Sun Z

References (47)

Title : Insecticide Susceptibility and Detoxification Enzyme Activity of Frankliniella occidentalis under Three Habitat Conditions - Fan_2023_Insects_14_
Author(s) : Fan R , Fan Z , Sun Z , Chen Y , Gui F
Ref : Insects , 14 : , 2023
Abstract : Frankliniella occidentalis is a highly destructive and invasive agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a variety of insecticide classes. Different planting structures and insecticide use frequency can directly affect the resistance development of F. occidentalis. In this study, the susceptibility of three field strains of F. occidentalis, collected over one year (April to November) from three habitat conditions (facility agriculture area, FA; open field crop area, OF; agroforestry intersection area, AI), to spinetoram, spinosad, emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, acetamiprid, and imidacloprid were monitored and compared. At the same time, the detoxification enzyme activity of F. occidentalis in different habitats was determined. The results showed that the susceptibility of the F. occidentalis population in FA was significantly lower than that of populations from OF and AI. Among them, the F. occidentalis population in FA had developed low levels of resistance to spinetoram (RR = 9.18-fold), emamectin benzoate (RR = 5.47-fold), chlorfenapyr (RR = 6.67-fold), and acetamiprid (RR = 7.49-fold), and had developed moderate level resistance to imidacloprid (RR = 11.67-fold), while still being relatively sensitive to spinosad. The population of F. occidentalis from OF had developed low level resistance to spinetoram (RR = 5.24-fold) but was still relatively sensitive to the other five insecticides. The resistance of F. occidentalis from AI to six insecticides was at relatively sensitive levels. The results of the enzyme activities of detoxification enzymes, including carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYP450), revealed that the activities of the FA population of F. occidentalis were significantly higher than those of the other two populations. The change of CarE activity in F. occidentalis was consistent with that of spinetoram resistance, indicating that CarE may be involved in the metabolic resistance of F. occidentalis to spinetoram. Among the three populations, the resistance and detoxification enzyme activities of F. occidentalis of the FA population to six insecticides were higher than those of the other two populations. Our findings, along with other strategies, are expected to help with the resistance management of F. occidentalis in different habitats.
ESTHER : Fan_2023_Insects_14_
PubMedSearch : Fan_2023_Insects_14_
PubMedID: 37504650

Title : OsLDDT1, encoding a transmembrane structural DUF726 family protein, is essential for tapetum degradation and pollen formation in rice - Sun_2023_Plant.Sci__111596
Author(s) : Sun Z , Liu K , Chen C , Chen D , Peng Z , Zhou R , Liu L , He D , Duan W , Chen H , Huang C , Ruan Z , Zhang Y , Cao L , Zhan X , Cheng S , Sun L
Ref : Plant Sci , :111596 , 2023
Abstract : Formation of the pollen wall, which is mainly composed of lipid substances secreted by tapetal cells, is important to ensure pollen development in rice. Although several regulatory factors related to lipid biosynthesis during pollen wall formation have been identified in rice, the molecular mechanisms controlling lipid biosynthesis are unclear. We isolated the male-sterile rice mutant oslddt1 (leaked and delayed degraded tapetum 1). oslddt1 plants show complete pollen abortion resulting from delayed degradation of the tapetum and blocked formation of Ubisch bodies and pollen walls. OsLDDT1 (LOC_Os03g02170) encodes a DUF726 containing protein of unknown functionwith highly conserved transmembrane and alpha/beta Hydrolase domains. OsLDDT1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the gene is highly expressed in rice panicles. Genes involved in regulating fatty acid synthesis and formation of sporopollenin and pollen exine during anther developmentshowed significantly different expression patterns in oslddt1 plants. Interestingly, the wax and cutin contents in mature oslddt1-1 anthers were decreased by 74.07% and 72.22% compared to WT, indicating that OsLDDT1 is involved in fatty acid synthesis and affects formation of the anther epidermis. Our results provide as deeper understanding of the role of OsLDDT1 in regulating male sterility and also provide materials for hybrid rice breeding.
ESTHER : Sun_2023_Plant.Sci__111596
PubMedSearch : Sun_2023_Plant.Sci__111596
PubMedID: 36657664
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysj-q10ss2

Title : TPB-DMTP@S-CDs\/MnO(2) Fluorescence Composite on a Dual-Emission-Capture Sensor Module for Fingerprint Recognition of Organophosphorus Pesticides - Yuan_2023_Anal.Chem__
Author(s) : Yuan L , Tian X , Fan Y , Sun Z , Zheng K , Zou X , Zhang W
Ref : Analytical Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Residues of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) raise considerable concern, while identifying OPs from unknown sources is still a challenge to onsite fluorescence techniques. Herein, a dual-emission-capture sensor module, based on a TPB-DMTP@S-CDs/MnO(2) fluorescence composite, is developed for OP fingerprint recognition. TPB-DMTP@S-CDs/MnO(2), synthesized by a hydrothermal method and self-assembly, is spectrographically validated as a dual-wavelength fluorescence source. OP-sensitive catalysis (acetylcholinesterase on acetylthiocholine chloride) is designed to regulate fluorescence by decomposing quenchable MnO(2). A flexibly fabricated sensor module supports the optimal dual-wavelength fluorescence excitations and captures and converts fluorescence emissions into equivalent photocurrents for feasible access. The most prominent finding is that dual-fluorescence emissions alternatively respond to levels, species, and multi-pH pretreatments of OPs due to varied MnO(2) sizes and distributions. Therefore, OP fingerprint recognition is conducted by refining the multidimensional information from fluorescence-triggered photocurrents and preset hydrolyzation using principal component analysis and the rule of maximum covariance. The recommended method provides a wide dynamic range (1 x 10(-6) - 12 microg mL(-1)), a good limit of detection (7.9 x 10(-7) microg mL(-1)), 15-day stability, and good selectivity to guarantee fingerprint recognition. For laboratory and natural samples, this method credibly identifies a single kind of OPs from multiple species at trace levels (10(-5) microg mL(-1)) and performs well in two-component and multicomponent analyses.
ESTHER : Yuan_2023_Anal.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Yuan_2023_Anal.Chem__
PubMedID: 36689633

Title : Development of a fluorescent sensor based on TPE-Fc and GSH-AuNCs for the detection of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables - Wang_2023_Food.Chem_431_137067
Author(s) : Wang X , Yu H , Li Q , Tian Y , Gao X , Zhang W , Sun Z , Mou Y , Sun X , Guo Y , Li F
Ref : Food Chem , 431 :137067 , 2023
Abstract : A novel dual-signal fluorescent sensor was developed for detecting organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). It relies on the catalytic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChOx) to generate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) through the conversion of acetylcholine (ACh) to choline.H(2)O(2) then oxidizes ferrocene-modified tetraphenylethylene (TPE-Fc) to its oxidized state (TPE-Fc(+)), resulting in enhanced cyan fluorescence due to aggregation. Simultaneously, ferrocene oxidation generates hydroxyl radicals (OH), causing a decrease in orange fluorescence of glutathione-synthesized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs). The presence of OPs restricts AChE activity, reducing H(2)O(2) production. Increasing OPs concentration leads to decreased cyan fluorescence and increased orange fluorescence, enabling visual OPs detection. The sensor has a linear dynamic range of 10-2000 ng/mL with a detection limit of 2.05 ng/mL. Smartphone-based color identification and a WeChat mini program were utilized for rapid OPs analysis with successful outcomes.
ESTHER : Wang_2023_Food.Chem_431_137067
PubMedSearch : Wang_2023_Food.Chem_431_137067
PubMedID: 37579609

Title : The Relationship between Intracarotid Plaque Neovascularization and Lp (a) and Lp-PLA2 in Elderly Patients with Carotid Plaque Stenosis - Sun_2022_Dis.Markers_2022_6154675
Author(s) : Sun C , Xi N , Sun Z , Zhang X , Wang X , Cao H , Jia X
Ref : Dis Markers , 2022 :6154675 , 2022
Abstract : The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between carotid plaque neovascularization and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)], lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in elderly patients with carotid plaque stenosis. One hundred elderly patients with carotid plaque stenosis diagnosed in our hospital from January 2020 to January 2022 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into stable (n = 62) and unstable (n = 38) groups according to whether the plaque was stable or not. Plasma Lp (a), Lp-PLA2, apoA, and apoB levels were measured; intraplaque angiogenesis (IPN) scores were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to assess IPN grade in patients; and Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relationship between plasma Lp (a) and Lp-PLA2 levels and plaque characteristics and angiogenesis. The maximum thickness and total thickness of carotid plaque in the unstable group were significantly greater than those in the stable group (P < 0.05); the IPN grade was mainly grade III and IV in the unstable group and grade II in the stable group, and the IPN score was significantly higher in the unstable group than in the stable group (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference in the plasma apoA and apoB levels between the two groups (P > 0.05), and the plasma Lp (a) and Lp-PLA2 levels were significantly higher in the unstable group than in the stable group (P < 0.05); the neovascular grade, plasma Lp-PLA2, and Lp (a) levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05); the plasma Lp (a) and Lp-PLA2 levels were positively correlated with the maximum plaque thickness, total plaque thickness, degree of stenosis, and angiogenesis (P < 0.05). The plasma levels of Lp (a) and Lp-PLA2 are positively correlated with intraplaque angiogenesis, and their levels can reflect the stability of carotid plaques.
ESTHER : Sun_2022_Dis.Markers_2022_6154675
PubMedSearch : Sun_2022_Dis.Markers_2022_6154675
PubMedID: 35493296

Title : Fibroblast activation protein alpha: Comprehensive detection methods for drug target and tumor marker - Song_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__109830
Author(s) : Song P , Pan Q , Sun Z , Zou L , Yang L
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , :109830 , 2022
Abstract : Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP-alpha, EC3.4.2. B28), a type II transmembrane proteolytic enzyme for the serine protease peptidase family. It is underexpressed in normal tissues but increased significantly in disease states, especially in neoplasm, which is a potencial biomarker to turmor diagnosis. The inhibition of FAP-alpha activity will retard tumor formation, which is expected to be a promising tumor therapeutic target. At present, although the FAP-alpha expression detection methods has diversification, a superlative detection means is necessary for the clinical diagnosis. This review covers the discovery and the latest advances in FAP-alpha, as well as the future research prospects. The tissue distribution, structural characteristics, small-molecule ligands and structure-activity relationship of major inhibitors of FAP-alpha were summarized in this review. Furthermore, a variety of detection methods including traditional detection methods and emerging probes detection were classified and compared, and the design strategy and kinetic parameters of these FAP-alpha probe substrates were summarized. In addition, these comprehensive information provides a series of practical and reliable assays for the optimal design principles of FAP-alpha probes, promoting the application of FAP-alpha as a disease marker in diagnosis, and a drug target in drug design.
ESTHER : Song_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__109830
PubMedSearch : Song_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__109830
PubMedID: 35104486

Title : The metabolic resistance of Nilaparvata lugens to chlorpyrifos is mainly driven by the carboxylesterase CarE17 - Lu_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_241_113738
Author(s) : Lu K , Li Y , Xiao T , Sun Z
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 241 :113738 , 2022
Abstract : The involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in resistance to chlorpyrifos has been confirmed by the synergism analysis in Nilaparvata lugens. However, the function of specific CarE gene in chlorpyrifos resistance and the transcriptional regulatory mechanism are obscure. Herein, the expression patterns of 29 CarE genes in the susceptible and chlorpyrifos-resistant strains were analyzed. Among them, CarE3, CarE17 and CarE19 were overexpressed in the resistant strain, and knockdown of either CarE gene by RNA interference significantly increased the susceptibility to chlorpyrifos. Remarkably, knockdown of CarE17 reduced the enzymatic activity of CarE by 88.63 % and showed a much greater effect on increasing chlorpyrifos toxicity than silencing other two CarE genes. Overexpression of CarE17 in Drosophila melanogaster decreased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos to transgenic fruit flies. Furthermore, the region between - 205 to + 256 of CarE17 promoter sequence showed the highest promoter activity, and 16 transcription factors (TFs) were predicted from this region. Among these TFs, Lim1beta and C15 were overexpressed in the resistant strain. Knockdown of either TF resulted in reduced CarE17 expression and a decrease in resistance of N. lugens to chlorpyrifos. These results indicate that the constitutive overexpression of Lim1beta and C15 induces CarE17 expression thus conferring chlorpyrifos resistance in N. lugens.
ESTHER : Lu_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_241_113738
PubMedSearch : Lu_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_241_113738
PubMedID: 35679727

Title : Characterization of feruloyl esterases from Pecoramyces sp. F1 and the synergistic effect in biomass degradation - Ma_2022_World.J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_39_17
Author(s) : Ma J , Ma Y , Li Y , Sun Z , Sun X , Padmakumar V , Cheng Y , Zhu W
Ref : World J Microbiol Biotechnol , 39 :17 , 2022
Abstract : Feruloyl esterase (FAE; EC the ester bondbetween ferulic acid (FA) and sugar, to assist the release of FAs and degradation of plant cell walls. In this study, two FAEs (Fae13961 and Fae16537) from the anaerobic fungus Pecoramyces sp. F1 were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). Compared with Fae16537, Fae13961 had higher catalytic efficiency. The optimum temperature and pH of both the FAEs were 45 and 7.0, respectively. They showed good stability-Fae16537 retained up to 80% activity after incubation at 37 for 24h. The FAEs activity was enhanced by Ca(2+) and reduced by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). Additionally, the effect of FAEs on the hydrolytic efficiency of xylanase and cellulase was also determined. The FAE Fae13961 had synergistic effect with xylanase and it promoted the degradation of xylan substrates by xylanase, but it did not affect the degradation of cellulose substrates by cellulase. When Fae13961 was added in a mixture of xylanase and cellulase to degrade complex agricultural biomass, it significantly enhanced the mixture's ability to disintegrate complex substrates. These FAEs could serve as superior auxiliary enzymes for other lignocellulosic enzymes in the process of degradation of agricultural residues for industrial applications.
ESTHER : Ma_2022_World.J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_39_17
PubMedSearch : Ma_2022_World.J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_39_17
PubMedID: 36409385

Title : Toxicological effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in oyster Crassostrea gigas using proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses - Yin_2022_J.Hazard.Mater_434_128824
Author(s) : Yin C , Sun Z , Ji C , Li F , Wu H
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 434 :128824 , 2022
Abstract : As a typical organophosphorus pollutant, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been widely detected in aquatic environment. Previous studies showed that protein phosphorylation might be a vital way of TDCIPP to exert multiple toxic effects. However, there is a lack of high-throughput investigations on how TDCIPP affected protein phosphorylation. In this study, the toxicological effects of TDCIPP were explored by proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses together with traditional means in oysters Crassostrea gigas treated with 0.5, 5 and 50 microg/L TDCIPP for 28 days. Integration of omic analyses revealed that TDCIPP dysregulated transcription, energy metabolism, and apoptosis and cell proliferation by either directly phosphorylating pivotal proteins or phosphorylating their upstream signaling pathways. The U-shaped response of acetylcholinesterase activities suggested the neurotoxicity of TDCIPP in a hormesis manner. What's more, the increase in caspase-9 activity as well as the expression or phosphorylation alterations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, cell division control protein 42 and transforming growth factor-beta1-induced protein indicated the disruption of homeostasis between apoptosis and cell proliferation, which was consistent with the observation of shedding of digestive cells. Overall, combination of proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses showed the capability of identifying molecular events, which provided new insights into the toxicological mechanisms of TDCIPP.
ESTHER : Yin_2022_J.Hazard.Mater_434_128824
PubMedSearch : Yin_2022_J.Hazard.Mater_434_128824
PubMedID: 35427976

Title : Secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata - Cao_2021_Fitoterapia__104970
Author(s) : Cao D , Sun P , Bhowmick S , Wei Y , Guo B , Mur LAJ , Sun Z
Ref : Fitoterapia , :104970 , 2021
Abstract : The natural product Huperzine A isolated from Huperzia serrata is a targeted inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase that has been approved for clinical use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Given the large demand for natural sources of Huperzine A, efforts have been made to explore whether Huperzine A (Hup. A) is also produced by endophytic fungi from H. serrata and, if so, identify its biosynthetic pathway. These studies have indicated that endophytic fungi from H. serrata represent a huge and largely untapped resource for natural products (including Hup. A) with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological relevance. To date, more than three hundred endophytic fungi have been isolated from H. serrata, of which 9 strains can produce Hup. A, whilst more than 20 strains produce other important metabolites, such as polyketones, xanthones, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, furanone derivatives, tremulane sesquitepenes and diterpenoids. In total, 200 secondary metabolites have been characterized in endophytic fungi from H. serrata to date. Functionally, some have cholinesterase-inhibitory or antibacterial activity. This review also considers the different classes of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi, along with their possible applications. We systematically describe the taxonomy, biology, and chemistry of these secondary metabolites. It also summarizes the biosynthetic synthesis of metabolites, including that of Hup. A. The review will aid researchers in obtaining a clearer understanding of this plant-endophyte relationship to better exploit the excellent resources it offers that may be utilized by pharmaceutical industries.
ESTHER : Cao_2021_Fitoterapia__104970
PubMedSearch : Cao_2021_Fitoterapia__104970
PubMedID: 34419561

Title : Activation of the NR2E nuclear receptor HR83 leads to metabolic detoxification-mediated chlorpyrifos resistance in Nilaparvata lugens - Lu_2021_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_173_104800
Author(s) : Lu K , Li Y , Cheng Y , Li W , Song Y , Zeng R , Sun Z
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 173 :104800 , 2021
Abstract : Increased production of detoxification enzymes appears to be the primary route for insecticide resistance in many crop pests. However, the mechanisms employed by resistant insects for overexpression of detoxification genes involved in insecticide resistance remain obscure. We report here that the NR2E nuclear receptor HR83 plays a critical role in chlorpyrifos resistance by regulating the expression of detoxification genes in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. HR83 was highly expressed in the fat body and ovary of adult females in chlorpyrifos-resistant BPHs. Knockdown of HR83 by RNA interference showed no effect on female fecundity, whereas caused a decrease of resistance to chlorpyrifos. This treatment also led to a dramatic reduction in the expression of multiple detoxification genes, including four UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), three cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) and four carboxylesterases (CarEs). Among these HR83-regulated genes, UGT-1-3, UGT-2B10, CYP6CW1, CYP4CE1, CarE and Esterase E4-1 were over-expressed both in the fat body and ovary of the resistant BPHs. Functional analyses revealed that UGT-2B10, CYP4CE1, CarE and Esterase E4-1 are essential for the resistance of BPH to chlorpyrifos. Generally, this study implicates HR83 in the metabolic detoxification-mediated chlorpyrifos resistance and suggests that the regulation of detoxification genes may be an ancestral function of the NR2E nuclear receptor subfamily.
ESTHER : Lu_2021_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_173_104800
PubMedSearch : Lu_2021_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_173_104800
PubMedID: 33771269

Title : Ultrasmall Au nanoparticles modified 2D metalloporphyrinic metal-organic framework nanosheets with high peroxidase-like activity for colorimetric detection of organophosphorus pesticides - Yang_2021_Food.Chem_376_131906
Author(s) : Yang H , Sun Z , Qin X , Wu H , Zhang H , Liu G
Ref : Food Chem , 376 :131906 , 2021
Abstract : Ultrasmall Au nanoparticles (UsAuNPs) in the size range of 4.0-7.0 nm was successfully immobilized on the surface of 2D metalloporphyrinic metal-organic framework nanosheets (2D MOF). Firstly, The obtained hybrid nanomaterial, UsAuNPs/2D MOF, was fully characterized by TEM, HRTEM, element mapping images and XPS. Then, the peroxidase-like activity of UsAuNPs/2D MOF was comparatively studied with other hybrid nanozyme to explore the influence of AuNPs size on peroxidase-like activity. Further, UsAuNPs/2D MOF with outstanding peroxidase-like activity was selected to form ternary cascade enzyme reaction with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChOx). Based on the inhibitory effect of organophosphorus pesticides on AChE, a fast and sensitive colorimetric method was established for trichlorfon detection with the advantages of simple operation, low detection limit (1.7 microM), good linear range (1.7-42.4 microM) and high accuracy (recovery rate of 96.6-105.3%). Finally, this method was applied to visual analysis of trichlorfon concentration in tomatoes, cucumbers and eggplants.
ESTHER : Yang_2021_Food.Chem_376_131906
PubMedSearch : Yang_2021_Food.Chem_376_131906
PubMedID: 34968912

Title : Gene signatures of SARS-CoV\/SARS-CoV-2-infected ferret lungs in short- and long-term models - Liu_2020_Infect.Genet.Evol_85_104438
Author(s) : Liu HL , Yeh IJ , Phan NN , Wu YH , Yen MC , Hung JH , Chiao CC , Chen CF , Sun Z , Jiang JZ , Hsu HP , Wang CY , Lai MD
Ref : Infect Genet Evol , 85 :104438 , 2020
Abstract : Coronaviruses (CoVs) consist of six strains, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), newly found coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread leading to a global outbreak. The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as a useful animal model for studying SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing therapeutic strategies. A holistic approach for distinguishing differences in gene signatures during disease progression is lacking. The present study discovered gene expression profiles of short-term (3 days) and long-term (14 days) ferret models after SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 infection using a bioinformatics approach. Through Gene Ontology (GO) and MetaCore analyses, we found that the development of stemness signaling was related to short-term SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 infection. In contrast, pathways involving extracellular matrix and immune responses were associated with long-term SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some highly expressed genes in both short- and long-term models played a crucial role in the progression of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 infection, including DPP4, BMP2, NFIA, AXIN2, DAAM1, ZNF608, ME1, MGLL, LGR4, ABHD6, and ACADM. Meanwhile, we revealed that metabolic, glucocorticoid, and reactive oxygen species-associated networks were enriched in both short- and long-term infection models. The present study showed alterations in gene expressions from short-term to long-term SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 infection. The current result provides an explanation of the pathophysiology for post-infectious sequelae and potential targets for treatment.
ESTHER : Liu_2020_Infect.Genet.Evol_85_104438
PubMedSearch : Liu_2020_Infect.Genet.Evol_85_104438
PubMedID: 32615317

Title : Tailoring Particle-Enzyme Nanoconjugates for Biocatalysis at the Organic-Organic Interface - Sun_2020_ChemSusChem_13_6523
Author(s) : Sun Z , Cai M , Hubner R , Ansorge-Schumacher MB , Wu C
Ref : ChemSusChem , 13 :6523 , 2020
Abstract : Nonaqueous Pickering emulsions (PEs) are a powerful platform for catalysis design, offering both a large interface contact and a preferable environment for water-sensitive synthesis. However, up to now, little progress has been made to incorporate insoluble enzymes into the nonaqueous system for biotransformation. Herein, we present biocatalytically active nonaqueous PEs, stabilized by particle-enzyme nanoconjugates, for the fast transesterification and esterification, and eventually for biodiesel synthesis. Our nanoconjugates are the hybrid biocatalysts tailor-made by loading hydrophilic Candida antarctica lipase B onto hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, resulting in not only catalytically active but highly amphiphilic particles for stabilization of a methanol-decane emulsion. The enzyme activity in these PEs is significantly enhanced, ca. 375-fold higher than in the nonaqueous biphasic control. Moreover, the PEs can be multiply reused without significant loss of enzyme performance. With this proof-of-concept, this system can be expanded for many advanced syntheses using different enzymes in the future.
ESTHER : Sun_2020_ChemSusChem_13_6523
PubMedSearch : Sun_2020_ChemSusChem_13_6523
PubMedID: 33078882

Title : Acupuncture of the Beishu acupoint participates in regulatory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on T cell subsets of rats with chronic fatigue syndrome - He_2020_Ann.Palliat.Med_9_3436
Author(s) : He J , Yu Q , Wu C , Sun Z , Wu X , Liu R , Zhang H
Ref : Ann Palliat Med , 9 :3436 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: There are close relationships between the spleen and limb muscles and thoughts. The study aims to test the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in combination with acupuncture of the Beishu acupoint on T cell subsets of rats with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHODS: The model was set up by combining forced cold-water swimming with chronic restraint. The rats were randomly divided into blank control, model, ginsenoside, acupuncture, and ginsenoside plus acupuncture groups (n=10). For the acupuncture group, the Beishu acupoint was acupunctured on the 2nd day after modeling. For the ginsenoside group, the ginsenoside Rg1 solution was injected into the tail vein on the 2nd day after modeling. For the combination group, both processes were conducted. These groups were compared regarding exhausted swimming time, number of struggles, resting time, serum levels of IgA, IgG, IgM, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma, lymphocyte transformation rate, T cell subsets, and skeletal muscle activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and acetylcholinesterase (Ache). RESULTS: The exhausted swimming time, number of struggles, and resting time of combination group surpassed those in the ginsenoside and acupuncture groups significantly (P<0.05). The serum levels of IgA, IgG, IgM, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, T-AOC, and Ache, together with CD3+ and CD8+ T cell percentages of combination groups, were significantly higher than those of ginsenoside and acupuncture groups. However, the IFN-alpha level, MDA activity, and CD4+ T cell percentage were significantly lower (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios of acupuncture, ginsenoside, and combination groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the combination group, the ratio of the ginsenoside group increased significantly (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both acupuncture of the Beishu acupoint and intravenous injection of ginsenoside Rg1 have anti-fatigue effects, and their combination works synergistically. This study supplies an experimental basis for joint therapy using acupuncture and drugs to combat fatigue synergistically.
ESTHER : He_2020_Ann.Palliat.Med_9_3436
PubMedSearch : He_2020_Ann.Palliat.Med_9_3436
PubMedID: 33065794

Title : Functional Characterization of two Carboxylesterase Genes Involved in Pyrethroid Detoxification in Helicoverpa armigera - Li_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem_68_3390
Author(s) : Li Y , Bai L , Zhao C , Xu J , Sun Z , Dong Y , Li D , Liu XL , Ma ZQ
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 68 :3390 , 2020
Abstract : Insect carboxylesterases are major enzymes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics including insecticides. Two carboxylesterase genes, CarE001A and CarE001H, were cloned from the destructive agricultural pest Helicoverpa armigera. Quantitative Real-Time PCR showed that CarE001A and CarE001H were predominantly expressed in fat body and midgut, respectively; developmental expression analyses found that the expression levels of both CarEs were significantly higher in fifth- instar larvae than in other life stages. Recombinant CarE001A and CarE001H expressed in the Escherichia coli exhibited high enzymatic activity toward alpha-naphthyl acetate. Inhibition assays showed that organophosphates had strong inhibition on CarEs activity compared to pyrethroids. Metabolism assays indicated that CarE001A and CarE001H were able to metabolize beta-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Homology modeling and molecular docking analyses demonstrated that beta-cypermethrin could fit nicely into the active pocket of both carboxylesterases. These results suggested that CarE001A and CarE001H could play important roles in the detoxification of pyrehtroids in H. armigera.
ESTHER : Li_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem_68_3390
PubMedSearch : Li_2020_J.Agric.Food.Chem_68_3390
PubMedID: 32096985
Gene_locus related to this paper: helam-d5g3d5 , helam-d9iv61

Title : Cancer-derived exosomal TRIM59 regulates macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome activation to promote lung cancer progression - Liang_2020_J.Exp.Clin.Cancer.Res_39_176
Author(s) : Liang M , Chen X , Wang L , Qin L , Wang H , Sun Z , Zhao W , Geng B
Ref : J Exp Clin Cancer Research , 39 :176 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Exosomes are emerging as important mediators of the cross-talk between tumor cells and the microenvironment. The communication between tumor-derived exosomes and macrophages has a critical role in facilitating tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which exosomes modulate tumor development in lung cancer are not fully understood. METHODS: Short hairpin RNA mediated knockdown or exogenous expression of TRIM59 combined with in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to prove the functional significance of TRIM59. Western blotting, real-time PCR, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence (IF) staining assays, proximity ligation assay (PLA), ubiquitination assays, lactate secretion and lipid droplets content measurement, and rescue experiments were used to evaluate the mechanism. Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were injected via subcutaneously or tail vein into C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice to assess the role of TRIM59 in vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrated that tripartite motif-containing 59 (TRIM59) was expressed in lung cancer cells-derived exosomes, and can be transferred to macrophages through the exosomes. Activated macrophages by TRIM59 promote lung cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that TRIM59 physically interacts with abhydrolase domain containing 5 (ABHD5) and directly induced the ubiquitination of ABHD5 and led to its proteasome-dependent degradation. ABHD5, an lipolytic co-activator, deficiency induced metabolic reprogramming and enabled NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Further studies showed that the exacerbation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by ABHD5 deficiency, provides a positive feedback loop to promote cancer progression by preferentially secrete the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate that tumor-derived exosomal TRIM59 converts macrophages to tumor-promoting functions of macrophages via regulating ABHD5 proteasomal degradation, to activate NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway to promote lung cancer progression by IL-1beta secretion. Our findings also indicate that tumor-derived exosomal TRIM59 has an important role in intercellular communication for fostering an inflammatory microenvironment and promoting lung metastasis.
ESTHER : Liang_2020_J.Exp.Clin.Cancer.Res_39_176
PubMedSearch : Liang_2020_J.Exp.Clin.Cancer.Res_39_176
PubMedID: 32867817
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD5

Title : Neuroprotective Effect of Resveratrol via Activation of Sirt1 Signaling in a Rat Model of Combined Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease - Ma_2019_Front.Neurosci_13_1400
Author(s) : Ma X , Sun Z , Han X , Li S , Jiang X , Chen S , Zhang J , Lu H
Ref : Front Neurosci , 13 :1400 , 2019
Abstract : Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) often coexist in patients because having one of these conditions increases risk for the other. These two diseases share several pathophysiological mechanisms, such as specific inflammatory signaling pathways, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. It is still unclear exactly which mechanisms associated with DM are responsible for increased AD risk. Studies have found that even transient elevation of brain Abeta levels can allow T2DM to slightly disrupt the neural milieu in a way that encourages pathologies associated with the onset of memory deficits and AD. A recent study argues that a potential common pathogenetic mechanism underlying both DM and AD is evidenced by the cooccurrence of amyloid brain legions and deposits containing both tau and Abeta in pancreatic beta cells. Given these links, an investigation detailing disease mechanisms as well as treatment options for patients with cooccurring DM and AD is urgently needed. The biological effects of resveratrol relevant to DM and AD treatment include its abilities to modulate oxidative stress and reduce inflammation. A rat model of DM and concomitant AD was created for this study using intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and hippocampal injection of Abeta1-40 to characterize resveratrol's potential protective action. Results: Resveratrol significantly increased the Sirt1 expression, inhibited the memory impairment, the increased acetylcholinesterase, malondialdehyde, interleukin-1beta and interleukin 6 levels, and the decreased levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione in this rat model of diabetes and concomitant AD. The Sirt 1 inhibitor EX527 partially reversed the effects of resveratrol. Conclusion: This study suggests that resveratrol may have a neuroprotective action through activation of Sirt1 signaling in diabetes and AD with concurrent onset.
ESTHER : Ma_2019_Front.Neurosci_13_1400
PubMedSearch : Ma_2019_Front.Neurosci_13_1400
PubMedID: 32038127

Title : Plasma levels of soluble ST2, but not IL-33, correlate with the severity of alcoholic liver disease - Sun_2019_J.Cell.Mol.Med_23_887
Author(s) : Sun Z , Chang B , Huang A , Hao S , Gao M , Sun Y , Shi M , Jin L , Zhang W , Zhao J , Teng G , Han L , Tian H , Liang Q , Zhang JY , Zou Z
Ref : J Cell Mol Med , 23 :887 , 2019
Abstract : Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complication that is a burden on global health and economy. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a newly identified member of the IL-1 cytokine family and is released as an "alarmin" during inflammation. Soluble suppression of tumourigenicity 2 (sST2), an IL-33 decoy receptor, has been reported as a new biomarker for the severity of systemic and highly inflammatory diseases. Here, we found the levels of plasma sST2, increased with the disease severity from mild to severe ALD. Importantly, the plasma sST2 levels in ALD patients not only correlated with scores for prognostic models (Maddrey's discriminant function, model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh scores) and indexes for liver function (total bilirubin, international normalized ratio, albumin, and cholinesterase) but also correlated with neutrophil-associated factors as well as some proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide-activated monocytes down-regulated transmembrane ST2 receptor but up-regulated sST2 mRNA and protein expression and produced higher levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). By contrast, monocytes pretreated with recombinant sST2 showed decreased TNF-alpha production. In addition, although plasma IL-33 levels were comparable between healthy controls and ALD patients, we found the IL-33 expression in liver tissues from ALD patients was down-regulated at both RNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that the decreased of IL-33-positive cells were mainly located in liver lobule area. These results suggested that sST2, but not IL-33, is closely related to the severity of ALD. Consequently, sST2 could be used as a potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of ALD.
ESTHER : Sun_2019_J.Cell.Mol.Med_23_887
PubMedSearch : Sun_2019_J.Cell.Mol.Med_23_887
PubMedID: 30478965

Title : Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Esterases Responsible for Aspirin Hydrolysis In Vitro - Sun_2018_Int.J.Mol.Sci_19_
Author(s) : Sun Z , Wu Y , Liu S , Hu S , Zhao B , Li P , Du S
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 19 : , 2018
Abstract : Herb(-)drug interactions strongly challenge the clinical combined application of herbs and drugs. Herbal products consist of complex pharmacological-active ingredients and perturb the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS)-based drugs are often combined with aspirin in vascular disease treatment in China. PNS was found to exhibit inhibitory effects on aspirin hydrolysis using Caco-2 cell monolayers. In the present study, a total of 22 components of PNS were separated and identified by UPLC-MS/MS. Using highly selective probe substrate analysis, PNS exerted robust inhibitory potency on human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2), while had a minor influence on hCE1, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase (PON). These effects were also verified through molecular docking analysis. PNS showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on hydrolytic activity of aspirin in HepaRG cells. The protein level of hCE2 in HepaRG cells was suppressed after PNS treatment, while the level of BChE or PON1 in the extracellular matrix were elevated after PNS treatment. Insignificant effect was observed on the mRNA expression of the esterases. These findings are important to understand the underlying efficacy and safety of co-administration of PNS and aspirin in clinical practice.
ESTHER : Sun_2018_Int.J.Mol.Sci_19_
PubMedSearch : Sun_2018_Int.J.Mol.Sci_19_
PubMedID: 30322078

Title : Inhibitory Influence of Panax notoginseng Saponins on Aspirin Hydrolysis in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells - Sun_2018_Molecules_23_
Author(s) : Sun Z , Wu Y , Yang B , Zhu B , Hu S , Lu Y , Zhao B , Du S
Ref : Molecules , 23 : , 2018
Abstract : Herb-drug interactions are important safety concerns in clinical practice. The interactions occur firstly in the intestinal absorption for orally administered drugs. Aspirin and Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS)-based drugs are often combined in China to prevent larger-artery atherosclerosis. Here, we aimed to characterize the aspirin transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers, a model of the intestinal absorption, and further to evaluate the influence of PNS on aspirin hydrolysis and the relating mechanisms. Transcellular transport of aspirin and the influence of PNS were explored using Caco-2 cell monolayers. The protein expression of human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) and hCE2 in Caco-2 cells after PNS treatment was analyzed by ELISA, and the mRNA level were determined by qRT-PCR. In the study, Caco-2 cells showed high level of hydrolase activity, and most aspirin was hydrolyzed inside the cells during the transport process. Interestingly, PNS were demonstrated to inhibit the esterase activities responsible for aspirin hydrolysis in Caco-2 cells. PNS could also decrease the protein expression of hCE1 and hCE2, whereas exhibited minor effect on the mRNA expression. These results indicated that oral administration of PNS-based drugs might inhibit the hydrolysis of aspirin during intestinal absorption thus promoting its bioavailability.
ESTHER : Sun_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedSearch : Sun_2018_Molecules_23_
PubMedID: 29463025

Title : Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Accelerates Alzheimer's Disease Pathology with Cerebrovascular Remodeling in a Novel Mouse Model - Zhai_2016_J.Alzheimers.Dis_53_893
Author(s) : Zhai Y , Yamashita T , Nakano Y , Sun Z , Shang J , Feng T , Morihara R , Fukui Y , Ohta Y , Hishikawa N , Abe K
Ref : J Alzheimers Dis , 53 :893 , 2016
Abstract : Recently, aging societies have been showing an increasingly strong relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (HP). In the present study, we created a new mouse model for AD with HP, and investigated its clinical and pathological characteristics. Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice (APP23) were subjected to bilateral common carotid arteries stenosis with ameroid constrictors for slowly progressive cerebral HP. In contrast to simple APP23 mice, cerebral HP exacerbated motor and cognitive dysfunctions with white matter lesions and meningo-parenchymal amyloid-beta (Abeta) burdens. Strong cerebrovascular inflammation and severe amyloid angiopathy with cerebrovascular remodeling were also observed in APP23 + HP mouse brains. An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine improved such clinical dysfunctions, retrieved above neuropathological characteristics, and enhanced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-binding activity. The present study demonstrates that chronic cerebral HP enhanced cognitive/motor dysfunctions with parenchymal/cerebrovascular Abeta accumulation and cerebrovascular remodeling. These neuropathological abnormalities were greatly ameliorated by galantamine treatment associated with nAChR-mediated neuroprotection by allosterically potentiating ligand action.
ESTHER : Zhai_2016_J.Alzheimers.Dis_53_893
PubMedSearch : Zhai_2016_J.Alzheimers.Dis_53_893
PubMedID: 27314529

Title : DWARF14 is a non-canonical hormone receptor for strigolactone - Yao_2016_Nature_536_469
Author(s) : Yao R , Ming Z , Yan L , Li S , Wang F , Ma S , Yu C , Yang M , Chen L , Li Y , Yan C , Miao D , Sun Z , Yan J , Sun Y , Wang L , Chu J , Fan S , He W , Deng H , Nan F , Li J , Rao Z , Lou Z , Xie D
Ref : Nature , 536 :469 , 2016
Abstract : Classical hormone receptors reversibly and non-covalently bind active hormone molecules, which are generated by biosynthetic enzymes, to trigger signal transduction. The alpha/beta hydrolase DWARF14 (D14), which hydrolyses the plant branching hormone strigolactone and interacts with the F-box protein D3/MAX2, is probably involved in strigolactone detection. However, the active form of strigolactone has yet to be identified and it is unclear which protein directly binds the active form of strigolactone, and in which manner, to act as the genuine strigolactone receptor. Here we report the crystal structure of the strigolactone-induced AtD14-D3-ASK1 complex, reveal that Arabidopsis thaliana (At)D14 undergoes an open-to-closed state transition to trigger strigolactone signalling, and demonstrate that strigolactone is hydrolysed into a covalently linked intermediate molecule (CLIM) to initiate a conformational change of AtD14 to facilitate interaction with D3. Notably, analyses of a highly branched Arabidopsis mutant d14-5 show that the AtD14(G158E) mutant maintains enzyme activity to hydrolyse strigolactone, but fails to efficiently interact with D3/MAX2 and loses the ability to act as a receptor that triggers strigolactone signalling in planta. These findings uncover a mechanism underlying the allosteric activation of AtD14 by strigolactone hydrolysis into CLIM, and define AtD14 as a non-canonical hormone receptor with dual functions to generate and sense the active form of strigolactone.
ESTHER : Yao_2016_Nature_536_469
PubMedSearch : Yao_2016_Nature_536_469
PubMedID: 27479325
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AtD14

Title : Production of Structured Triacylglycerols Containing Palmitic Acids at sn-2 Position and Docosahexaenoic Acids at sn-1, 3 Positions - Liu_2015_J.Oleo.Sci_64_1227
Author(s) : Liu Y , Guo Y , Sun Z , Jie X , Li Z , Wang J , Wang Y , Xue C
Ref : J Oleo Sci , 64 :1227 , 2015
Abstract : Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has been shown well-established health benefits that justify their use as functional ingredients in healthy foods and nutraceutical products. Structured triacylglycerols rich in 1,3-docosahexenoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol were produced from algal oil (Schizochytrium sp) which was prepared by a two-step process. Novozym 435 lipase was used to produce tripalmitin. Tripalmitin was then used to produce the final structured triacylglycerol (STAG) through interesterification reactions using Lipozyme RM IM. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic reaction were a mole ratio of tripalmitin/fatty acid ethyl esters 1:9, 60 degC, 10% enzyme load (wt % of substrates), 10 h; the enzymatic product contained 51.6% palmitic acid (PA), 30.13% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) and 5.33% docosapentanoic acid (DPA, C22:5 n-3), 12.15% oleic acid (OLA). This STAG can be used as a functional ingredient in dietary supplementation to provide the benefits of DHA.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_J.Oleo.Sci_64_1227
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_J.Oleo.Sci_64_1227
PubMedID: 26521813

Title : Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera - Sun_2015_Nat.Commun_6_8322
Author(s) : Sun Z , Harris HM , McCann A , Guo C , Argimon S , Zhang W , Yang X , Jeffery IB , Cooney JC , Kagawa TF , Liu W , Song Y , Salvetti E , Wrobel A , Rasinkangas P , Parkhill J , Rea MC , O'Sullivan O , Ritari J , Douillard FP , Paul Ross R , Yang R , Briner AE , Felis GE , de Vos WM , Barrangou R , Klaenhammer TR , Caufield PW , Cui Y , Zhang H , O'Toole PW
Ref : Nat Commun , 6 :8322 , 2015
Abstract : Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species.
ESTHER : Sun_2015_Nat.Commun_6_8322
PubMedSearch : Sun_2015_Nat.Commun_6_8322
PubMedID: 26415554
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9laco-a0a0r1hz65 , 9laco-a0a0r1j1t4 , 9laco-a0a0r1j3p0 , 9laco-a0a0r1k3i0 , 9laco-a0a0r1k563 , 9laco-a0a0r1kgb3 , 9laco-a0a0r1kji2 , 9laco-a0a0r1kwq5 , 9laco-a0a0r1l700 , 9laco-a0a0r1p6l8 , 9laco-a0a0r1q939 , 9laco-a0a0r1qv39 , 9laco-a0a0r1wj75 , laccl-a0a0r2bne3 , 9laco-a0a0r2dnk9 , 9laco-a0a0r2ds70 , 9laco-a0a0r2k127 , 9laco-a0a0r2lee7 , 9laco-a0a0r2lqt2 , 9laco-a0a0r2m354 , 9laco-a0a0r2n9f2 , 9laco-a0a0r2nrk2 , lacze-a0a0r1ekw6 , 9laco-a0a0r1ju11 , 9laco-a0a0r1k516 , 9laco-a0a0r1leq9 , 9laco-a0a0r1lul8 , 9laco-a0a0r1lzg4 , 9laco-a0a0r1mhp8 , 9laco-a0a0r1mjt1 , 9laco-a0a0r1nv21 , 9laco-a0a0r1q1p6 , 9laco-a0a0r1qm41 , 9laco-a0a0r1qs58 , 9laco-a0a0r1rgu0 , 9laco-a0a0r1tg12 , 9laco-a0a0r1u777 , 9laco-a0a0r1ufv3 , 9laco-a0a0r1ul77 , 9laco-a0a0r1vad0 , 9laco-a0a0r1w3f4 , 9laco-a0a0r1w9r8 , 9laco-a0a0r1wpq2 , 9laco-a0a0r1x2g3 , 9laco-a0a0r2abe6 , 9laco-a0a0r2b6w1 , 9laco-a0a0r2b8g1 , 9laco-a0a0r2ch10 , 9laco-a0a0r2cld6 , 9laco-a0a0r2cv38 , 9laco-a0a0r2d3x3 , 9laco-a0a0r2dct2 , 9laco-a0a0r2flt3 , 9laco-a0a0r2frk5 , 9laco-a0a0r2guq4 , 9firm-a0a0r2h5m0 , weivi-a0a0r2h8r4 , 9lact-a0a0r2hnx4 , 9lact-a0a0r2jkt6 , 9lact-a0a0r2jmz1 , 9laco-a0a0r2jwg5 , 9laco-a0a0r2jxu0 , 9laco-a0a0r2jxw0 , lacam-a0a0r2kgt3 , 9laco-a0a0r2kx86 , 9laco-a0a0r2mxi6 , 9laco-a0a0r1vln2 , 9laco-a0a0r2ca25 , 9laco-a0a0r1zjs2 , weipa-c5rbw8

Title : Identification of the genes regulated by Wnt-4, a critical signal for commitment of the ovary - Naillat_2015_Exp.Cell.Res_332_163
Author(s) : Naillat F , Yan W , Karjalainen R , Liakhovitskaia A , Samoylenko A , Xu Q , Sun Z , Shen B , Medvinsky A , Quaggin S , Vainio SJ
Ref : Experimental Cell Research , 332 :163 , 2015
Abstract : The indifferent mammalian embryonic gonad generates an ovary or testis, but the factors involved are still poorly known. The Wnt-4 signal represents one critical female determinant, since its absence leads to partial female-to-male sex reversal in mouse, but its signalling is as well implicated in the testis development. We used the Wnt-4 deficient mouse as a model to identify candidate gonadogenesis genes, and found that the Notum, Phlda2, Runx-1 and Msx1 genes are typical of the wild-type ovary and the Osr2, Dach2, Pitx2 and Tacr3 genes of the testis. Strikingly, the expression of these latter genes becomes reversed in the Wnt-4 knock-out ovary, suggesting a role in ovarian development. We identified the transcription factor Runx-1 as a Wnt-4 signalling target gene, since it is expressed in the ovary and is reduced upon Wnt-4 knock-out. Consistent with this, introduction of the Wnt-4 signal into early ovary cells ex vivo induces Runx-1 expression, while conversely Wnt-4 expression is down-regulated in the absence of Runx-1. We conclude that the Runx-1 gene can be a Wnt-4 signalling target, and that Runx-1 and Wnt-4 are mutually interdependent in their expression. The changes in gene expression due to the absence of Wnt-4 in gonads reflect the sexually dimorphic role of this signal and its complex gene network in mammalian gonad development.
ESTHER : Naillat_2015_Exp.Cell.Res_332_163
PubMedSearch : Naillat_2015_Exp.Cell.Res_332_163
PubMedID: 25645944

Title : Molecular Interactions between (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Analogs and Pancreatic Lipase - Wang_2014_PLoS.One_9_e111143
Author(s) : Wang S , Sun Z , Dong S , Liu Y
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e111143 , 2014
Abstract : The molecular interactions between pancreatic lipase (PL) and four tea polyphenols (EGCG analogs), like (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin (EC), were studied from PL activity, conformation, kinetics and thermodynamics. It was observed that EGCG analogs inhibited PL activity, and their inhibitory rates decreased by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. PL activity at first decreased rapidly and then slowly with the increase of EGCG analogs concentrations. alpha-Helix content of PL secondary structure decreased dependent on EGCG analogs concentration by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. EGCG, ECG, and EC could quench PL fluorescence both dynamically and statically, while GCG only quenched statically. EGCG analogs would induce PL self-assembly into complexes and the hydrodynamic radii of the complexes possessed a close relationship with the inhibitory rates. Kinetics analysis showed that EGCG analogs non-competitively inhibited PL activity and did not bind to PL catalytic site. DSC measurement revealed that EGCG analogs decreased the transition midpoint temperature of PL enzyme, suggesting that these compounds reduced PL enzyme thermostability. In vitro renaturation through urea solution indicated that interactions between PL and EGCG analogs were weak and non-covalent.
ESTHER : Wang_2014_PLoS.One_9_e111143
PubMedSearch : Wang_2014_PLoS.One_9_e111143
PubMedID: 25365042

Title : Lactobacillus casei-01 Facilitates the Ameliorative Effects of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Lotus Seedpod on Learning and Memory Impairment in Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Mice - Xiao_2014_PLoS.One_9_e112773
Author(s) : Xiao J , Li S , Sui Y , Wu Q , Li X , Xie B , Zhang M , Sun Z
Ref : PLoS ONE , 9 :e112773 , 2014
Abstract : Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC) have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC) enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (109 cfu/kg body weight (BW)), LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC) and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC)), or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC). Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE), myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.
ESTHER : Xiao_2014_PLoS.One_9_e112773
PubMedSearch : Xiao_2014_PLoS.One_9_e112773
PubMedID: 25396737

Title : Lab-on-a-drop: biocompatible fluorescent nanoprobes of gold nanoclusters for label-free evaluation of phosphorylation-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity towards the ultrasensitive detection of pesticide residues - Zhang_2014_Analyst_139_4620
Author(s) : Zhang N , Si Y , Sun Z , Li S , Lin Y , Wang H
Ref : Analyst , 139 :4620 , 2014
Abstract : A simple, sensitive, selective, and "lab-on-a-drop"-based fluorimetric protocol has been proposed using biocompatible fluorescent nanoprobes of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) for the label-free evaluation of the catalytic activity and phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) under physiologically simulated environments. Protein-stabilized AuNCs were prepared and mixed with acetylthiocholine (ATC) serving as "a drop" of fluorimetric reaction substrate. The AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ATC releases thiocholine to cause the aggregation of the AuNCs towards a dramatic decrease in fluorescence intensities, which could be curbed by the phosphorylation-induced inhibition of AChE activity when exposed to organophosphorus compounds (OPs). The reaction procedures and conditions of AChE catalysis and phosphorylation were monitored by fluorimetric measurements and electron microscopy imaging. Moreover, a selective and ultrasensitive fluorimetric assay has been tailored for the detection of pesticide residues using dimethyl-dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) as an example. Investigation results indicate that the specific catalysis and irreversible OP-induced phosphorylation of AChE, in combination with sensitive fluorimetric outputs could facilitate the detection of total free OPs with high selectivity and sensitivity. A linear concentration of DDVP ranging from 0.032 nM to 20 nM could be obtained with a detection limit of 13.67 pM. Particularly, pesticide residues of DDVP in vegetable samples were quantified down to approximately 36 pM. Such a label-free "lab-on-a drop"-based fluorimetry may promise wide applications for the evaluation of the physiological catalytic activity of various enzymes (i.e., cholinesterase), and especially for monitoring the direct phosphorylation biomarkers of free OPs towards rapid and early warning, and accurate diagnosis of OP exposure.
ESTHER : Zhang_2014_Analyst_139_4620
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2014_Analyst_139_4620
PubMedID: 25050413

Title : The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen - Zheng_2013_Nat.Commun_4_1424
Author(s) : Zheng A , Lin R , Zhang D , Qin P , Xu L , Ai P , Ding L , Wang Y , Chen Y , Liu Y , Sun Z , Feng H , Liang X , Fu R , Tang C , Li Q , Zhang J , Xie Z , Deng Q , Li S , Wang S , Zhu J , Wang L , Liu H , Li P
Ref : Nat Commun , 4 :1424 , 2013
Abstract : Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes great yield losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the rice sheath blight disease pathogen, R. solani AG1 IA, assembled using next-generation Illumina Genome Analyser sequencing technologies. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of secreted proteins, enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, which probably reflect an exclusive necrotrophic lifestyle. We find few repetitive elements, a closer relationship to Agaricomycotina among Basidiomycetes, and expand protein domains and families. Among the 25 candidate pathogen effectors identified according to their functionality and evolution, we validate 3 that trigger crop defence responses; hence we reveal the exclusive expression patterns of the pathogenic determinants during host infection.
ESTHER : Zheng_2013_Nat.Commun_4_1424
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2013_Nat.Commun_4_1424
PubMedID: 23361014
Gene_locus related to this paper: thaca-l8wvp3 , thaca-l8wv47 , thaca-l8wp17 , thaca-l8x532

Title : Biosynthesis and properties of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates with enriched content of the dominant monomer - Jiang_2012_Biomacromolecules_13_2926
Author(s) : Jiang X , Sun Z , Marchessault RH , Ramsay JA , Ramsay BA
Ref : Biomacromolecules , 13 :2926 , 2012
Abstract : When grown in a nonanoic acid-limited chemostat at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1), Pseudomonas putida KT2440 produced poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate) containing 68 mol % 3-hydroxynonanoate (C9) and 32 mol % 3-hydroxyheptanoate (C7). Under the same conditions, but in the presence of acrylic acid, a fatty acid beta-oxidation inhibitor, the C9 monomer content increased to 88 mol %. Cofeeding glucose (3.9 g L(-1)) and nonanoic acid (2.9 +/- 0.1 g L(-1)) in continuous culture with 0.2 g L(-1) of acrylic acid in the feed, further increased the C9 content to 95 mol %. A yield of PHA from nonanoic acid of 0.93 mol mol(-1) was attained. PHA with a 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8) content of 98 mol % was produced with the same cofeeding methodology from octanoic acid. As the dominant monomer content increased, the melting point of the poly(3-hydroxynonanoate) copolymers increased from 46 to 63 degreesC and that of the poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) copolymers from 54 to 62 degreesC. All copolymer compositions resulted in elongation to break values of about 1300%, but tensile strength at break and Young's modulus both increased with increasing amounts of the dominant monomer.
ESTHER : Jiang_2012_Biomacromolecules_13_2926
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2012_Biomacromolecules_13_2926
PubMedID: 22871146

Title : Highly efficient biosynthesis of sucrose-6-acetate with cross-linked aggregates of Lipozyme TL 100 L - Yang_2012_J.Biotechnol_161_27
Author(s) : Yang X , Zheng P , Ni Y , Sun Z
Ref : J Biotechnol , 161 :27 , 2012
Abstract : As a short chain monoester, sucrose-6-acetate (S-6-a) is a key intermediate in the preparation of an eminent sweetener (sucralose). To replace the traditional multi-step chemical route for sucralose biosynthesis, enzymatic synthesis of S-6-a was investigated, using cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of Lipozyme TL 100 L. The optimal CLEA preparation conditions was obtained as follows: using 33.3% (v/v) PEG600 co-precipitated with additive of D-sorbierite, then cross-linking with 1.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde at 0 degreeC for 4 h. As a result, the immobilized Lipozyme had high specific bioactivity (34.64 U/g) of transesterification in non-aqueous media. With these immobilized enzymes, the optimum transesterification conditions were investigated systematically, including CLEA loading, the mole ratio of vinyl acetate versus sucrose, temperature and reaction time, etc. The results showed that the highest concentration and yield of S-6-a was 49.8 g/L and 87.46%, respectively. Further experiments showed that the resulting CLEAs also had much higher operational stability than the commercial Lipozyme TLIM. The present work has paved a new path for the large-scale bioproduction of S-6-a with immobilized lipase in the future.
ESTHER : Yang_2012_J.Biotechnol_161_27
PubMedSearch : Yang_2012_J.Biotechnol_161_27
PubMedID: 22728393

Title : Genome sequences of wild and domestic bactrian camels - Jirimutu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1202
Author(s) : Jirimutu , Wang Z , Ding G , Chen G , Sun Y , Sun Z , Zhang H , Wang L , Hasi S , Zhang Y , Li J , Shi Y , Xu Z , He C , Yu S , Li S , Zhang W , Batmunkh M , Ts B , Narenbatu , Unierhu , Bat-Ireedui S , Gao H , Baysgalan B , Li Q , Jia Z , Turigenbayila , Subudenggerile , Narenmanduhu , Wang J , Pan L , Chen Y , Ganerdene Y , Dabxilt , Erdemt , Altansha , Altansukh , Liu T , Cao M , Aruuntsever , Bayart , Hosblig , He F , Zha-ti A , Zheng G , Qiu F , Zhao L , Zhao W , Liu B , Li C , Tang X , Guo C , Liu W , Ming L , Temuulen , Cui A , Li Y , Gao J , Wurentaodi , Niu S , Sun T , Zhai Z , Zhang M , Chen C , Baldan T , Bayaer T , Meng H
Ref : Nat Commun , 3 :1202 , 2012
Abstract : Bactrian camels serve as an important means of transportation in the cold desert regions of China and Mongolia. Here we present a 2.01 Gb draft genome sequence from both a wild and a domestic bactrian camel. We estimate the camel genome to be 2.38 Gb, containing 20,821 protein-coding genes. Our phylogenomics analysis reveals that camels shared common ancestors with other even-toed ungulates about 55-60 million years ago. Rapidly evolving genes in the camel lineage are significantly enriched in metabolic pathways, and these changes may underlie the insulin resistance typically observed in these animals. We estimate the genome-wide heterozygosity rates in both wild and domestic camels to be 1.0 x 10(-3). However, genomic regions with significantly lower heterozygosity are found in the domestic camel, and olfactory receptors are enriched in these regions. Our comparative genomics analyses may also shed light on the genetic basis of the camel's remarkable salt tolerance and unusual immune system.
ESTHER : Jirimutu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1202
PubMedSearch : Jirimutu_2012_Nat.Commun_3_1202
PubMedID: 23149746
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9ceta-s9yik4 , 9ceta-s9yb99 , 9ceta-s9x0n3 , 9ceta-s9xqa3 , 9ceta-s9xi02 , camfr-s9wiw9 , camfr-s9x3r3 , camfr-s9xce1 , camfr-s9xcr2 , camfr-s9yuz0 , camfr-s9xlc8 , camfr-s9w5f6 , camfr-s9xmm4

Title : Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus H10 - Zhao_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2666
Author(s) : Zhao W , Chen Y , Sun Z , Wang J , Zhou Z , Sun T , Wang L , Chen W , Zhang H
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :2666 , 2011
Abstract : Lactobacillus helveticus strain H10 was isolated from traditional fermented milk in Tibet, China. We sequenced the whole genome of strain H10 and compared it to the published genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571.
ESTHER : Zhao_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2666
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2666
PubMedID: 21398542
Gene_locus related to this paper: lach4-a8yw60 , lache-pepx , lache-pip , lache-prolinase

Title : Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus strain ND03 - Sun_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_793
Author(s) : Sun Z , Chen X , Wang J , Zhao W , Shao Y , Wu L , Zhou Z , Sun T , Wang L , Meng H , Zhang H , Chen W
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :793 , 2011
Abstract : Streptococcus thermophilus strain ND03 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yogurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. We present here the complete genome sequence of ND03 and compare it to three other published genomes of Streptococcus thermophilus strains.
ESTHER : Sun_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_793
PubMedSearch : Sun_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_793
PubMedID: 21131489
Gene_locus related to this paper: strt1-q5lz16 , strtr-pepx

Title : Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a new probiotic strain isolated from traditional homemade koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China - Zhang_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_5268
Author(s) : Zhang W , Yu D , Sun Z , Wu R , Chen X , Chen W , Meng H , Hu S , Zhang H
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 192 :5268 , 2010
Abstract : Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a new probiotic bacterium isolated from koumiss collected in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the main genome features of L. casei Zhang and the identification of several predicted proteins implicated in interactions with the host.
ESTHER : Zhang_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_5268
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_5268
PubMedID: 20675486
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacc3-q03b36 , lacc3-q035l1 , laccb-b3wcx2 , lacrh-pepr , lacca-b5qt93 , lacca-k0n1x0 , lacpa-s2ter8 , lacpa-s2rz88

Title : Complete genome sequence of probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain V9 - Sun_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_4080
Author(s) : Sun Z , Chen X , Wang J , Gao P , Zhou Z , Ren Y , Sun T , Wang L , Meng H , Chen W , Zhang H
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 192 :4080 , 2010
Abstract : Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain V9 is a Chinese commercial bifidobacteria with several probiotic functions. It was isolated from a healthy Mongolian child in China. We present here the complete genome sequence of V9 and compare it to 3 other published genome sequences of B. animalis subsp. lactis strains. The result indicates the lack of polymorphism among strains of this subspecies from different continents.
ESTHER : Sun_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_4080
PubMedSearch : Sun_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_4080
PubMedID: 20511504
Gene_locus related to this paper: bifan-b2ea73 , bifan-b2eam2 , bifan-b2eck9 , biflb-c6a5u1 , bifa0-b8dw94 , bifan-b2e8c8

Title : Reverse genetic identification of CRN1 and its distinctive role in chlorophyll degradation in Arabidopsis - Ren_2010_J.Integr.Plant.Biol_52_496
Author(s) : Ren G , Zhou Q , Wu S , Zhang Y , Zhang L , Huang J , Sun Z , Kuai B
Ref : J Integr Plant Biol , 52 :496 , 2010
Abstract : Recent identification of NYE1/SGR1 brought up a new era for the exploration of the regulatory mechanism of Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. Cluster analysis of senescence associated genes with putative chloroplast targeting sequences revealed several genes sharing a similar expression pattern with NYE1. Further characterization of available T-DNA insertion lines led to the discovery of a novel stay-green gene CRN1 (Co-regulated with NYE1). Chl breakdown was significantly restrained in crn1-1 under diversified senescence scenarios, which is comparable with that in acd1-20, but much more severe than that in nye1-1. Notably, various Chl binding proteins, especially trimeric LHCP II, were markedly retained in crn1-1 four days after dark-treatment, possibly due to a lesion in disassociation of protein-pigment complex. Nevertheless, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in crn1-1 declined, even more rapidly, two days after dark-treatment, compared to those in Col-0 and nye1-1. Our results suggest that CRN1 plays a crucial role in Chl degradation, and that loss of its function produces various side-effects, including those on the breakdown of Ch-protein complex and the maintenance of the residual photosynthetic capability during leaf senescence.
ESTHER : Ren_2010_J.Integr.Plant.Biol_52_496
PubMedSearch : Ren_2010_J.Integr.Plant.Biol_52_496
PubMedID: 20537045
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-Q9FFZ1

Title : Identification and characterization of HTD2: a novel gene negatively regulating tiller bud outgrowth in rice - Liu_2009_Planta_230_649
Author(s) : Liu W , Wu C , Fu Y , Hu G , Si H , Zhu L , Luan W , He Z , Sun Z
Ref : Planta , 230 :649 , 2009
Abstract : Tiller number is highly regulated by controlling the formation of tiller bud and its subsequent outgrowth in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Here, we identified a rice mutant htd2 from one of the 15,000 transgenic rice lines, which is characterized by a high tillering and dwarf phenotype. Phenotypic analysis of the mutant showed that the mutation did not affect formation of tiller bud, but promoted the subsequent outgrowth of tiller bud. To isolate the htd2 gene, a map-based cloning strategy was employed and 17 new insertions-deletions (InDels) markers were developed. A high-resolution physical map of the chromosomal region around the htd2 gene was made using the F(2) and F(3) population. Finally, the gene was mapped in 12.8 kb region between marker HT41 and marker HT52 within the BAC clone OSJNBa0009J13. Cloning and sequencing of the target region from the mutant showed that the T-DNA insertion caused a 463 bp deletion between the promoter and first exon of an esterase/lipase/thioesterase family gene in the 12.8 kb region. Furthermore, transgenic rice with reduced expression level of the gene exhibited an enhanced tillering and dwarf phenotype. Accordingly, the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family gene (TIGR locus Os03g10620) was identified as the HTD2 gene. HTD2 transcripts were expressed mainly in leaf. Loss of function of HTD2 resulted in a significantly increased expression of HTD1, D10 and D3, which were involved in the strigolactone biosynthetic pathway. The results suggest that the HTD2 gene could negatively regulate tiller bud outgrowth by the strigolactone pathway.
ESTHER : Liu_2009_Planta_230_649
PubMedSearch : Liu_2009_Planta_230_649
PubMedID: 19579033
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysj-Q10QA5

Title : Rejuvenation of antioxidant and cholinergic systems contributes to the effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod ameliorating memory impairment in cognitively impaired aged rats - Xu_2009_Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol_19_851
Author(s) : Xu J , Rong S , Xie B , Sun Z , Zhang L , Wu H , Yao P , Zhang X , Zhang Y , Liu L
Ref : European Neuropsychopharmacology , 19 :851 , 2009
Abstract : The major purpose of this study was to determine the effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod (LSPC) on the learning and memory impairments in cognitively impaired aged rats. Based on Morris water maze performance compared with young female rats, aged unimpaired (AU) and aged impaired (AI) rats were chosen from aged female rats. LSPC supplementation (50, 100 mg/kg BW, p.o.) for 7 weeks significantly improved learning and memory impairments in AI animals in the Morris water maze test, as evaluated by shortened escape latency and swimming distance. Aged rats had significantly declined antioxidant defense capacities and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex than young rats. Further, AI group had higher protein oxidation level compared with AU group. LSPC (50, 100 mg/kg BW, p.o.) significantly reversed the decline of antioxidant defense capacities and significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of AI rats. In addition, LSPC significantly restored acetylcholine (ACh) contents and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of AI animals. The results of this study suggest that LSPC may play a useful role in the treatment of cognitive impairment caused by Alzheimer's disease and aging.
ESTHER : Xu_2009_Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol_19_851
PubMedSearch : Xu_2009_Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol_19_851
PubMedID: 19716273

Title : Procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice - Xu_2009_Phytother.Res_23_1742
Author(s) : Xu J , Rong S , Xie B , Sun Z , Zhang L , Wu H , Yao P , Zhang Y , Liu L
Ref : Phytother Res , 23 :1742 , 2009
Abstract : The major purpose of this study was to determine the effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod (LSPC) on the learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. The capacities of memory and learning were evaluated by the Morris water maze and the step-down avoidance test. LSPC (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW, p.o.) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in the Morris water maze test, as evaluated by shortened escape latency and swimming distance. In the step-down avoidance test, LSPC (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW, p.o.) treatment significantly reduced the number of errors and shortened latency compared with that of scopolamine. In addition, LSPC was also found to inhibit acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity. These results of this study suggest that LSPC may play a useful role in the treatment of cognitive impairment caused by AD and aging.
ESTHER : Xu_2009_Phytother.Res_23_1742
PubMedSearch : Xu_2009_Phytother.Res_23_1742
PubMedID: 19367674

Title : Potent non-nitrile dipeptidic dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors - Simpkins_2007_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_17_6476
Author(s) : Simpkins LM , Bolton S , Pi Z , Sutton JC , Kwon C , Zhao G , Magnin DR , Augeri DJ , Gungor T , Rotella DP , Sun Z , Liu Y , Slusarchyk WS , Marcinkeviciene J , Robertson JG , Wang A , Robl JA , Atwal KS , Zahler RL , Parker RA , Kirby MS , Hamann LG
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 17 :6476 , 2007
Abstract : The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors replacing the classical cyanopyrrolidine P1 group with other small nitrogen heterocycles are described. A unique potency enhancement was achieved with beta-branched natural and unnatural amino acids, particularly adamantylglycines, linked to a (2S,3R)-2,3-methanopyrrolidine based scaffold.
ESTHER : Simpkins_2007_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_17_6476
PubMedSearch : Simpkins_2007_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_17_6476
PubMedID: 17937986

Title : Hydrolysis of capecitabine to 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine by human carboxylesterases and inhibition by loperamide - Quinney_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_313_1011
Author(s) : Quinney SK , Sanghani SP , Davis WI , Hurley TD , Sun Z , Murry DJ , Bosron WF
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 313 :1011 , 2005
Abstract : Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil that is indicated for the treatment of breast and colorectal cancers. A three-step in vivo-targeted activation process requiring carboxylesterases, cytidine deaminase, and thymidine phosphorylase converts capecitabine to 5-fluorouracil. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze capecitabine's carbamate side chain to form 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR). This study examines the steady-state kinetics of recombinant human carboxylesterase isozymes carboxylesterase (CES) 1A1, CES2, and CES3 for hydrolysis of capecitabine with a liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy assay. Additionally, a spectrophotometric screening assay was utilized to identify drugs that may inhibit carboxylesterase activation of capecitabine. CES1A1 and CES2 hydrolyze capecitabine to a similar extent, with catalytic efficiencies of 14.7 and 12.9 min(-1) mM(-1), respectively. Little catalytic activity is detected for CES3 with capecitabine. Northern blot analysis indicates that relative expression in intestinal tissue is CES2 > CES1A1 > CES3. Hence, intestinal activation of capecitabine may contribute to its efficacy in colon cancer and toxic diarrhea associated with the agent. Loperamide is a strong inhibitor of CES2, with a K(i) of 1.5 muM, but it only weakly inhibits CES1A1 (IC(50) = 0.44 mM). Inhibition of CES2 in the gastrointestinal tract by loperamide may reduce local formation of 5'-DFCR. Both CES1A1 and CES2 are responsible for the activation of capecitabine, whereas CES3 plays little role in 5'-DFCR formation.
ESTHER : Quinney_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_313_1011
PubMedSearch : Quinney_2005_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_313_1011
PubMedID: 15687373
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1 , human-CES2 , human-CES3

Title : Methylphenidate is stereoselectively hydrolyzed by human carboxylesterase CES1A1 - Sun_2004_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_310_469
Author(s) : Sun Z , Murry DJ , Sanghani SP , Davis WI , Kedishvili NY , Zou Q , Hurley TD , Bosron WF
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 310 :469 , 2004
Abstract : Methylphenidate is an important stimulant prescribed to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It has two chiral centers, but most current commercial formulations consist of the racemic mixture of the threo pair of methylphenidate isomers (d-, l-threo-methylphenidate). The d-isomer is the pharmacologically active component. Numerous studies reported that oral administration of the methylphenidate racemate undergoes first-pass, stereoselective clearance in humans with l-methylphenidate being eliminated faster than d-methylphenidate. Accordingly, the kinetics of hydrolysis of individual enantiomers by purified native and recombinant human liver carboxylesterases CES1A1 and CES2 and a colon isoenzyme CES3 were examined with a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assay. The expression of CES1A1, CES2, and CES3 in Sf9 cells and the methods for purification of the three isoenzymes are reported. CES1A1 has a high catalytic efficiency for both d- and l-enantiomers of methylphenidate. No catalytic activity was detected with CES2 and CES3 for either enantiomer. The catalytic efficiency of CES1A1 for l-methylphenidate (k(cat)/K(m) = 7.7 mM(-1) min(-1)) is greater than that of d-methylphenidate (k(cat)/K(m) = 1.3-2.1 mM(-1) min(-1)). Hence, the catalytic efficiency of CES1A1 for methylphenidate enantiomers agrees with stereoselective clearance of methylphenidate reported in human subjects. Both enantiomers of methylphenidate can be fit into the three-dimensional model of CES1A1 to form productive complexes in the active site. We conclude that CES1A1 is the major enzyme responsible for the first-pass, stereoselective metabolism of methylphenidate.
ESTHER : Sun_2004_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_310_469
PubMedSearch : Sun_2004_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_310_469
PubMedID: 15082749

Title : Secretion, purification, and characterization of a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae tannase in Pichia pastoris - Zhong_2004_Protein.Expr.Purif_36_165
Author(s) : Zhong X , Peng L , Zheng S , Sun Z , Ren Y , Dong M , Xu A
Ref : Protein Expr Purif , 36 :165 , 2004
Abstract : Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase) is an industrially important enzyme produced by a large number of fungi, which hydrolyzes the ester and depside bonds of gallotannins and gallic acid esters. In the present work, a tannase from Aspergillus oryzae has been cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme was assayed. A secretory form of enzyme was made with the aid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor, and a simple procedure purification protocol yielded tannase in pure form. The productivity of secreted tannase achieved 7000 IU/L by fed-batch culture. Recombinant tannase had a molecular mass of 90 kDa, which consisted of two kinds of subunits linked by a disulfide bond(s). Our study is the first report on the heterologous expression of tannase suggesting that the P. pastoris system represents an attractive means of generating large quantities of tannase for both research and industrial purpose.
ESTHER : Zhong_2004_Protein.Expr.Purif_36_165
PubMedSearch : Zhong_2004_Protein.Expr.Purif_36_165
PubMedID: 15249037
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspor-tan

Title : Identification of 315 genes essential for early zebrafish development - Amsterdam_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_12792
Author(s) : Amsterdam A , Nissen RM , Sun Z , Swindell EC , Farrington S , Hopkins N
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 101 :12792 , 2004
Abstract : We completed a large insertional mutagenesis screen in zebrafish to identify genes essential for embryonic and early larval development. We isolated 525 mutants, representing lesions in approximately 390 different genes, and we cloned the majority of these. Here we describe 315 mutants and the corresponding genes. Our data suggest that there are roughly 1,400 embryonic-essential genes in the fish. Thus, we have mutations in approximately 25% of these genes and have cloned approximately 22% of them. Re-screens of our collection to identify mutants with specific developmental defects suggest that approximately 50 genes are essential for the development of some individual organs or cell types. Seventy-two percent of the embryonic-essential fish genes have homologues in yeast, 93% have homologues in invertebrates (fly or worm), and 99% have homologues in human. Yeast and worm orthologues of genes that are essential for early zebrafish development have a strong tendency to be essential for viability in yeast and for embryonic development in the worm. Thus, the trait of being a genetically essential gene is conserved in evolution. This mutant collection should be a valuable resource for diverse studies of cell and developmental biology.
ESTHER : Amsterdam_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_12792
PubMedSearch : Amsterdam_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_12792
PubMedID: 15256591
Gene_locus related to this paper: danre-q6drd9

Title : Carboxylesterases expressed in human colon tumor tissue and their role in CPT-11 hydrolysis - Sanghani_2003_Clin.Cancer.Res_9_4983
Author(s) : Sanghani SP , Quinney SK , Fredenburg TB , Sun Z , Davis WI , Murry DJ , Cummings OW , Seitz DE , Bosron WF
Ref : Clin Cancer Research , 9 :4983 , 2003
Abstract : PURPOSE: The purpose is to develop new analytical methods to study the expression profile of CPT-11 carboxylesterases and topoisomerase I in colon tumor samples and understand the impact of their expression on CPT-11 metabolism in chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated 24 colon tumors for expression of carboxylesterases CES1A1, CES2, CES3, hBr-3, and topoisomerase I genes by real-time PCR and correlated the gene expression with activity assays. The relative abundance of the carboxylesterase isoenzymes and topoisomerase I genes was determined by real-time PCR. Activity assays performed on colon tumor extracts included CPT-11 hydrolase, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate hydrolase, and topoisomerase I activity assays. Additionally, nondenaturing activity gel electrophoresis with activity staining showed the distribution of carboxylesterases. RESULTS: We detect the expression of CES1A1, CES2, and CES3 carboxylesterase genes in human colon tumors. We were unable to detect the hBr-3 (also called hCE-3) in human liver, colon, or brain. We find large interindividual variation, >/=150-fold, for both CES1A1 and CES3 genes, 23-fold for CES2, and 66-fold for topoisomerase I. Only CES2 gene expression correlated with the carboxylesterase activity assays (P < 0.01) with CPT-11 and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate as substrates. Nondenaturing activity gel electrophoresis showed that CES2 was the most predominant activity. Topoisomerase I gene expression significantly correlated with topoisomerase I activity (P < 0.01) in the colon tumors, but interindividual variation was very high. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CES2 is the most abundant carboxylesterase in colon tumors that is responsible for CPT-11 hydrolysis. This pilot study reinforces the hypothesis that there is a large interindividual variation in expression of carboxylesterases that may contribute to variation in therapeutic outcome and/or toxicity of CPT-11 therapy for colon cancer.
ESTHER : Sanghani_2003_Clin.Cancer.Res_9_4983
PubMedSearch : Sanghani_2003_Clin.Cancer.Res_9_4983
PubMedID: 14581373
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES3