedID: 35885338

Title : Pyridostigmine Protects Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Regulating Vagal Activity, Gut Microbiota, and Branched-Chain Amino Acid Catabolism in Diabetic Mice - Yang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_647481
Author(s) : Yang Y , Zhao M , He X , Wu Q , Li DL , Zang WJ
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 12 :647481 , 2021
Abstract : The disruption of gut microbes is associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy, but the mechanism by which gut microbes affect cardiac damage remains unclear. We explored gut microbes and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolite catabolism in diabetic cardiomyopathy mice and investigated the cardioprotective effect of pyridostigmine. The experiments were conducted using a model of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by a high-fat diet + streptozotocin in C57BL/6 mice. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that diabetic cardiomyopathy mice exhibited decreased gut microbial diversity, altered abundance of the diabetes-related microbes, and increased abundance of the BCAA-producing microbes Clostridiales and Lachnospiraceae. In addition, diabetes downregulated tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1) and increased intestinal permeability to impair the intestinal barrier. These impairments were accompanied by reduction in vagal activity that manifested as increased acetylcholinesterase levels, decreased acetylcholine levels, and heart rate variability, which eventually led to cardiac damage. Pyridostigmine enhanced vagal activity, restored gut microbiota homeostasis, decreased BCAA-producing microbe abundance, and improved the intestinal barrier to reduce circulating BCAA levels. Pyridostigmine also upregulated BCAT2 and PP2Cm and downregulated p-BCKDHA/BCKDHA and BCKDK to improve cardiac BCAA catabolism. Moreover, pyridostigmine alleviated abnormal mitochondrial structure; increased ATP production; decreased reactive oxygen species and mitochondria-related apoptosis; and attenuated cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy mice. In conclusion, the gut microbiota, BCAA catabolism, and vagal activity were impaired in diabetic cardiomyopathy mice but were improved by pyridostigmine. These results provide novel insights for the development of a therapeutic strategy for diabetes-induced cardiac damage that targets gut microbes and BCAA catabolism.
ESTHER : Yang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_647481
PubMedSearch : Yang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_647481
PubMedID: 34084135

Title : Enhanced Production of (S)-2-arylpropionic Acids by Protein Engineering and Whole-Cell Catalysis - Liu_2021_Front.Bioeng.Biotechnol_9_697677
Author(s) : Liu X , Zhao M , Fan X , Fu Y
Ref : Front Bioeng Biotechnol , 9 :697677 , 2021
Abstract : Esterases are important biocatalysts for chemical synthesis. Several bHSL family esterases have been used to prepare (S)-2-arylpropionic acids with stronger anti-inflammatory effects via kinetic resolution. Here, we presented the discovery of key residues that controlled the enantioselectivity of bHSL family esterases to ethyl 2-arylpropionates, through careful analysis of the structural information and molecular docking. A new bHSL family esterase, Est924, was identified as a promising catalyst for kinetic resolution of racemic ethyl 2-arylpropionates with slight (R)-stereopreference. Using Est924 as the starting enzyme, protein engineering was conducted at hotspots, and the substitution of A203 was proved to enhance the enantioselectivity. The stereopreference of the mutant M1 (A203W) was inverted to ethyl (S)-2-arylpropionates, and this stereopreference was further improved in variant M3 (I202F/A203W/G208F). In addition, the optimal variant, M3, was also suitable for the resolution of ibuprofen ethyl ester and ketoprofen ethyl ester, and their efficient (S)-isomers were synthesized. Next, the whole-cell catalyst harboring M3 was used to prepare (S)-ketoprofen. (S)-ketoprofen with 86%ee was produced by whole-cell catalyst with a single freeze-thaw cycle, and the cells could be reused for at least five cycles. Our results suggested that Est924 variants could kinetically resolve economically important racemates for industrial production and further offer the opportunity for the rational design of enzyme enantioselectivity. Moreover, it is an economical process to prepare optically pure (S)-ketoprofen and (S)-naproxen by using an engineered strain harboring M3 as the catalyst.
ESTHER : Liu_2021_Front.Bioeng.Biotechnol_9_697677
PubMedSearch : Liu_2021_Front.Bioeng.Biotechnol_9_697677
PubMedID: 34307324
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9zzzz-Est924

Title : Reshaping the active pocket of esterase Est816 for resolution of economically important racemates - Liu_2021_Catal.Sci.Technol__
Author(s) : Liu X , Zhao M , Fan XJ , Fu Y
Ref : Catal Sci Technol , : , 2021
Abstract : Bacterial esterases are potential biocatalysts for the production of optically pure compounds. However, the substrate promiscuity and chiral selectivity of esterases usually have a negative correlation, which limits their commercial value. Herein, an efficient and versatile esterase (Est816) was identified as a promising catalyst for the hydrolysis of a wide range of economically important substrates with low enantioselectivity. We rationally designed several variants with up to 11-fold increased catalytic efficiency towards ethyl 2-arylpropionates, mostly retaining the initial substrate scope and enantioselectivity. These variants provided a dramatic increase in efficiency for biocatalytic applications. Based on the best variant Est816-M1, several variants with higher or inverted enantioselectivity were designed through careful analysis of the structural information and molecular docking. Two stereoselectively complementary mutants, Est816-M3 and Est816-M4, successfully overcame and even reversed the low enantioselectivity, and several 2-arylpropionic acid derivatives with high E values were obtained. Our results offer potential industrial biocatalysts for the preparation of structurally diverse chiral carboxylic acids and further lay the foundation for improving the catalytic efficiency and enantioselectivity of esterases.
ESTHER : Liu_2021_Catal.Sci.Technol__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2021_Catal.Sci.Technol__
PubMedID:
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-i6yrg4

Title : Butyrylcholinesterase nanodepots with enhanced prophylactic and therapeutic performance for acute organophosphorus poisoning management - Yu_2021_J.Mater.Chem.B__
Author(s) : Yu C , Zhao M , Pan Z , Bo Y , Zhao W , He X , Zhang J
Ref : J Mater Chem B , : , 2021
Abstract : Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP) is a worldwide health concern that has threatened human lives for decades, which attacks acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and causes nervous system disorders. Classical treatment options are associated with short in vivo half-life and side effects. As a potential alternative, delivery of mammalian-derived butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) offers a cost-effective way to block organophosphorus attack on acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in the neurotransmitter cycle. Yet the use of exotic BChE as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent is compromised by short plasma residence, immune response and unfavorable biodistribution. To overcome these obstacles, BChE nanodepots (nBChE) composed of a BChE core/polymorpholine shell structure were prepared via in situ polymerization, which showed enhanced stability, prolonged plasma circulation, attenuated antigenicity and reduced accumulation in non-targeted tissues. In vivo administration of nBChE pre- or post-organophosphorus exposure in a BALB/C mouse model resulted in potent prophylactic and therapeutic efficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic delivery of non-human BChE to tackle AOPP. In addition, this work also opens up a new avenue for real applications in both research and clinical settings to cope with acute intoxication-related diseases.
ESTHER : Yu_2021_J.Mater.Chem.B__
PubMedSearch : Yu_2021_J.Mater.Chem.B__
PubMedID: 33533366

Title : Old pesticide, new use: Smart and safe enantiomer of isocarbophos in locust control - Kong_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_225_112710
Author(s) : Kong Y , Ji C , Qu J , Chen Y , Wu S , Zhu X , Niu L , Zhao M
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 225 :112710 , 2021
Abstract : Locust plagues are still worldwide problems. Selecting active enantiomers from current chiral insecticides is necessary for controlling locusts and mitigating the pesticide pollution in agricultural lands. Herein, two enantiomers of isocarbophos (ICP) were separated and the enantioselectivity in insecticidal activity against the pest Locusta migratoria manilensis (L. migratoria) and mechanisms were investigated. The significant difference of LD(50) between (+)-ICP (0.609 mg/kg bw) and (-)-ICP (79.412 mg/kg bw) demonstrated that (+)-ICP was a more effective enantiomer. The enantioselectivity in insecticidal activity of ICP enantiomers could be attributed to the selective affinity to acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results of in vivo and in vitro assays suggested that AChE was more sensitive to (+)-ICP. In addition, molecular docking showed that the -CDOKER energies of (+)-ICP and (-)-ICP were 25.6652 and 24.4169, respectively, which suggested a stronger affinity between (+)-ICP and AChE. Significant selectivity also occurred in detoxifying enzymes activities (carboxylesterases (CarEs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)) and related gene expressions. Suppression of detoxifying enzymes activities with (+)-ICP treatment suggested that (-)-ICP may induce the detoxifying enzyme-mediated ICP resistance. A more comprehensive understanding of the enantioselectivity of ICP is necessary for improving regulation and risk assessment of ICP.
ESTHER : Kong_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_225_112710
PubMedSearch : Kong_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_225_112710
PubMedID: 34481357

Title : Methylome-wide association findings for major depressive disorder overlap in blood and brain and replicate in independent brain samples - Aberg_2020_Mol.Psychiatry_25_1344
Author(s) : Aberg KA , Dean B , Shabalin AA , Chan RF , Han LKM , Zhao M , van Grootheest G , Xie LY , Milaneschi Y , Clark SL , Turecki G , Penninx B , van den Oord E
Ref : Mol Psychiatry , 25 :1344 , 2020
Abstract : We present the first large-scale methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) to identify sites of potential importance for MDD etiology. Using a sequencing-based approach that provides near-complete coverage of all 28 million common CpGs in the human genome, we assay methylation in MDD cases and controls from both blood (N = 1132) and postmortem brain tissues (N = 61 samples from Brodmann Area 10, BA10). The MWAS for blood identified several loci with P ranging from 1.91 x 10(-8) to 4.39 x 10(-8) and a resampling approach showed that the cumulative association was significant (P = 4.03 x 10(-10)) with the signal coming from the top 25,000 MWAS markers. Furthermore, a permutation-based analysis showed significant overlap (P = 5.4 x 10(-3)) between the MWAS findings in blood and brain (BA10). This overlap was significantly enriched for a number of features including being in eQTLs in blood and the frontal cortex, CpG islands and shores, and exons. The overlapping sites were also enriched for active chromatin states in brain including genic enhancers and active transcription start sites. Furthermore, three loci located in GABBR2, RUFY3, and in an intergenic region on chromosome 2 replicated with the same direction of effect in the second brain tissue (BA25, N = 60) from the same individuals and in two independent brain collections (BA10, N = 81 and 64). GABBR2 inhibits neuronal activity through G protein-coupled second-messenger systems and RUFY3 is implicated in the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon elongation. In conclusion, we identified and replicated methylated loci associated with MDD that are involved in biological functions of likely importance to MDD etiology.
ESTHER : Aberg_2020_Mol.Psychiatry_25_1344
PubMedSearch : Aberg_2020_Mol.Psychiatry_25_1344
PubMedID: 30242228

Title : Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Overexpression Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Down-Regulating Dipeptidyl Peptidase 9 (DPP9) - Wu_2020_Onco.Targets.Ther_13_2599
Author(s) : Wu QQ , Zhao M , Huang GZ , Zheng ZN , Chen Y , Zeng WS , Lv XZ
Ref : Onco Targets Ther , 13 :2599 , 2020
Abstract : PURPOSE: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) acts as a tumor promoter via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study was designed to investigate the FAP targeting proteins and explore the precise mechanism by which FAP promotes EMT in OSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Proteins interacting with FAP were found and filtered by immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry (IP-MS). Both DPP9 protein and mRNA were examined in 90 paired OSCC samples and matched normal tissue. DPP9 knockdown was conducted to determine its function in OSCC in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) was identified as interacting with FAP intracellularly by IP-MS. The levels of both DPP9 protein and mRNA were down-regulated in OSCC tissue. Lower DPP9 expression was correlated with unfavorable survival rates of OSCC patients. DPP9 knockdown accelerates the proliferation of OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of FAP leads to a reduction in DPP9 expression. Likewise, DPP9 overexpression reverses the proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT induced by FAP during OSCC. CONCLUSION: Our study finds that FAP promotes EMT of OSCC by down-regulating DPP9 in a non-enzymatic manner. FAP-DPP9 pathway could be a potential therapeutic target of OSCC.
ESTHER : Wu_2020_Onco.Targets.Ther_13_2599
PubMedSearch : Wu_2020_Onco.Targets.Ther_13_2599
PubMedID: 32273729

Title : The antimicrobial potential of Streptomyces from insect microbiomes - Chevrette_2019_Nat.Commun_10_516
Author(s) : Chevrette MG , Carlson CM , Ortega HE , Thomas C , Ananiev GE , Barns KJ , Book AJ , Cagnazzo J , Carlos C , Flanigan W , Grubbs KJ , Horn HA , Hoffmann FM , Klassen JL , Knack JJ , Lewin GR , McDonald BR , Muller L , Melo WGP , Pinto-Tomas AA , Schmitz A , Wendt-Pienkowski E , Wildman S , Zhao M , Zhang F , Bugni TS , Andes DR , Pupo MT , Currie CR
Ref : Nat Commun , 10 :516 , 2019
Abstract : Antimicrobial resistance is a global health crisis and few novel antimicrobials have been discovered in recent decades. Natural products, particularly from Streptomyces, are the source of most antimicrobials, yet discovery campaigns focusing on Streptomyces from the soil largely rediscover known compounds. Investigation of understudied and symbiotic sources has seen some success, yet no studies have systematically explored microbiomes for antimicrobials. Here we assess the distinct evolutionary lineages of Streptomyces from insect microbiomes as a source of new antimicrobials through large-scale isolations, bioactivity assays, genomics, metabolomics, and in vivo infection models. Insect-associated Streptomyces inhibit antimicrobial-resistant pathogens more than soil Streptomyces. Genomics and metabolomics reveal their diverse biosynthetic capabilities. Further, we describe cyphomycin, a new molecule active against multidrug resistant fungal pathogens. The evolutionary trajectories of Streptomyces from the insect microbiome influence their biosynthetic potential and ability to inhibit resistant pathogens, supporting the promise of this source in augmenting future antimicrobial discovery.
ESTHER : Chevrette_2019_Nat.Commun_10_516
PubMedSearch : Chevrette_2019_Nat.Commun_10_516
PubMedID: 30705269
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9actn-a0a7k2qp72 , 9actn-a0a7k2xc29 , 9actn-a0a7k2zeb5 , 9actn-a0a7k2znz3

Title : Pyridostigmine alleviates cardiac dysfunction via improving mitochondrial cristae shape in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome - Xue_2019_Free.Radic.Biol.Med_134_119
Author(s) : Xue RQ , Yu XJ , Zhao M , Xu M , Wu Q , Cui YL , Yang S , Li DL , Zang WJ
Ref : Free Radic Biol Med , 134 :119 , 2019
Abstract : Insulin resistance and autonomic imbalance are important pathological processes in metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac remodeling. Recent studies determined that disruption of mitochondrial cristae shape is associated with myocardial ischemia; however, the change in cristae shape in metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac remodeling remains unclear. This study determined the effect of pyridostigmine (PYR), which reversibly inhibits cholinesterase to improve autonomic imbalance, on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac insulin resistance and explored the potential effect on the shape of mitochondrial cristae. Feeding of a HFD for 22 weeks led to an irregular and even lysed cristae structure in cardiac mitochondria, which contributed to decreased mitochondrial content and ATP production and increased oxygen species production, ultimately impairing insulin signaling and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, PYR enhanced vagal activity by increasing acetylcholine production and exerted mito-protective effects by activating the LKB1/AMPK/ACC signal pathway. Specifically, PYR upregulated OPA1 and Mfn1/2 expression, promoted the formation of the mitofilin/CHCHD3/Sam50 complex, and decreased p-Drp1 and Fis1 expression, resulting in tight and parallel cristae and increasing cardiac mitochondrial complex subunit expression and ATP generation as well as decreasing release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and oxidative damage. Furthermore, PYR improved glucose and insulin tolerance and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, decreased lipid toxicity, and ultimately ameliorated HFD-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. In conclusion, PYR prevented cardiac and insulin insensitivity and remodeling by stimulating vagal activity to regulate mitochondrial cristae shape and function in HFD-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. These results provide novel insights for the development of a therapeutic strategy for obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction that targets mitochondrial cristae.
ESTHER : Xue_2019_Free.Radic.Biol.Med_134_119
PubMedSearch : Xue_2019_Free.Radic.Biol.Med_134_119
PubMedID: 30633969

Title : Assessment of phthalate ester residues and distribution patterns in Baijiu raw materials and Baijiu - Dong_2019_Food.Chem_283_508
Author(s) : Dong W , Guo R , Sun X , Li H , Zhao M , Zheng F , Sun J , Huang M , Wu J
Ref : Food Chem , 283 :508 , 2019
Abstract : Phthalate esters (PAEs) are harmful to human health and have been repeatedly identified in Baijiu samples. In our study, the distribution and degradation characteristics of 14 PAEs in Baijiu raw materials (BRMs) and Baijiu during distillation were detected using QuEChERS or vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid micro-extraction (VSLLME) methods coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The same five PAEs were detected in all tested samples, values ranged from 0.003 to 0.292 mg/kg; however, higher concentrations existed in BRMs compared to Baijiu samples. Using multivariate statistical analysis, detailed distinctions between different varieties of Baijiu and BRMs and separation-related PAE markers were revealed. PAEs concentration during Baijiu distillation showed a decreasing trend. The highest concentrations detected in distillate heads, were 1.6-, 2.3-, and 8.1-fold higher than those in heart1, heart2, and tail distillates, respectively. These findings revealed that PAEs may migrate from BRMs; moreover, that PAEs content can be regulated by distillation.
ESTHER : Dong_2019_Food.Chem_283_508
PubMedSearch : Dong_2019_Food.Chem_283_508
PubMedID: 30722905

Title : Online acetylcholinesterase inhibition evaluation by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry hyphenated with an immobilized enzyme reactor - Yuan_2019_J.Chromatogr.A__460506
Author(s) : Yuan Y , Zhao M , Riffault-Valois L , Ennahar S , Bergaentzle M , Marchioni E
Ref : Journal of Chromatography A , :460506 , 2019
Abstract : A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique hyphenated on-line with an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was developed by the use of 3 known acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (galanthamine, huperzine A and tacrine). This bioanalytical device allows qualitative comparison of the inhibitory strengths of AChE inhibitors. The AChE inhibitory strengths were evaluated and compared by the corresponding acetylcholine peak areas (mass signal) obtained after a chromatographic separation and the elution through the IMER. Only one injection of the analytes is needed to get this comparative analysis. This bioanalytical device was then applied to the extract of a natural plant, Lycoris radiata, which is known to contain AChE inhibitors such as galanthamine and lycoramine. Aside from the demonstration of the inhibitory activity of the two known AChE inhibitors, the AChE inhibitory activity of another compound (dihydro-latifaliumin C) was revealed. This is the first report describing the AChE inhibitory activity of this compound.
ESTHER : Yuan_2019_J.Chromatogr.A__460506
PubMedSearch : Yuan_2019_J.Chromatogr.A__460506
PubMedID: 31526637

Title : Clinical spectrum and genetic landscape for hereditary spastic paraplegias in China - Dong_2018_Mol.Neurodegener_13_36
Author(s) : Dong EL , Wang C , Wu S , Lu YQ , Lin XH , Su HZ , Zhao M , He J , Ma LX , Wang N , Chen WJ , Lin X
Ref : Mol Neurodegener , 13 :36 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) is a heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders affecting the corticospinal tracts. To date, more than 78 HSP loci have been mapped to cause HSP. However, both the clinical and mutational spectrum of Chinese patients with HSP remained unclear. In this study, we aim to perform a comprehensive analysis of clinical phenotypes and genetic distributions in a large cohort of Chinese HSP patients, and to elucidate the primary pathogenesis in this population. METHODS: We firstly performed next-generation sequencing targeting 149 genes correlated with HSP in 99 index cases of our cohort. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification testing was further carried out among those patients without known disease-causing gene mutations. We simultaneously performed a retrospective study on the reported patients exhibiting HSP in other Chinese cohorts. All clinical and molecular characterization from above two groups of Chinese HSP patients were analyzed and summarized. Eventually, we further validated the cellular changes in fibroblasts of two major spastic paraplegia (SPG) patients (SPG4 and SPG11) in vitro. RESULTS: Most patients of ADHSP (94%) are pure forms, whereas most patients of ARHSP (78%) tend to be complicated forms. In ADHSP, we found that SPG4 (79%) was the most prevalent, followed by SPG3A (11%), SPG6 (4%) and SPG33 (2%). Subtle mutations were the common genetic cause for SPG4 patients and most of them located in AAA cassette domain of spastin protein. In ARHSP, the most common subtype was SPG11 (53%), followed by SPG5 (32%), SPG35 (6%) and SPG46 (3%). Moreover, haplotype analysis showed a unique haplotype was shared in 14 families carrying c.334C > T (p.R112(*)) mutation in CYP7B1 gene, suggesting the founder effect. Functionally, we observed significantly different patterns of mitochondrial dynamics and network, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (deltam), increased reactive oxygen species and reduced ATP content in SPG4 fibroblasts. Moreover, we also found the enlargement of LAMP1-positive organelles and abnormal accumulation of autolysosomes in SPG11 fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study present a comprehensive clinical spectrum and genetic landscape for HSP in China. We have also provided additional evidences for mitochondrial and autolysosomal-mediated pathways in the pathogenesis of HSP.
ESTHER : Dong_2018_Mol.Neurodegener_13_36
PubMedSearch : Dong_2018_Mol.Neurodegener_13_36
PubMedID: 29980238

Title : Epigenetic Aging in Major Depressive Disorder - Han_2018_Am.J.Psychiatry_175_774
Author(s) : Han LKM , Aghajani M , Clark SL , Chan RF , Hattab MW , Shabalin AA , Zhao M , Kumar G , Xie LY , Jansen R , Milaneschi Y , Dean B , Aberg KA , van den Oord E , Penninx B
Ref : Am J Psychiatry , 175 :774 , 2018
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is associated with an increased risk of mortality and aging-related diseases. The authors examined whether major depression is associated with higher epigenetic aging in blood as measured by DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns, whether clinical characteristics of major depression have a further impact on these patterns, and whether the findings replicate in brain tissue. METHOD: DNAm age was estimated using all methylation sites in blood of 811 depressed patients and 319 control subjects with no lifetime psychiatric disorders and low depressive symptoms from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The residuals of the DNAm age estimates regressed on chronological age were calculated to indicate epigenetic aging. Major depression diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed with questionnaires and psychiatric interviews. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and health status. Postmortem brain samples of 74 depressed patients and 64 control subjects were used for replication. Pathway enrichment analysis was conducted using ConsensusPathDB to gain insight into the biological processes underlying epigenetic aging in blood and brain. RESULTS: Significantly higher epigenetic aging was observed in patients with major depression compared with control subjects (Cohen's d=0.18), with a significant dose effect with increasing symptom severity in the overall sample. In the depression group, epigenetic aging was positively and significantly associated with childhood trauma score. The case-control difference was replicated in an independent data set of postmortem brain samples. The top significantly enriched Gene Ontology terms included neuronal processes. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with control subjects, patients with major depression exhibited higher epigenetic aging in blood and brain tissue, suggesting that they are biologically older than their corresponding chronological age. This effect was even more profound in the presence of childhood trauma.
ESTHER : Han_2018_Am.J.Psychiatry_175_774
PubMedSearch : Han_2018_Am.J.Psychiatry_175_774
PubMedID: 29656664

Title : E4bp4 regulates carboxylesterase 2 enzymes through repression of the nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha in mice - Zhao_2018_Biochem.Pharmacol_152_293
Author(s) : Zhao M , Zhang T , Yu F , Guo L , Wu B
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 152 :293 , 2018
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CES) are a family of phase I enzymes that play an important role in xenobiotic clearance and lipid metabolism. Here, we investigate a potential role of E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4bp4) in regulation of Ces and CPT-11 (irinotecan, a first-line drug for treating colorectal cancer) pharmacokinetics in mice. Mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells were transfected with Rev-erbalpha expression plasmid or siRNA targeting E4bp4. The relative mRNA and protein levels of Ces enzymes in the cells or the livers of wild-type and E4bp4-deficient (E4bp4(-/-)) mice were determined by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Transcriptional regulation of Ces by E4bp4/Rev-erbalpha were investigated using luciferase reporter, mobility shift, and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed with wild-type and E4bp4(-/-) mice after intraperitoneal injection of CPT-11. E4bp4 ablation down-regulated an array of hepatic Ces genes in mice. E4bp4(-/-) mice also showed reduced Ces-mediated metabolism and elevated systemic exposure of CPT-11, a well-known Ces substrate. Consistently, E4bp4 knockdown reduced the expression of Ces genes (Ces2b, Ces2e and Ces2f) in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Furthermore, Rev-erbalpha repressed the transcription of Ces2b, whereas E4bp4 antagonized this repressive action. Co-IP experiment confirmed a direct interaction between E4bp4 and Rev-erbalpha. Through a combination of promoter analysis and mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that Rev-erbalpha trans-repressed Ces (Ces2b) through its specific binding to the -767 to-754bp promoter region. In conclusion, E4bp4 regulates Ces enzymes through inhibition of the transrepression activity of Rev-erbalpha, thereby impacting the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of Ces substrates.
ESTHER : Zhao_2018_Biochem.Pharmacol_152_293
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2018_Biochem.Pharmacol_152_293
PubMedID: 29653076

Title : 2D-SAR and 3D-QSAR analyses for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - Niu_2017_Mol.Divers_21_413
Author(s) : Niu B , Zhao M , Su Q , Zhang M , Lv W , Chen Q , Chen F , Chu D , Du D , Zhang Y
Ref : Mol Divers , 21 :413 , 2017
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for almost three quarters of dementia patients and interferes people's normal life. Great progress has been made recently in the study of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), known as one of AD's biomarkers. In this study, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) were collected to build a two-dimensional structure-activity relationship (2D-SAR) model and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model based on feature selection method combined with random forest. After calculation, the prediction accuracy of the 2D-SAR model was 89.63% by using the tenfold cross-validation test and 87.27% for the independent test set. Three cutting ways were employed to build 3D-QSAR models. A model with the highest [Formula: see text] (cross-validated correlation coefficient) and [Formula: see text](non-cross-validated correlation coefficient) was obtained to predict AChEI activity. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the training set and the test set was 0.0689 and 0.5273, respectively. In addition, molecular docking was also employed to reveal that the ionization state of the compounds had an impact upon their interaction with AChE. Molecular docking results indicate that Ser124 might be one of the active site residues.
ESTHER : Niu_2017_Mol.Divers_21_413
PubMedSearch : Niu_2017_Mol.Divers_21_413
PubMedID: 28275924

Title : Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two juvenile hormone esterase-like carboxylesterase cDNAs in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis - Xu_2017_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_205_46
Author(s) : Xu Y , Zhao M , Deng Y , Yang Y , Li X , Lu Q , Ge J , Pan J , Xu Z
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology B Biochem Mol Biol , 205 :46 , 2017
Abstract : Precise regulation of methyl farnesoate (MF) titer is of prime importance throughout the crustacean life-cycle. Although the synthetic pathway of MF is well-documented, little is known about its degradation and recycling in crustaceans. Juvenile hormone esterase-like (JHE-like) carboxylesterase (CXE) is a key enzyme in MF degradation, thus playing a significant role in regulating the MF titer. We identified and characterized two cDNAs, Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2, encoding JHE-like CXEs in Chinese mitten crab. Full-length cDNAs of Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2 encode proteins composed of 584 and 597 amino acids, respectively, both of which contain a typical carboxylesterase domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Es-CXEs are highly similar to those of other crustaceans. To further validate their functions, we evaluated the mRNA expression patterns of the Es-CXEs in various tissues and in different physiological conditions. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the two Es-CXEs were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and ovaries, which are the major tissues for MF metabolism. Es-CXE2 expression levels in the hepatopancreas and ovaries were about 100 and 25-fold higher, than the respective Es-CXE1 expressions. During ovarian rapid development stage, the global expressions of Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and down-regulated in the ovaries. After eyestalk ablation (ESA), the mRNA expressions of the two Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas, further indicating their potential in degrading MF. Taken together, our results suggest that Es-CXEs, the key component of the juvenile hormone degradation pathway, may play vital roles in the development and reproduction of the Chinese mitten crab.
ESTHER : Xu_2017_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_205_46
PubMedSearch : Xu_2017_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_205_46
PubMedID: 28077333
Gene_locus related to this paper: erisi-a0a1l5jht6

Title : Pentapeptide Prosequence Enhances Expression and Structure Folding of Recombinant Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase in Pichia pastoris - Cai_2017_Protein.Pept.Lett_24_676
Author(s) : Cai H , Zhao M , Li Y , Mao J , Cai C , Feng F
Ref : Protein Pept Lett , 24 :676 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Propeptides of lipases have been demonstrated to influence many properties of their mature proteins as intramolecular chaperones. However, the working mechanism of propeptides may be different. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to determine the role of pentapeptide prosequence of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) through its effect on the recombinant expression of TLL in P. pastoris, and explore the possible function mechanism with its hydrophobicity. METHODS: We have synthesized a codon-optimized TLL gene coTLL with a Kex2 cleavage site "- KREAEA-" directly after the propeptide "SPIRR-", and obtained expression vector pP-kTL through cloning it into pPIC9K. TL gene without the propeptide and pTL gene with a propeptide directed linked to mature TLL lipase, were also amplified and cloned into pPIC9K to obtain the expression vector pP-TL and pP-pTL. pTL-P and pTL-VP gene variants with mutation in pentapeptide prosequence of TLL were obtained used the site-directed mutation with the pP-pTL plasmid as the template. The recombinant proteins were expressed in P. pastoris GS115. Lipase activity was determined by a spectrophotometric method previously reported using para-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) as the substrate and the thermostability of lipases of TLL was analyzed by incubating at different temperatures (70 degrees C and 80 degrees C) for 5h and molecular dynamics simulation. RESULTS: The average lipase activity of recombinant strains GS-pTL reached 434.32 U/mL, higher than that of GS-TL 377.71 U/mL. The fermentation result of the recombinant strains with modified propeptide showed that the extracellular lipase activity of GS-pTL-VP variant reached 483.29 U/mL, increasing by 11.27% compared with that of GS-pTL (434.32 U/mL). Further analysis performed on the lipase stabilities with propeptide variants by molecular dynamics simulation showed that the RMSD of variant pTL-VP was similar to that of pTL. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the propeptide "SPIRR-" sequence is beneficial for enhancing TLL expression. In addition, the function of TLL propeptide was identified to be related to its hydrophobicity, implying that propeptide might play a role in assisting the formation of the hydrophobic protein core and accelerate the protein folding process. This work inspired us to attach more emphasis on the propeptide of other lipases for improving their recombinant expression, structure folding and enzymatic properties.
ESTHER : Cai_2017_Protein.Pept.Lett_24_676
PubMedSearch : Cai_2017_Protein.Pept.Lett_24_676
PubMedID: 28641563

Title : Long-term administration of pyridostigmine attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting calcineurin signalling - Lu_2017_J.Cell.Mol.Med_21_2106
Author(s) : Lu Y , Zhao M , Liu JJ , He X , Yu XJ , Liu LZ , Sun L , Chen LN , Zang WJ
Ref : J Cell Mol Med , 21 :2106 , 2017
Abstract : Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with autonomic imbalance, characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity and withdrawal of parasympathetic control. Increased parasympathetic function improves ventricular performance. However, whether pyridostigmine, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, can offset cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether pyridostigmine can ameliorate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying mechanisms. Rats were subjected to either sham or constriction of abdominal aorta surgery and treated with or without pyridostigmine for 8 weeks. Vagal activity and cardiac function were determined using PowerLab. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated using various histological stains. Protein markers for cardiac hypertrophy were quantitated by Western blot and immunoprecipitation. Pressure overload resulted in a marked reduction in vagal discharge and a profound increase in cardiac hypertrophy index and cardiac dysfunction. Pyridostigmine increased the acetylcholine levels by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase in rats with pressure overload. Pyridostigmine significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy based on reduction in left ventricular weight/body weight, suppression of the levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain, and a reduction in cardiac fibrosis. These effects were accompanied by marked improvement of cardiac function. Additionally, pyridostigmine inhibited the CaN/NFAT3/GATA4 pathway and suppressed Orai1/STIM1 complex formation. In conclusion, pressure overload resulted in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction and a significant reduction in vagal discharge. Pyridostigmine attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and improved cardiac function, which was related to improved cholinergic transmission efficiency (decreased acetylcholinesterase and increased acetylcholine), inhibition of the CaN/NFAT3/GATA4 pathway and suppression of the interaction of Orai1/STIM1.
ESTHER : Lu_2017_J.Cell.Mol.Med_21_2106
PubMedSearch : Lu_2017_J.Cell.Mol.Med_21_2106
PubMedID: 28296184

Title : Neuroprotective Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Peptides from Anchovy (Coilia mystus) against Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in PC12 Cells - Zhao_2017_J.Agric.Food.Chem_65_11192
Author(s) : Zhao T , Su G , Wang S , Zhang Q , Zhang J , Zheng L , Sun B , Zhao M
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 65 :11192 , 2017
Abstract : Ameliorations of cholinergic system dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases were main approaches to improve memory disorder. Our previous investigation showed that anchovy protein hydrolysate (APH) could attenuate scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice by regulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Therefore, peptides with AChE inhibitory activity in APH were explored and identified in this study, and their possible neuroprotective mechanisms on glutamate induced apoptosis in PC12 were also elucidated. Two peptides with strong AChE inhibitory capacity were identified as Pro-Ala-Tyr-Cys-Ser (PAYCS) and Cys-Val-Gly-Ser-Tyr (CVGSY) by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The AChE inhibitory was 23.68 +/- 0.97% and 6.08 +/- 0.41%, respectively. Treatment with PAYCS and CVGSY could significantly (p < 0.05) increase cells viability, reduce lactate dehydrogenase release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, malondialdehyde content, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 of glutamate-induced apoptosis PC12 cells (82.78 +/- 6.58 and 109.94 +/- 7.16% of control, respectively) as well as increase superoxide dismutase and GSH-px activities. In addition, both the peptides could inhibit Ca(2+) influx but have no effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. Results indicated that AChE inhibitory peptides (PAYCS and CVGSY) possibly protected the PC12 cells against glutamate-induced apoptosis via inhibiting ROS production and Ca(2+) influx. PAYCS and CVGSY might be considered as nutraceuticals for alleviating memory deficits.
ESTHER : Zhao_2017_J.Agric.Food.Chem_65_11192
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2017_J.Agric.Food.Chem_65_11192
PubMedID: 29190426

Title : Biochemical characterization of an enantioselective esterase from Brevundimonas sp. LY-2 - Zhang_2017_Microb.Cell.Fact_16_112
Author(s) : Zhang J , Zhao M , Yu D , Yin J , Zhang H , Huang X
Ref : Microb Cell Fact , 16 :112 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Lactofen, a member of the diphenylether herbicides, has high activity and is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds. As a post-emergent herbicide, it is directly released to the environment, and easily caused the pollution. This herbicide is degraded in soil mainly by microbial activity, but the functional enzyme involved in the biodegradation of lactofen is still not clear now.
RESULTS: A novel esterase gene lacH, involved in the degradation of lactofen, was cloned from the strain Brevundimonas sp. LY-2. The gene contained an open reading frame of 921 bp, and a putative signal peptide at the N-terminal was identified with the most likely cleavage site between Ala 28 and Ala 29. The encoded protein, LacH, could catalyze the hydrolysis of lactofen to form acifluorfen. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LacH belong to family V of bacterial lipolytic enzymes. Biochemical characterization analysis showed that LacH was a neutral esterase with an optimal pH of 7.0 and an optimal temperature of 40 degrees C toward lactofen. Besides, the activity of LacH was strongly inhibited by Hg2+ and Zn2+. LacH preferred short chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C6), exhibited maximum activity toward p-nitrophenyl acetate. Furthermore, the enantioselectivity of LacH during lactofen hydrolysis was also studied, and the results show that R-(-)-lactofen was degraded faster than S-(+)-lactofen, indicating the occurrence of enantioselectivity in the enzymatic reaction.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies characterized a novel esterase involved in the biodegradation of diphenylether herbicide lactofen. The esterase showed enantioselectivity during lactofen degradation, which revealed the occurrence of enzyme-mediated enantioselective degradation of chiral herbicides.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_Microb.Cell.Fact_16_112
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_Microb.Cell.Fact_16_112
PubMedID: 28629408
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9caul-s5rrx5

Title : Phytochemical study of Illicium angustisepalum and its biological activities - K_2017_Acta.Pharm.Sin.B_7_485
Author(s) : K MS-R , Zhao M , Che CT
Ref : Acta Pharm Sin B , 7 :485 , 2017
Abstract : Sixteen compounds, including two new natural products (1 and 2), were obtained from the twigs of Illicium angustisepalum. The structures were elucidated based on NMR, MS, IR data and optical rotation values. Compounds 4, 5, 6 and 8 displayed moderate antibacterial activities against clinical isolates; compounds 4, 5, 8, 9 and 15 protected neural cells against oxidative stress; and compounds 10 and 14 exhibited anti-acetylcholinesterase activity.
ESTHER : K_2017_Acta.Pharm.Sin.B_7_485
PubMedSearch : K_2017_Acta.Pharm.Sin.B_7_485
PubMedID: 28752034

Title : Transcriptome differences between fiber-type and seed-type Cannabis sativa variety exposed to salinity - Liu_2016_Physiol.Mol.Biol.Plants_22_429
Author(s) : Liu J , Qiao Q , Cheng X , Du G , Deng G , Zhao M , Liu F
Ref : Physiol Mol Biol Plants , 22 :429 , 2016
Abstract : The industrial hemp varieties 'Yunma 5' and 'Bamahuoma,' which demonstrate growth vigor and environmental adaptability, have been primarily cultivated in Yunnan and Guangxi, China, respectively, for fiber and seeds. The results of physiological measurements showed the phenotypic differences between the two varieties in response to salt stress. RNA-Seq analysis was first performed on leaves of both varieties sampled at four time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6 days) after treatment with salt (500 mM NaCl) We identified 220 co-up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the two varieties, while 26 up-regulated DEGs and 24 down-regulated DEGs were identified exclusively in the single varieties after 2 days of salt stress. Among the 220 DEGs, we identified 22 transcription factors, including key transcription factors involved in salt stress, such as MYB, NAC, GATA, and HSF. We applied gene expression profile analysis and found that 'Yunma 5' and 'Bamahuoma' have variety-specific pathways for resisting salt stress. The DEGs of 'Yunma 5' were enriched in spliceosome and amino acid metabolism genes, while the DEGs of 'Bamahuoma' were enriched in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum protein processing pathway. Although there were common DEGs, such as genes encoding cysteine protease and alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily, the two varieties' responses to salt stress impacted different metabolic pathways. The DEGs that were co-expressed in both varieties under stress may provide useful insights into the tolerance of cultivated hemp and other bast fiber crops to saline soil conditions. These transcriptomes also represent reference sequences for industrial hemp.
ESTHER : Liu_2016_Physiol.Mol.Biol.Plants_22_429
PubMedSearch : Liu_2016_Physiol.Mol.Biol.Plants_22_429
PubMedID: 27924117

Title : P450-Mediated Coupling of Indole Fragments To Forge Communesin and Unnatural Isomers - Lin_2016_J.Am.Chem.Soc_138_4002
Author(s) : Lin HC , McMahon TC , Patel A , Corsello M , Simon A , Xu W , Zhao M , Houk KN , Garg NK , Tang Y
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , 138 :4002 , 2016
Abstract : Dimeric indole alkaloids are structurally diverse natural products that have attracted significant attention from the synthetic and biosynthetic communities. Here, we describe the characterization of a P450 monooxygenase CnsC from Penicillium that catalyzes the heterodimeric coupling between two different indole moieties, tryptamine and aurantioclavine, to construct vicinal quaternary stereocenters and yield the heptacyclic communesin scaffold. We show, via biochemical characterization, substrate analogues, and computational methods that CnsC catalyzes the C3-C3' carbon-carbon bond formation and controls the regioselectivities of the pair of subsequent aminal bond formations to yield the communesin core. Use of omega-N-methyltryptamine and tryptophol in place of tryptamine led to the enzymatic synthesis of isocommunesin compounds, which have not been isolated to date.
ESTHER : Lin_2016_J.Am.Chem.Soc_138_4002
PubMedSearch : Lin_2016_J.Am.Chem.Soc_138_4002
PubMedID: 26963294
Gene_locus related to this paper: penen-cnsh

Title : Impact of genetic polymorphisms related to clopidogrel or acetylsalicylic acid pharmacology on clinical outcome in Chinese patients with symptomatic extracranial or intracranial stenosis - Zhao_2016_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_72_1195
Author(s) : Zhao Z , Li X , Sun S , Mei S , Ma N , Miao Z , Zhao M , Peng S
Ref : European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 72 :1195 , 2016
Abstract : PURPOSE: Recurrent ischemic events in Chinese patients with symptomatic extracranial or intracranial stenosis caused by aspirin or clopidogrel resistance are well known. We aimed to identify the contribution of genetic variants to the events. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic extracranial or intracranial stenosis receiving dual antiplatelet treatment for at least 5 days were enrolled in this study. The primary endpoint was a composite of ischemic events, including recurrent transient ischemic attack, stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular-related mortality. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed and genotyped. The clinical characteristics of enrolled patients were collected from medical records. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the recurrent ischemic events of the patients was examined. RESULTS: A total of 377 patients were included. During a 12-month follow-up, the composite primary endpoint was observed in 64 patients. The CYP2C19*3 (rs4986893) may increase the occurrence of the primary composite endpoint (OR = 2.56, 95 % CI = 1.29-5.10, P = 0.007), and the mutation of CES1 rs8192950 was associated with the decreased recurrence of ischemic events (OR = 0.53, 95 % CI = 0.30-0.94, P = 0.029). The other SNPs that were tested did not have statistically significant associations with the composite endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: For Chinese patients with symptomatic extracranial or intracranial stenosis treated with clopidogrel, CYP2C19*3 mutation was associated with an increased risk of ischemic events, and the mutation of rs8192950 in CES1 is associated with a decreased risk of recurrent ischemic events. Testing these two SNPs could be of value in the identification of patients at risk for recurrent ischemic events.
ESTHER : Zhao_2016_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_72_1195
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2016_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_72_1195
PubMedID: 27450232
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Associations of MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, and PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms with the platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy - Peng_2016_Acta.Pharmacol.Sin_37_1442
Author(s) : Peng LL , Zhao YQ , Zhou ZY , Jin J , Zhao M , Chen XM , Chen LY , Cai YF , Li JL , Huang M
Ref : Acta Pharmacol Sin , 37 :1442 , 2016
Abstract : AIM: Aspirin resistance has an incidence of 5%-65% in patients with ischemic stroke, who receive the standard dose of aspirin, but the platelet function is inadequately inhibited, thereby leading to thrombotic events. Numerous evidence shows that thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2 receptor, encoded by TBXA2R), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2, encoded by PLA2G7) and platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1, encoded by PEAR1) are crucial in regulating platelet activation, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1) influences the absorption of aspirin in the intestine. In this study we examined the correlation between MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms and platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy.
METHODS: A total of 283 ischemic stroke patients receiving 100 mg aspirin for 7 d were genotyped for polymorphisms in MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), PLA2G7 (rs1051931, rs7756935), and PEAR1 (rs12566888, rs12041331). The platelet aggregation response was measured using an automatic platelet aggregation analyzer and a commercially available TXB2 ELISA kit.
RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (11.66%) were insensitive to aspirin treatment. MDR1 3435TT genotype carriers, whose arachidonic acid (AA) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was lower than that of CC+CT genotype carriers, were less likely to suffer from aspirin resistance (odds ratio=0.421, 95% CI: 0.233-0.759). The TBXA2R rs1131882 CC genotype, which was found more frequently in the aspirin-insensitive group (81.8% vs 62.4%) than in the sensitive group, was identified as a risk factor for aspirin resistance (odds ratio=2.712, 95% CI: 1.080-6.810) with a higher level of AA-induced platelet aggregation. Due to the combined effects of PLA2G7 rs1051931 and rs7756935, carriers of the AA-CC haplotype had a higher level of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and were at considerably higher risk of aspirin resistance than noncarriers (odds ratio=8.233, 95% CI: 1.590-42.638). CONCLUSION: A considerable portion (11.66%) of Chinese ischemic stroke patients are insensitive to aspirin treatment, which may be correlated with the MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), and PLA2G7 (rs1051931-rs7756935) polymorphisms.
ESTHER : Peng_2016_Acta.Pharmacol.Sin_37_1442
PubMedSearch : Peng_2016_Acta.Pharmacol.Sin_37_1442
PubMedID: 27641736

Title : Novel strategies and underlying protective mechanisms of modulation of vagal activity in cardiovascular diseases - He_2015_Br.J.Pharmacol_172_5489
Author(s) : He X , Zhao M , Bi X , Sun L , Yu X , Zang W
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 172 :5489 , 2015
Abstract : Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of disability and death worldwide. Autonomic imbalance, characterized by suppressed vagal (parasympathetic) activity and increased sympathetic activity, correlates with various pathological conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmia, ischaemia/reperfusion injury and hypertension. Conventionally, pharmacological interventions, such as beta-blocker treatment, have primarily targeted suppressing sympathetic over-activation, while vagal modulation has always been neglected. Emerging evidence has documented the improvement of cardiac and vascular function mediated by the vagal nerve. Many investigators have tried to explore the effective ways to enhance vagal tone and normalize the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we attempt to give an overview of these therapeutic strategies, including direct vagal activation (electrical vagal stimulation, ACh administration and ACh receptor activation), pharmacological modulation (adenosine, cholinesterase inhibitors, statins) and exercise training. This overview provides valuable information for combination therapy, contributing to establishment of a comprehensive system on vagal modulation from the aspects of clinical application and lifestyle improvement. In addition, the mechanisms contributing to the benefits of enhancing vagal tone are diverse and have not yet been fully defined. We endeavour to outline the recent findings that advance our knowledge regarding the many favourable effects exerted by vagal activation: anti-inflammatory pathways, modulation of NOS and NO signalling, regulation of redox state, improvement of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, and potential calcium regulation. This review may help to develop novel therapeutic strategies targeting enhancing vagal activity for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Chinese Innovation in Cardiovascular Drug Discovery. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-23.
ESTHER : He_2015_Br.J.Pharmacol_172_5489
PubMedSearch : He_2015_Br.J.Pharmacol_172_5489
PubMedID: 25378088

Title : Improving vagal activity ameliorates cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II: in vivo and in vitro - Liu_2015_Sci.Rep_5_17108
Author(s) : Liu JJ , Huang N , Lu Y , Zhao M , Yu XJ , Yang Y , Yang YH , Zang WJ
Ref : Sci Rep , 5 :17108 , 2015
Abstract : Cardiac remodeling is characterized by overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and withdrawal of vagal activity. We hypothesized that improving vagal activity could attenuate cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in vivo and in vitro. Rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction (AAC) with or without pyridostigmine (PYR) (31 mg/kg/d). After 8 weeks, PYR significantly decreased Ang II level, AT1 protein expression, and collagen deposition in cardiac tissue and improved heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac function, which were abolished by atropine. In vitro, treatment of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) with Ang II (10(-7) M) increased cell proliferation, migration, transformation, and secretory properties, which were significantly diminished by acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-6) M). Subsequently, Ang II significantly increased collagen type I expression as well as metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and activity. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation presented a similar trend. Notably, the knockdown of the acetylcholine M2 receptor by siRNA could abolish ACh anti-fibrotic action. These data implicated cholinesterase inhibitor can increase vagal activity and reduce local Ang II level, and ACh inhibit Ang II pro-fibrotic effects. Our findings suggested that the parasympathetic nervous system can serve as a promising target for cardiac remodeling treatment.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_Sci.Rep_5_17108
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_Sci.Rep_5_17108
PubMedID: 26596640

Title : Synthesis of stable isotopically labelled 3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one and the corresponding strigolactones - Cheng_2015_J.Labelled.Comp.Radiopharm_58_355
Author(s) : Cheng Y , Ding WH , Long Q , Zhao M , Yang J , Li XQ
Ref : J Labelled Comp Radiopharm , 58 :355 , 2015
Abstract : Conventional synthetic procedures of strigolactones (SLs) involve the independent synthesis of ring ABC and ring D, followed by a coupling of the two fragments. Here we prepared three kinds of stable, isotopically labelled D-ring analogues productively using a facile protocol. Then, a coupling of the D-rings to ring ABC produced three isotope-labelled SL derivatives. Moreover, (+)-D3-2'-epi-1A and (-)-ent-D3-2'-epi-1A with high enantiomeric purity were obtained via chiral resolution.
ESTHER : Cheng_2015_J.Labelled.Comp.Radiopharm_58_355
PubMedSearch : Cheng_2015_J.Labelled.Comp.Radiopharm_58_355
PubMedID: 26179068

Title : Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by activating the unfolded protein response - Zhang_2014_Biomed.Rep_2_233
Author(s) : Zhang J , Gong F , Li L , Zhao M , Song J
Ref : Biomed Rep , 2 :233 , 2014
Abstract : N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL), a quorum-sensing signal molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), is involved in the expression of bacterial virulence factors and in the modulation of host immune responses by directly disrupting nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling and inducing cell apoptosis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may suppress inflammatory responses in the later phase by blocking NF-kappaB activation. It was recently demonstrated that 3-oxo-C12-HSL may induce UPR in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Therefore, 3-oxo-C12-HSL may also inhibit NF-kappaB activation and suppress inflammatory responses by activating UPR. However, the possible underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of 3-oxo-C12-HSL on cellular viability, UPR activation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-kappaB activation and inflammatory response in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. Treatment with 6.25 muM 3-oxo-C12-HSL was not found to affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells. However, pretreating RAW264.7 cells with 6.25 muM 3-oxo-C12-HSL effectively triggered UPR and increased the expression of UPR target genes, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). The expression of C/EBP beta and CHOP was found to be inversely correlated with LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. 3-Oxo-C12-HSL pretreatment was also shown to inhibit LPS-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Hence, 3-oxo-C12-HSL may attenuate LPS-induced inflammation via UPR-mediated NF-kappaB inhibition without affecting cell viability. This may be another mechanism through which P. aeruginosa evades the host immune system and maintains a persistent infection.
ESTHER : Zhang_2014_Biomed.Rep_2_233
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2014_Biomed.Rep_2_233
PubMedID: 24649102

Title : Point Mutations Associated with Organophosphate and Carbamate Resistance in Chinese Strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) - Zhao_2014_PLoS.One_9_e952607
Author(s) : Zhao M , Dong Y , Ran X , Wu Z , Guo X , Zhang Y , Xing D , Yan T , Wang G , Zhu X , Zhang H , Li C , Zhao T
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e95260 , 2014
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase resistance has been well documented in many insects, including several mosquito species. We tested the resistance of five wild, Chinese strains of the mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to two kinds of pesticides, dichlorvos and propoxur. An acetylcholinesterase gene (ace1) was cloned and sequenced from a pooled sample of mosquitoes from these five strains and the amino acids of five positions were found to vary (V185M, G247S, A328S, A391T, and T682A). Analysis of the correlation between mutation frequencies and resistance levels (LC50) suggests that two point mutations, G247S (r2 = 0.732, P = 0.065) and A328S (r2 = 0.891, P = 0.016), are associated with resistance to propoxur but not to dichlorvos. Although the V185M mutation was not associated with either dichlorvos or propoxur resistance, its RS genotype frequency was correlated with propoxur resistance (r2 = 0.815, P = 0.036). And the HWE test showed the A328S mutation is linked with V185M, also with G247S mutation. This suggested that these three mutations may contribute synergistically to propoxur resistance. The T682A mutation was negatively correlated with propoxur (r2 = 0.788, P = 0.045) resistance. Knowledge of these mutations may help design strategies for managing pesticide resistance in wild mosquito populations.
ESTHER : Zhao_2014_PLoS.One_9_e952607
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2014_PLoS.One_9_e952607
PubMedID: 24788312
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1

Title : Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome - Chalhoub_2014_Science_345_950
Author(s) : Chalhoub B , Denoeud F , Liu S , Parkin IA , Tang H , Wang X , Chiquet J , Belcram H , Tong C , Samans B , Correa M , Da Silva C , Just J , Falentin C , Koh CS , Le Clainche I , Bernard M , Bento P , Noel B , Labadie K , Alberti A , Charles M , Arnaud D , Guo H , Daviaud C , Alamery S , Jabbari K , Zhao M , Edger PP , Chelaifa H , Tack D , Lassalle G , Mestiri I , Schnel N , Le Paslier MC , Fan G , Renault V , Bayer PE , Golicz AA , Manoli S , Lee TH , Thi VH , Chalabi S , Hu Q , Fan C , Tollenaere R , Lu Y , Battail C , Shen J , Sidebottom CH , Canaguier A , Chauveau A , Berard A , Deniot G , Guan M , Liu Z , Sun F , Lim YP , Lyons E , Town CD , Bancroft I , Meng J , Ma J , Pires JC , King GJ , Brunel D , Delourme R , Renard M , Aury JM , Adams KL , Batley J , Snowdon RJ , Tost J , Edwards D , Zhou Y , Hua W , Sharpe AG , Paterson AH , Guan C , Wincker P
Ref : Science , 345 :950 , 2014
Abstract : Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72x genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.
ESTHER : Chalhoub_2014_Science_345_950
PubMedSearch : Chalhoub_2014_Science_345_950
PubMedID: 25146293
Gene_locus related to this paper: braol-Q8GTM3 , braol-Q8GTM4 , brana-a0a078j4a9 , brana-a0a078e1m0 , brana-a0a078cd75 , brana-a0a078evd3 , brana-a0a078j4f0 , brana-a0a078cta5 , brana-a0a078cus4 , brana-a0a078f8c2 , brana-a0a078jql1 , brana-a0a078dgj3 , brana-a0a078hw50 , brana-a0a078cuu0 , brana-a0a078iyl8 , brana-a0a078dfa9 , brana-a0a078ic91 , brana-a0a078cnf7 , brana-a0a078fh41 , brana-a0a078ca65 , brana-a0a078ctc8 , brana-a0a078h021 , brana-a0a078h0h8 , brana-a0a078jx23 , brana-a0a078ci96 , brana-a0a078cqd7 , brana-a0a078dh94 , brana-a0a078h612 , brana-a0a078ild2 , brana-a0a078j2t3 , braol-a0a0d3dpb2 , braol-a0a0d3dx76 , brana-a0a078jxa8 , brana-a0a078i2k3 , braol-a0a0d3ef55 , brarp-m4dcj8 , brana-a0a078fw53 , brana-a0a078itf3 , brana-a0a078jsn1 , brana-a0a078jrt9 , brana-a0a078i6d2 , brana-a0a078jku0 , brana-a0a078fss7 , brana-a0a078i1l0 , brana-a0a078i402

Title : Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization - Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
Author(s) : Qin C , Yu C , Shen Y , Fang X , Chen L , Min J , Cheng J , Zhao S , Xu M , Luo Y , Yang Y , Wu Z , Mao L , Wu H , Ling-Hu C , Zhou H , Lin H , Gonzalez-Morales S , Trejo-Saavedra DL , Tian H , Tang X , Zhao M , Huang Z , Zhou A , Yao X , Cui J , Li W , Chen Z , Feng Y , Niu Y , Bi S , Yang X , Cai H , Luo X , Montes-Hernandez S , Leyva-Gonzalez MA , Xiong Z , He X , Bai L , Tan S , Liu D , Liu J , Zhang S , Chen M , Zhang L , Zhang Y , Liao W , Wang M , Lv X , Wen B , Liu H , Luan H , Yang S , Wang X , Xu J , Li X , Li S , Wang J , Palloix A , Bosland PW , Li Y , Krogh A , Rivera-Bustamante RF , Herrera-Estrella L , Yin Y , Yu J , Hu K , Zhang Z
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 111 :5135 , 2014
Abstract : As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people's spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded approximately 0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of approximately 81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs.
ESTHER : Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
PubMedSearch : Qin_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_5135
PubMedID: 24591624
Gene_locus related to this paper: capch-q75qh4 , capan-a0a1u8fuf5 , capan-a0a1u8gmz3 , capan-a0a1u8f879 , capan-a0a1u8ftr2 , capan-a0a1u8g8s6

Title : Pyridostigmine prevents peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction - Qin_2014_Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol_41_202
Author(s) : Qin F , Lu Y , He X , Zhao M , Bi X , Yu X , Liu J , Zang W
Ref : Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology , 41 :202 , 2014
Abstract : Myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by the withdrawal of vagal activity and increased sympathetic activity. We have shown previously that pyridostigmine (PYR), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was able to improve vagal activity and ameliorate cardiac dysfunction following MI. However, the effect of PYR on endothelial dysfunction in peripheral arteries after MI remains unclear. In the present study, MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with saline or PYR (approximately 31 mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks, at which time haemodynamic and parasympathetic parameters and the vascular reactivity of isolated mesenteric arteries were measured and the ultrastructure of the endothelium evaluated. Compared with the MI group, PYR not only improved cardiac function, vagal nerve activity and endothelial impairment, but also reduced intravascular superoxide anion and malondialdehyde. In addition, in the PYR-treated MI group, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was increased and attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations were improved, whereas restored vasodilator responses were inhibited by N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Based on our results, PYR is able to attenuate the impairment of peripheral endothelial function and maintain endothelial ultrastructural integrity in MI rats by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production, enhancing NO bioavailability and improving vagal activity.
ESTHER : Qin_2014_Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol_41_202
PubMedSearch : Qin_2014_Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol_41_202
PubMedID: 24471445

Title : [Impacts that dimethoate inhibited the benchmark dose of acetylcholinesterase based on experimental designs] - He_2013_Wei.Sheng.Yan.Jiu_42_999
Author(s) : He X , Li T , Yi N , Wu H , Zhao M , Yao X , Wang C
Ref : Wei Sheng Yan Jiu , 42 :999 , 2013
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To obtain the impacts of experimental design on benchmark dose (BMD), and the result was applied to test the computer simulation by software Slob (optimal method to calculate the BMD: for a certain sample capacity, to add the experimental groups by reducing the amount of animals in each group) , consequently, this method can be widely used in the future.
METHODS: Eighty adult female SD rats were ig given dimethoate 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/kg for 21 d, respectively. Rats were sacrificed, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and serum of rats was determined after dimethoate was ig given to rats for 21 d. And then, the software package PROAST28.1 was applied to calculate the BMD. The four does groups of 10 animals (4 x 10 design) and 8 x 5 design were selected from 8 x 10 design to study the impacts of experimental design on BMD.
RESULTS: Comparing with the normal control, the significant decline of AChE in hippocampus was observed in 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/kg groups (P < 0.05), whereas the significant decrease was obtained in 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/kg groups (P < 0.05). Taking the 8 x 10 design as the standard, the confidence interval of BMD calculated by both of 4 x 10 design and 8 x 5 design covered the BMD by 8 x 10 design. And also, confidence interval of BMD, calculated by design scheme 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 of 4 x 10 design, wider than that of 8 x 5 design, but its scheme 5 narrower than 8 x 5 design. CONCLUSION: To add experimental groups in a certain sample capacity was the optimal method to calculate BMD, but was not the common toxicity experimental design (e. g. set four groups including control, low-dose, moderate-dose, high-dose group).
ESTHER : He_2013_Wei.Sheng.Yan.Jiu_42_999
PubMedSearch : He_2013_Wei.Sheng.Yan.Jiu_42_999
PubMedID: 24459918

Title : The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color - Motamayor_2013_Genome.Biol_14_r53
Author(s) : Motamayor JC , Mockaitis K , Schmutz J , Haiminen N , Livingstone D, 3rd , Cornejo O , Findley SD , Zheng P , Utro F , Royaert S , Saski C , Jenkins J , Podicheti R , Zhao M , Scheffler BE , Stack JC , Feltus FA , Mustiga GM , Amores F , Phillips W , Marelli JP , May GD , Shapiro H , Ma J , Bustamante CD , Schnell RJ , Main D , Gilbert D , Parida L , Kuhn DN
Ref : Genome Biol , 14 :r53 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders.
RESULTS: We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation.
CONCLUSIONS: We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits.
ESTHER : Motamayor_2013_Genome.Biol_14_r53
PubMedSearch : Motamayor_2013_Genome.Biol_14_r53
PubMedID: 23731509
Gene_locus related to this paper: thecc-a0a061drp5 , thecc-a0a061f547 , thecc-a0a061et00 , thecc-a0a061g081 , thecc-a0a061g216 , thecc-a0a061g7l1 , thecc-a0a061g739 , thecc-a0a061emb5 , thecc-a0a061e5y9 , thecc-a0a061g267 , thecc-a0a061fqk7 , thecc-a0a061fxr9 , thecc-a0a061glp9 , thecc-a0a061gj91 , thecc-a0a061eb00 , thecc-a0a061faz2 , thecc-a0a061eik0 , thecc-a0a061dz39 , thecc-a0a061dgb4 , thecc-a0a061dgb9 , thecc-a0a061dgg3 , thecc-a0a061dn78 , thecc-a0a061fbl1 , thecc-a0a061gjz3 , thecc-a0a061fu06 , thecc-a0a061f9z5

Title : Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Neuroprotective Compounds from Uncaria rhynchophylla against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity - Xian_2012_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2012_802625
Author(s) : Xian YF , Lin ZX , Mao QQ , Hu Z , Zhao M , Che CT , Ip SP
Ref : Evid Based Complement Alternat Med , 2012 :802625 , 2012
Abstract : Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous study in our laboratory has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorated cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose. However, the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla responsible for the anti-Alzheimer's disease activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the acting mechanism of these active ingredients by using a well-established cellular model of Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid- (Abeta-) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The results showed that six alkaloids, namely, corynoxine, corynoxine B, corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, isocorynoxeine, and rhynchophylline were isolated from the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Among them, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline significantly decreased Abeta-induced cell death, intracellular calcium overloading, and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in PC12 cells. These results suggest that rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline are the major active ingredients responsible for the protective action of Uncaria rhynchophylla against Abeta-induced neuronal toxicity, and their neuroprotective effect may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting intracellular calcium overloading and tau protein hyperphosphorylation.
ESTHER : Xian_2012_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2012_802625
PubMedSearch : Xian_2012_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2012_802625
PubMedID: 22778778

Title : Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by D-galactose in mice - Xian_2011_Planta.Med_77_1977
Author(s) : Xian YF , Lin ZX , Zhao M , Mao QQ , Ip SP , Che CT
Ref : Planta Med , 77 :1977 , 2011
Abstract : The stem with hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many traditional formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, scientific evidence of the efficacy of Uncaria rhynchophylla in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in animal models is lacking. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether the 70 % aqueous ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla (EUR) could protect against D-galactose (D-gal)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Mice were given a subcutaneous injection of D-gal (50 mg/kg) and orally administered EUR (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks. The effect of EUR on D-gal-induced cognitive deficits was evaluated by measuring behavioral and neurochemical parameters of AD and the antioxidant status of brain tissue. The results showed that EUR (200 or 400 mg/kg) significantly increased exploratory behavior (assessed by an open-field test) and improved spatial learning and memory function (assessed by the Morris water maze test) in D-gal-treated mice. In addition, EUR (200 or 400 mg/kg) significantly increased the levels of acetylcholine and glutathione and decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase and the level of malondialdehyde in the brains of D-gal-treated mice. These results indicate that EUR ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by D-gal in mice, and that this action may be mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and the enhancement of the antioxidant status of brain tissue.
ESTHER : Xian_2011_Planta.Med_77_1977
PubMedSearch : Xian_2011_Planta.Med_77_1977
PubMedID: 21858756

Title : The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa - Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
Author(s) : Wang X , Wang H , Wang J , Sun R , Wu J , Liu S , Bai Y , Mun JH , Bancroft I , Cheng F , Huang S , Li X , Hua W , Freeling M , Pires JC , Paterson AH , Chalhoub B , Wang B , Hayward A , Sharpe AG , Park BS , Weisshaar B , Liu B , Li B , Tong C , Song C , Duran C , Peng C , Geng C , Koh C , Lin C , Edwards D , Mu D , Shen D , Soumpourou E , Li F , Fraser F , Conant G , Lassalle G , King GJ , Bonnema G , Tang H , Belcram H , Zhou H , Hirakawa H , Abe H , Guo H , Jin H , Parkin IA , Batley J , Kim JS , Just J , Li J , Xu J , Deng J , Kim JA , Yu J , Meng J , Min J , Poulain J , Hatakeyama K , Wu K , Wang L , Fang L , Trick M , Links MG , Zhao M , Jin M , Ramchiary N , Drou N , Berkman PJ , Cai Q , Huang Q , Li R , Tabata S , Cheng S , Zhang S , Sato S , Sun S , Kwon SJ , Choi SR , Lee TH , Fan W , Zhao X , Tan X , Xu X , Wang Y , Qiu Y , Yin Y , Li Y , Du Y , Liao Y , Lim Y , Narusaka Y , Wang Z , Li Z , Xiong Z , Zhang Z
Ref : Nat Genet , 43 :1035 , 2011
Abstract : We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of the genes expected to have been present in its ancestor. Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.
ESTHER : Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
PubMedSearch : Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
PubMedID: 21873998
Gene_locus related to this paper: braol-Q8GTM3 , braol-Q8GTM4 , brarp-m4ei94 , brarp-m4c988 , brana-a0a078j4a9 , brana-a0a078e1m0 , brana-a0a078cd75 , brarp-m4dwa6 , brana-a0a078j4f0 , brana-a0a078cus4 , brana-a0a078f8c2 , brana-a0a078jql1 , brana-a0a078dgj3 , brana-a0a078hw50 , brana-a0a078cuu0 , brana-a0a078dfa9 , brana-a0a078ic91 , brarp-m4ctw3 , brana-a0a078ca65 , brana-a0a078ctc8 , brana-a0a078h021 , brana-a0a078jx23 , brarp-m4da84 , brarp-m4dwr7 , brana-a0a078dh94 , brana-a0a078h612 , brana-a0a078j2t3 , braol-a0a0d3dpb2 , braol-a0a0d3dx76 , brana-a0a078jxa8 , brana-a0a078i2k3 , brarp-m4cwq4 , brarp-m4dcj8 , brarp-m4eh17 , brarp-m4eey4 , brarp-m4dnj8 , brarp-m4ey83 , brarp-m4ey84

Title : A new and weakly antispasmodic protoberberine alkaloid from Rhizoma Coptidis - Zhao_2010_Phytother.Res_24_1414
Author(s) : Zhao M , Xian YF , Ip SP , Fong HH , Che CT
Ref : Phytother Res , 24 :1414 , 2010
Abstract : A new protoberberine alkaloid, 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-9,10-methylenedioxy-8-oxo-protoberberine, along with three known compounds, was isolated from Rhizoma Coptidis. The new compound displayed weak antispasmodic activity against acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated guinea-pig ileum with an IC50 of 83.7 microm.
ESTHER : Zhao_2010_Phytother.Res_24_1414
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2010_Phytother.Res_24_1414
PubMedID: 20564546

Title : Study of paraoxonase-1 function on tissue damage of dichlorvos - Wang_2010_Toxicol.Lett_196_125
Author(s) : Wang NN , Dai H , Yuan L , Han ZK , Sun J , Zhang Z , Zhao M
Ref : Toxicol Lett , 196 :125 , 2010
Abstract : To examine the protective efficacy of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) against tissue damage caused by dichlorvos, purified rabbit PON1 was injected intravenously into rats 30min before they were given dichlorvos, while dichlorvos administration group and corn coil administration group were conducted to compare. Blood was collected at different time points after dichlorvos administration to examine the acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibition level and clinical signs were observed after poisoning. 72h later, animals were anesthetized and the hippocampus, liver, lung and kidney were removed for observation of ultrastructure. AChE activities in PON1 pretreament group were statistically significant from dichlorvos administration group (P<0.01). The clinical signs were alleviated by PON1 significantly (P<0.05). The most common change of organophosphorus poisoning damage to liver was small lipid-like structures could be seen throughout the liver structure. In kidney, dense bodies were seen. The most significant changes in lung were lost of lamellar structure of lamellar bodies in type II alveolar epithelial cell. As for changes of hippocampus, demyaliation takes place after acute organophosphorus, but neural edema was not improved significantly in our study. In conclusion, PON1 can decrease the AChE inhibition, and alleviated clinical signs and tissue damage caused by dichlorvos.
ESTHER : Wang_2010_Toxicol.Lett_196_125
PubMedSearch : Wang_2010_Toxicol.Lett_196_125
PubMedID: 20412842

Title : Enantioselective interaction with acetylcholinesterase of an organophosphate insecticide fenamiphos - Wang_2010_Chirality_22_612
Author(s) : Wang C , Zhang N , Li L , Zhang Q , Zhao M , Liu W
Ref : Chirality , 22 :612 , 2010
Abstract : Enantioselectivity in the environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of chiral pesticide is widely observed. However, the investigation of the enantioselective mechanisms remains limited. In this study, we used fenamiphos (FAP), an organophosphorus insecticide, to study enantioselectivity in toxicity to arthropods and the inhibition potential towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC 12) cell line. Furthermore, we carried out molecular docking to help explain the mechanisms of enantioselective toxicity of FAP. The two enantiomers of FAP were successfully separated and identified as R-(+)-FAP and S-(-)-FAP. Toxicological assays revealed that R-(+)-FAP was 2.4-fold more toxic than S-(-)-FAP to Daphnia magna and approximately threefold more to PC12 cells. Based on molecular docking results, dynamic simulation shows that strong hydrophobic interactions and a key hydrogen bond can only exist between R-(+)-FAP and AChE, which helps explain the preference of R-(+) binding to AChE over that of the S-(-)-enantiomer, and supports our biological results. Our present study considers the impact of stereochemistry on ecotoxicological effects and, ultimately, on development of environmentally safe, insecticidally efficient pesticides.
ESTHER : Wang_2010_Chirality_22_612
PubMedSearch : Wang_2010_Chirality_22_612
PubMedID: 19899158

Title : Large scale variation in Enterococcus faecalis illustrated by the genome analysis of strain OG1RF - Bourgogne_2008_Genome.Biol_9_R110
Author(s) : Bourgogne A , Garsin DA , Qin X , Singh KV , Sillanpaa J , Yerrapragada S , Ding Y , Dugan-Rocha S , Buhay C , Shen H , Chen G , Williams G , Muzny D , Maadani A , Fox KA , Gioia J , Chen L , Shang Y , Arias CA , Nallapareddy SR , Zhao M , Prakash VP , Chowdhury S , Jiang H , Gibbs RA , Murray BE , Highlander SK , Weinstock GM
Ref : Genome Biol , 9 :R110 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis has emerged as a major hospital pathogen. To explore its diversity, we sequenced E. faecalis strain OG1RF, which is commonly used for molecular manipulation and virulence studies. RESULTS: The 2,739,625 base pair chromosome of OG1RF was found to contain approximately 232 kilobases unique to this strain compared to V583, the only publicly available sequenced strain. Almost no mobile genetic elements were found in OG1RF. The 64 areas of divergence were classified into three categories. First, OG1RF carries 39 unique regions, including 2 CRISPR loci and a new WxL locus. Second, we found nine replacements where a sequence specific to V583 was substituted by a sequence specific to OG1RF. For example, the iol operon of OG1RF replaces a possible prophage and the vanB transposon in V583. Finally, we found 16 regions that were present in V583 but missing from OG1RF, including the proposed pathogenicity island, several probable prophages, and the cpsCDEFGHIJK capsular polysaccharide operon. OG1RF was more rapidly but less frequently lethal than V583 in the mouse peritonitis model and considerably outcompeted V583 in a murine model of urinary tract infections. CONCLUSION: E. faecalis OG1RF carries a number of unique loci compared to V583, but the almost complete lack of mobile genetic elements demonstrates that this is not a defining feature of the species. Additionally, OG1RF's effects in experimental models suggest that mediators of virulence may be diverse between different E. faecalis strains and that virulence is not dependent on the presence of mobile genetic elements.
ESTHER : Bourgogne_2008_Genome.Biol_9_R110
PubMedSearch : Bourgogne_2008_Genome.Biol_9_R110
PubMedID: 18611278
Gene_locus related to this paper: entfa-EF0101 , entfa-EF0449 , entfa-EF1236 , entfa-EF2618 , entfa-q5j1l4 , entfl-e2z7d4

Title : Cloning and functional analysis of cDNAs with open reading frames for 300 previously undefined genes expressed in CD34+ hematopoietic stem\/progenitor cells - Zhang_2000_Genome.Res_10_1546
Author(s) : Zhang QH , Ye M , Wu XY , Ren SX , Zhao M , Zhao CJ , Fu G , Shen Y , Fan HY , Lu G , Zhong M , Xu XR , Han ZG , Zhang JW , Tao J , Huang QH , Zhou J , Hu GX , Gu J , Chen SJ , Chen Z
Ref : Genome Res , 10 :1546 , 2000
Abstract : Three hundred cDNAs containing putatively entire open reading frames (ORFs) for previously undefined genes were obtained from CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), based on EST cataloging, clone sequencing, in silico cloning, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sizes ranged from 360 to 3496 bp and their ORFs coded for peptides of 58-752 amino acids. Public database search indicated that 225 cDNAs exhibited sequence similarities to genes identified across a variety of species. Homology analysis led to the recognition of 50 basic structural motifs/domains among these cDNAs. Genomic exon-intron organization could be established in 243 genes by integration of cDNA data with genome sequence information. Interestingly, a new gene named as HSPC070 on 3p was found to share a sequence of 105bp in 3' UTR with RAF gene in reversed transcription orientation. Chromosomal localizations were obtained using electronic mapping for 192 genes and with radiation hybrid (RH) for 38 genes. Macroarray technique was applied to screen the gene expression patterns in five hematopoietic cell lines (NB4, HL60, U937, K562, and Jurkat) and a number of genes with differential expression were found. The resource work has provided a wide range of information useful not only for expression genomics and annotation of genomic DNA sequence, but also for further research on the function of genes involved in hematopoietic development and differentiation.
ESTHER : Zhang_2000_Genome.Res_10_1546
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2000_Genome.Res_10_1546
PubMedID: 11042152
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LYPLA1